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Sample records for social hmo trends

  1. Trends in Hospital Cost and Revenue, 1994–2005: How Are They Related to HMO Penetration, Concentration, and For-Profit Ownership?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y; Melnick, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Objective Analyze trends in hospital cost and revenue, as well as price and quantity (1994–2005) as a function of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration, HMO concentration, and for-profit (FP) HMO market share. Data Medicare hospital cost reports, AHA Annual Surveys, HMO data from Interstudy, and other supplemental data. Study Design A retrospective study of all short-term, general, nonfederal hospitals in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States from 1994 to 2005, using hospital/MSA fixed-effects translog regression models. Principal Findings A 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment is associated with 4.1–4.2 percent reduction in costs and revenues in the pre-2000 period but only a 2.1–2.5 percent reduction in the post-2000 period. Hospital revenue in HMO-dominant markets (highly concentrated HMO market and competitive hospital market) is 19–27 percent lower than other types of markets, and the difference is most likely due mainly to lower prices and to a lesser extent lower utilization. Conclusions The historical difference of lower spending in high HMO penetration markets compared with low HMO markets narrowed after 2000 and the relative concentration between HMO and hospital markets can substantially influence hospital spending. Additional research is needed to understand how different aspects of these two markets have changed and interacted and how they are causally linked to spending trends. PMID:19840134

  2. Trends in hospital cost and revenue, 1994-2005: how are they related to HMO penetration, concentration, and for-profit ownership?

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y; Melnick, Glenn

    2010-02-01

    Analyze trends in hospital cost and revenue, as well as price and quantity (1994-2005) as a function of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration, HMO concentration, and for-profit (FP) HMO market share. Medicare hospital cost reports, AHA Annual Surveys, HMO data from Interstudy, and other supplemental data. A retrospective study of all short-term, general, nonfederal hospitals in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States from 1994 to 2005, using hospital/MSA fixed-effects translog regression models. A 10 percentage point increase in HMO enrollment is associated with 4.1-4.2 percent reduction in costs and revenues in the pre-2000 period but only a 2.1-2.5 percent reduction in the post-2000 period. Hospital revenue in HMO-dominant markets (highly concentrated HMO market and competitive hospital market) is 19-27 percent lower than other types of markets, and the difference is most likely due mainly to lower prices and to a lesser extent lower utilization. The historical difference of lower spending in high HMO penetration markets compared with low HMO markets narrowed after 2000 and the relative concentration between HMO and hospital markets can substantially influence hospital spending. Additional research is needed to understand how different aspects of these two markets have changed and interacted and how they are causally linked to spending trends.

  3. Therapists' Contributions to Program Development in an HMO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulkin, Steven R.

    The delivery of services in a health maintenance organization (HMO) provides many opportunities for innovation. There is a growing awareness that many outpatient medical visits are related to psychological or social needs. Because of the economic incentive for HMO's to reduce inappropriate utilization, psychologists and psychotherapists will play…

  4. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plans in your area . Can I get my health care from any doctor, other health care provider, or hospital? In HMO Plans, you generally ... get your care and services from doctors, other health care providers, or hospitals in the plan's network, except: ...

  5. HMO partnering: the provider dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ayers, J; Benson, L; Bonhag, R

    1996-10-01

    While the growth of HMOs has slowed patient visits to doctors, it also has created a deluge of press clippings. On July 16, 1996, three articles on the subject appeared in the Wall Street Journal, front section. The headlines painted a vivid picture of the forces acting on HMOs and providers alike (Figure 1). The articles portended more change for healthcare. The "shake-out," a term applied to industries in serious transformation, brings shedding of excess capacity and loss of jobs and income. Providers, in particular, find themselves in a difficult dilemma. They must not only cut costs as reimbursement drops, but also retain patients with good outcomes and high quality service. Patient retention means keeping the individual patient from switching to another provider and keeping the insurer's group of patients as an authorized provider for that insurer. The relationship between provider and HMO lies at the heart of the provider dilemma. The HMO structure, which shifts financial risk for care, is quickly setting the standard, for healthcare pricing, medical standards, and management practices. Understanding and responding to HMO needs are vital to competitive advantage and survival. The article discusses the inherent dilemma of HMO and provider partnering and suggests provider responses.

  6. Does anyone understand HMO advertising?

    PubMed

    Bisinger, J M

    1986-12-01

    Much HMO advertising is executed with technical proficiency, but a high level of technical skill cannot compensate for poor objectives, an inadequate analysis of the business situation, or a lack of advertising effectiveness. Industrial marketing techniques often involve person-to-person selling via a sales staff, sales reps, on-site technical assistance and informational meetings, team selling, etc. Some HMOs also employ these techniques. In general, the promotional focus in these situations is not on mass media; communication tends to be in support of personal sales activities. These personal techniques are used because of the difficulty of selling complicated products or services. Is an HMO a simple product/service? If it is not, consumer promotional tactics will probably be ineffective. If used, these promotional tactics probably will be unintelligible because "consumers" do not select HMOs; their employers do.

  7. Comparing the agreement among alternative models in evaluating HMO efficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, C L; Engberg, J B; Wholey, D R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficiency of HMOs and to test the robustness of these findings across alternative models of efficiency. This study examines whether these models, when constructed in parallel to use the same information, provide researchers with the same insights and identify the same trends. DATA SOURCES: A data set containing 585 HMOs operating from 1985 through 1994. Variables include enrollment, utilization, and financial information compiled primarily from Health Care Investment Analysts, InterStudy HMO Census, and Group Health Association of America. STUDY DESIGN: We compute three estimates of efficiency for each HMO and compare the results in terms of individual performance and industry-wide trends. The estimates are then regressed against measures of case mix, quality, and other factors that may be related to the model estimates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The three models identify similar trends for the HMO industry as a whole; however, they assess the relative technical efficiency of individual firms differently. Thus, these techniques are limited for either benchmarking or setting rates because the firms identified as efficient may be a consequence of model selection rather than actual performance. CONCLUSIONS: The estimation technique to evaluate efficient firms can affect the findings themselves. The implications are relevant not only for HMOs, but for efficiency analyses in general. Concurrence among techniques is no guarantee of accuracy, but it is reassuring; conversely, radically distinct inferences across models can be a warning to temper research conclusions. PMID:10857474

  8. The "Teaching HMO": A New Academic Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) and a community health maintenance organization (HMO) have formed the first medical school department to be based in a freestanding HMO, replicating the conventional teaching hospital clinical teaching model in a managed care situation. The model is seen as potentially transforming medical…

  9. What determines hospital sponsorship of an HMO?

    PubMed

    McCue, M J

    2000-01-01

    Using a strategic adaptation framework, this study evaluates the underlying institutional, market, organizational, and financial factors leading to hospital sponsorship of a health maintenance organization (HMO) insurance product. Analyzing hospitals in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in 1995 and 1996, the study found that a hospital is more likely to sponsor an HMO in markets that see a combined interaction effect of a large number of competing HMOs and high HMO penetration. HMO sponsorship also is more likely among hospitals with relatively low market share. Only in small MSA markets do hospitals with greater liquidity sponsor an HMO. Finally, hospitals that are affiliated with a multihospital system and under public ownership are more likely to sponsor HMOs.

  10. Predicting the Trends of Social Events on Chinese Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Zhen; Bai, Shuotian; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-09-01

    Growing interest in social events on social media came along with the rapid development of the Internet. Social events that occur in the "real" world can spread on social media (e.g., Sina Weibo) rapidly, which may trigger severe consequences and thus require the government's timely attention and responses. This article proposes to predict the trends of social events on Sina Weibo, which is currently the most popular social media in China. Based on the theories of social psychology and communication sciences, we extract an unprecedented amount of comprehensive and effective features that relate to the trends of social events on Chinese social media, and we construct the trends of prediction models by using three classical regression algorithms. We found that lasso regression performed better with the precision 0.78 and the recall 0.88. The results of our experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  11. Social conditions and trends in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza; Linda E. Kruger

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station initiated several social science studies in response to information gaps identified while developing the Tongass Land Management Plan. Results presented here summarize findings from studies of demographic trends and tourism trends in the region based on data available through 2002. Demographic...

  12. Social Trends and Educational Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    Economic, demographic and political trends are three major forces affecting the educational system. Since 1945, rapidly changing technology has increased demands for expert manpower and eradicated or considerably decreased the need for unskilled labor. The educational system responds to this challenge by preparing professionally qualified…

  13. Teaching Ambulatory Pediatrics in a University HMO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olness, Karen

    1975-01-01

    Describes a program of teaching medical students in a university health maintenance organization (HMO). Lists program goals and discusses the experience of students and patients in relationship to those in more traditional university teaching clinics. (JT)

  14. HMO employment and African-American physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Forrest; Konrad, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level and determinants of African-American physicians' employment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly early in their careers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1991 and 1996 Young Physicians Surveys to assess racial differences in the likelihood of HMO employment (n = 3,705). Using multinomial logistic regression, we evaluated four explanations for an observed relationship between African-American physicians and HMO employment: human capital stratification among organizations, race-based affinity between physicians and patients, financial constraints due to debt burden, and different organizational hiring practices. Using binomial logistic regression, we also evaluated differences in the odds of being turned down for a prior practice position, of subsequently leaving the current practice organization and of later having career doubts. RESULTS: Without any controls, African-American physicians were 4.52 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. After controlling for human capital stratification, racial concordance and financial constraints, African-American physicians remained 2.48 times more likely to practice in HMOs than Caucasian physicians. In addition, 19.2% of African-American physicians in HMOs reported being turned down for another job, far more than any other racial/ethnic group in the HMO setting and any racial/ethnic group, including African-American physicians in the non-HMO setting (including all other practice locations). Five years later, those same African-American physicians from HMOs also reported significantly more turnover (7.50 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to leave their current practice) and doubt about their careers (2.17 times more likely than non-HMO African-American physicians to express serious career doubts). CONCLUSIONS: African-American physicians were disproportionately hired into HMO settings, impacting their subsequent careers. PMID

  15. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    PubMed

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.

  16. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in accordance...

  17. Medigap Premiums and Medicare HMO Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Catherine G; Chernew, Michael; Taylor, Erin Fries

    2002-01-01

    Objective Markets for Medicare HMOs (health maintenance organizations) and supplemental Medicare coverage are often treated separately in existing literature. Yet because managed care plans and Medigap plans both cover services not covered by basic Medicare, these markets are clearly interrelated. We examine the extent to which Medigap premiums affect the likelihood of the elderly joining managed care plans. Data Sources The analysis is based on a sample of Medicare beneficiaries drawn from the 1996–1997 Community Tracking Study (CTS) Household Survey by the Center for Studying Health System Change. Respondents span 56 different CTS sites from 30 different states. Measures of premiums for privately-purchased Medigap policies were collected from a survey of large insurers serving this market. Data for individual, market, and HMO characteristics were collected from the CTS, InterStudy, and HCFA (Health Care Financing Administration). Study Design Our analysis uses a reduced-form logit model to estimate the probability of Medicare HMO participation as a function of Medigap premiums controlling for other market- and individual-level characteristics. The logit coefficients were then used to simulate changes in Medicare participation in response to changes in Medigap premiums. Principal Findings We found that Medigap premiums vary considerably among the geographic markets included in our sample. Measures of premiums from different insurers and for different types of Medigap policies were generally highly correlated across markets. Our models consistently indicate a strong positive relationship between Medigap premiums and HMO participation. This result is robust across several specifications. Simulations suggest that a one standard deviation increase in Medigap premiums would increase HMO participation by more than 8 percentage points. Conclusions This research provides strong evidence that Medigap premiums have a significant effect on seniors' participation in

  18. Managed occupational health care in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, A; Marino, G

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the efforts of an HMO to improve its delivery of occupational health services. Customer needs identification, occupational health structure, data systems, case management, clinical guidelines, and quality management are outlined. Our experience suggests that high-quality occupational health services can be integrated into managed care systems thereby offering cost-effective care to large numbers of workers. Comparing 1991 to 1995, physician authorization of total disability days was reduced 17.9% per disability case (p < .0001). Based on July 1994 to June 1995 Oregon State Accident Insurance Fund (SAIF Corporation) data, HMO average total claim cost was $916/claim representing respectively, a 21% and a 20% reduced cost compared to two PPO model programs (MCO 00 and MCO 01). Patient satisfaction data indicated that 90% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the physician they saw. The savings appear to be due to cost-effective treatment and rapid return to work.

  19. Determinants of HMO Formulary Adoption Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Dranove, David; Hughes, Edward FX; Shanley, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify economic and organizational characteristics that affect the likelihood that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) include new drugs on their formularies. Data Sources We administered an original survey to directors of pharmacy at 75 HMOs, of which 41 returned usable responses. We obtained drug-specific data from an industry trade journal. Study Design We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for fixed-drug effects and random-HMO effects. We used factor analysis to limit the number of predictors. Data Collection Methods We held initial focus groups to help with survey design. We administered the survey in two waves. We asked respondents to report on seven popular new drugs, and to describe a variety of HMO organizational characteristics. Principal Findings Several HMO organizational characteristics, including nonprofit status, the incentives facing the director of the pharmacy, size and make-up of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, and relationships with drugs makers, all affect formulary adoption. Conclusions There are many organizational factors that may cause HMOs to make different formulary adoption decisions for certain prescription drugs. PMID:12650387

  20. Impact of HMO market structure on physician-hospital strategic alliances.

    PubMed

    Burns, L R; Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Wholey, D R

    2000-04-01

    To assess the impact of HMO market structure on the formation of physician-hospital strategic alliances from 1993 through 1995. The two trends, managed care and physician-hospital integration have been prominent in reshaping insurance and provider markets over the past decade. Pooled cross-sectional data from the InterStudy HMO Census and the Annual Survey conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) between 1993 and the end of 1995 to examine the effects of HMO penetration and HMO numbers in a market on the formation of hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians. Because prior research has found nonlinear effects of HMOs on a variety of dependent variables, we operationalized HMO market structure two ways: using a Taylor series expansion and cross-classifying quartile distributions of HMO penetration and numbers into 16 dummy indicators. Alliance formation was operationalized using the presence of any alliance model (IPA, PHO, MSO, and foundation) and the sum of the four models present in the hospital. Because managed care and physician-hospital integration are endogenous (e.g., some hospitals also sponsor HMOs), we used an instrumental variables approach to model the determinants of HMO penetration and HMO numbers. These instruments were then used with other predictors of alliance formation: physician supply characteristics, the extent of hospital competition, hospital-level descriptors, population size and demographic characteristics, and indicators for each year. All equations were estimated at the MSA level using mixed linear models and first-difference models. Contrary to conventional wisdom, alliance formation is shaped by the number of HMOs in the market rather than by HMO penetration. This confirms a growing perception that hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians are contracting vehicles for managed care: the greater the number of HMOs to contract with, the greater the development of alliances. The models also show that alliance formation is

  1. Impact of HMO market structure on physician-hospital strategic alliances.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, L R; Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Wholey, D R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of HMO market structure on the formation of physician-hospital strategic alliances from 1993 through 1995. The two trends, managed care and physician-hospital integration have been prominent in reshaping insurance and provider markets over the past decade. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional data from the InterStudy HMO Census and the Annual Survey conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) between 1993 and the end of 1995 to examine the effects of HMO penetration and HMO numbers in a market on the formation of hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians. Because prior research has found nonlinear effects of HMOs on a variety of dependent variables, we operationalized HMO market structure two ways: using a Taylor series expansion and cross-classifying quartile distributions of HMO penetration and numbers into 16 dummy indicators. Alliance formation was operationalized using the presence of any alliance model (IPA, PHO, MSO, and foundation) and the sum of the four models present in the hospital. Because managed care and physician-hospital integration are endogenous (e.g., some hospitals also sponsor HMOs), we used an instrumental variables approach to model the determinants of HMO penetration and HMO numbers. These instruments were then used with other predictors of alliance formation: physician supply characteristics, the extent of hospital competition, hospital-level descriptors, population size and demographic characteristics, and indicators for each year. All equations were estimated at the MSA level using mixed linear models and first-difference models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contrary to conventional wisdom, alliance formation is shaped by the number of HMOs in the market rather than by HMO penetration. This confirms a growing perception that hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians are contracting vehicles for managed care: the greater the number of HMOs to contract with, the greater the development of alliances

  2. 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164228.html 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids Burns, abrasions the result as ... March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- It's spreading via social media: A "dare" where kids use erasers to rub ...

  3. Forecasting Social Trends as a Basis for Formulating Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arthur J.

    The paper describes how information regarding future trends is collected and made available to educational policy makers. Focusing on educational implications of social and population trends, the paper is based on data derived from use of trend forecasting by educational policy makers in Florida and other southeastern states. The document is…

  4. Trends in K-12 Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    Drawing on contemporary research literature, recently developed curriculum guides, and blue-ribbon reports, this digest reviews 10 contemporary trends in K-12 social studies in the United States. Trends are as follows: (1) History, history, and more history; (2) More geography, too; (3) Using literature to teach social studies; (4) Focus on the…

  5. Trends and Issues: Social and Economic Context. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Chris, Comp.

    This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…

  6. Impact of HMO mergers and acquisitions on financial performance.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effect of health maintenance organization (HMO) mergers and acquisitions on financial performance, as indicated by cash flow returns, profitability ratios, and efficiency indicators. Pooled, cross-sectional files of financial performance data were created for HMO mergers occurring in the period of 1988 to 1994. The study uses a time-series design involving the analysis of pre- and post-acquisition financial performance measured over a period of four years. Change scores for the industry-adjusted financial performance measures were calculated and then evaluated using t-tests. The study showed that HMO mergers had a positive effect on financial performance and efficiency. This effect disappeared, however, after adjusting for HMO industry returns. Potential synergies arising from HMO mergers have been largely illusory. Mergers may have been a result of non-value enhancing motives or management overconfidence.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients.

    PubMed

    Anda, Robert F; Brown, David W; Felitti, Vincent J; Dube, Shanta R; Giles, Wayne H

    2008-06-04

    Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years) and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend < 0.0001). Compared to persons with an ACE Score of 0, persons with a Score > or = 5 had rates increased by 40%; graded relationships were seen for all age groups (18-44, 45-64, and 65-89 years) (p for trend < 0.01). Graded relationships were observed for the risk of being in the upper decile of number of classes of drugs used; persons with scores of > or = 5 had this risk increased 2-fold. Adjustment for ACE-related health problems reduced the strength of the associations by more than 60%. ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Robert F; Brown, David W; Felitti, Vincent J; Dube, Shanta R; Giles, Wayne H

    2008-01-01

    Background Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. Method We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years) and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Results Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend < 0.0001). Compared to persons with an ACE Score of 0, persons with a Score ≥ 5 had rates increased by 40%; graded relationships were seen for all age groups (18–44, 45–64, and 65–89 years) (p for trend < 0.01). Graded relationships were observed for the risk of being in the upper decile of number of classes of drugs used; persons with scores of ≥ 5 had this risk increased 2-fold. Adjustment for ACE-related health problems reduced the strength of the associations by more than 60%. Conclusion ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems. PMID:18533034

  9. Overview: the HMO environment in the eighties and related issues in health education.

    PubMed

    Deeds, S G

    1981-01-01

    Solid, though unspectacular, growth of the HMO concept and its concomitant health education components is noted in the 1970s. This trend is expected to continue through the 80s. The overarching priority concern in this decade is cost containment. Two strategies for containment, competition and regulation, are examined for their health education implications. The growth of IPA's brings forth problems in the delivery of health education services within that type of HMO. Other implications and issues within health education practice are identified. These include multiple definitions of health education, the interactive behavioral model, incongruent values among professionals, the relationship of patient education to the quality of care, the marginality of health education, financing, and consumer rights. Realistic, immediate expectations coupled with strong vision of the future potential for health education is urged.

  10. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  11. Social Psychology: Trends, Assessment, and Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Sheldon

    1981-01-01

    Points out that sociologists should be aware of developments in the field of social psychology because sociological (particularly structural) analyses rest on assumptions about the social psychological properties of persons and processes. (DB)

  12. The role of service recovery in HMO satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H

    1999-01-01

    Complaint handling and service recovery by HMOs may be more efficient to implement and more determinant of customer satisfaction and retention than other approaches such as improving access to care. The current findings are consistent with research on recovery efforts in other industries. Complaint handling systems must achieve rapid and comprehensive identification and resolution of HMO member problems. Both cultural change and appropriate incentives to re-educate employees within HMO organizations are additional requisites to effective service recovery. The benefits to the HMO of expenditures on service recovery should be more immediate and sustainable than the benefits derived from other methods of increasing member satisfaction.

  13. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.

  14. Educational, Social, Technological and Scientific Trends and the Deaf Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The report of a section meeting of the 1987 Forum on Deafness contains transcripts of the following presentations: "Century 21: Social Trends and Deafness" (Raymond Trybus); "Technology and Science in the Management of Deafness" (Arthur Boothroyd); "Trends in Education" (Eva Baker). Highlights of the discussion following the presentations are…

  15. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct…

  16. Educational, Social, Technological and Scientific Trends and the Deaf Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The report of a section meeting of the 1987 Forum on Deafness contains transcripts of the following presentations: "Century 21: Social Trends and Deafness" (Raymond Trybus); "Technology and Science in the Management of Deafness" (Arthur Boothroyd); "Trends in Education" (Eva Baker). Highlights of the discussion following the presentations are…

  17. Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

    Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

  18. Determinants of HMO success: the case of Complete Health.

    PubMed

    Widra, L S; Fottler, M D

    1992-01-01

    The health maintenance organization (HMO) industry has experienced a variety of difficulties and criticisms in recent years. Various hybrid models have been proposed to alleviate these problems. This article presents an in-depth case study of factors associated with the success of one such hybrid: an individual practice association (IPA)-model HMO affiliated with an academic health center. The major success factors identified include the plan design/structure, the strategic orientation/practices, and the stakeholder management orientation practices.

  19. Integrated case management: the 21st century challenge for HMO case managers: Part I.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J R

    1999-01-01

    As HMOs approach the new millennium, their care and cost management strategies still will be under attack by policy-makers, legislative bodies, the media, American businesses, and the medical professions. The HMO industry will continue to be held accountable for the efficiency of its services, the quality of its care, and the performance and outcome measures that are the results of managing both the care and medical costs of its membership. This first of a two-part series put forward the concept of an integrated CM model to manage the total care of needs of HMO members at the turn of the century. This model consists of three care management approaches commonly used in mature HMOs: demand management, CM, and DM, as illustrated in Figure 1 and defined in Table 1. This article also described the new challenges facing HMOs, physicians, and nurse case managers and how they are navigating the difficult process of mapping demand management and CM approaches to the medical, social, and environmental needs of HMO members. With the costs of chronic conditions consuming 61% of the nation's annual health bill and increased numbers of the elderly joining HMOs, HMOs strongly need to implement DM approaches for economic survival reasons alone. Part two of this series will focus on the newest care management approach: disease state management.

  20. Epinephrine autoinjector refill history in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael S; Jung, Sandy Y; Chiang, Matthew L

    2011-02-01

    Epinephrine can be lifesaving in episodes of anaphylaxis, yet it is underprescribed and underused. Tracking of epinephrine refills over time for patients with a diagnosis of anaphylaxis has not been reported. This study reports on the refill history of 14,677 patients in a large HMO who received an initial dispensing of EpiPen (Dey Pharma, Basking Ridge, NJ) or EpiPen Jr between 2000 and 2006. A total of 6,776 (46%) refilled at least once. Twenty-five percent of the patients who were in the cohort for 5 years or more refilled multiple times, and 11% refilled consistently at all expected refill times. Infants through children 12 years of age were more likely to receive a refill dispensing (63%) compared with teenagers and adults (40%). The most common ICD-9 codes that were linked to the initial epinephrine dispensing were allergic disorder (37%), miscellaneous anaphylaxis/angioedema (23%), hymenoptera/insect bite or sting (14%), and specific or nonspecific food allergy (11%). A total of 79% of patients with a food-related ICD-9 code and 59% of patients with an insect sting-related ICD-9 code refilled epinephrine at least once. An opportunity exists to identify system-based as well as personal barriers in an ongoing effort to provide patients at risk with the tools and empowerment that could reduce their risk during life-threatening anaphylactic reactions.

  1. Social Indicators 1976: Selected Data on Social Conditions and Trends in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The report contains a comprehensive graphic collection of statistical data selected and organized to describe current social conditions and trends in the United States. Eleven chapters examine major social areas: population; the family; housing; social security and welfare; health and nutrition; public safety; education and training; work; income,…

  2. Social Indicators III: Selected Data on Social Conditions and Trends in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    Like its predecessors ("Social Indicators" 1973 and 1976), this report contains statistical information describing current social conditions and trends in the United States. Eleven chapters examine major social areas: population and the family; health and nutrition; housing and the environment; transportation; public safety; education…

  3. Distance Education Programs in Social Work: Current and Emerging Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Robert; Vakalahi, Halaevalu; Pierce, Dean; Pittman-Munke, Peggy; Adkins, Lynn Frantz

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on current and emerging trends in the use of distance education technologies in social work education. Areas studied include the extent of distance education programs, curricular areas covered, technologies used, pedagogical approaches, intentions for degree-program development, sources of pressure to adopt distance education…

  4. Patterns and Trends of Canadian Social Work Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Lach, Lucyana; Blumenthal, Anne; Akesson, Bree

    2015-01-01

    The first social work doctoral program in Canada began in 1952. Relatively recently, the number of programs has grown rapidly, doubling in the past 10 years to 14 programs. Despite the expansion there is no systematic understanding of the patterns and trends in doctoral research. In this study we review 248 publicly available dissertations from…

  5. Patterns and Trends of Canadian Social Work Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Lach, Lucyana; Blumenthal, Anne; Akesson, Bree

    2015-01-01

    The first social work doctoral program in Canada began in 1952. Relatively recently, the number of programs has grown rapidly, doubling in the past 10 years to 14 programs. Despite the expansion there is no systematic understanding of the patterns and trends in doctoral research. In this study we review 248 publicly available dissertations from…

  6. Health care use and expenditures of Medicare HMO disenrollees.

    PubMed

    Parente, Stephen T; Evans, William N; Schoenman, Julie A; Finch, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    We examine the impact of the first wave of Medicare health maintenance organization HMO withdrawals. With data from CMS and United Health Group, we estimate use and expenditure changes between 1998 and 1999 for HMO enrollees who were involuntarily dropped from their plan and returned to fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare using a difference-in-difference model. Compared to those who voluntarily left an HMO, involuntarily disenrolled beneficiaries had higher out-of-pocket expenditures, an 80 percent decrease in physician visits, 38 percent higher emergency room (ER) use and a higher probability of dying. The results suggest beneficiaries face significant costs and reduced health outcomes from unstable Medicare managed care markets.

  7. Impact of HMO ownership on management processes and utilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M; Molinari, C

    2001-05-01

    To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) ownership characteristics on selected utilization outcomes and management processes affecting utilization. We used 1995 HMO data from the American Association of Health Plans. Using regression analysis, we examined the relation between HMO utilization (hospital discharges, days, and average length of stay; cardiac catheterization procedures; and average cost of outpatient prescriptions) and the structural characteristics of HMOs: ownership type (insurance company, hospital, physician, independent, and national managed care company), HMO size, for-profit status, model type, geographic region, and payer mix. HMO ownership type is significantly associated with medical management processes, including risk sharing by providers, risk sharing by consumers, and other management strategies. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs have fewer hospital discharges, fewer hospital days, and longer lengths of stay. National managed care organization-owned HMOs have fewer cardiac catheterizations and lower average outpatient prescription costs. Independently owned HMOs have more cardiac catheterizations. For-profit HMOs have lower prescription costs. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and provider capitation and less likely to use out-of-pocket payments for hospital use and a closed formulary. National managed care organization-owned HMOs are less likely to use provider capitation, out-of-pocket payments for hospital use, catastrophic case management, and hospital risk sharing. Physician-hospital-owned HMOs are less likely to use catastrophic case management. For-profit HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and catastrophic case management. HMO ownership type affects utilization outcomes and management strategies.

  8. Disenrollment from an HMO and its relationship with the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Y Y; Gocka, I T; Leung, K M; Elashoff, R M; Legorreta, A P

    1999-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicare beneficiaries' characteristics and disenrollment, a longitudinal study was conducted in an HMO in California. Approximately 10 percent of the Medicare beneficiaries disenrolled within the first year of enrollment. There was no difference between those who continuously enrolled and those who disenrolled in terms of age, gender, mental and physical health status, previous utilization, and anticipated utilization in the coming year. However, people with limited social activities and people not living in a single-family house were more likely to disenroll. The authors also examined the disenrollment rates among physicians groups. The rates were significantly different.

  9. HMO encroachment. The Palm Beach County Medical Society's response.

    PubMed

    Fischer, L A

    1987-03-01

    In 1984, the Palm Beach County (Florida) Medical Society faced the invasion of an HMO which, via an expensive advertising plan, urged Medicare recipients to enroll in a program that promised free health care. As physicians watched more and more of their older patients transfer to the HMO, they turned to their local medical society, which formulated a response. It launched a public information campaign designed to give patients the necessary facts about HMOs so they could make an informed decision about joining. The article describe the specific steps the physicians took to battle the new competition.

  10. HMO Web sites: what do they tell consumers?

    PubMed

    Thompson, J M; Howard, J E

    2000-01-01

    Despite the growth of managed care, little is known about health plans' web sites. This paper reports on a review of the web sites of the 25 largest HMOs in the United States to identify whether their content included information deemed important by consumers: quality, price, provider network, personal health information, and customer service features. Findings show variation in the content of HMO web sites, with sites emphasizing customer service features, the provider network, and personal health information. Two-thirds of HMOs offer information on quality; however, pricing information is offered by only four plans. Implications for future differentiation of HMO web sites are discussed.

  11. 42 CFR 417.544 - Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. 417.544 Section 417.544 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. (a) Principles. (1) Compensation paid by an HMO or CMP to...

  12. HMO Development for Primary Care Team Teaching of Medical and Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Osterweis, Marian

    1980-01-01

    A three-year effort to develop a university health maintenance organization (HMO) into an effective clinical teaching site for the team practice of primary care is described. Initial resistance to team practice and teaching, assessment of HMO team development, and the effectiveness of the HMO as a primary care teaching site are discussed.…

  13. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media--current trends.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James

    2012-01-01

    To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.

  14. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response...

  15. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response to...

  16. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response to...

  17. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response to...

  18. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response to...

  19. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin.

  20. Older patients' health status and satisfaction with medical care in an HMO population.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Feldstein, M; Fretwell, M D; Rowe, J W; Epstein, A M

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between older patients' satisfaction with medical care and their health status, and none of these investigations has been based at an HMO. To examine this question, data on 532 patients older than 70 years in an HMO were analyzed. Patients' reports of satisfaction with medical care were examined in relation to several dimensions of health status (based on self-reports, chart data, and physicians' ratings), their own sociodemographic characteristics, and characteristics of their primary physicians. Greater satisfaction was significantly associated with better self-rated health and physical function, less emotional distress, and more social activity but was not related to physicians' health ratings, number of diagnoses, or cognitive function. Mean levels of satisfaction were also significantly different for patients of different physicians but not appreciably related to patients' sociodemographic characteristics. When patient sociodemographic characteristics were controlled for, the relations of health status variables to satisfaction were essentially unchanged. It was concluded that the key issues to be resolved are whether better health leads to greater satisfaction or vice versa, and, in either case, whether the relations are mediated by factors relating to the patient's experience of medical care.

  1. Comparing mortality and time until death for medicare HMO and FFS beneficiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, M L; Dowd, B; Call, K T; Feldman, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare adjusted mortality rates of TEFRA-risk HMO enrollees and disenrollees with rates of beneficiaries enrolled in the Medicare fee-for-service sector (FFS), and to compare the time until death for decedents in these three groups. DATA SOURCE: Data are from the 124 counties with the largest TEFRA-risk HMO enrollment using 1993-1994 Medicare Denominator files for beneficiaries enrolled in the FFS and TEFRA-risk HMO sectors. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study that tracks the mortality rates and time until death of a random sample of 1,240,120 Medicare beneficiaries in the FFS sector and 1,526,502 enrollees in HMOs between April 1, 1993 and April 1, 1994. A total of 58,201 beneficiaries switched from an HMO to the FFS sector and were analyzed separately. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HMO enrollees have lower relative odds of mortality than a comparable group of FFS beneficiaries. Conversely, HMO disenrollees have higher relative odds of mortality than comparable FFS beneficiaries. Among decedents in the three groups, HMO enrollees lived longer than FFS beneficiaries, who in turn lived longer than HMO disenrollees. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare TEFRA-risk HMO enrollees appear to be, on average, healthier than beneficiaries enrolled in the FFS sector, who appear to be in turn healthier than HMO disenrollees. These health status differences persist, even after controlling for beneficiary demographics and county-level variables that might confound the relationship between mortality and the insurance sector. Images Figure 1 PMID:11221818

  2. The impact of healthcare reform on HMO administrators.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, C R

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, congressional legislation toward healthcare reform has evolved, moving toward channeling indigent populations into managed care plans. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) will have to respond to increased competition caused by this shift enrollment as each entity attempts to funnel these patients into its own provider network. It is likely that some HMOs may bid too low when contracting for patients, putting these organizations at risk for financial insolvency. This paper discusses the impact of Medicaid waivers on HMO administrators. HMO executives need to develop a strategy for monitoring the financial integrity and contractual performance of new and existing HMOs in light of changes taking place with respect to healthcare reform. The transition to managed care and the shift in enrollment pose many challenges for directors of HMOs as will be discussed by analyzing lessons learned from Medicaid managed care plans in Arizona and Oregon.

  3. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  4. The Effect of Area HMO Market Share on Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laurence C; Phillips, Kathryn A; Haas, Jennifer S; Liang, Su-Ying; Sonneborn, Dean

    2004-01-01

    Objective Managed care may have widespread impacts on health care delivery for all patients in the areas where they operate. We examine the relationship between area managed care activity and screening for breast, cervical, and prostate cancer among patients enrolled in more managed care plans and patients who are enrolled in less managed plans. Data and Methods Data on cancer screening from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) were linked to data on health maintenance organization (HMO) and preferred provider organization (PPO) market share and HMO competition at the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between area managed care prevalence and the use of mammography, clinical breast examination, Pap smear, and prostate cancer screening in the past two years, controlling for important covariates. Results Among all patients, increases in area-level HMO market share are associated with increases in the appropriate use of mammography, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear (OR for high relative to low managed care areas are 1.75, p<.01, for mammography, 1.58, p<.05, for clinical breast exam, and 1.71, p<.01, for Pap smear). In analyses of subgroups, the relationship is significant only for individuals who are enrolled in the nonmanaged plans; there is no relationship for individuals in more managed plans. No relationship is observed between area HMO market share and prostate cancer screening in any analysis. Neither the level of competition between area HMOs nor area PPO market share is associated with screening rates. Conclusions Area-level managed care activity can influence preventive care treatment patterns. PMID:15533185

  5. Trends in Social Studies Education: It's Our Responsibility. Issues Current in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    The purposes of this paper are to identify the current trends in social studies curriculum and teaching strategies and to make some projections about the future. Three conflicting movements, or paradoxes, are identified. The first paradox is the back-to-the-basics movement vs. an expanded curriculum. This is due to conservative reactions to…

  6. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  7. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  8. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of HMO offers. (2) Contracts. For employees not covered by a collective bargaining agreement, the... earliest date permitted under the terms of existing agreements or contracts. (2) If the HMO's request for inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not...

  9. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of HMO offers. (2) Contracts. For employees not covered by a collective bargaining agreement, the... earliest date permitted under the terms of existing agreements or contracts. (2) If the HMO's request for inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not...

  10. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET.... (a) In general. A group health plan offering health insurance coverage through an HMO, or an HMO that offers health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may impose an affiliation...

  11. Enrollees' Perceptions of Participating in the Education of Medical Students at an Academically Affiliated HMO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Sarah; Plasso, Ann; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Fletcher, Robert H.; Christiansen, Cindy L.; Inui, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the views of enrollees in an academically affiliated health maintenance organization (HMO) about participating in the education of medical students. Responses from 210 adults and 125 parents or guardians replying about children show that enrollees thought the HMO should be involved in teaching but they had specific concerns about the…

  12. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect on Medicare Contract § 417.520 Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. (a) The provisions set forth in subpart L of part 422 of...

  13. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect on Medicare Contract § 417.520 Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. (a) The provisions set forth in subpart L...

  14. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect on Medicare Contract § 417.520 Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. (a) The provisions set forth in subpart L...

  15. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect on Medicare Contract § 417.520 Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. (a) The provisions set forth in subpart L...

  16. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect on Medicare Contract § 417.520 Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. (a) The provisions set forth in subpart L of part 422 of...

  17. The impact of HMO penetration on the rate of hospital cost inflation, 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate of hospital cost inflation by .34 to 3.40 percentage points, depending on the base-year level and the annual change in HMO penetration. Declines in Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) margins also lowered hospital cost inflation; over the time period, annual hospital cost inflation was reduced by .38 percentage points. The estimates imply that the cumulative effect of HMO growth on hospital costs has been a $56.2 billion reduction (in 1993 dollars).

  18. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not be more restrictive or...) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials before distribution. (2)...

  19. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and other relevant printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not... themselves of that access. (b) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials...

  20. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and other relevant printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not... themselves of that access. (b) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials...

  1. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not be more restrictive or...) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials before distribution. (2)...

  2. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and other relevant printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not... themselves of that access. (b) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials...

  3. Three Trends in the Social Studies: A View from ERIC/ChESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education (ERIC/ChESS). Identifies three trends pertaining to the teaching and learning of history, geography, and civics in elementary and secondary schools. Examines pertinent issues in each trend area, and states that through regular use of ERIC/ChESS resources, teachers can…

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMO1 interacts with TFIID and participates in start site selection by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Koji; Ki, Sewon; Aoyama, Kayo; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMO1, a high mobility group B (HMGB) protein, associates with the rRNA locus and with the promoters of many ribosomal protein genes (RPGs). Here, the Sos recruitment system was used to show that HMO1 interacts with TBP and the N-terminal domain (TAND) of TAF1, which are integral components of TFIID. Biochemical studies revealed that HMO1 copurifies with TFIID and directly interacts with TBP but not with TAND. Deletion of HMO1 (Δhmo1) causes a severe cold-sensitive growth defect and decreases transcription of some TAND-dependent genes. Δhmo1 also affects TFIID occupancy at some RPG promoters in a promoter-specific manner. Interestingly, over-expression of HMO1 delays colony formation of taf1 mutants lacking TAND (taf1ΔTAND), but not of the wild-type strain, indicating a functional link between HMO1 and TAND. Furthermore, Δhmo1 exhibits synthetic growth defects in some spt15 (TBP) and toa1 (TFIIA) mutants while it rescues growth defects of some sua7 (TFIIB) mutants. Importantly, Δhmo1 causes an upstream shift in transcriptional start sites of RPS5, RPS16A, RPL23B, RPL27B and RPL32, but not of RPS31, RPL10, TEF2 and ADH1, indicating that HMO1 may participate in start site selection of a subset of class II genes presumably via its interaction with TFIID. PMID:18187511

  5. Analysis of Social Media Influencers and Trends on Online and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Chien-wen; Kuo, Chin-Jin; Ly, Pham Thi Minh

    2017-01-01

    Although educational practitioners have adopted social media to their online or mobile communities, little attention has been paid to investigate the social media messages related to online or mobile learning. The purpose of this research is to identify social media influencers and trends by mining Twitter posts related to online learning and…

  6. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  7. Profile of Rural Idaho: A Look at Economic and Social Trends Affecting Rural Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Commerce, Boise.

    This document examines population trends and economic and social indicators in rural Idaho. The first few sections discuss the definition of "rural," rural challenges and strengths, and outside economic and political forces impacting Idaho's rural areas. Subsequent sections present data on population trends, migration patterns, race and…

  8. Trends in key economic and social indicators for Pacific Northwest states and counties.

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Raettig

    1999-01-01

    Local (county) variations in key social and economic indicators are important in Oregon and Washington. Covered employment, wage and salary, unemployment, and population data for 1987 through 1997 showed regional trends in these indicators, which are compared with national trends. Future updates will be published in the “Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in...

  9. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  10. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  11. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  12. Emerging trends in social media and plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gould, Daniel J; Leland, Hyuma A; Ho, Adelyn L; Patel, Ketan M

    2016-12-01

    Social media has increasingly changed the landscape of medicine and surgery and is rapidly expanding its influence in most peoples' lives. The average person spends nearly 2 hours per day using social media, consuming information about everything from family updates to entertainment news to presidential elections. The concentration of consumers on social media platforms has resulted in direct medicine and medical products marketing to consumers. Similarly, social media is increasingly becoming a platform for interaction between physicians and potential patients. Some physicians have taken this opportunity to better educate patients, while allowing patients to learn more about their surgeons online. These tools can increase internet traffic online to bonafide internet sites, as well as bolster marketing for many hospitals, hospital systems, and individual doctors. It can also serve to increase knowledge about procedures and conditions through direct outreach to patients. Social media is a powerful tool which needs to be utilized wisely to avoid pitfalls.

  13. Emerging trends in social media and plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Hyuma A.; Ho, Adelyn L.; Patel, Ketan M.

    2016-01-01

    Social media has increasingly changed the landscape of medicine and surgery and is rapidly expanding its influence in most peoples’ lives. The average person spends nearly 2 hours per day using social media, consuming information about everything from family updates to entertainment news to presidential elections. The concentration of consumers on social media platforms has resulted in direct medicine and medical products marketing to consumers. Similarly, social media is increasingly becoming a platform for interaction between physicians and potential patients. Some physicians have taken this opportunity to better educate patients, while allowing patients to learn more about their surgeons online. These tools can increase internet traffic online to bonafide internet sites, as well as bolster marketing for many hospitals, hospital systems, and individual doctors. It can also serve to increase knowledge about procedures and conditions through direct outreach to patients. Social media is a powerful tool which needs to be utilized wisely to avoid pitfalls. PMID:28090511

  14. Community characteristics as predictors of perceived HMO quality.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M M; Hendryx, M S

    1998-06-01

    We model the impact of community characteristics on people's perceptions of the quality of their health care experiences in HMOs. We focus on three community characteristics: sense of community, population density, and population diversity. Sense of community refers to people's perception of interconnection, shared responsibility, and common goals. Population density and population diversity are community characteristics that affect transactions costs in terms of time and energy, and affect people's perceptions of their community. We use data from a 1993 Florida poll to estimate the relationship between HMO members' perceptions of problems with health care experiences (cost, choice, access, satisfaction) and community characteristics. We find that all three community variables are significantly associated with perceptions of health care problems. We also find that effects of community variables operate differently for those in HMOs vs. those under traditional insurance. This study is consistent with research showing that community characteristics impact the health status of community institutions. Results suggest that providers may be able to improve care by being more responsive to individuals' need for community, that providers and communities can mutually gain by collaborating to improve community health, and that it may be cost-beneficial to factor community issues more strongly into health care policy.

  15. [Coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality trends at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. An ecological study of trends].

    PubMed

    Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge; Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Buitrón-Granados, Luisa Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To analyze secular trends of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in Mexicans protected by the Mexican Institute of Social Security. An ecological trend analysis study was conducted on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the Mexican population protected by the Institute. All deaths were adjusted for miscoding and misclasification and rates were age - adjusted according to the age distribution proposed by the World Health Organization. Hospital discharges, as well as the number of patients seeking medical care for coronary heart disease, were analyzed as an indirect incidence measure. Fatality rates and the mean number of hospitalization days were also estimated. Coronary heart disease mortality has shown a stable trend at the end of last century and a descending trend in the in the first year of this century, both in males (r=0.84;r2=0.70; p <0.001) as in females (r = -0.76; r2 =0.57; p <0.001). There is an age-effect on mortality; mortality is higher in males, mainly at younger ages (male-female rate = 3.44). Fatality rates have progressively decreased and the mean age of death has increased by four years in the last two decades. The stable trend and later descent on coronary heart disease mortality may be best explained by an increase in the quality of health care and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, there is a need to strengthen primary prevention by modifying exposure to major cardiovascular risk factors in Mexicans.

  16. Diversifying the Social Studies: The Trend Toward Optional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Developments of alternative schools are reviwed, emphasizing differences in five types of public school options and the similarities of these types in respect to their social education programs. (Author/KM)

  17. How Has Educational Expansion Shaped Social Mobility Trends in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Hertel, Florian R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides a long-term assessment of intergenerational social mobility trends in the United States across the 20th and early 21st century and assesses the determinants of those trends. In particular, we study how educational expansion has contributed to the observed changes in mobility opportunities for men across cohorts. Drawing on recently developed decomposition methods, we empirically identify the contribution of each of the multiple channels through which changing rates of educational participation shape mobility trends. We find that a modest but gradual increase in social class mobility can nearly exclusively be ascribed to an interaction known as the compositional effect, according to which the direct influence of social class backgrounds on social class destinations is lower among the growing number of individuals attaining higher levels of education. This dominant role of the compositional effect is also due to the fact that, despite pronounced changes in the distribution of education, class inequality in education has remained stable while class returns to education have shown no consistent trend. Our analyses also provide a cautionary tale about mistaking increasing levels of social class mobility for a general trend towards more fluidity in the United States. The impact of parental education on son's educational and class attainment has grown or remained stable, respectively. Here, the compositional effect pertaining to the direct association between parental education and son's class attainment counteracts a long-term trend of increasing inequality in educational attainment tied to parents' education. PMID:26306053

  18. THE COMMAND OF THE TREND: SOCIAL MEDIA AS A WEAPON IN THE INFORMATION AGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    Monica, CA: RAND Corporation , 2016. “Pentagon Looks to Social Media as New Battlefield.” The Telegraph. July 21, 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk...THE COMMAND OF THE TREND: SOCIAL MEDIA AS A WEAPON IN THE INFORMATION AGE BY JARRED PRIER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...get started with an interview and included me in a cyber think-tank for the study of ISIS activity on social media. Additionally, I am still

  19. Global Trends and School-Based Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Meares, Paula; Montgomery, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, substantial advancements have been made across the globe that positively affect the ability for school-based social workers in the fields of practice, policy, and research to meet the needs of the world's youths. Nonetheless, children continue to suffer from poverty-stricken environments, absence of basic needs, poor or…

  20. Who's Trending in Agriculture? A Look at Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jarai

    2013-01-01

    Information spreads fast, but even faster with the use of social media. For instance, if one goes to twitter and searches "Farm Bill" it can be seen that many people have tweeted about the recent passing of the Farm Bill and re-tweeted information about this. This increased the attention given to this bill as seen by the hundreds of tweets on this…

  1. Who's Trending in Agriculture? A Look at Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jarai

    2013-01-01

    Information spreads fast, but even faster with the use of social media. For instance, if one goes to twitter and searches "Farm Bill" it can be seen that many people have tweeted about the recent passing of the Farm Bill and re-tweeted information about this. This increased the attention given to this bill as seen by the hundreds of tweets on this…

  2. Social Bookmarking in Academic Libraries: Trends and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Carla S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of the potential utilization of social bookmarking web sites by academic libraries. These web sites, which allow users and organizations to create accounts for bookmarking online content, provide academic libraries tools to collaborate and network, organize and share electronic resources and teach information…

  3. New Trends in the Study of Social Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaguchi, Etsuko

    2009-01-01

    Social education is seen as one important way of building a learning society, through supporting people in solving their daily problems. In a learning society, people could participate in a big project to develop their community as well as enjoying learning, without being excluded because of economic status, gender, age or ethnicity. Implementing…

  4. Social Bookmarking in Academic Libraries: Trends and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Carla S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of the potential utilization of social bookmarking web sites by academic libraries. These web sites, which allow users and organizations to create accounts for bookmarking online content, provide academic libraries tools to collaborate and network, organize and share electronic resources and teach information…

  5. Social Trends in Prescribing Mood-Modifying Drugs to Women

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The author of this article looks at the accumulating research evidence which suggests that there has been inappropriate prescribing and overprescribing of mood-altering drugs to women. This, he holds, in large part reflects problems that are best approached from within the tradition and perspective of social medicine. Socio-health considerations illuminate the need for research in this field. PMID:21263994

  6. Global Trends and School-Based Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Meares, Paula; Montgomery, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, substantial advancements have been made across the globe that positively affect the ability for school-based social workers in the fields of practice, policy, and research to meet the needs of the world's youths. Nonetheless, children continue to suffer from poverty-stricken environments, absence of basic needs, poor or…

  7. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

  8. Social Issues and Protest Activity: Recent Student Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Alan E.; And Others

    For the past four years, the American Council on Education has carried out a large-scale annual survey of entering college freshmen. For the last 3 years (1967-1969), questions were asked regarding student attitudes toward various campus and social issues including: (1) the campus, the student, and the role of science; (2) the family and…

  9. Beyond bureaucracy: emerging trends in social care informatics.

    PubMed

    Wastell, David; White, Sue

    2014-09-01

    Existing information technology systems in much of UK social care have been designed to serve the interests of the bureaucracy rather than supporting professional practice or improving services to the public. The ill-starred Integrated Children's System in statutory children's services is typical. The Integrated Children's System is a system for form-filling, micro-managing professional practice through an enforced regime of standard processes and time scales. In this article, we argue against this dominant design. We provide several examples where technology has enabled alternative modes of support for professional work, based on socio-technical principles. One such system is Patchwork, which describes itself as a 'Facebook for Social Work'; its aim is to support multi-professional teams working with vulnerable families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Trends in complexity theories and computation in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Leslie

    2004-04-01

    A modified bibliometric study and citation analysis of the use of complexity theories, encompassing chaos and complexity theory, and computational simulation in published literature was conducted. Articles published during 1971-1999 in four disciplines were examined: business, education, psychology and sociology. Overall, there was a marked pattern of increased use in the terms within the social sciences. There was a differentiated use of the terms between disciplines. A qualitative study on a subset from each discipline was generated to create a disciplinary profile of the quantitative and qualitative use of the terms in research activities, called a problem topology. Three research implications that arise from the differential adaptation of the theories and methods into the four social sciences are discussed.

  11. HMO penetration and quality of care: the case of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Decker, S L; Hempstead, K

    1999-01-01

    In theory, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) receiving a fixed payment rate per enrolled member have an incentive to coordinate services and emphasize prevention and early detection of disease in order to minimize costs of care. This article tests whether higher HMO penetration rates across counties in the United States and across time improve the use of mammography services, the chance of early rather than late detection of breast cancer, and ultimately improve breast cancer survival. We use two data sets to test the effect of HMO penetration on use of breast cancer services and on breast cancer health outcomes for women aged 55 to 64 years. These data sources are matched with county-level data on HMO penetration and other market variables from the Bureau of Health Profession's Area Resource File. Results of logit regression show evidence that HMO penetration positively affects the probability of recent mammography receipt. However, we do not find a statistically significant relationship between HMO penetration and either stage of diagnosis or breast cancer survival.

  12. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  13. Variations in physician utilization patterns in a capitation payment IPA-HMO.

    PubMed

    Burkett, G L

    1982-11-01

    Health care utilization data, using measures such as rates of hospitalization, physician visits, and specialty referrals, were collected for individual provider offices in an Individual Practice Association-Health Maintenance Organization (IPA-HMO) that used a capitation payment system to reimburse its primary physicians. Variations in health care utilization patterns between IPA offices were identified and examined for possible associations with other characteristics of these medical practices. As on indirect test of the effectiveness of the HMO's incentive system, it was hypothesized that IPA offices with a larger number of HMO subscriber-patients and those with a longer duration of membership in the IPA would exhibit practice patterns that would conform most with the HMO's cost control objectives. Associations were found between health care utilization measures and characteristics such as the specialty of physicians, but size of HMO patient load and length of IPA membership did not have the predicted effect. The findings of this study serve to identify several questions that need to be addressed in further assessments of the performance of IPAs that follow this general model.

  14. Competition among Hospitals for HMO Business: Effect of Price and Nonprice Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gary J; Burgess, James F; Valley, Danielle

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate patterns of competition among hospitals for the business of health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The study focused on the relative importance of hospital price and nonprice attributes in the competition for HMO business. Data Sources/Study Setting The study capitalized on hospital cost reports from Florida that are unique in their inclusion of financial data regarding HMO business activity. The time frame was 1992 to 1997. Study Design The study was designed as an observational investigation of acute care hospitals. Principal Findings Results indicated that a hospital's share of HMO business was related to both its price and nonprice attributes. However, the importance of both price and nonprice attributes diminished as the number of HMOs in a market increased. Hospitals that were market share leaders in terms of HMO business (i.e., 30 percent or more market share) were superior, on average, to their competitors on both price and nonprice attributes. Conclusions Study results indicate that competition among hospitals for HMO business involves a complex set of price and nonprice attributes. The HMOs do not appear to focus on price alone. Hospitals likely to be the most attractive to HMOs are those that can differentiate themselves on the basis of nonprice attributes while being competitive on price as well. PMID:12479496

  15. Publication patterns in developmental psychology: Trends and social networks.

    PubMed

    Dobermann, Darja; Hamilton, Ian S

    2017-08-01

    Interest in publication patterns has been steady. Journals have instituted policies in an effort to curb bias and provide globally representative research. This study aimed to examine if publication patterns were present in two developmental psychology journals. It also explored the social networks of prominent authors and the prevalence of informal author-editor relationships, searching for any potential power groups. Data were taken from empirical articles published between 2005 and 2014 in Child Development (CD) and The International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC) data points were geographical authorship affiliation, informal author relationships as established by co-publishing, and connections to journal editors via identical affiliation. Results confirmed the previously established North American dominance in published research. In CD a strongly interlinked social network was identified between authors over the 10 years, with 15 chief influentialists binding groups of authors together. Results suggest that patterns are still present in published research in the realm of developmental psychology. To conclude, the potential implications of these patterns within developmental psychology are presented. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Biased selection under an experimental enrollment and marketing Medicare HMO broker.

    PubMed

    Porell, F W; Turner, W M

    1990-07-01

    All studies conducted to date suggest that nearly all Medicare HMOs have experienced favorable risk selection in their Medicare HMO enrollments. While there is little definitive empiric knowledge about the extent to which Medicare HMOs can and do encourage favorable selection through marketing and enrollment activities, it has been speculated that centralizing all such functions through an independent broker could reduce enrollment selection bias. In 1985, the Health Care Financing Administration initiated a three-year demonstration of a HMO broker model in Portland, Oregon, known as Health Choice, Incorporated (HCI). This study reports empiric findings that provide no evidence to support claims of the efficacy of an enrollment brokerage function in reducing Medicare HMO enrollment selection bias.

  17. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan are... has two benefit package options, a fee-for-service option and an HMO option. The HMO imposes a 1-month...

  18. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan are... has two benefit package options, a fee-for-service option and an HMO option. The HMO imposes a 1-month...

  19. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    PubMed

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  20. Needs-based health promotion program serves as HMO marketing tool.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, M S; Nicklason, J A; Ott, J E

    1985-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was originally conducted at the George Washington University Health Plan in 1981 and repeated in 1983 for evaluation and redirection. The survey resulted in a program which attempted to address the perceived needs of its members. The response, not only of the patients, but also of both the HMO clinical and marketing staffs, resulted in further program development, and established role for health promotion in HMO marketing, and a model of preventive care teaching in ambulatory primary care medicine. PMID:3923532

  1. Indexing Price Trends of French Academic Books in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ronald E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides data on price trends for French academic books in the humanities and social sciences for the years 1986-90 based on information from the "Bulletin Critique du Livre Francais," a monthly book-reviewing journal. A method for developing a price index for this material is demonstrated. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  2. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  3. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  4. Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

  5. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  6. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  7. Social and Economic Trends: 1985-2000. Commission Report 84-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Major social and economic trends in American and California life that will affect California's colleges and universities during the next 15 years are identified. Characteristics of the information-based economy are examined, along with projections concerning the 40 fastest-growing jobs between 1982 and 1995. College and university research has…

  8. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  9. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  10. Changes in disease patterns and related social trends.

    PubMed

    Powles, J

    1992-08-01

    Both the material and non-material aspects of social life are viewed as determinants of major transformations in the patterns of fatal disease and injury. A 'worst case' scenario for the burden of fatal disease is taken as a poor agrarian society precariously dependent on starchy staples and a narrow range of other foods. In such a society life expectancy may be as low as 20. However in many 'pre-modern' societies the regime of roughly matching fertility and mortality levels was set at a 'submaximal' level, with completed fertility rates moderated by marriage conventions. The relative importance of the factors contributing to the historical decline in fatal infection continues to be debated. Evidence on the central role of maternal literacy in the recent decline in Third World mortality suggests the importance of changes in the body of civil society as well as the activities of professionals and public agencies. The decline in fatal infections has been offset to varying extents by an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD): the Mediterranean and East Asia having smaller epidemics of NCDs and Eastern Europe having sustained rises of NCDs. Most industrialised countries have experienced declines in overall NCD mortality in the last 2 decades. Both the fall in fatal infection and the rise and early fall of NCDs can usefully be viewed against the baseline of hunter gatherer cultures. When this is done, the relationship between economic development and disease is seen to be complex. Much 'progress' has been achieved by countering (and then doing better than countering) the adverse effects of earlier developments. Although most members of the generation now alive have experienced marked health benefits from economic and technical advance, it is unclear whether these gains can be both sustained and generalised. It is possible that adverse lagged effects of current industrial (and military) activities will disrupt the habitat of future generations of our species through

  11. Machine intelligence for health information: capturing concepts and trends in social media via query expansion.

    PubMed

    Su, Xing Yu; Suominen, Hanna; Hanlen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    We aim to improve retrieval of health information from Twitter. The popularity of social media and micro-blogs has emphasised their potential for knowledge discovery and trend building. However, capturing and relating concepts in these short-spoken and lexically extensive sources of information requires search engines with increasing intelligence. Our approach uses query expansion techniques to associate query terms with the most similar Twitter terms to capture trends in the gamut of information. We demonstrated the value, defined as improved precision, of our search engine by considering three search tasks and two independent annotators. We also showed the stability of the engine with an increasing number of tweets; this is crucial as large data sets are needed for capturing trends with high confidence. These results encourage us to continue developing the engine for discovering trends in health information available at Twitter.

  12. Current Trends in Social Media and the Department of Defense’s Social Media Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-23

    functions, and availability of social media. HIGHLIGHTS Social media offers many benefits but it requires people to actively and effectively ...1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...are social media platforms, while other mobile apps are designed to increase the efficiency and effectiveness by which users access and process

  13. Trends in Social Work. Nephrology social work meets integrated care: A partnership for the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Integrated care has brought changes to the field of nephrology social work. In turn, nephrology social work has brought innovative contributions to the field of integrated care. The new social work service delivery systems described in this article are sure to help the industry reach its goals to keep care patient-centered while maintaining quality and reducing the costs of treating end stage renal disease. Social workers are called to serve the needs of the client, the family, the community and the society at large. Nephrology social workers are right where they belong in the ESRD integrated care environment. They feel right at home.

  14. Report finds Medicare HMO members are younger, healthier and lower cost than FFS seniors.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Data File: Are managed seniors healthier than those in fee for service? A recent study by the U.S. General Accounting Office looks at disenrollment rates and costs of chronically ill Medicare HMO members in California. The findings support the much-disputed theory that seniors enrolled in HMOs are younger, healthier, and lower cost.

  15. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  16. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  17. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  18. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  19. Counseling in a Medical Setting as Part of an HMO Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary R.; Alvarez, Cheryl

    A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) clinic on Chicago's Near North Side is currently offering physical and mental health care to Public Aid recipients. Psychological services are provided by a mental health co-ordinator (Ph.D. level) who supervises one or two counselors of M.A. status. The co-ordinator's other responsibilities include…

  20. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. (c) Limitation on hospice care—(1) Extent of... who elects to receive hospice care under § 418.24 of this chapter waives the right to receive from the HMO or CMP any Medicare services (including services equivalent to hospice care) that are related...

  1. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... benefits described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. (c) Limitation on hospice care—(1) Extent of... who elects to receive hospice care under § 418.24 of this chapter waives the right to receive from the HMO or CMP any Medicare services (including services equivalent to hospice care) that are related...

  2. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benefits described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. (c) Limitation on hospice care—(1) Extent of... who elects to receive hospice care under § 418.24 of this chapter waives the right to receive from the HMO or CMP any Medicare services (including services equivalent to hospice care) that are related...

  3. 42 CFR 417.554 - Apportionment: Provider services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.554 Apportionment: Provider services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. The Medicare share of the cost of covered... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment: Provider services furnished...

  4. Genome-organizing factors Top2 and Hmo1 prevent chromosome fragility at sites of S phase transcription.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Rodrigo; Capra, Thelma; Gonzalez-Huici, Victor; Fachinetti, Daniele; Cocito, Andrea; Natoli, Gioacchino; Katou, Yuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Foiani, Marco

    2009-09-04

    Specialized topoisomerases solve the topological constraints arising when replication forks encounter transcription. We have investigated the contribution of Top2 in S phase transcription. Specifically in S phase, Top2 binds intergenic regions close to transcribed genes. The Top2-bound loci exhibit low nucleosome density and accumulate gammaH2A when Top2 is defective. These intergenic loci associate with the HMG protein Hmo1 throughout the cell cycle and are refractory to the histone variant Htz1. In top2 mutants, Hmo1 is deleterious and accumulates at pericentromeric regions in G2/M. Our data indicate that Top2 is dispensable for transcription and that Hmo1 and Top2 bind in the proximity of genes transcribed in S phase suppressing chromosome fragility at the M-G1 transition. We propose that an Hmo1-dependent epigenetic signature together with Top2 mediate an S phase architectural pathway to preserve genome integrity.

  5. The role of research in integrated healthcare systems: the HMO Research Network.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Thomas M; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Tolsma, Dennis; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-09-01

    Science is the basis of medicine. Good science leads to better decisions and more effective systems to support those decisions. Most individuals associate science primarily with academic institutions. However, top-quality research relevant to managing the health of populations and the care of specific clinical conditions is increasingly being carried out by investigators working in integrated healthcare systems. This introduction outlines the activities of the HMO Research Network, whose researchers have made and continue to make important contributions to the field of health research. Its objective is to inform readers of the activities and value of systems-based health research. We describe the importance and extent of the research conducted by HMO Research Network members, as well as the advantages of conducting research in such settings.

  6. Patient Participation in Research in the Managed Care Environment: Key Perceptions of Members in an HMO

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Sarah; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Fletcher, Robert; Christiansen, Cindy; Inui, Thomas S

    2000-01-01

    This study's objective was to elicit the views of research among enrollees in an HMO. A questionnaire was mailed to 207 adult enrollees, 55% had been exposed to research and 45% had not. Ninety-four percent of respondents supported research within the HMO, and 87% thought using information from medical records for research was acceptable. Sixty-three percent thought participation in research increased patient understanding of health care. Significantly more prior research participants thought that participation in research improves care. More patients would participate if written information were provided (67%), if feedback of results was provided (72%), and if their clinician invited them (67%). Only a modest percentage (20%) of patients would participate in a randomized trial. PMID:10940136

  7. Do "any willing provider" and "freedom of choice" laws affect HMO market share?

    PubMed

    Morrisey, Michael A; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of "any willing provider" (AWP) and "freedom of choice" (FOC) laws on the market share of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in metropolitan statistical areas over the period 1989-95. We use pooled cross-section time-series regression techniques with year and state fixed effects. HMO market share is hypothesized to be a function of state laws, market characteristics, and state preference for managed care regulation. AWP and FOC laws are characterized by three alternative measures of regulatory intensity. The results suggest that FOC laws have a greater impact on market share than do AWP laws. More comprehensive regulation has a bigger impact than less encompassing laws, and laws limiting selective contracting with physicians are more effective in reducing HMO market share than are laws covering hospitals or pharmacies.

  8. [IXR1 and HMO1 genes jointly control the level of spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, D V; Koval'tsova, S V; Peshekhonov, V T; Korolev, V G

    2010-06-01

    The yeast genes IXR1 and HMO1 encode proteins belonging to the family of chromatin nonhistone proteins, which are able to recognize and bind to irregular DNA structures. The full deletion of gene IXR1 leads to an increase in cell resistance to the lethal action of UV light, gamma-rays, and MMS, increases spontaneous mutagenesis and significantlly decreases the level of UV-induced mutations. It was earlier demonstrated in our works that the hmo 1 mutation renders cells sensitive to the lethal action of cisplatin and virtually does not affect the sensitivity to UV light. Characteristically, the rates of spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis in the mutant are increased. Epistatic analysis of the double mutation hmo 1 ixr1 demonstrated that the interaction of these genes in relation to the lethal effect of cisplatin and UV light, as well as UV-induced mutagenesis, is additive. This suggests that the products of genes HMO1 and IXR1 participate in different repair pathways. The ixr1 mutation significantly increases the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis mediated by replication errors, whereas mutation hmo 1 increases the rate of repair mutagenesis. In wild-type cells, the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was nearly one order of magnitude lower than that obtained in cells of the double mutant. Consequently, the combined activity of the Hmo 1 and the Ixr1 proteins provides efficient correction of both repair and replication errors.

  9. Physicians' financial incentives in five dimensions: a conceptual framework for HMO managers.

    PubMed

    Magnus, S A

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual framework for HMO managers who are evaluating physicians' financial incentives proposes that the incentives vary along five dimensions: (1) the percentage of the physician's income at stake, (2) the organizational level, (3) the synergy between multiple financial incentives, (4) the synergy between financial and nonfinancial incentives, and (5) signaling effects. Managers can apply this framework to assess the intensity of physicians' financial incentives and to devise better incentives.

  10. Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C: An Increasingly Recognized Neurotropic Pathogen in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julianne R.; Morfopoulou, Sofia; Hubb, Jonathan; Emmett, Warren A.; Ip, Winnie; Shah, Divya; Brooks, Tony; Paine, Simon M. L.; Anderson, Glenn; Virasami, Alex; Tong, C. Y. William; Clark, Duncan A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Jacques, Thomas S.; Qasim, Waseem; Hubank, Mike; Breuer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background. An 18-month-old boy developed encephalopathy, for which extensive investigation failed to identify an etiology, 6 weeks after stem cell transplant. To exclude a potential infectious cause, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing on brain biopsy. Methods. RNA-Seq was performed on an Illumina Miseq, generating 20 million paired-end reads. Nonhost data were checked for similarity to known organisms using BLASTx. The full viral genome was sequenced by primer walking. Results. We identified an astrovirus, HAstV-VA1/HMO-C-UK1(a), which was highly divergent from human astrovirus (HAstV 1–8) genotypes, but closely related to VA1/HMO-C astroviruses, including one recovered from a case of fatal encephalitis in an immunosuppressed child. The virus was detected in stool and serum, with highest levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Immunohistochemistry of the brain biopsy showed positive neuronal staining. A survey of 680 stool and 349 CSF samples identified a related virus in the stool of another immunosuppressed child. Conclusions. The discovery of HAstV-VA1/HMO-C-UK1(a) as the cause of encephalitis in this case provides further evidence that VA1/HMO-C viruses, unlike HAstV 1–8, are neuropathic, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of encephalopathy. With a turnaround from sample receipt to result of <1 week, we confirm that RNA-Seq presents a valuable diagnostic tool in unexplained encephalitis. PMID:25572899

  11. Adjusted Community Rate Reforms to Promote HMO Participation in Medicare+Choice

    PubMed Central

    Encinosa, William E.; Sappington, David E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors review the financial regulations imposed on health maintenance organizations (HMOs) that participate in the Medicare+Choice program and identify elements of the regulations that may discourage HMO participation in the program. Modifications of the regulations are proposed that could encourage the participation of HMOs without affording them excessive profit. The modifications include smoothing and bounding profit estimates and authorizing and encouraging expanded use of benefit stabilization funds. PMID:11481733

  12. Integrating a consumer orientation into the planning of HMO programs: an application of conjoint segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akaah, I P; Becherer, R C

    1983-01-01

    Despite legislative support and considerable publicity, the predicted boom in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) has not materialized. This has been due, in part, to an absence of marketing-oriented planning in designing such programs. This paper presents a consumer-oriented approach utilizing conjoint segmentation methodology which can be used to develop HMO plans that stand a better chance of consumer acceptance and marketing success.

  13. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR) workforce

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the “STEM” workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications. PMID:28166252

  14. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR) workforce.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hyungjo; Andalib, Maryam A; Maurer, Julie A; Hawley, Joshua D; Ghaffarzadegan, Navid

    2017-01-01

    While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the "STEM" workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications.

  15. The impact of demographic, economic and social trends on oral health care.

    PubMed

    Clovis, J

    1994-01-01

    Concurrent with the new technologies in oral disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are the changing global perspectives on health which impact significantly on who will actually receive the new technologies and services. Issues of access to care, the rapidly changing social, political, and economic environments and the growing recognition of the disparities and barriers to oral health are stimulating new strategies for positive change and enhancement. Governments, in partnership with professional associations, private sector concerns and consumer interests in Canada and the United States, have recently reviewed current oral health status and identified needs and inequities. A few bold new multisectoral initiatives have evolved but not enough to address all the trends. The challenges not adequately addressed by current policies and practices have been identified. Goals for oral health have been established both nationally and internationally to address the trends and the challenges. Critical areas for taking action have been also been identified and include research in epidemiology, behavioural and social sciences, health services, and evaluation. This type of research considers the social and environmental context of where and how oral services are provided. Ultimately this is the kind of research that can radically change the role of the dental hygienist in the delivery of oral health care.

  16. Implications of National Suicide Trends for Social Work Practice with Black Youth

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Although homicide is the leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 15–24, suicide is silently claiming the lives of many African-American youth, males in particular. Given the disproportionate number of African-American adolescents in many of the primary human service institutions, it is important to increase social workers’ understanding of the nature and trends in self-destructive behaviors of this population. This paper presents the descriptive epidemiological trend data on African-American adolescent suicide completion and parasuicidal behavior, reviews current explanatory hypotheses, highlights important risk and protective factors, and outlines several culturally-congruent practice guidelines for working with suicidal African-Americans adolescents. PMID:19562101

  17. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues-readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article.

  18. Social inequality in health: revisiting moments and trends in 50 years of publication of RSP

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the frequency and types of articles on social inequalities in health published in 50 years of the Revista de Saúde Pública, taking as reference some milestones that were used as guidelines to develop the research on this theme. Checking titles, keywords and abstracts or full texts, we identified 288 articles whose central or secondary focus was social inequalities in health. Corresponding to just 1.8% in the initial years, articles on social inequalities in health have represent 10.1% of the articles published in the last decade. The designs used were mainly cross-sectional (58.0%) and ecological (18.1%). The most analyzed themes were: food/nutrition (20.8%), mortality (13.5%), infectious diseases (10.1%), oral health (9.0%), and health services (8.7%). Articles focused on the analysis of racial inequalities in health amounted to 6.9%. Few articles monitored the trends of social inequalities in health, essential enterprise to assess and support interventions, and an even smaller number evaluated the impact of policies and programs on the reduction of social inequalities in health. PMID:28355334

  19. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  20. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  1. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania.

  2. Narrowing social inequalities in health? Analysis of trends in mortality among babies of lone mothers

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Margaret; Drever, Frances

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To examine trends in mortality among babies registered solely by their mother (lone mothers) and to compare these with trends in infant mortality for couple registrations overall and couple registrations subdivided by social class of father. Design Analysis of trends in infant death rates from 1975 to 1996 for the three groups. The data source was the national linked infant mortality file, containing all records of infant death in England and Wales linked to the respective birth records. Setting England and Wales. Participants All live births (n=14.3 million) from 1975 to 1996; all deaths of infants from birth to 12 months of age over the same period (n=135 800). Main outcome measures Death rates in the perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal periods and for infancy overall. Results For the babies of lone mothers infant mortality has fallen to less than a third of the 1975 level, with a clear reduction in the gap between the mortality in these babies compared with all couple registrations: the excess mortality in solely registered births was 79% in 1975 reducing to 33% in 1996. Most of the narrowing of the sole-couple differential was associated with the neonatal period, for which there is now no appreciable gap. For couple registrations analysed by social class of father, infant death rates have more than halved in each social class from 1975 to 1996. The reductions in mortality were greater in the late 1970s and early 1990s. Infant death rates in classes IV-V remained between 50% and 65% higher than in classes I-II. Differentials between social classes were largest in the postneonatal period and smallest in the perinatal and neonatal periods. The gap in perinatal and neonatal mortality between the babies of lone mothers and couple parents in social classes IV-V has disappeared. Conclusions The differential in infant mortality between social classes still exists, whereas the differential between sole and couple registrations has decreased, showing

  3. Utilization of services of an HMO by new enrollees.

    PubMed Central

    Forthofer, R N; Glasser, J H

    1979-01-01

    This study investigates whether there is a built-up demand for health services that surfaces when people enroll through a group plan in a Health Maintenance Organization. The study population consists of newly enrolled subscriber units of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan (Oregon Region). The utilization variables examined include the number of inpatient and outpatient contacts with the Plan, the number and type of specific services performed, and the type of outpatient contact. The enrollees were followed over 12 quarters (three years). The analysis showed that the first quarter stood out in three respects: its average number of inpatient and outpatient contacts were the lowest of any quarter; the mean numbers of radiology services and laboratory tests per outpatient contact were the highest during this quarter; and the highest proportion of regularly scheduled contacts and the lowest rate of patient cancellation of visits occurred during the first quarter. Hence, these data are not supportive of the idea of a built-up demand. Rather they suggest that the enrollee requires some time to learn how to deal with the system; and, once a new member contacts the system, the system may perform a number of tests to obtain baseline data about the enrolee. Additional analysis did not suggest the presence of any time trends in the utilization data. PMID:507243

  4. Research Trends in Social Network Sites' Educational Use: A Review of Publications in All SSCI Journals to 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçayir, Gökçe; Akçayir, Murat

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 247 articles dealing with the use of SNSs (social network sites) in education and published in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals up to 2015 were analysed. The articles' demographic (year, learner type, used SNS, major contributing countries, and academic discipline) and topic trends were determined. As a result…

  5. Research Trends in Social Network Sites' Educational Use: A Review of Publications in All SSCI Journals to 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçayir, Gökçe; Akçayir, Murat

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 247 articles dealing with the use of SNSs (social network sites) in education and published in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals up to 2015 were analysed. The articles' demographic (year, learner type, used SNS, major contributing countries, and academic discipline) and topic trends were determined. As a result…

  6. Trends in Social Science: The Impact of Computational and Simulative Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico

    This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.

  7. Social Media and Web Presence for Patients and Professionals: Evolving Trends and Implications for Practice.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Jose E; Whitehair, Curtis L

    2017-05-01

    The use of social media has become very instinctive to many. It has become part of a daily routine. Enhanced communication, liberated expressions of self, becoming updated with all the trends and news, and marketing promotion are only some of the reasons why most people use social media. Health care providers including physicians should take advantage of these platforms for professional purposes. Social media extends far beyond the famous platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram, used mostly for social connections. There are sites dedicated to serve professionals, for example, LinkedIn, or even physician-specific forums such as Sermo. The physical medicine and rehabilitation community has a forum (Phyzforum) created by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation to share questions, comments, and ideas. Moreover, there are broadcast media (Podcast) and blogging sites (WordPress) used by many physiatrists. Surveys show that physicians actively use an average of 2-4 hours of professional-leaning networking sites per week; for example, 44% of physicians use Sermo and 42% use LinkedIn. The participation also extends to more popular sites, with 40%, 25%, and 20% physician participation in YouTube, Blogging, and Twitter, respectively. There are numerous guidelines available for medical practitioners pertaining to professional use of social media. Strategies such as timing of postings and posting content as well as methods to maintain your online reputation are discussed. Various benefits and potential pitfalls with regards to social media use are also analyzed, including how to engage followers and addressing negative comments and reviews. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Matisse: A Visual Analytics System for Exploring Emotion Trends in Social Media Text Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Beaver, Justin M; Pyle, Joshua M; BogenII, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.

  9. Trends in work disability with mental diagnoses among social workers in Finland and Sweden in 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P

    2016-09-09

    Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists.

  10. Social and demographic drivers of trend and seasonality in elective abortions in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mortensen, Laust H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2017-07-04

    Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences-and a potentially rising trend-among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low-fertility country with excellent data on terminations and births. We examined monthly elective abortions (n = 225,287) from 1995 to 2009, by maternal age, parity, income level and mother's country of origin. We applied time-series methods to live births as well as spontaneous and elective abortions to approximate the denominator of pregnancies at risk of elective abortion. We used linear regression methods to identify trend and seasonal patterns. Despite an overall declining trend, teenage women show a rising proportion of pregnancies that end in an elective termination (56% to 67%, 1995 to 2009). Non-Western immigrant women also show a slight increase in incidence. Heightened economic disadvantage among non-Western immigrant women does not account for this rise. Elective abortions also show a sustained "summer peak" in June, July and August. Low-income women show the most pronounced summer peak. Identification of the causes of the increase over time in elective abortion among young women, and separately among non-Western immigrant women, represents key areas of further inquiry. The unexpected increase over time in elective abortions among teens and non-Western immigrants in Denmark may signal important social and cultural impediments to contraception. The summer peak in abortions among low-income women, moreover, conflicts with the conventional assumption that the social and demographic composition of mothers who electively end their pregnancy remains stable within a calendar year.

  11. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other’s TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers. PMID:26230656

  12. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers.

  13. Switching HMO providers. Dissatisfaction with emergency access cited as the primary reason for disenrollment.

    PubMed

    Ho, F N; O'Donnell, K A; Chen, Y J

    1998-01-01

    The reasons consumers choose one service provider over another are not necessarily the same as the reasons for changing service providers. The distinctions may be even more important when the service in question is health care, specifically the decision to reenroll or switch HMO providers. The authors undertook a consumer survey to gauge the importance of 41 variables in the decision process. Using logistic regression analysis, they concluded that variables associated with access to emergency care services had the greatest impact on decisions to switch. This is contrary to other studies, which have ranked emergency care access much lower, and additional research is recommended.

  14. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  15. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences - Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Roland; Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors' teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  16. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Pyle, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  17. The social media revolution is changing the conference experience: analytics and trends from eight international meetings.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah E; Basto, Marnique Y; Perovic, Greta; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Murphy, Declan G

    2015-05-01

    To analyse the use of Twitter at urology conferences to enhance the social media conference experience. We prospectively registered the hashtags of eight international urology conferences taking place in 2013, using the social media metrics website, Symplur.com. In addition, we prospectively registered the hashtag for the European Association of Urology (EAU) Annual Congress for 3 consecutive years (2012-2014) to analyse the trend in the use of Twitter at a particular meeting. Metrics including number of 'tweets', number of participants, tweet traffic per day, and overall digital impressions, which were captured for 5 days before each conference, the conference itself, and the following 2 days. We also measured corresponding social media activity at a very large non-urology meeting (the American Society of Clinical Oncology) for comparative purposes. Twitter activity was noted at all eight conferences in 2013. In all, 12,363 tweets were sent generating over 14 million impressions. The number of participants tweeting at each meeting varied from 80 (Congress of the Société Internationale d'Urologie, #SIU2013) to 573 (the American Urological Association, #AUA13). Overall, the AUA meeting (#AUA13) generated the most Twitter activity with >8.6 million impressions and a total of 4663 tweets over the peri-conference period. It also had the most impressions and tweets per day over this period, at 717,000 and 389, respectively. The EAU Annual Congress 2013 (#EAU13) generated 1.74 million impressions from a total of 1762 tweets from 236 participants. For trends in Twitter use, there was a very sharp rise in Twitter activity at the EAU Annual Congress between 2012 and 2014. Over this 3-year period, the number of participants increased almost 10-fold, leading to an increase in the number of tweets from 347 to almost 6000. At #EAU14, digital impressions reached 7.35 million with 5903 tweets sent by 797 participants. Urological conferences, to a varying extent, have adopted

  18. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  19. Visualization of e-Health Research Topics and Current Trends Using Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jeong, Senator; Kang, Byeong-Gwon; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    2015-05-01

    E-health has been grown rapidly with significant impact on quality and safety of healthcare. However, there is a large gap between the postulated and empirically demonstrated benefits of e-health technologies and a need for a clearer mapping of its conceptual domains. Therefore, this study aimed to critically review the main research topics and trends of international e-health through social network analysis. Medical subject heading terms were used to retrieve 3,023 research articles published from 1979 through 2014 in the PubMed database. We extracted n-grams from the corpus using a text analysis program, generated co-occurrence networks, and then analyzed and visualized the networks using Pajek software. The hub and authority measures identified the most important research topics in e-health. Newly emerging topics by 4-year period units were identified as research trends. The most important research topics in e-health are personal health records (PHR), health information technology, primary care, mobile health, clinical decision support systems (CDSS), and so on. The eight groups obtained through ego network analysis can be divided into four semantically different areas, as follows: information technology, infrastructure, services, and subjects. Also, four historical trends in e-health research are identified: the first focusing on e-health and telemedicine; the second, PHR and monitoring; the third, CDSS and alert; and the fourth, mobile health and health literacy. This study promotes a systematic understanding of e-health by identifying topic networks, thereby contributing to the future direction of e-health research and education.

  20. Hmo1 directs pre-initiation complex assembly to an appropriate site on its target gene promoters by masking a nucleosome-free region

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Koji; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hmo1 binds to the promoters of ∼70% of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) at high occupancy, but is observed at lower occupancy on the remaining RPG promoters. In Δhmo1 cells, the transcription start site (TSS) of the Hmo1-enriched RPS5 promoter shifted upstream, while the TSS of the Hmo1-limited RPL10 promoter did not shift. Analyses of chimeric RPS5/RPL10 promoters revealed a region between the RPS5 upstream activating sequence (UAS) and core promoter, termed the intervening region (IVR), responsible for strong Hmo1 binding and an upstream TSS shift in Δhmo1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that the RPS5-IVR resides within a nucleosome-free region and that pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly occurs at a site between the IVR and a nucleosome overlapping the TSS (+1 nucleosome). The PIC assembly site was shifted upstream in Δhmo1 cells on this promoter, indicating that Hmo1 normally masks the RPS5-IVR to prevent PIC assembly at inappropriate site(s). This novel mechanism ensures accurate transcriptional initiation by delineating the 5′- and 3′-boundaries of the PIC assembly zone. PMID:21288884

  1. HMO innovations. Video-enhanced medical advice; senior zoo walkers; Group Health Resource Line; enhancing health education programs through desktop publishing; home health beat; innovative school health partnership.

    PubMed

    Paperny, D M; Maeser, J D; Artz, K; Stroh, M J; Jackson, L; Cohen, K; Lancaster, M S; Heyer, A L; Clevenson, D S

    1991-01-01

    The editors of HMO PRACTICE asked clinicians and health educators in HMOs across the country to submit reports on their unique, successful patient education programs. The following HMO Innovations testify to the wide range of new technologies, enterprising partnerships, and creative ideas that are shaping health education in HMOs today.

  2. 42 CFR 417.558 - Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis § 417.558 Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts responsibility. 417.558 Section 417.558 Public Health CENTERS...

  3. Oligomerization of Hmo1 mediated by box A is essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Koji; Higashino, Ayako; Unzai, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2016-12-01

    Hmo1, a member of HMGB family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, binds to and regulates the transcription of genes encoding ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. The functional motifs of Hmo1 include two HMG-like motifs, box A and box B, and a C-terminal tail. To elucidate the molecular roles of the HMG-like boxes in DNA binding in vivo, we analyzed the DNA-binding activity of various Hmo1 mutants using ChIP or reporter assays that enabled us to conveniently detect Hmo1 binding to the promoter of RPS5, a major target gene of Hmo1. Our mutational analyses showed that box B is a bona fide DNA-binding motif and that it also plays other important roles in cell growth. However, box A, especially its first α-helix, contributes to DNA binding of Hmo1 by inducing self-assembly of Hmo1. Intriguingly, box A mediated formation of oligomers of more than two proteins on DNA in vivo. Furthermore, duplication of the box B partially alleviates the requirement for box A. These findings suggest that the principal role of box A is to assemble multiple box B in the appropriate orientation, thereby stabilizing the binding of Hmo1 to DNA and nucleating specific chromosomal architecture on its target genes.

  4. [Incidence and trends of neuroblastoma in Mexican children attending at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Siordia-Reyes, Alicia Georgina; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the principal tumor of the sympathetic nervous system in children. to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Mexican children with NB. A population-based, prolective study, with data obtained from the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The frequencies and incidence of the variables of the study were obtained by age and sex. The trend was calculated with the annual percentage of change. Of a total of 2758 children with cancer, 72 (2.6%) were identified in the Group IV, according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average incidence for NB was 3.8, the highest incidence was found in Guerrero. NB was highest in the group under one year of age (18.5). The male/female ratio was 1.1 and there was no trend toward an increase. Stages III and IV were presented in 88% of the cases. There was no association between the stages, the age at the TD, or the histological pattern. It is possible that the low incidence of NB in Mexican children is due to the difficulty in early diagnosis due the majority of the cases was diagnosed in the advanced stages.

  5. [Trends of research articles in the Korean Journal of Medical Education by social network analysis].

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Shin, Sein

    2015-12-01

    This aim of this study is to examine trends in medical education research in the Korean Journal of Medical Education(KJME) and suggest improvements for medical education research. The main variables were keywords from research papers that were published in KJME. Abstracts of papers (n=499) that were published from 1991 through 2015 were analyzed by social network analysis (NetMiner 4.0) a common research methodfor trends in academic subjects. The most central keywords were "medical education," "clinical competence," "medical student," and "curriculum." After introduction into graduate medical school, newly appearing keywords were "professional behavior," "medical humanities," "communication,"and "physician-patient relation." Based on these results, we generated a schematic of the network, in which the five groups before introduction to graduate medical school expanded to nine groups after introduction. Medical education research has been improving qualitatively and quantitatively, and research subjects have been expanded, subdivided, and specific. While KJME has encompassed medical education studies comprehensively, studies on medical students have risen in number. Thus, the studies that are published in KJME were consistent with the direction of journal and a new study on the changes in medical education is being conducted.

  6. [The influence of current social, medical, and political trends on the future of otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, D; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    All medical specialties are changing permanently, including otorhinolaryngology. Analyzing trends in social changes, medical progress, and political decisions will allow the effects of these on ENT medicine to be at least partially anticipated. Demographic changes and medical progress lead to an increasing demand for medical treatments. In addition, increasing numbers of female physicians are observed, as are many changes in the lifestyles of young physicians. Medical treatment will develop toward more individualized therapies in the future. ENT surgery will become a more ambulatory medical specialty. Driven by political decisions, digital medicine will become more important. Particular services once provided by physicians will be delegated to non-physician professionals. The lack of physicians and the progress in medicine require better networking between in- and outpatient services in the future. The potential of such collaborations is currently not completely realized. However, these developments will also increase the cost of health care. These trends will develop otorhinolaryngology into a conservative and surgical ambulatory care driven medical specialty. Embedded in decentralized networks and cooperations, and supported by IT technologies and specialized non-physician professionals, ENT physicians will work in hospitals as well as in practices on a permanent basis. Nevertheless, the question of funding these changes has yet to be clarified.

  7. No clinical effect of back schools in an HMO. A randomized prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Berwick, D M; Budman, S; Feldstein, M

    1989-03-01

    In a prospective trial, 222 adults with low-back pain of at least 2 weeks' duration in a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) were randomly assigned to usual care (UC), a 4-hour back school psychoeducational session (LBS), or the same back school plus a 1-year "compliance package" program designed to encourage appropriate self-management for back pain (CP). Sixty-four percent of LBS and CP subjects attended their back school sessions. Follow-up measurement of pain level (using the Visual Analogue Scale), functional status (using the Sickness Impact Profile), and various other indicators of health status showed no measurable effect of either treatment condition (LBS or CP) compared with UC at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after entry into the study. Initial disability resolved by 3 months in most patients, and a minority of subjects (10-15%) showed residual or recurrent functional impairment 1 year after entry. Health care utilization tended to be slightly higher after intervention in the CP group. With or without follow-up encouragement, back school instructions given in a single 4-hour session had no measurable impact on the comfort or functional status of the majority of patients with new onset back pain in this HMO.

  8. The Role of Research in Integrated Health Care Systems: The HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Thomas M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Tolsma, Dennis D; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-01-01

    Integrated care systems have unique advantages for conducting research. The HMO Research Network (HMORN) includes research centers associated with 13 large integrated care systems whose research focuses on improving health and health care delivery using the extraordinary platform provided by these health systems. We conducted literature reviews and surveys and interviews with directors of HMORN research centers, research investigators, and selected support staff in order to identify the characteristics of the research in HMORN centers and to present examples of how this research has affected health and health policy. The 13 HMORN member health systems deliver health care to 13 million people. HMORN research centers have access to large, defined populations, comprehensive medical information, extensive computerized data systems and to medical care delivery systems that offer extraordinary research opportunities. HMORN centers publish about 1200 scientific articles each year and received about $180 million in external research funding in 2002, most of it from NIH, CDC, and other federal sources. More than 2000 research studies are currently underway at these centers, which employ approximately 1500 persons in the research activities. HMORN research centers have had a profound impact on health policy and care. New technologies are steadily expanding the research capacities of these research groups. Increased collaboration between academic and HMO researchers would enhance the work of both. PMID:26705313

  9. Long-term costs of intimate partner violence in a sample of female HMO enrollees.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Dienemann, Jacqueline; Schollenberger, Janet; Kub, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-01-01

    To compare costs associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) overall and for selected physical health problems in a non-poor, privately insured sample. We compared 185 women aged 21-55 who were physically and/or sexually abused between 1989 and 1997 and enrolled in a multisite metropolitan health maintenance organization (HMO) to 198 never abused women enrolled in the same plan who had been matched using propensity score stratification. Costs associated with HMO visits, hospital stays, referrals, and emergency room (ER) visits, prescriptions, and radiology are based on the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value System, expressed in 2005 dollars. Average health care costs for women who reported physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse exceeded those of never abused women by $1,700 over the 3-year study period. Women who reported abuse within 12 months of interview had higher average costs, as did women who reported physical abuse; however, sexual or emotional abuse and previous abuse also elevated costs. Costs associated with neurologic symptoms, injuries, mental health care, and unclassified symptoms account for most of these differences. IPV elevates health care costs, not only among women currently experiencing abuse, but also among women for whom the abuse has ceased. Efforts to control health care costs should focus on early detection and prevention of IPV.

  10. Communication inequalities, social determinants, and intermittent smoking in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, Leland K; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2009-04-01

    Intermittent smokers account for a large proportion of all smokers, and this trend is increasing. Social and communication inequalities may account for disparities in intermittent smoking status. Data for this study came from 2,641 ever-smokers from a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Independent variables of interest included race/ethnicity, sex, household income, education, health media attention, and cancer-related beliefs. The outcome of interest was smoking status categorized as daily smoker, intermittent smoker, or former smoker. Analyses used 2 sets of multivariable logistic regressions to investigate the associations of covariates with intermittent smokers compared with former smokers and with daily smokers. People with high education and high income, Spanish-speaking Hispanics, and women were the most likely to be intermittent rather than daily smokers. Women and Spanish-speaking Hispanics were the most likely to be intermittent rather than former smokers. Attention to health media sources increased the likelihood that a person would be an intermittent smoker instead of a former or daily smoker. Believing that damage from smoking is avoidable and irreversible was associated with lower odds of being an intermittent smoker rather than a former smoker but did not differentiate intermittent smoking from daily smoking. The results indicate that tailoring smoking-cessation campaigns toward intermittent smokers from specific demographic groups by using health media may improve the effect of these campaigns and reduce social health disparities.

  11. Social inequality in health: revisiting moments and trends in 50 years of publication of RSP.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2017-03-23

    This study describes the frequency and types of articles on social inequalities in health published in 50 years of the Revista de Saúde Pública, taking as reference some milestones that were used as guidelines to develop the research on this theme. Checking titles, keywords and abstracts or full texts, we identified 288 articles whose central or secondary focus was social inequalities in health. Corresponding to just 1.8% in the initial years, articles on social inequalities in health have represent 10.1% of the articles published in the last decade. The designs used were mainly cross-sectional (58.0%) and ecological (18.1%). The most analyzed themes were: food/nutrition (20.8%), mortality (13.5%), infectious diseases (10.1%), oral health (9.0%), and health services (8.7%). Articles focused on the analysis of racial inequalities in health amounted to 6.9%. Few articles monitored the trends of social inequalities in health, essential enterprise to assess and support interventions, and an even smaller number evaluated the impact of policies and programs on the reduction of social inequalities in health. RESUMO Este estudo descreve a frequência e os tipos de artigos sobre desigualdades sociais em saúde publicados nos 50 anos da Revista de Saúde Pública, tomando por referência alguns marcos que balizaram o desenvolvimento das investigações nessa temática. Checando títulos, palavras-chave e resumos ou textos completos, foram identificados 288 artigos cujo foco central ou secundário era desigualdades sociais em saúde. Correspondendo a apenas 1,8% nos anos iniciais, artigos sobre desigualdades sociais em saúde chegaram a representar 10,1% dos publicados na última década. Os desenhos utilizados foram principalmente transversais (58,0%) e ecológicos espaciais (18,1%). Os temas mais analisados foram: alimentação/nutrição (20,8%), mortalidade (13,5%), doenças infecciosas (10,1%), saúde bucal (9,0%) e serviços de saúde (8,7%). Artigos voltados à an

  12. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on…

  13. FLOYDS Classification of AT 2016hmo/ASASSN-16mc as a Post-Peak Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained a spectrum of AT 2016hmo/ASASSN-16mc (ATel #9671) on 2016 November 1.4 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Las Cumbres Observatory 2-meter telescope in Siding Spring, Australia under our TDE vetting program (PI: Arcavi).

  14. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP.... (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs concurrently with any waiting... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan...

  15. Natural hazards and climate change in Dhaka: future trends, social adaptation and informal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.

    2009-04-01

    . Findings are then applied to future global climate scenario runs to obtain a first estimate of trends for the frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and their impact on spatial and temporal characteristics of floods in the Greater Dhaka region. From this estimate, a prediction method for the spatial patterns of flooding within the Dhaka area will be developed. The social part of the project analyzes the vulnerability and resilience of economic and social systems within high-risk areas by utilizing methods such as e.g. quantitative household surveys in Dhaka and qualitative expert interviews. Geographers are hoping to identify adaptation and recovery strategies of slum dwellers and informal businesses (e.g. brickfields, tanneries), analyze the role of social capital as well as formal and informal institutions for building up resilience, and analyze possibilities and limits of adaptation strategies under conditions of further urban growth and climate change. By paying attention to the important behavioral patterns of the informal sector, a meteorological early warning system can then be developed to make better use of weather predictions to mitigate weather-related risks for Greater Dhaka. If successful, this project poses as an exemplary intersection of social science and natural hazards research.

  16. Prostate cancer treatment and ten-year survival among group/staff HMO and fee-for-service Medicare patients.

    PubMed Central

    Potosky, A L; Merrill, R M; Riley, G F; Taplin, S H; Barlow, W; Fireman, B H; Lubitz, J D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment patterns and the ten-year survival of prostate cancer patients in two large, nonprofit, group/staff HMOs to those of patients receiving care in the fee-for-service health setting. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of men age 65 and over diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1985 and the end of 1992 and followed through 1994. Subjects (n = 21,741) were ascertained by two population-based tumor registries covering the greater San Francisco-Oakland and Seattle-Puget Sound areas. Linkage of registry data with Medicare claims data and with HMO inpatient utilization data allowed the determination of health plan enrollment and the measurement of comorbid conditions. Multivariate regression models were used to examine HMO versus FFS treatment and survival differences adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among cases with non-metastatic prostate cancer, HMO patients were more likely than FFS patients to receive aggressive therapy (either prostatectomy or radiation) in San Francisco-Oakland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.46-1.96) but not in Seattle (OR = 1.15, 0.93-1.43). Among men receiving aggressive therapy, HMO cases were three to five times more likely to receive radiation therapy than prostatectomy. Overall mortality was equivalent over ten years (HMO versus FFS mortality risk ratio [RR] = 1.01, 0.94-1.08), but prostate cancer mortality was higher for HMO cases than for FFS cases (RR = 1.25, 1.13-1.39). CONCLUSION: Despite marked treatment differences for clinically localized prostate cancer, overall ten-year survival for patients enrolled in two nonprofit group/staff HMOs was equivalent to survival among patients receiving care in the FFS setting, even after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Similar overall but better prostate cancer-specific survival among FFS patients is most plausibly explained by differences between the HMO and FFS patients in both tumor

  17. The emerging trend of work beyond retirement age in Germany. Increasing social inequality?

    PubMed

    Hofäcker, D; Naumann, E

    2015-07-01

    Population ageing, demographic change and the financial crisis has put the financial sustainability of the German pension system at risk. In reaction to these challenges, Germany recently abandoned generous early retirement policies and moved towards policies encouraging higher employment among the elderly. In this article we evaluate how these labour market and pension policies affected the retirement decisions of older workers in Germany over the last three decades. Complementing previous research on early retirement, we focus in particular on those working past the mandatory retirement age of 65 years and examine whether the composition of this group of postretirement-age workers has changed over time. We analyse pooled cross-sectional data from three rounds of the German Ageing Survey which allow us to cover the last three decades from 1980 to 2008. Estimating multinomial logit models we distinguish explanatory factors on the individual, organizational and institutional level that frame the decision to leave the labour market before the age of 65, to stop working at 65 or to work past 65. Over the last three decades, the share of German workers leaving the labour market after the mandatory retirement age of 65 has increased markedly. This trend towards working longer has changed particularly among the low educated workforce which in previous decades traditionally has exhibited a tendency to retire early. In contrast to high-skilled workers, the decision to work longer among low-educated workers is mainly driven by financial need (and is usually not in line with their desire or their ability to work for longer). Our findings suggest an increase in social inequality in retirement decisions as a result of the policy shift towards activation. We conclude by arguing for a more fine-grained understanding of the reasons why people work longer. Such research would provide valuable insights into how to design future labour market and pension reforms preventing a rise in

  18. Is the social volcano still dormant? Trends in Chinese attitudes toward inequality.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Martin King; Im, Dong-Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Data from two China national surveys, in 2004 and 2009, focusing on popular attitudes toward current inequalities and mobility opportunities, are compared to examine two key questions: (1) Did the continued rise in income gaps and the impact within China of the global financial crisis lead to rising popular anger about the unfairness of current inequality patterns in 2009? and (2) Did the social contours of attitudes toward current inequalities shift over the five years between surveys? Through systematic comparisons of data from both surveys, we conclude that there is no general increase in anger about inequalities in the 2009 survey, and that the predictors of variations in these attitudes had changed relatively little, with the unexpectedly positive views of villagers still visible in 2009, although a bit muted. Trends in Chinese society between 2004 and 2009, and in the personal experience of survey respondents, are used to explain why popular acceptance of current inequalities remains widespread, despite continuing increases in China's income gaps.

  19. U.S. publication trends in social and administrative pharmacy: implications for promotion and tenure.

    PubMed

    Kangethe, Anne; Franic, Duska M; Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally; Williams, Chakita

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus on the preferred approach to assess journal quality. Procedures previously used include journal acceptance or rejection policies, impact factors, number of subscribers, citation counts, whether the articles were refereed or not, and journals cited in books within the discipline. This study built on the work of previous authors by using a novel approach to assess journal quality in social and administrative pharmacy (SAdP). To determine U.S. SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals for their research, SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals by their promotion and tenure (P&T) committees, and current research trends in SAdP. A census of U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted using an e-mailed survey and an open-ended approach requiring respondents to list their preferred journals. Seventy-nine SAdP faculty reported that the 5 most prestigious journals were JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Health Affairs, Health Services Research, and Medical Care. These journals were selected because respondents wished to seek broad readership. Results of this study can be used as a guide by U.S. SAdP faculty and P&T committees to assess the quality of publications by pharmacy administration faculty with the caveat being that pharmacy versus nonpharmacy journals will be chosen based on the fit of the article with the audience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HMO behavior and stock market valuation: what does Wall Street reward and punish?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V; Hillman, A L; Furukawa, M F; McCullough, J S

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the variation in returns to owning stock in investor-owned health maintenance organizations (IOHMOs) for the period 1994-1997. The average return (measured by the change in the market value of the stock plus dividends) was close to zero, but returns were positive and high for firms operating in local markets that were and remained less competitive, with large nationwide scope, and with less rapidly growing panels of contracted physicians. Indicators of a firm's strategic direction were abstracted from their annual reports; firms pursuing a merger or acquisition strategy, and those emphasizing a utilization review strategy, showed lower returns than those that did not. Other strategy and market variables were not related to stock market returns over this period, and were also generally not related to price-earnings ratios. This analysis supports the view that competitive HMO markets best constrain profits to investor-owned firms.

  1. Tooth loss in the United Kingdom--trends in social inequalities: an age-period-and-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General's Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from -28.4% to -15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5-2.9 in number of teeth and 22-26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10-11% more teeth and 25-28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but unchanged over time.

  2. Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland: cross-sectional trends (1992–2012) in social inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Cullati, Stéphane; Manor, Orly; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Bouchardy, Christine; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer declined thanks to Pap smear screening. However cervical cancer screening (CCS) inequalities are documented, including in high income countries. This population-based study aims to assess the importance and 20-year trends of CCS inequalities in Switzerland, where healthcare costs and medical coverage are among the highest in the world. Methods: We analyzed data from five waves of the population-based Swiss Health Interview Survey (SHIS) covering the period 1992–2012. Multivariable Poisson regression were used to estimate weighted prevalence ratios (PR) of CCS and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) adjusting for socio-economic, socio-demographic characteristics, family status, health status, and use of healthcare. Results: The study included 32’651 women aged between 20 and 70 years old. Between 1992 and 2012, rates of CCS over the past 3 years fluctuated between 71.7 and 79.6% (adjusted P < 0.001). Lower CCS was observed among women with low education, low income, those having limited emotional support, who were non-Swiss, single, older, living in non-metropolitan area or in the French-speaking region, overweight. Over the analyzed period, differences in CCS across age groups diminished while rates among women who visited a GP over the previous year, versus those who did not, increased. Conclusions: While important changes occurred in screening recommendations and in social circumstances of the targeted population, CCS rates remained fairly stable in Switzerland between 1992 and 2012. At the same time, inequalities in CCS persisted over that period. PMID:28177486

  3. Transformation and trends in preventive and social medicine education at the undergraduate level in a Brazilian medical school.

    PubMed

    Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.

  4. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  5. The history of sociology as a field of research and some recent trends in Brazilian social thought.

    PubMed

    Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert

    2017-01-01

    The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.

  6. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2012-11-17

    Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987-2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population.

  7. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Methods Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987–2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. Results When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. Conclusions During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population. PMID:23158780

  8. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  9. Social media for empowering people with diabetes: Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain.

  10. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets.

  11. DNA damage regulates direct association of TOR kinase with the RNA polymerase II-transcribed HMO1 gene.

    PubMed

    Panday, Arvind; Gupta, Ashish; Srinivasa, Kavitha; Xiao, Lijuan; Smith, Mathew D; Grove, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) senses nutrient sufficiency and cellular stress. When mTORC1 is inhibited, protein synthesis is reduced in an intricate process that includes a concerted down-regulation of genes encoding rRNA and ribosomal proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-mobility group protein Hmo1p has been implicated in coordinating this response to mTORC1 inhibition. We show here that Tor1p binds directly to the HMO1 gene (but not to genes that are not linked to ribosome biogenesis) and that the presence of Tor1p is associated with activation of gene activity. Persistent induction of DNA double-strand breaks or mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin results in reduced levels of HMO1 mRNA, but only in the presence of Tor1p. This down-regulation is accompanied by eviction of Ifh1p and recruitment of Crf1p, followed by concerted dissociation of Hmo1p and Tor1p. These findings uncover a novel role for TOR kinase in control of gene activity by direct association with an RNA polymerase II-transcribed gene. © 2017 Panday et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate beneficial dietary changes

  13. Outcome Studies in Social Work Journals: A Review of Publication Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig W.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2013-01-01

    Social work practice emerges from research conducted with outcome studies that attempt to capture the "change" that social work services are designed to influence. However, it is unclear the extent to which social workers are prioritizing, and thereby producing, publications that investigate this change. We find that both the number and…

  14. Demographic Trends in Social Work over a Quarter-Century in an Increasingly Female Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert; Morrish, Jennifer Naranjo; Liu, Gan

    2008-01-01

    This article depicts the changing demographic portrait of social work education in the United States from 1974 through 2000 and considers the demographic shifts in the profession of social work. During this period, BSW and joint MSW-BSW programs increased from 150 to 404, MSW programs increased from 79 to 139, and social work doctoral programs…

  15. PhD versus DSW: A Critique of Trends in Social Work Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    Social work educators are in a phase of reintroducing the doctor of social work (DSW) degree and refining distinctions between PhD and DSW doctoral programs. This article examines how the two options have been prey to a noticeable "seesaw of precedence", resulting in a debatable history of social work's approach to doctoral education…

  16. PhD versus DSW: A Critique of Trends in Social Work Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    Social work educators are in a phase of reintroducing the doctor of social work (DSW) degree and refining distinctions between PhD and DSW doctoral programs. This article examines how the two options have been prey to a noticeable "seesaw of precedence", resulting in a debatable history of social work's approach to doctoral education…

  17. Demographic Trends in Social Work over a Quarter-Century in an Increasingly Female Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert; Morrish, Jennifer Naranjo; Liu, Gan

    2008-01-01

    This article depicts the changing demographic portrait of social work education in the United States from 1974 through 2000 and considers the demographic shifts in the profession of social work. During this period, BSW and joint MSW-BSW programs increased from 150 to 404, MSW programs increased from 79 to 139, and social work doctoral programs…

  18. Trends of Empirical Research in South Korean Mental Health Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, In Han; Lee, Eun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of evidence-based practice in South Korea, it has gained significant attention for its potential to promote the efficacy of social work services and to integrate knowledge and practice in mental health social work. In order to see how empirical research in South Korean mental health social work has changed, we examined…

  19. Role of Nhp6 and Hmo1 in SWI/SNF occupancy and nucleosome landscape at gene regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Matias I; Smolle, Michaela; Gidi, Cristian; Amigo, Roberto; Valenzuela, Nicole; Arriagada, Axel; Maureira, Alejandro; Gogol, Madelaine M; Torrejón, Marcela; Workman, Jerry L; Gutiérrez, José L

    2017-03-01

    Diverse chromatin modifiers are involved in regulation of gene expression at the level of transcriptional regulation. Among these modifiers are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, where the SWI/SNF complex is the founding member. It has been observed that High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins can influence the activity of a number of these chromatin remodelers. In this context, we have previously demonstrated that the yeast HMG proteins Nhp6 and Hmo1 can stimulate SWI/SNF activity. Here, we studied the genome-wide binding patterns of Nhp6, Hmo1 and the SWI/SNF complex, finding that most of gene promoters presenting high occupancy of this complex also display high enrichment of these HMG proteins. Using deletion mutant strains we demonstrate that binding of SWI/SNF is significantly reduced at numerous genomic locations by deletion of NHP6 and/or deletion of HMO1. Moreover, alterations in the nucleosome landscape take place at gene promoters undergoing reduced SWI/SNF binding. Additional analyses show that these effects also correlate with alterations in transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that, besides the ability to stimulate SWI/SNF activity, these HMG proteins are able to assist the loading of this complex onto gene regulatory regions.

  20. The New Zealand Family and Social Change: A Trend Analysis. Occasional Papers in Sociology and Social Welfare No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburgh, Miriam Gilson

    Long term trends in non-Maori family formation, growth, and dissolution in New Zealand were investigated with data mainly derived from the statistical reports of government departments. Sources included census reports; vital, justice, medical, and migration statistics; life tables; and official yearbooks. To augment official statistical data, an…

  1. Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study

    PubMed Central

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Saadat, Soheil; Shahnavazi, Hossein; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a major global health problem imposing a considerable burden on populations in terms of disability-adjusted life years. There has been an increasing trend in fatal and attempted suicide in Iran over the past few decades. The aim of the current study was to assess overall, gender and social inequalities across Iran’s provinces during 2006–2010. Design Ecological study. Setting The data on distribution of population at the provinces were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran. The data on the annual number of deaths caused by suicide in each province were gathered from the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization. Methods Suicide mortality rate per 100 000 population was calculated. Human Development Index was used as the provinces’ social rank. Gini coefficient, rate ratio and Kunst and Mackenbach relative index of inequality were used to assess overall, gender and social inequalities, respectively. Annual percentage change was calculated using Joinpoint regression. Results Suicide mortality has slightly increased in Iran during 2006–2010. There was a substantial and constant overall inequality across the country over the study period. Male-to-female rate ratio was 2.34 (95% CI 1.45 to 3.79) over the same period. There were social inequalities in suicide mortality in favour of people in better-off provinces. In addition, there was an increasing trend in these social disparities over time, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found substantial overall, gender and social disparities in the distribution of suicide mortality across the provinces in Iran. The findings showed that men in the provinces with low socioeconomic status are at higher risk of suicide mortality. Further analyses are needed to explain these disparities. PMID:25138804

  2. Health expectancy in New Zealand, 1981-1991: social variations and trends in a period of rapid social and economic change.

    PubMed

    Davis, P; Graham, P; Pearce, N

    1999-09-01

    To assess social variations and trends in health expectancy over a period of rapid social and economic change. Cross sectional survey data on the association between social status--gender, socioeconomic class and ethnic group--and measures of health status at two points in time approximately a decade apart. The Sullivan method of calculating health expectancy was used. The adult population of New Zealand in the periods 1980-81 and 1992-93. Representative samples of the adult civilian non-institutionalised population of 6,891 (1980-81) and 5,873 (1992-93) respectively. In comparison with life expectancy, adjusting for health status narrowed the gender gap but widened socioeconomic and ethnic differentials. These results were replicated for three measures--self reported health, mobility, and handicap--suggesting a robustness of outcome to specific indicators. Comparable data over the period of study were only available for the mobility measure. Increases in longevity appeared to be fully absorbed by minor disability. Ethnic and socioeconomic disadvantages remained static or widened for the 15-64 age group, suggesting a potential social polarisation in the disability transition. The operationalization of health expectancy appears to be rather robust to specific indicators. Health expectancy may provide a sensitive health impact assessment of social and economic policy. Existing theories of the disability transition may need to be modified to take account of social variation, at least in the special case of disability free health expectancy over the 15-64 age range.

  3. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Tyler R; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW's content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system.

  4. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Tyler R.; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S.; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW’s content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system. PMID:25848584

  5. International Co-operation and Trends in Social Science Information Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)

  6. Social media in plastic surgery practices: emerging trends in North America.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Chad K; Said, Hakim; Prucz, Roni; Rodrich, Rod J; Mathes, David W

    2011-05-01

    Social media is a common term for web-based applications that offer a way to disseminate information to a targeted audience in real time. In the current market, many businesses are utilizing it to communicate with clients. Although the field of plastic surgery is constantly changing in response to innovative technologies introduced into the specialty, the utilization of social media in plastic surgery practices is currently unclear. The authors evaluate the current attitudes and practices of aesthetic surgeons to emerging social media technology and compare these to attitudes about more traditional modes of communication. A 19-question web-based survey was disseminated by e-mail to all board-certified or board-eligible American plastic surgeons (n = 4817). Respondents were asked to answer questions on three topics: (1) their use of social media in their personal and professional lives, (2) their various forms of practice marketing, and (3) their demographic information. There were 1000 responses (20.8%). Results showed that 28.2% of respondents used social media in their practice, while 46.7% used it in their personal life. Most plastic surgeons managed their social media themselves or through a staff member. The majority of respondents who used social media in their practice claimed that their efforts were directed toward patient referrals. The typical plastic surgery practice that used social media was a solo practice in a large city with a focus on cosmetic surgery. Local competition of plastic surgeons did not correlate with social media use. Most plastic surgeons (88%) advertised, but the form of marketing varied. The most common forms included websites, print, and search engine optimization, but other modalities, such as television, radio, and billboards, were still utilized. Social media represents a new avenue that many plastic surgeons are utilizing, although with trepidation. As social media becomes commonplace in society, its role in plastic surgery

  7. Teaching Social Studies: Handbook of Trends, Issues, and Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Virginia S., Ed.; Litle, James A., Ed.; Wilson, Gerald Lee, Ed.

    This book of essays provides a set of reference sources on the field of social studies. The introduction places the discipline in context, connecting it with the society and the world that it helps to explain. The 15 chapters include: (1) "Persistent Issues in the Social Studies" (Stanley P. Wronski); (2) "Reform Revisited: The Story of Elementary…

  8. Teaching Social Studies: Handbook of Trends, Issues, and Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Virginia S., Ed.; Litle, James A., Ed.; Wilson, Gerald Lee, Ed.

    This book of essays provides a set of reference sources on the field of social studies. The introduction places the discipline in context, connecting it with the society and the world that it helps to explain. The 15 chapters include: (1) "Persistent Issues in the Social Studies" (Stanley P. Wronski); (2) "Reform Revisited: The Story of Elementary…

  9. Social Work Research: International Actualities and Trends. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyman, Ina

    This report is based on data and insights obtained during a study tour of the United States and Canada. The purpose of the tour was to combine attending three conferences on social work and social welfare held in Montreal, Canada in the summer of 1984 with visiting various institutions in Canada and the United States. In the first section of this…

  10. Recent Trends in Social Reproduction in France: Should the Political Promises of Education Be Revisited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duru-Bellat, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Relying upon recent research, this article puts into perspective the evolution of inequalities concerning both education and life chances in France since the 1960s. While a dramatic expansion of education has taken place, what consequences can one observe as far as social mobility and more broadly social reproduction are concerned? In fact, French…

  11. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…

  12. Social Work Research: International Actualities and Trends. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyman, Ina

    This report is based on data and insights obtained during a study tour of the United States and Canada. The purpose of the tour was to combine attending three conferences on social work and social welfare held in Montreal, Canada in the summer of 1984 with visiting various institutions in Canada and the United States. In the first section of this…

  13. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…

  14. Development of Social Infrastructure in the Management Practices of Local Authorities: Trends and Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolova, Elena V.; Vinichenko, Mikhail V.; Kirillov, Andrey V.; Rogach, Olga V.; Kabanova, Elena E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the article is conditioned by the exceptional importance of the social infrastructure for the development of the state, society and each individual. Social infrastructure ensures the development of the municipal unit, satisfaction of the basic needs and interests of the population, creation of the conditions for its subsistence…

  15. Government policies, industry/economics, social trends, and educational opportunities in 'women's decisions to work outside versus inside the home.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    Research on the career decision processes of women has focused primarily on internal considerations such as mathematical ability, intelligence, and self-esteem; however, the external environment also has an influence on these processes. To date, the environmental factors have primarily been researched separately, if at all. They include government policies, industry/economics, social trends/expected sex roles, and educational opportunities. This pilot study investigated these four external factors simultaneously. In addition, a survey of literature on career decision indicated such research to be based on a limited pool of highly educated, management/professional women. This study also uses a wider group including housewives, blue collar, and pink collar women.

  16. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  17. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  18. Elder Care for the 1980s: Health and Social Service in One Prepaid Health Maintenance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Larry M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of delivering combined health and social services to an elderly population. The social/health maintenance organization (S/HMO), incorporating features of health maintenance organizations with community social services, will be financed on a prepaid, capitated basis through premium contributions from Medicare, Medicaid,…

  19. Technological, Social, and Economic Trends That Are Increasing U.S. Vulnerability to Insider Espionage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    databases that he had no legitimate need to access. Air Force veteran Brian Regan searched Intelink, a classi- fied government database of intelligence...secrets in Silicon Valley over the past 5 years ( Iwata , 2003). Former FBI Director Louis Freeh reported to a U.S. Senate committee in 1998 that...and Economic Trends That Are Increasing U.S. Vulnerability to Insider Espionage Lisa A . Kramer Defense Personnel Security Research Center Richards J

  20. Health expectancy in New Zealand, 1981-1991: social variations and trends in a period of rapid social and economic change

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P.; Graham, P.; Pearce, N.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess social variations and trends in health expectancy over a period of rapid social and economic change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey data on the association between social status-- gender, socioeconomic class and ethnic group--and measures of health status at two points in time approximately a decade apart. The Sullivan method of calculating health expectancy was used. SETTING: The adult population of New Zealand in the periods 1980-81 and 1992-93. PARTICIPANTS: Representative samples of the adult civilian non- institutionalised population of 6,891 (1980-81) and 5,873 (1992-93) respectively. MAIN RESULTS: In comparison with life expectancy, adjusting for health status narrowed the gender gap but widened socioeconomic and ethnic differentials. These results were replicated for three measures--self reported health, mobility, and handicap-- suggesting a robustness of outcome to specific indicators. Comparable data over the period of study were only available for the mobility measure. Increases in longevity appeared to be fully absorbed by minor disability. Ethnic and socioeconomic disadvantages remained static or widened for the 15-64 age group, suggesting a potential social polarisation in the disability transition. CONCLUSIONS: The operationalization of health expectancy appears to be rather robust to specific indicators. Health expectancy may provide a sensitive health impact assessment of social and economic policy. Existing theories of the disability transition may need to be modified to take account of social variation, at least in the special case of disability free health expectancy over the 15-64 age range.   PMID:10562875

  1. Effects of Macroeconomic Trends on Social Security Spending Due to Sickness and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Jansson, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. Methods. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980–1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor’s pensions, and total spending. Results. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Conclusions. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending. PMID:15514244

  2. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health.

  3. Rural Profile of Arkansas, 1993: A Look at Economic & Social Trends Affecting Rural Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Rural Development Commission, Little Rock. Office of Rural Advocacy.

    This publication presents indicators of social and economic conditions in Arkansas highlighting urban and rural differences. Initial information includes a discussion of the definition of "rural" and a display of classification schemes used to describe the regions of Arkansas. The remainder of the document contains data for 1990, state…

  4. Rural Profile of Arkansas: A Look at Economic & Social Trends Affecting Rural Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This booklet profiles key economic and social features of rural Arkansas. Data are drawn from reports by the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Commerce, and Arkansas state agencies. About half of Arkansas' people live in rural areas, and most of these live in open country (not incorporated areas) and are completely dependent on county…

  5. Economic, Labor Force, and Social Implications of Latino Educational and Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Sonia M.; de la Rosa Salazar, Denise

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly increasing Latino population indicates that Hispanics represent a significant segment of future U.S. workers and taxpayers. Increasing the educational attainment and other human capital characteristics of Hispanics is critical for their integration into the workforce and for the nation's social welfare. Contains 76 references.…

  6. Preservice Teachers' Social Networking Use, Concerns, and Educational Possibilities: Trends from 2008 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joan E.; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun; Liu, Sa

    2015-01-01

    This four-year, cross-sectional study, situated in one U.S. university, investigated 206 preservice teachers' use of social network services (SNS) in teacher preparation and their disposition toward using it in their future teaching. Using descriptive survey methodology, results revealed nearly all preservice teachers used a general SNS (e.g.,…

  7. The Postgraduate Premium: Revisiting Trends in Social Mobility and Educational Inequalities in Britain and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne; Machin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This report revisits the debate about why social mobility levels are relatively low in Great Britain and the United States of America compared to other countries. It focuses on three main areas within this debate: (1) the changing role of educational inequalities; (2) the expectation of ever higher levels of education as revealed in increasing…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Social Networking Use, Concerns, and Educational Possibilities: Trends from 2008 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joan E.; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun; Liu, Sa

    2015-01-01

    This four-year, cross-sectional study, situated in one U.S. university, investigated 206 preservice teachers' use of social network services (SNS) in teacher preparation and their disposition toward using it in their future teaching. Using descriptive survey methodology, results revealed nearly all preservice teachers used a general SNS (e.g.,…

  9. The Postgraduate Premium: Revisiting Trends in Social Mobility and Educational Inequalities in Britain and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne; Machin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This report revisits the debate about why social mobility levels are relatively low in Great Britain and the United States of America compared to other countries. It focuses on three main areas within this debate: (1) the changing role of educational inequalities; (2) the expectation of ever higher levels of education as revealed in increasing…

  10. Social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors.

  11. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    PubMed

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Parks, Craig D.

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions. PMID:22478376

  13. Novel psychoactive substances: An investigation of temporal trends in social media and electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Derczynski, L; Chandran, D; Gkotsis, G; Deluca, P; Jackson, R; Shetty, H; Stewart, R

    2016-10-01

    Public health monitoring is commonly undertaken in social media but has never been combined with data analysis from electronic health records. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in social media and their appearance in a large mental health database. Insufficient numbers of mentions of other NPS in case records meant that the study focused on mephedrone. Data were extracted on the number of mephedrone (i) references in the clinical record at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK, (ii) mentions in Twitter, (iii) related searches in Google and (iv) visits in Wikipedia. The characteristics of current mephedrone users in the clinical record were also established. Increased activity related to mephedrone searches in Google and visits in Wikipedia preceded a peak in mephedrone-related references in the clinical record followed by a spike in the other 3 data sources in early 2010, when mephedrone was assigned a 'class B' status. Features of current mephedrone users widely matched those from community studies. Combined analysis of information from social media and data from mental health records may assist public health and clinical surveillance for certain substance-related events of interest. There exists potential for early warning systems for health-care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A thematic content analysis of #cheatmeal images on social media: Characterizing an emerging dietary trend.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Mond, Jonathan M; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-06-01

    Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram. Analysis of the volume and type of food revealed the presence of very large quantities (54.5%) of calorie-dense foods (71.3%) that was rated to qualify as an objective binge episode. Photographic content of people commonly portrayed highly-muscular bodies (60.7%) in the act of intentional body exposure (40.0%). Meanwhile, textual content exemplified the idealization of overconsumption, a strict commitment to fitness, and a reward-based framework around diet and fitness. Collectively, these findings position cheat meals as goal-oriented dietary practices in the pursuit of physique-ideals, thus underscoring the potential clinical repercussions of this socially-endorsed dietary phenomenon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Morbid obesity in Taiwan: Prevalence, trends, associated social demographics, and lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Heng-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Moreover, an extreme phenotype, morbid obesity (MO) has insidiously become a global problem. Therefore, we aimed to document the prevalence trend and to unveil the epidemiological characteristics of MO in Taiwan. Methods Nationally representative samples aged 19 years and above from three consecutive waves of Nutrition and Health survey in Taiwan: 1993–1996, 2005–2008, and 2013–2014 (n = 3,071; 1,673; and 1,440; respectively) were analyzed for prevalence trend. And 39 MO (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) cases from the two recent surveys compared with 156 age, gender, and survey-matched normal weight controls (BMI: 18.5–24 kg/m2) for epidemiological characteristics study. The reduced rank regression analysis was used to find dietary pattern associated with MO. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity together (BMI ≥24 kg/m2) was stabilized in the recent two surveys, but that of MO (0.4%, 0.6%, to 1.4%) and obesity (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) (11.8%, 17.9%, to 22.0%) increased sharply. MO cases tended to have lower levels of education, personal income, and physical activity. Furthermore, their dietary pattern featured with a higher consumption frequency of red meat, processed animal products, and sweets/sweetened beverage, but lower frequencies of fresh fruits, nuts, breakfast cereal, and dairy products. Conclusion This study documents a polarization phenomenon with smaller proportion of overweight people at the center and higher proportions of normal weight and obesity subjects at two extremes. MO was associated with low socioeconomic status and poor dietary pattern. The obesogenic dietary pattern became more prevalent in later time. PMID:28152059

  16. Morbid obesity in Taiwan: Prevalence, trends, associated social demographics, and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Heng-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Moreover, an extreme phenotype, morbid obesity (MO) has insidiously become a global problem. Therefore, we aimed to document the prevalence trend and to unveil the epidemiological characteristics of MO in Taiwan. Nationally representative samples aged 19 years and above from three consecutive waves of Nutrition and Health survey in Taiwan: 1993-1996, 2005-2008, and 2013-2014 (n = 3,071; 1,673; and 1,440; respectively) were analyzed for prevalence trend. And 39 MO (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) cases from the two recent surveys compared with 156 age, gender, and survey-matched normal weight controls (BMI: 18.5-24 kg/m2) for epidemiological characteristics study. The reduced rank regression analysis was used to find dietary pattern associated with MO. The prevalence of overweight and obesity together (BMI ≥24 kg/m2) was stabilized in the recent two surveys, but that of MO (0.4%, 0.6%, to 1.4%) and obesity (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) (11.8%, 17.9%, to 22.0%) increased sharply. MO cases tended to have lower levels of education, personal income, and physical activity. Furthermore, their dietary pattern featured with a higher consumption frequency of red meat, processed animal products, and sweets/sweetened beverage, but lower frequencies of fresh fruits, nuts, breakfast cereal, and dairy products. This study documents a polarization phenomenon with smaller proportion of overweight people at the center and higher proportions of normal weight and obesity subjects at two extremes. MO was associated with low socioeconomic status and poor dietary pattern. The obesogenic dietary pattern became more prevalent in later time.

  17. Consumer beliefs and health plan performance: it's not whether you are in an HMO but whether you think you are.

    PubMed

    Reschovsky, James D; Hargraves, J Lee; Smith, Albert F

    2002-06-01

    Surveys that rate how persons enrolled in HMOs and other types of health coverage feel about their health care are used to bolster claims that HMOs provide inferior quality care, providing justification for patient protection legislation. This research illustrates that the conventional wisdom regarding inferior care in HMOs may color how people assess their health care in surveys, resulting in survey findings biased toward showing HMOs provide inferior care and reinforcing existing stereotypes. Using merged data from the Community Tracking Study Household and Insurance Followback surveys, we identify privately insured persons who correctly and incorrectly know what kind of health plan they are covered by. Nearly a quarter misidentified their type of health coverage. Differences between responses by HMO and non-HMO enrollees to questions covering satisfaction with health care and physician choice, the quality of the last physician's visit, and patient trust in their physician shrink or disappear when we control for beliefs about what type of plan they are covered by. Results suggest that researchers and policy makers should be cautious about using consumer surveys to assess the relative quality of care provided under different types of health insurance.

  18. Usability, Communicability and Cultural Tourism in Interactive Systems: Trends, Economic Effects and Social Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel

    We have developed a set of techniques and an analysis methodology aimed at boosting the quality of interactive tourism systems. The details of it will be presented in full and with real examples which have yielded interesting results in the last few years, both from the social and economical point of view, but with a huge wealth of cultural and natural heritage. We will also present a first guidelines to foster tourism in those villages that are willing to promote themselves in the national and international market at a low cost.

  19. Gay-male couples who adopt: challenging historical and contemporary social trends toward becoming a family.

    PubMed

    Lobaugh, Edward R; Clements, Paul T; Averill, Jennifer B; Olguin, David L

    2006-08-01

    Gay-male couples who adopt children face ongoing challenges that stem from both historical and contemporary social issues. To examine and identify key points and guidance for advanced practice psychiatric mental health nurses regarding multicultural awareness involved in counseling gay-male couples who explore or exercise their right to adopt and raise children. A comprehensive review of the extant scientific literature and public media, clinical anecdotes, therapeutic experiences, and an examination of Healthy People 2010 as it relates to how community health is profoundly affected by the collective beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of everyone who lives in the community. Heterosexism, homophobic fears, oppression, and the general stigma that surround gay-male couples who choose to adopt children are a few of the relevant contemporary issues and community beliefs for which advanced practice psychiatric mental health nurses need to assess, explore, and intervene.

  20. Prices need no preferences: social trends determine decisions in experimental markets for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Winston, Joel S; Yoshida, Wako; Wright, Nicholas; Symmonds, Mkael; Dolan, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A standard view in health economics is that, although there is no market that determines the "prices" for health states, people can nonetheless associate health states with monetary values (or other scales, such as quality adjusted life year [QALYs] and disability adjusted life year [DALYs]). Such valuations can be used to shape health policy, and a major research challenge is to elicit such values from people; creating experimental "markets" for health states is a theoretically attractive way to address this. We explore the possibility that this framework may be fundamentally flawed-because there may not be any stable values to be revealed. Instead, perhaps people construct ad hoc values, influenced by contextual factors, such as the observed decisions of others. The participants bid to buy relief from equally painful electrical shocks to the leg and arm in an experimental health market based on an interactive second-price auction. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions where the bids by "others" were manipulated to follow increasing or decreasing price trends for one, but not the other, pain. After the auction, a preference test asked the participants to choose which pain they prefer to experience for a longer duration. Players remained indifferent between the two pain-types throughout the auction. However, their bids were differentially attracted toward what others bid for each pain, with overbidding during decreasing prices and underbidding during increasing prices. Health preferences are dissociated from market prices, which are strongly referenced to others' choices. This suggests that the price of health care in a free-market has the capacity to become critically detached from people's underlying preferences. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Maintaining Medicare HMO's: Problems, Protections and Prospects. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine issues involved in maintaining and strengthening Medicare Health Maintenance Orgranizations (HMO). Opening statements are included from Representatives Edward Roybal, Matthew Rinaldo, Mario Biaggi, Don Bonker, Robert Borski, Louise…

  2. Effects of short-term alcohol on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system (HMO) in rats receiving nutrition sufficient to promote normal' weight gains

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, T.; Ronis, M.; Lumpkin, C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Shahare, M.; Mercado, C.; Huang, J.; Irby, D.; Crouch, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two clinically relevant diets on HMO and to determine if ethanol has demonstrable effects in the presence of dietary sources that promote normal growth rates. A model in which ethanol was infused directly into the stomach as part of a total enteral nutrition system (TEN) was used in the current study. The effects of the two liquid diets alone or of TEN where 35% of the total calories in the diets were replaced by ethanol for 8 days were examined on HMO of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. HMO activities were determined using standard enzyme assays with specific substrates and cytochrome P450 apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. The results of these studies suggest: that short-term dietary ethanol can induce CYP 2E1 in well nourished animals but that the level of induction is smaller than that previously reported using Lieber-DeCarli pair feeding regimens; that diet alone has a significant influence on constitutive levels of P450 isozymes including CYP 2E1; that diet influences the effects of ethanol on HMO; and that the TEN system is a useful model for the study of diet/drug interactions.

  3. Social media in radiology: early trends in Twitter microblogging at radiology's largest international meeting.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C Matthew; Duszak, Richard; Rawson, James V

    2014-04-01

    Twitter is a social media microblogging platform that allows rapid exchange of information between individuals. Despite its widespread acceptance and use at various other medical specialty meetings, there are no published data evaluating its use at radiology meetings. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the use of Twitter as a microblogging platform at recent RSNA annual meetings. Twitter activity meta-data tagged with official meeting hashtags #RSNA11 and #RSNA12 were collected and analyzed. Multiple metrics were evaluated, including daily and hourly Twitter activity, frequency of microblogging activity over time, characteristics of the 100 most active Twitter users at each meeting, characteristics of meeting-related tweets, and the geographic origin of meeting microbloggers. The use of Twitter microblogging increased by at least 30% by all identifiable meaningful metrics between the 2011 and 2012 RSNA annual meetings, including total tweets, tweets per day, activity of the most active microbloggers, and total number of microbloggers. Similar increases were observed in numbers of North American and international microbloggers. Markedly increased use of the Twitter microblogging platform at recent RSNA annual meetings demonstrates the potential to leverage this technology to engage meeting attendees, improve scientific sessions, and promote improved collaboration at national radiology meetings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The trend of body donation for education based on Korean social and religious culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or organs for education in the past. However, by the end of the 20th century, a unique fusion of Western and Oriental medicines were produced on the Korean Peninsula, revolutionizing traditional perspectives on the human body, mortality, and the relationship of medical science to society. Koreans began to think about others' lives as well as their own by realizing the importance of donating one's organs and bodies for scientific purposes. Since then, the number of people donating their bodies to Korean medical and dental schools for the purpose of improving academic learning has increased dramatically. In response, Korean medical schools have begun to hold various types of funeral ceremonies to honor body donors. We have compared such ceremonies performed in Korea with those performed in the United States of America and Taiwan. These ceremonies are viewed as a suitable way to pay proper respect to the dead and to promote knowledge about body donation programs in Korea. Overall, the transition of religions and social ethics in Korea has greatly facilitated body bequeathal programs, benefiting both medical education and the Korean public health administration.

  5. [Relations between social defense and criminological trends from the 1930s until today].

    PubMed

    Tagliarini, F

    1976-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the historical evolution of criminological schools, in the background, wider and more articulated, of a research by the National Council for Scientific Research directed to probing the outlines of the social defence concept. The work, then, proceeds in the field of criminology and, more particularly, of the evolution of criminological currents which, without defining aims, we will name classical to tell them from the original criminology, of positivistic imprint, and from the new criminology of critical, radical or marxist inspiration, whose examination in entrusted to another research unit. The method followed was that of the historical research with reference to the selected period and with a constant relation, in text and notes, to the enunciations of the examined Authors, considered essential. For such purpose, that is to say for more accuracy in references, it was considered convenient to have the text followed, not only by an ample bibliographical index, but also by an appendix of texts considered particularly significant in the documentation field.

  6. Hmo1p, a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, genetically and physically interacts with the yeast FKBP12 prolyl isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Dolinski, K J; Heitman, J

    1999-01-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin bind to the cellular protein FKBP12, and the resulting FKBP12-drug complexes inhibit signal transduction. FKBP12 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, abundant enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in protein folding: peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization. However, FKBP12 is dispensible for viability in both yeast and mice, and therefore does not play an essential role in protein folding. The functions of FKBP12 may involve interactions with a number of partner proteins, and a few proteins that interact with FKBP12 in the absence of FK506 or rapamycin have been identified, including the ryanodine receptor, aspartokinase, and the type II TGF-beta receptor; however, none of these are conserved from yeast to humans. To identify other targets and functions of FKBP12, we have screened for mutations that are synthetically lethal with an FKBP12 mutation in yeast. We find that mutations in HMO1, which encodes a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, are synthetically lethal with mutations in the yeast FPR1 gene encoding FKBP12. Deltahmo1 and Deltafpr1 mutants share two phenotypes: an increased rate of plasmid loss and slow growth. In addition, Hmo1p and FKBP12 physically interact in FKBP12 affinity chromatography experiments, and two-hybrid experiments suggest that FKBP12 regulates Hmo1p-Hmo1p or Hmo1p-DNA interactions. Because HMG1/2 proteins are conserved from yeast to humans, our findings suggest that FKBP12-HMG1/2 interactions could represent the first conserved function of FKBP12 other than mediating FK506 and rapamycin actions. PMID:10049913

  7. Historical Trends and Their Impact on the Social Construction of Self among Hispanics and Its Impact on Self-Efficacious Behaviors in Training and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Douglas P.

    2006-01-01

    Historic trends affect the social construction of the Hispanic self that have negatively affected achievement. This is reflected in the models of training and career counseling. Achievement depends on many factors among college students. Hispanic college students have certain obstacles that need to be addressed related to self-concept to meet…

  8. Training Needs for the Professional Development of Social-Studies Teachers at the Intermediate Stage in Al-Jouf in Light of Modern Teaching Trends: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarshad, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This study is an attempt to identify the training needs of social-studies teachers at the intermediate stage in Al-Jouf in light of modern teaching trends. It focuses on the six axes of systemic planning, varied teaching strategies, information and communication technology, innovative enrichment activities in teaching, classroom-management skills,…

  9. Direct health care costs for treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in an IPA-group-model HMO.

    PubMed

    Amin, S P; Mullins, C D; Duncan, B S; Blandford, L

    1999-08-01

    The differences in direct health care costs and use between HMO enrollees with both diabetes mellitus and hypertension and enrollees with either disease alone were studied. Two years' worth of medical and pharmacy claims data from a hybrid (independent practice association and group)-model HMO were evaluated. Diagnoses were determined from medical claims data and cross-referenced with prescription information from pharmacy claims data. Aggregate costs associated with each disease, including pharmacy costs, costs of physician office visits, and laboratory costs, were compiled. Comparisons were made of all costs (any cost incurred by the health plan for the member, regardless of disease) and disease-specific costs. The frequency of comorbid conditions was identified. A total of 6195 patients (670 with diabetes and hypertension, 1756 with diabetes alone, and 3769 with hypertension alone) were assessed. Patients with both diseases incurred much higher costs per year than patients with diabetes or hypertension alone (mean costs, $13,446, $8,493, and $8,424, respectively). Hospitalization costs contributed the greatest amount to total costs, while emergency room costs contributed the least. Disease-specific costs for diabetes and hypertension represented less than one quarter of total health care costs per patient. Average disease-specific costs were highest for patients with both diseases ($2,955), followed by costs for patients with hypertension alone ($1,803) and patients with diabetes alone ($689). The percentage spent on prescriptions was much higher for disease-specific costs than for total costs. The three most common comorbid conditions were dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with the frequency of cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction more than double in patients with diabetes and hypertension compared with patients with either disease alone. The cost of care for a patient with both diabetes and

  10. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  11. Working Life and Retirement Expectancies at Age 50 by Social Class: Period and Cohort Trends and Projections for Finland.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Taina; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2015-11-11

    The balance between the amount of time spent in work and in retirement underlies the long-term sustainability of the social security system. We examined socioeconomic differences in how increasing longevity is distributed between labor market statuses in Finland. We used register data and the Sullivan method to analyze life expectancy at age 50 spent in different labor market statuses over the period 1989-2012 and across cohorts born in 1938-1953. We projected the future mortality and labor market participation rates of partially observed cohorts. Both working life expectancy at age 50 and the share of remaining life spent in work have increased across periods following the recession of the early 1990s, and across successive cohorts. The trends were similar across the social classes, but there were large differences in the numbers of years spent in various states: for the most recent period and the youngest cohort, we find that compared with upper non-manual employees, male and female manual workers were expected to spend 3.6-3.7 fewer years in work, 1.7-4.7 fewer years in statutory retirement, and 3.2-3.9 more years in other forms of nonemployment. Our finding that the share of remaining life at age 50 spent in work is increasing implies that pressure on the welfare system is not as severe as is commonly thought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Trends and social differentials in child mortality in Rwanda 1990–2010: results from three demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-01-01

    Background Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15–49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Results Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005–2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Conclusions Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. PMID:25870163

  13. Psychological and Social Factors Affecting Internet Searches on Suicide in Korea: A Big Data Analysis of Google Search Trends

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Min; Song, Juyoung; Hayman, Laura L.; Woo, Jong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The average mortality rate for death by suicide among OECD countries is 12.8 per 100000, and 33.5 for Korea. The present study analyzed big data extracted from Google to identify factors related to searches on suicide in Korea. Materials and Methods Google search trends for the search words of suicide, stress, exercise, and drinking were obtained for 2004-2010. Analyzing data by month, the relationship between the actual number of suicides and search words per year was examined using multi-level models. Results Both suicide rates and Google searches on suicide in Korea increased since 2007. An unconditional slope model indicated stress and suicide-related searches were positively related. A conditional model showed that factors associated with suicide by year directly affected suicide-related searches. The interaction between stress-related searches and the actual number of suicides was significant. Conclusion A positive relationship between stress- and suicide-related searches further confirmed that stress affects suicide. Taken together and viewed in context of the big data analysis, our results point to the need for a tailored prevention program. Real-time big data can be of use in indicating increases in suicidality when search words such as stress and suicide generate greater numbers of hits on portals and social network sites. PMID:24339315

  14. Agricultural Yield Trends in Malawi: Utilizing Remote Sensing to Observe Crop Productivity and Sensitivity to Biophysical and Social Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this research is to distinguish primary and secondary trends in the spatiotemporal variability of agricultural productivity in Malawi. The assessment was performed by analyzing the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) product derived from NASA MODIS satellite imagery and by drawing comparisons between individual land areas and the country-wide statistics. The data were categorized by placing each individual land area into one of six categories: low, average, or high productivity, and whether or not they were resilient or sensitive to biophysical and/or social production drivers. In order to mitigate productivity interference from forest and other land cover types, a custom agricultural land use was developed. Five land cover datasets, including FAO, GLC, IFPRI, GlobCover, and MODIS were combined to minimize errors of commission. Model assessment occurred via field work in Malawi. Approximately 200 sites were visited across nearly the entire extent of the country. Cropland and land cover were assessed via visual inspection, true color/near-infrared photography, and on-site interviews with farmers and extension officers to inquire about productivity and limiting factors for yield. Additionally, we present a continental scale application of the model to demonstrate its performance across scales.

  15. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends and social differentials in child mortality in Rwanda 1990-2010: results from three demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-09-01

    Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15-49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005-2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Is social support from family associated with PSA testing? An exploratory analysis using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2005.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamilah B; Simpson, Sean L; Tarver, Will L; Gwede, Clement K

    2010-03-01

    African American and White men have the highest rates of prostate cancer in the United States. Families represent important social contexts within which illness occurs.The purpose of this study is to explore whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is associated with instrumental and informational social support from family members among a sample of Black and White men aged 45 and older. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed using logistic regression. The dependent variable was having a PSA test within the past year or less. The independent variables consisted of selected demographic and family informational and instrumental social support variables. The statistically significant variables included age and having a family member with cancer. Additional studies to elucidate the mechanisms of social support from family for prostate cancer are needed.

  18. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health.

  19. Trends in social class inequalities in the use of health care services within the Spanish National Health System, 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rocha, Katia B; Pasarín, M Isabel; Borrell, Carme

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the trends and socio-economic inequalities in the use of health care services in Spain between 1993 and 2006. A study of trends was performed using data from six Spanish National Health Surveys (1993, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2003 and 2006). Sample sizes were 21,061; 6,396; 6,396; 21,066; 21,650 and 29,478, respectively. The following dependent variables were analysed: having visited a general practitioner (GP) or specialist in the previous 2 weeks, having visited a dentist within the previous 3 months and having visited a gynaecologist, having used the emergency services or having been hospitalised in the previous year. The main independent variable was social class, classified as manual or non-manual occupation. For each service, age-standardised proportions of use were calculated by survey year, sex and social class, and indices of relative (RII) and absolute (SII) inequality were computed. Trend tests were applied. An increase in the proportion of use was observed for all services, particularly emergency services. Individuals from manual classes were more likely to visit the GP and emergency services than those from non-manual classes. Conversely, those from non-manual classes were more likely to use specialised services. This trend was most notable for dentist visits. Social inequalities did not change significantly during the study period. Despite the increase in the use of health care services, the relationship between social class and the use of these services has remained stable throughout the study period. Achieving equity in the use of specialised care services is still a challenge for universal health care systems.

  20. The effect of increases in HMO penetration and changes in payer mix on in-hospital mortality and treatment patterns for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Volpp, Kevin G M; Buckley, Edward

    2004-07-01

    To determine whether changes in health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration or payer mix affected in-hospital mortality and treatment patterns of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Observational study using patient-level logistic regression analysis and hospital and year fixed effects of data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a geographically diverse sample of 20% of the hospitalized patients in the United States. Discharges of patients (n = 340,064) with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction who were treated in general medical or surgical hospitals that contributed at least 2 years of data to the HealthCare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1989 to 1996. In-hospital mortality and rates of cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting for Medicare patients or non-Medicare patients were the main outcome measures. Among Medicare patients, increases in HMO penetration were associated with reduced odds of receiving cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting of 3% to 16%, but were not associated with any change in mortality risk. Increases in the number of HMOs within a metropolitan statistical area, our measure of HMO competition, were associated with small but significant increases in the odds of cardiac catheterization and angioplasty of about 2%. There was no pattern of changes in cardiac procedure rates or in-hospital mortality among non-Medicare patients. Increases in HMO penetration reduced cardiac procedure rates by statistically significant but small amounts among Medicare patients with AMI, without affecting mortality rates.

  1. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  2. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  3. How does managed care manage the frail elderly? The case of hospital readmissions in fee-for-service versus HMO systems.

    PubMed

    Experton, B; Ozminkowski, R J; Pearlman, D N; Li, Z; Thompson, S

    1999-04-01

    This study examined whether hospital readmissions varied among the frail elderly in managed care versus fee-for-service (FFS) systems. Random sample of 450 patients, aged 65 and over, from a large vertically integrated health care system in San Diego, California. Participants were receiving physician-authorized home health and survived and 18-month follow-up period. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to conduct comparisons of readmissions and preventable readmissions by plan type. Two methods to identify preventable readmissions were developed, one based on a computerized algorithm of service use patterns, and another based on blind clinical review. The odds of having a preventable hospital readmission within 90 days of an index admission were 3.51 (P = 0.06) to 5.82 (P = 0.02) times as high for Medicare HMO enrollees compared to Medicare FFS participants, depending on the method used to assess preventability. Readmission patterns were similar for Medicare HMO enrollees and FFS study participants dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid. In this group of frail elderly Medicare beneficiaries, those enrolled in an HMO were more likely to have a preventable hospital readmission than those receiving care under FFS. These results suggest that policies promoting stringent approaches to utilization control (e.g., early hospital discharge, reduced levels of post-acute care, and restricted use of home health services) may be problematic for the frail elderly.

  4. Latino Population Growth, Characteristics, and Settlement Trends: Implications for Social Work Education in a Dynamic Political Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Kilty, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies a number of significant contemporary trends in the Latino population, including the striking growth of the community, new points of entry and settlement for recent immigrants, the mixed-status nature of families, and the increase in the proportion of U.S. households that speak Spanish. The implications of these trends for…

  5. Comparative Social Fluidity: Trends over Time in Father-to-Son Mobility in Japan and Australia, 1965-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applies loglinear models of social mobility to six surveys of Australian and Japanese men covering the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Finds similar patterns of association between social origins and social destinations in the two countries, no evidence of change over time in Japan, and only small evidence of increasing openness in Australia. (SV)

  6. Trends of gender gaps in life expectancy in Japan, 1947-2010: associations with gender mortality ratio and a social development index.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Kanda, Koji; Boostrom, Eugene; Lee, Romeo B; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-07-01

    This study analyzed the trend of gender gaps in life expectancy (GGLE) in Japan between 1947 and 2010, and explored the correlations of GGLE with gender mortality ratio and social development indices. Using GGLE and social indices data collected from the official websites, we carried out trends analysis of GGLE by calculating segmented average growth rates for different periods. We explored the association between GGLE and all-cause mortality; and between GGLE and Human Development Index (HDI) while controlling for time trend, by computing the generalized additive models based on the software R (version 2.15). Japan's GGLE increased in a fluctuating fashion. Across 53 years, the average growth rates varied widely: 0.14% (1947-1956), 1.43% (1956-1974), 1.06% (1974-2004) and -0.60% (2004-2010) (overall average 0.87%). The value of GGLE peaked to 7.00 years in 2004, and then has slowly declined (6.75 years in 2010). Age-adjusted all-cause gender mortality ratio had a statistically positive association with GGLE (P<0.01), whereas HDI was found to have no such association. The increased trend of GGLE in Japan could be partly explained by increased disease-specific mortality ratios (male/female), especially those involving chronic bronchitis and emphysema, diseases of the liver, suicide and cancer. The recent decline of GGLE might imply that Japanese women have been catching up with the lifestyle of men, resulting in similar mortality patterns. This calls for gender-sensitive approaches to developing policies and programs that will help sustain healthy lifestyles to combat smoking and alcohol intake, and social support to prevent suicide. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Trends of Social Inequalities in the Specific Causes of Infant Mortality in a Nationwide Birth Cohort in Korea, 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; An, Soo Jeong; Kim, Young Ju

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between social disparity and specific causes of infant mortality has rarely been studied. The present study analyzed infant mortality trends according to the causes of death and the inequalities in specific causes of infant mortality between different parental social classes. We analyzed 8,209,836 births from the Statistics Korea between 1995 and 2009. The trends of disparity for cause-specific infant mortality according to parental education and employment were examined using the Cox proportional hazard model for the birth-year intervals of 1995-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated after adjusting for infants' gender, parents' age, maternal obstetrical history, gestational age, and birth weight. An increasing trend in social inequalities in all-cause infant mortality according to paternal education was evident. Social inequalities in infant mortality were greater for "Not classified symptoms, signs and findings" (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision [ICD-10]: R00-R99) and "Injury, poisoning and of external causes" (S00-T98), particularly for "Ill-defined and unspecified causes" (R990) and "Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)" (R950); and increased overtime for "Not classified symptoms, signs and findings" (R00-R99), "Injury, poisoning and of external causes" (S00-T98) and "Conditions in perinatal period" (P00-P96), particularly for "SIDS" (R950) and "Respiratory distress syndrome of newborns (RDS)" (P220). The specific causes of infant mortality, in particular the "Not classified causes" (R00-R99 coded deaths) should be investigated more thoroughly to reduce inequality in health. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. [Trends in cesarean section procedures in three locations of the Mexican Social Security Institute Medical Services during the period 1981-1995].

    PubMed

    Martín Corral-Chávez, C; Yin-Urias, J; Pérez-Hernández, S; Pérez-Suarez, H M; Cuauhtémoc Haro-García, L

    1999-01-01

    The trend of the cesarean section in three setting of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS); the local: Hospital Gineco-pediátrico No. 2, in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, was determined the state's: included all of the medical units of IMSS in the state of Sinaloa and the national, which included all of the medical units of IMSS in the country. It was an analytic, retrospective study medical units of IMSS cesarean deliveries in the three setting of IMSS, from 1981 to 1995. State Committee of the Information Processing of the State of Sinaloa retrospective measurement of the total of deliveries and cesarean sections to calculate frequency of this event for each year and setting. Lineal regress analysis was made to determine trend of cesarean sections and correlation coefficient (r). Local frequency: 24.3 +/- 6.1%, range 14.7-33.6%; state's: 21.6 +/- 5.8%, range 13.2-30.3, national 24.4 +/- 5.5%, range 16.6-33.6; r per setting: local: +0.98 (Cl 95% 0.8793 = 0.99), state's +0.99 (Cl 95% 0.94-0.99) and national: +0.99 (Cl 95% 0.95-1.0). Positive trend in performance of cesarean sections in the three setting during the period of study; if no intervention on the matter at IMSS, the national trend will reach 39.2% in the 2000 year, state's: 37.4% and the local: 39.4%.

  9. Differences in resource use and costs of primary care in a large HMO according to physician specialty.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, J V; Grumbach, K; Quesenberry, C P; Schmittdiel, J A; Truman, A F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if primary care physician specialty is associated with differences in use of health services. DATA SOURCES: Automated outpatient diagnostic, utilization, and cost data on 15,223 members (35-85 years of age) of a large group model HMO. STUDY DESIGN: One-year prospective comparison of primary care provided by 245 general internists (GIMs), 60 family physicians (FPs), and 55 subspecialty internists (SIMs) with case-mix assessed during a nine-month baseline period using Ambulatory Diagnostic Groups. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adjusting for demographics and case mix, patients of GIMs and FPs had similar hospitalization and ambulatory visit rates, and similar laboratory and radiology costs. Patients of FPs made fewer visits to dermatology, psychiatry, and gynecology (combined visit rate ratio: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74-0.96). However, they made more urgent care visits (rate ratio 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23). Patients of SIMs had higher hospitalization rates than those of GIMs (rate ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.68), greater use of urgent care (rate ratio: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25), and higher costs for pharmacy (cost ratio: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.93-1.18) and radiologic services (cost ratio: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). The hospitalization difference was due partly to the inclusion of patients with specialty-related diagnoses in panels of SIMs. Radiology and pharmacy differences persisted after excluding these patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this uniform practice environment, specialty differences in primary care practice were small. Subspecialists used slightly more resources than generalists. The broader practice style of FPs may have created access problems for their patients. PMID:10357287

  10. The tools of an evidence-based culture: implementing clinical-practice guidelines in an Israeli HMO.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Natan R; Kahan, Ernesto; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Kitai, Eliezer; Chintz, David P

    2009-09-01

    Although clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) are implemented on the assumption that they will improve the quality, efficiency, and consistency of health care, they generally have limited effect in changing physicians' behavior. The purpose of this study was to design and implement an effective program for formulating, promulgating, and implementing CPGs to foster the development of an evidence-based culture in an Israeli HMO. The authors implemented a four-stage program of stepwise collaborative efforts with academic institutions composed of developing quantitative tools to evaluate prescribing patterns, updating CPGs, collecting MDs' input via focus groups and quantitative surveys, and conducting a randomized controlled trial of a two-stage, multipronged intervention. The test case for this study was the development, dissemination, and implementation of CPG for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult women. Interventions in the form of a lecture at a conference and a letter with personalized feedback were implemented, both individually and combined, to improve physicians' rates of prescribing the first-line drug, nitrofurantoin, and, in the absence of nitrofurantoin, adhering to the recommended duration of three days of treatment with ofloxacin. The tools and data-generating capabilities designed and constructed in Stage I of the project were integral components of all subsequent stages of the program. Personalized feedback alone was sufficient to improve the rate of adherence to the guidelines by 19.4% (95% CI = 16.7, 22.1). This study provides a template for introducing the component of experimentation essential for cultivating an evidence-based culture. This process, composed of collaborative efforts between academic institutions and a managed care organization, may be beneficial to other health care systems.

  11. Adherence to weight loss medications; post-marketing study from HMO pharmacy data of one million individuals.

    PubMed

    Hemo, Beatriz; Endevelt, Ronit; Porath, Avi; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing data on weight-loss medications in free living population are a necessary adjunct to data from clinical trials. We conducted a population-based analysis of first-time medication users based on HMO pharmacy purchasing data serving > one million adults. During 5 years, usage of orlistat and sibutramine more than doubled and rates were higher during the months May-Aug. As compared to non-users (n = 1,038,828), annual weight-loss drug users (n = 7175) had higher women proportion, body-mass-index (BMI), bariatric surgery history, and usage of diabetes, depression, and cardiovascular medications (p < 0.001 for all). Among users, men had higher BMI (34.4 kg/m(2) vs. 32.5 kg/m(2)), prevalence of diabetes (25.4% vs. 10.7%) and heart disease (14.2% vs. 3.5%) than women. Mean duration of purchasing weight-loss medications was 2.1 months for orlistat and 2.9 months for sibutramine. Fewer than 2% completed 12 months of weight-loss medication therapy. Among the 25% who continued to purchase at least 4 months, BMI (sub-group analysis) reduced from 33.02 kg/m(2) to 32.04 kg/m(2) (p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, long-term adherence (≥ 4 months) to weight-loss medications was associated with use of sibutramine vs. orlistat (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.76-2.45), and prevalence of diabetes (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25). Age, gender, and baseline BMI were not associated with long-term adherence. Usage of weight-loss drugs is higher among diabetes patients. However, the poor adherence to therapy is substantially below levels reported in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  13. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  14. Education Policies and Trends in the Context of Social and Economic Development Perspectives. A Report by a Group of Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The report describes educational policies of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries in light of socioeconomic trends. It is intended as a guide to educational and economic development for use by educational policy makers. The report is presented in three sections. Section I discusses the present and…

  15. Trends that will affect your future … the coming food crisis-the social tsunami headed our way.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzreport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Social Sciences, General for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Social…

  17. Trends in Network Television Drama and Viewer Conceptions of Social Reality, 1967-1973. Violence Profile Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbner, George; Gross, Larry

    Trends in violence in television drama were measured over a seven-year period climaxing with 1973-1974. About 70 percent of programing in 1973 contained violent episodes, as opposed to 80 percent in 1967. However the proportion of domestic crime programs increased, while programs of historic or exotic episodes declined, so that violence was…

  18. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES). Methods We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189) from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. Results In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion of boys who consumed vegetables daily decreased from 29.3% to 23.1% (p < 0.001). In 2006, for both sexes, there were observed increases in regular (at least five days a week) intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries, and soft drinks; however, in the next survey (2010) these figures decreased. In addition, between 2006 and 2010, a substantial decrease in regular consumption of chips and fast food was also detected. Fruit and vegetable consumption as well as intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries and soft

  19. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lagunaite, Reda; Busha, Ryan; Lubiene, Jolita

    2012-01-19

    Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES). We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189) from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion of boys who consumed vegetables daily decreased from 29.3% to 23.1% (p < 0.001). In 2006, for both sexes, there were observed increases in regular (at least five days a week) intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries, and soft drinks; however, in the next survey (2010) these figures decreased. In addition, between 2006 and 2010, a substantial decrease in regular consumption of chips and fast food was also detected. Fruit and vegetable consumption as well as intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries and soft drinks increased with family

  20. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-07-12

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0-4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  2. Bronchial asthma healthcare costs in Mexico: analysis of trends from 1991-1996 with information from the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Rico-Méndez, F G; Barquera, S; Cabrera, D A; Escobedo, S; Ochoa, L G; Massey-Reynaud, L F

    2000-01-01

    Cost trends for bronchial asthma have not been previously estimated in Mexico. The increasing prevalence of bronchial asthma as well as its elevated costs make it necessary to expand the availability of information for health planners. This is a growing problem which has been given little attention in national health reports. We did a descriptive, retrospective analysis using national data from the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We estimated the number of medical consultations provided by the state family medicine and specialty areas. A total of 756,843 consultations due to bronchial asthma were provided between 1991 and 1996 in the service areas under study. The healthcare expenditure for bronchial asthma showed an ascending and sustained trend during the study period. When analyzing the trends by type of service, a significant increase in in-hospital care was observed, ranging from US $14.5 (1991) to $19.8 (1996) million and a maximum of $28.4 (1994) million. A similar increase was found in specialty consultation, from $3.96 (1991) to $8.5 (1996) million; in emergencies, from $1. 1 (1991) to $2.9 (1996) million; and family medicine, from $0.66 (1991) to $0.79 (1996) million. Bronchial asthma follows the same pattern as other noncommunicable chronic diseases, increasing in highly urbanized areas and nationwide. In order to improve healthcare and maximize results with scarce resources, a set of strategies is presented to reduce bronchial asthma recurrence, decrease healthcare costs, and improve quality of life.

  3. How do health behaviour interventions take account of social context? A literature trend and co-citation analysis.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel; Lynch, Rebecca; Reeves, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, health behaviour interventions have received a great deal of attention in both research and policy as a means of encouraging people to lead healthier lives. The emphasis of such interventions has varied over time, in terms of level of intervention (e.g. individual vs community) and drawing on different disciplinary perspectives. Recently, a number of critiques have focused on how health behaviour interventions sometimes sideline issues of social context, framing health as a matter of individual choice and, by implication, a personal responsibility. Part of this criticism is that health behaviour interventions often do not draw on alternative social science understandings of the structured and contextual aspects of behaviour and health. Yet to our knowledge, no study has attempted to empirically assess the extent to which, and in what ways, the health behaviour intervention field has paid attention to social context. In this article, we undertake this task using bibliometric techniques in order to map out the health behaviour intervention field. We find that the number of health behaviour interventions has grown rapidly in recent years, especially since around 2006, and that references to social science disciplines and concepts that foreground issues of social context are rare and, relatively speaking, constitute less of the field post 2006. More quantifiable concepts are used most, and those more close to the complexities of social context are mentioned least. The document co-citation analysis suggests that pre 2006, documents referring to social context were relatively diffuse in the network of key citations, but post 2006 this influence had largely diminished. The journal co-citation analysis shows less disciplinary overlap post 2006. At present, health behaviour interventions are continuing to focus on individualised approaches drawn from behavioural psychology and behavioural economics. Our findings lend empirical support to a number of recent

  4. Trends in mass murder.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2002-06-01

    From 1976 to 1996, the proportion of murder incidents with 5 or more victims showed no linear trend or association with selected social indicators, e.g., birth rate, unemployment rate, and homicide rate.

  5. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  6. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  7. Are you using social media to build your practice? Patient trends and healthcare changes give new value to online presence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an effective, efficient tool for physicians to use to grow their practices, network, and distribute information to large groups of people. While 87% of physicians use social media in their personal lives--everything from Facebook, to Twitter, to blogs and YouTube--only 26% use two or more sites for connecting professionally. What an opportunity they're missing! Healthcare professionals, in particular, must heed a few words of warning, but beyond that, there are some proven tricks for developing a respected, charismatic online presence.

  8. Trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Greece before and during the financial crisis: the impact of social disparities.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Schoretsaniti, Sotiria; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Vardavas, Constantine I; Behrakis, Panagiotis; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yannis

    2014-12-01

    Economic crises may have a significant impact on public health. The objective of this study was to assess trends in health-related behaviours and cardiovascular risk factors within Greece before, at the beginning and during the current financial crisis by comparing data from three waves of the Greek cross-sectional household 'Hellas Health' surveys. Data from three waves were analysed. The first wave was conducted in 2006 (n = 1005), the second in 2008 (n = 1490) and the third in 2011 (n = 1008). Samples were representative of the Greek adult population in terms of age and residency. Smoking status, height, weight and fruit and vegetable consumption were self-reported. Physical activity levels were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking in Greece decreased from 42.6 to 38.1% during the crisis period 2008-11 (P = 0.026), but not during 2006-8. The prevalence of high levels of physical activity increased among Greek adults (from 21.9 to 31.7%, P < 0.001) in all socio-economic and demographic groups, with the exception of the highest socio-economic status (SES) group. On the contrary, the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day significantly decreased during the crisis among those of lower SES (from 9.0 to 4.1%, P = 0.006). Prevalence of obesity did not show significant trends. During the economic crisis, fruit and vegetable consumption alarmingly decreased, especially among those of lower SES, whereas trends in smoking prevalence and physical activity levels seem favourable. These results indicate that the economic crisis may unequally impact cardiovascular risk factors among different socio-economic groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Walking the HMO balance.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  10. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century.

  11. More evidence for trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce: a completed cohort approach using data from the general social survey.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the children of divorce are disproportionately likely to end their own marriages. In previous work, I showed that the transmission of divorce between generations weakened substantially for General Social Survey (GSS) respondents interviewed between 1973 and 1996 (Wolfinger 1999); Li and Wu (2006, 2008) contended that my finding is a methodological artifact of the GSS's lack of marriage duration data. This article presents a completed-cohort approach to studying divorce using the GSS. The results confirm a decline in the probability of divorce transmission that cannot be explained by the right-censoring bias alleged by Li and Wu. This finding contributes to an ongoing debate about trends in the negative consequences of parental divorce, as well as demonstrating a useful approach to right-censored phenomena when event history data are not available.

  12. Effects of Household Socialization on Youth Susceptibility to Smoke: Differences Between Youth Age Groups and Trends Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Nowatzki, Janet; Ronson, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    A Canadian biennial youth survey facilitated repeating investigation of susceptibility to smoke and household socialization. We operationalized susceptibility to smoke by 3 levels on the basis of intention and behavior. Variables consistently predicting greater susceptibility across time and age groups were sibling smoking, household restrictions, and vehicle smoke exposure. Gender was predictive among older youths. Household restrictions and emerging legislation to ban smoking in vehicles with youth passengers provide protection against secondhand smoke exposure and sustained resolve to remain smoke-free. PMID:23678907

  13. Secular trends in social class differences of height, weight and BMI of boys from two schools in Lisbon, Portugal (1910-2000).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caninas, Madalena

    2010-03-01

    Data on the physical growth of children can provide useful information about the temporal changes in the economic conditions of the society in which they live and the extent of social inequalities within that society as well. Several studies have documented secular changes in the physical growth of children or of adult height, but seldom have the socioeconomic differences in secular trend been reported. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the secular trend of height, weight and BMI of 10-16-year-old boys enrolled in two schools of opposite socioeconomic makeup in Lisbon, Portugal, in the early and late 20th century. The samples from the upper-middle class come from the Colégio Militar, a military boarding school, and the lower-class samples come from the Casa Pia de Lisboa, a residential school for underprivileged boys. While boys from both schools show an approximate increase of 13.6cm in height, 13.5kg in weight and 2.4kg/m(2) in BMI, the Casa Pia students were shorter and lighter than their Colégio Militar counterparts throughout the 90-year period. Social class differences in mean height, weight and BMI tend to be greater in 1910 than in 2000, but results are statistically significant for height alone. When the two periods are taken together, Colégio Militar boys differ from their Casa Pia counterparts by approximately 6.4cm in height, 4.8kg in weight and 0.4kg/m(2) in BMI. Both samples show a considerable increase in height, weight and BMI but class differences in height, weight and BMI decreased slightly if at all, throughout the 90-year period. This suggests that socioeconomic disparities are persistent, having diminished only slightly since the early 20th century. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Trends and social indicators of both mortality breast cancer and cervical cancer in Antioquia, Colombia, 2000-2007].

    PubMed

    Baena, Armando; Almonte, Maribel; Valencia, Marta Lía; Martínez, Santiago; Quintero, Katherine; Sánchez, Gloria I

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the mortality age-standardized rates (ASR) for breast and cervical cancer from 2000-2007 and explore social indicators that explain the variability of rates in Antioquia. The ASR was estimated by the direct method and linear regression was used to relate social indicators with rates by subregion. Breast and cervical cancer mortality ASRs in Antioquia were 11.3 and 9.1 per 100 000 woman-years respectively. In Medellin, the breast cancer mortality ASR was 12.5, 1.8 times the rate of cervical cancer. A decrease of cervical cancer ASR between 2000 and 2007 was observed in Medellin (p-value=0.03) but not in the rest of Antioquia. Cervical cancer mortality ASR was related to the percentage of poverty (p-value=0.0003). Mortality due to these neoplasms has remained constant in Antioquia. The wide variation in mortality from cervical cancer between regions seems to be associated with poverty.

  15. Trends in Visual Health Inequalities in Childhood Through Associations of Visual Function With Sex and Social Position Across 3 UK Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bountziouka, Vasiliki; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2017-09-01

    Despite the existing country-specific strategies tackling social inequalities in visual health in adults, little is known about trends in visual function in childhood and its association with social position. To investigate the distribution of childhood visual function in the United Kingdom and associations with early-life social position between 1961 and 1986, a period of significant social change. Longitudinal cohort study using harmonized data sets from the British 1946, 1958, and 1970 national birth cohorts. In total, 14 283 cohort members with complete data on visual acuity at age 15 or 16 years, measured in 1961, 1974, and 1986, respectively, for each cohort, and social position were assessed. Using habitual distance visual acuity (with correction if prescribed), participants were assigned to a visual function category ranging from bilateral normal to visual impairment/severe visual impairment/blindness (International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification). Distribution of visual function over time and associations with social position (risk ratios [RRs] and 95% confidence intervals) were analyzed. Complete data were available for 3152 participants (aged 15 years; 53% boys [n = 1660]) in the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 6683 participants (aged 16 years; 51% boys [n = 3420]) in the 1958 National Child Development Study, and 4448 participants (aged 16 years; 48% boys [n = 2156]) in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study. The proportion of children with bilateral normal vision decreased by 1.3% (95% CI, -5.1% to 2.7%) in 1974 and 1.7% (95% CI, -5.9% to 2.7%) in 1986. The risk of overall impaired vision increased by 1.20 times (95% CI, 1.01-1.43) and the risk of visual impairment/severe visual impairment/blindness by 1.75 times (95% CI, 1.03-2.98) during this period. Girls were consistently at increased risk of all vision impairment categories. Higher social position at

  16. A worrying trend in Social Anxiety: To what degree are worry and its cognitive factors associated with youth Social Anxiety Disorder?

    PubMed

    Hearn, Cate S; Donovan, Caroline L; Spence, Susan H; March, Sonja

    2017-01-15

    Comorbidity between Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is extremely common. This study investigated whether factors commonly associated with GAD, including worry, intolerance of uncertainty (IU), positive and negative beliefs about worry (PBW, NBW), negative problem orientation (NPO) and cognitive avoidance (CA) were associated with SAD severity, symptoms and overall functioning. Participants included 126 youth aged 8-17 years (M=11.29, SD=2.67, Males n=50) with a primary diagnosis of SAD. Participants and a parent underwent a diagnostic interview and completed questionnaires at pre- and 12-week post assessment, and 6-month follow-up. Correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Each of the cognitive variables, with the exception of PBW, was found to correlate with SAD symptoms, SAD severity and overall functioning. NPO emerged as an important predictor of SAD severity, self-reported ratings of SAD symptoms, and poorer levels of overall functioning. IU and worry also predicted self-rated SAD symptoms. Measures were chosen on the basis of their sound psychometrics however some were yet to undergo rigorous testing with youth populations. The study design is cross-sectional, which restricts firm conclusions regarding causal and temporal associations between the variables. Findings from this study have implications for the specificity of GAD and SAD in youth. Further research is required to understand whether these cognitive variables play a maintaining role in youth SAD and the extent to which they might influence treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Social capital and trust in providers.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  18. Trends in Anthropology, #116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belshaw, Cyril; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on trends and future perspectives in the field of anthropology. Articles include "Challenges for the Future of Social and Cultural Anthropology"; "Anthropology in the Twenty-First Century"; "A New Interdisciplinary Impulse and the Anthropology of the 1990s"; and "Liberation Anthropology for the Year 2000." (GEA)

  19. PS2-08: “I Didn’t Know They Did That!” Discovering and Maximizing the Capacity of the HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ella; Greene, Sarah; Johnson, Karin; Larson, Eric; Steiner, John

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a national consortium of research centers working within or in close partnership with integrated health systems. HMORN sites conduct public domain health research on a wide range of diseases and cross-cutting topics. While the HMORN has established large topical research networks, the HMORN’s collective capacity remains relatively untapped for the majority of topics. We illustrate the variation and concentration of topical and methodological expertise across the Network, and suggest ways the HMORN could leverage existing capacities more fully. Methods Written surveys indicating ongoing local research capacity were completed by 14 HMORN sites in the 2nd quarter of 2011. Sites classified 45 research topics as “Powerhouse area” (multiple studies per year, particular depth or breadth exists), “Some Expertise” or “Not an emphasis.” These survey data were collected, synthesized and tabulated by the HMO Collaboratory team. We will survey the remaining 5 HMORN sites prior to HMORN 2012 and report capacity information for the entire Network. Results Eleven of the 14 delivery systems (78.6%) directly owns or partners closely with an insurance entity; HMOs were a major component of these systems. Special research capacities of HMORN centers include facilities to fill prescriptions, facilities to perform research lab tests, survey departments, and dedicated research clinics. While significant capacity exists across the Network in topics with well established consortia (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease), capacity existed in multiple centers for every topic surveyed. Multiple HMORN centers reported “powerhouse areas” on topics around which the HMORN has not significantly mobilized. These included alcohol and drug abuse, arthritis, neurological disorders, oral health, aging, health disparities, pain management, pediatrics, and reproductive health among others. Discussion Many

  20. Relationship of oral antihyperglycemic (sulfonylurea or metformin) medication adherence and hemoglobin A1c goal attainment for HMO patients enrolled in a diabetes disease management program.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David B; Ragucci, Kelly R; Long, Laura B; Parris, Beth S; Helfer, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    There is limited information in the primary literature regarding the relationship of medication adherence to attainment of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (A1c) goals. The 2 oral antihyperglycemic medications, sulfonylurea and/or metformin, were chosen for retrospective analysis because they are the 2 most common oral medications used by patients with diabetes. To describe the relationship between adherence with 1 or both of 2 oral antihyperglycemic medications (sulfonylurea and metformin) and A1c goal attainment for health maintenance organization (HMO) patients enrolled in a diabetes disease management program. This was a retrospective, descriptive evaluation of patients enrolled in a managed care diabetes disease management program in a 188,000-member independent practice association model HMO located in the Southeast. The dataset in this analysis contained demographic, enrollment, pharmacy claims, and clinical laboratory data. Continuously enrolled patients were included if there was a documented A1c value obtained at least 90 days after the initial oral antihyperglycemic medication (sulfonylurea or metformin) prescription index date. The medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated from the pharmacy claim records and correlated with the A1c value. A total of 42% of patients on sulfonylurea therapy and 46% of those on metformin reached an A1c goal of < or = 7.0%. For patients taking a sulfonylurea, the mean MPR for those who reached the predetermined A1c goal (< or = 7.0) was 0.82 (0.29) compared with 0.72 (0.31) for those patients who did not reach the A1c target goal (P < 0.001). For patients taking metformin, the mean MPR for those who reached the predetermined A1c goal was 0.77 (0.3) versus 0.62 (0.3) for those patients who did not reach the A1c target goal (P < 0.001). A Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MPR and A1c for sulfonylurea (r = -0.295, P < 0.001) and for metformin (r = -0.285, P < 0.001). For those patients

  1. Australian health professionals' social media (Web 2.0) adoption trends: early 21st century health care delivery and practice promotion.

    PubMed

    Usher, Wayne T

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies

  2. Trends and consequences of the technocratic paradigm of childbirth in Portugal: A population-based analysis of birth conditions and social characteristics of parents.

    PubMed

    Pintassilgo, Sónia; Carvalho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the evolution of birth conditions in Portugal and to establish a correspondence between maternity care and the socio-economic characteristics of new mothers. A multivariate quantitative analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis) was used, based on official quantitative data from different surveys. There is a consistent trend to a technocratic model of birth in the Portuguese context, where socio-economic characteristics appear to influence fertility rates and birth conditions. The evolution of birth conditions in Portugal reveal the institutionalisation of birth, with a strong presence of doctors, a higher frequency of births on certain weekdays, an increase in the proportion of births in private hospitals and an increase in the frequency of caesarean sections. There is an association between higher social status and more medicalised forms of assistance in childbirth. Women with higher levels of education, aged between 30 and 39years and who were married tended to be distinguished from the population of Portuguese women as a whole by three factors: birth in a hospital, the standardisation of pregnancy duration and the presence of a doctor at the birth. Women's educational and professional status also appears to influence their adoption of alternative models of birth, however, such as home birth. Limiting the study of childbirth to its medical aspects leaves important dimensions out of the analysis: women's perception of birth-related risks associated with the medicalised offer of maternity care, and the implications of this childbirth paradigm for health outcomes and for future care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  4. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  5. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  6. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  7. Program Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Articles by Moss, Van Huss, Raynor, Lynch, and Sullivan discuss the trends in all areas of vocational education. Includes information on how new technologies, life-styles, and job demands have changed or should change vocational education. (JOW)

  8. Does levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increase breast cancer risk in peri-menopausal women? An HMO perspective.

    PubMed

    Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Katzir, Itzhak; Landes, Janet Vesterman; Segal, Yaakov; Bachar, Rachel; Rabinovich, Hadas Rotem; Bialik, Martin; Azuri, Joseph; Porath, Avi; Lomnicky, Yossef

    2017-09-14

    To evaluate the association between levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) use and breast cancer (BC) risk. A cohort of all Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) female members aged 40-50 years between 1/2003 and 12/2013 was used to identify LNG-IUS users as "cases," and 2 age-matched non-users as "controls." Exclusion criteria included: prior BC diagnosis, prior (5 years pre-study) and subsequent treatment with other female hormones or prophylactic tamoxifen. Invasive tumors were characterized by treatments received (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, trastuzumab, or combination thereof). The analysis included 13,354 LNG-IUS users and 27,324 controls (mean age: 44.1 ± 2.6 vs. 44.9 ± 2.8 years; p < 0.0001). No significant differences in 5-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates for overall BC risk or ductal carcinoma in situ occurrence were observed between groups. There was a trend towards higher risk for invasive BC in LNG-IUS users (5-year KM-estimate: 1.06% vs. 0.93%; p = 0.051). This difference stemmed primarily from the younger women (40-45 years; 0.88% vs. 0.69%, p = 0.014), whereas in older women (46-50 years), it was non-significant (1.44% vs. 1.21%; p = 0.26). Characterization of invasive BC by treatment demonstrated that LNG-IUS users had similar proportions of tumors treated with hormonal therapy, less tumors treated with trastuzumab, (7.5% vs. 14.5%) and more tumors treated with chemotherapy alone (25.8% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.041). In peri-menopausal women, LNG-IUS was not associated with an increased total risk of BC, although in the subgroup of women in their early 40's, it was associated with a slightly increased risk for invasive tumors.

  9. Rural Conditions and Trends, 1990-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Conditions and Trends, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The five volumes of Rural Conditions and Trends for 1990-1994 contain information and statistical data on economic and social conditions and trends of interest to rural educators and researchers. Articles cover the following areas: macroeconomic trends; employment; unemployment; industry; earnings; income; poverty; population; national economic…

  10. The impact of exposure to mass media campaigns and social support on levels and trends of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: tools for enhancing effective HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A

    2010-05-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001).

  11. Diversity, social justice, and intersectionality trends in C/MFT: a content analysis of three family therapy journals, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Seedall, Ryan B; Holtrop, Kendal; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed the amount of attention given to diversity, social justice, and an intersectional approach to social inequalities over an 8-year period (769 articles) in three family therapy journals. Overall, 28.1% of articles addressed at least one diversity issue, and a social justice framework was utilized in 48.1% of diversity articles. A systemic, intersectional approach to conceptualizing and analyzing multiple social inequalities was utilized in 17.6% of diversity articles. The most common goals addressed in diversity articles, articles using a social justice framework, and articles using an intersectional approach are also identified. Findings indicate that, despite important work being carried out, more work remains to further identify how addressing diversity issues can improve client outcomes. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  13. Skiing trends

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  14. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  15. The association of a heart attack or stroke with depressive symptoms stratified by the presence of a close social contact: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-02-21

    The objective of the study is to examine whether the risk of having clinically significant depressive symptoms following a heart attack or stroke varies by the presence of a close social contact. The National Health and Aging Trends Study is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older initiated in 2011. A total of 5643 older adults had information on social contacts at baseline and depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up interview. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire identified clinically significant depressive symptoms. Interview questions examined social contacts and the presence of self-reported heart attack or stroke during the year of follow-up. A total of 297 older adults reported experiencing a heart attack and/or stroke between their baseline and follow-up interviews. In regression analyses accounting for sociodemographics, baseline depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and activities of daily living impairment, older adults with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a heart attack or stroke, while those with close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a stroke, but not a heart attack. Older adults have increased odds of having depressive symptoms following a self-reported stroke, but only those with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms following a heart attack. Social networks may play a role in the mechanisms underlying depression among older adults experiencing certain acute health events. Future work exploring the potential causal relationships suggested here, if confirmed, could inform interventions to alleviate or prevent depression among at risk older adults. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  17. The longitudinal trends in the relationship between drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and personal and social performance in a population of the patients with schizophrenia: A latent growth model.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Jo; Jung, Dong Chung; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Jung, Hee Yeon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Chul-Eung; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal trends in the relationship between personal and social functioning and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (DIEPS). The baseline sample included 484 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were assessed at baseline, weeks 4 (time 2), 8 (time 3), and 12 (time 4) regarding social functioning, and DIEPS. In latent growth analysis, the path coefficient between the intercept for the DIEPSS and the intercept for the PSP indicated a significant cross-sectional relationship between these two variables. And the path coefficient between the intercept of the DIEPSS and the slope of the PSP was also significant, indicating that patients who initially had more serious side effects tended to exhibit less improvement in their personal and social functioning over time. Similarly, a significant path coefficient between the slopes of the two variables indicated a dynamic and possibly reciprocal association over time. In addition, K-PSP scale showed good construct validity and reliability. Based on the standardized PSP scale, our results demonstrate DIEPSS induced by antipsychotic treatment dynamically affect personal and social functioning over time, a negative association between psychosocial aspects and the DIEPS.

  18. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  19. Deploying an HMO's data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J

    1998-07-01

    Kaiser Permanente says it has saved millions of dollars and improved the quality of care with information from its data warehouse. Here's how Kaiser implemented the warehouse four years ago, and how it uses it today.

  20. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  1. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  2. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  3. Newbery Winners Reflect Societal Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Social trends of the last 35 years are traced through an examination of Newbery Medal winners from 1951 to 1985. Idealism and realism in children's literature, the sex of the main characters, and the effects of changes in the publishing industry on children's books are discussed. (EM)

  4. Information Technology: Perspectives and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Doug

    The full impact of the current information technology and networking revolution remains unknown, but the experiences of organizations and individuals who are using the tools and resources offered by information technology suggest that it may change our social fabric. Some of the current and emerging trends in information technology include: the…

  5. Social health maintenance organizations' service use and costs, 1985-89

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Newcomer, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this article are aggregate utilization and financial data from the four social health maintenance organization (SIHMO) demonstrations that were collected and analyzed as a part of the national evaluation of the SIHMO demonstration project conducted for the Health Care Financing Administration. The S/HMOs, in offering a $6,500 to $12,000 chronic care benefit in addition to the basic HMO benefit package, had higher startup costs and financial losses over the first 5 years than expected, and controlling costs continues to be a challenge to the sites and their sponsors. PMID:10113612

  6. Trends in medical care costs--evolving market forces.

    PubMed

    Vincenzino, J V

    1998-01-01

    Slower growth in medical care costs has been the culmination of lower inflation and significant changes to the U.S. health care system, primarily the movement toward managed care. National health expenditures rose just 4.4 percent in 1996 - the smallest growth since the beginning of the national health expenditure data series. This is also true for the 35 percent gain recorded during 1992-96. The medical care Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose just 2.8 percent in 1997 and was only one-half of a percentage point above the overall CPI. The reduction in spending growth is most evident in hospital expenditures, which clearly reflects the expansion of HMO enrollment in both the private and public sectors. While the issue of quality of care is receiving more attention, this is unlikely to alter the basic direction of health care in the near-term. Cost is likely to remain a dominant factor in shaping the market forces that have significantly changed the delivery and financing of health care. Although trending upward, growth in medical spending is expected to remain relatively moderate as we move into the next century.

  7. Social class differences in secular trends in established coronary risk factors over 20 years: a cohort study of British men from 1978-80 to 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Hardoon, Sarah L; Lennon, Lucy T; Morris, Richard W; Wannamethee, S G

    2011-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40-59 years was followed-up from 1978-80 to 1998-2000; data on blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m(2); 95%CI 0.14-0.53; p for interaction = 0.001), a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11-0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001) and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02-0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001). However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1-5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001). The odds of being a current smoker in 1978-80 and 1998-2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51). Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK.

  8. Current Public Knowledge Pertaining to Traumatic Brain Injury: Influence of Demographic Factors, Social Trends, and Sport Concussion Experience on the Understanding of Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae.

    PubMed

    Merz, Zachary C; Van Patten, Ryan; Lace, John

    2017-03-01

    The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection. Participants completed background demographics questions, a 31-item true/false questionnaire pertaining to TBI-related knowledge, and an inquiry related to willingness to allow (future) child(ren) to participate in several popular U.S. sports. The overall accuracy rate of our U.S. sample was 61%. No accuracy differences were present for gender or geographic region (p's > .05). Participants who self-reported a prior concussion diagnosis, who reported receiving formal concussion training, and who endorsed participation in collegiate, semi-professional, or professional athletic competition, all exhibited lower accuracy rates than the respective comparison groups (p's < .001). Finally, individual item analysis revealed the presence of significant misconceptions pertaining to PCS and CTE. Misconceptions regarding TBI remain highly prevalent within the general public and may be explained, to some extent, by inefficiencies in current TBI-education practices. Moreover, misconceptions regarding PCS and CTE are also prevalent and likely reflect inconsistencies in the scientific literature, coupled with misleading media reports. To combat these trends, greater emphasis must be placed on construct definition within the field and streamlined, efficient communication with the general public.

  9. [Trends of work force participation of patients with rheumatic diseases : results from German social insurance data and the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Thiele, K; Lamprecht, J

    2014-02-01

    Positive therapeutic effects on the work force participation derived from international clinical trials may not be directly transferable to the community based care in Germany. Therefore recent changes of data regarding sick leave (SL), work disability pension (WDP) and employment from the social insurance and from the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers were analyzed covering a time period of at least 10 years. Health insurance data showed a steeper decline in the average duration of SL caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with all other diseases. In RA patients from the collaborative arthritis centers the mean duration of SL was much more reduced than the average duration of SL for members of the compulsory health insurance. The proportion of gainfully employed RA patients in collaborative arthritis centers has particularly increased in women. According to data from the pension insurance fund less incident cases of WDP due to RA, AS, and SLE have been observed than WDP caused by all other diseases. Thus different nationwide data show positive changes of the work force participation of individuals suffering from inflammatory rheumatic diseases in Germany.

  10. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  11. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  12. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  13. An overview of methods for monitoring social disparities in cancer with an example using trends in lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Lynch, John; Meersman, Stephen C; Breen, Nancy; Davis, William W; Reichman, Marsha E

    2008-04-15

    The authors provide an overview of methods for summarizing social disparities in health using the example of lung cancer. They apply four measures of relative disparity and three measures of absolute disparity to trends in US lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity from 1992 to 2004. Among females, measures of absolute and relative disparity suggested that area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities increased over these 12 years but differed widely with respect to the magnitude of the change. Among males, the authors found substantial disagreement among summary measures of relative disparity with respect to the magnitude and the direction of change in disparities. Among area-socioeconomic groups, the index of disparity increased by 47% and the relative concentration index decreased by 116%, while for race-ethnicity the index of disparity increased by 36% and the Theil index increased by 13%. The choice of a summary measure of disparity may affect the interpretation of changes in health disparities. Important issues to consider are the reference point from which differences are measured, whether to measure disparity on the absolute or relative scale, and whether to weight disparity measures by population size. A suite of indicators is needed to provide a clear picture of health disparity change.

  14. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  15. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  16. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  17. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  18. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ...

  19. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  20. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  1. Polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: trends in multiple health care systems

    PubMed Central

    Sun, FangFang; Stock, Eileen M.; Copeland, Laurel A.; Zeber, John E.; Ahmedani, Brian K.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate patterns in pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia, we examined antipsychotic polypharmacy across multiple outpatient healthcare settings and their association with hospital admission. Methods This multi-system study utilized data on patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 119,662 Veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, 553 and 4,887 patients in two private, integrated health systems (HMO), and outpatients (17,596,617 visits in 1-week look-back) from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents seeking care outside federal systems (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, NAMCS). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as the use of more than one antipsychotic agent during the covered period (week, year). The prevalence and trend of antipsychotic polypharmacy was assessed in each system (2002-2009 or 2005-2009) and their association with one-year hospital admission using multivariable logistic regression. Results Annual antipsychotic treatment in the VA ranged 74-78% each year, with the lowest rates observed in the HMO (49-67% site 1, 22-41% site 2) per pharmacy fill data; NAMCS ranged 69-84% per clinician-reported prescriptions. Polypharmacy rates depended on the defined covered period. The VA had lower polypharmacy rates when data were restricted to the one-week covered period used in non-federal systems (20-22% vs. 19-31% NAMCS). In each system, polypharmacy was associated with increased odds of admission (odds ratio ranging 1.4-2.4). Conclusions The unadjusted longitudinal trends suggest tremendous system variations in antipsychotic use among patients with schizophrenia. Cross-system comparisons are inherently subject to uncertainty due to variation in the amount and type of data collected. Given the current debate over healthcare access and costs, electronic systems to signal polypharmacy could assist in identifying patients requiring more complex clinical and pharmacy

  2. Suicide: current trends.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  3. Trends in volatile substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substance abuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substance abuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substance abuse and population density, with volatile substance abuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substance abuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substance abuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases.

  4. Social disparities in parental smoking and young children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-06-08

    Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of a wide range of health problems and illnesses. Smoke-free legislation aims to improve indoor air quality and in this way protect the health of people who do not smoke. This paper examines trends in SHS exposure at home among children in Germany since the introduction of smoking bans in public places. Special focus is placed on the importance of the family of origin's socioeconomic status (SES) and on parental smoking behaviour. The analyses are based on two waves of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS)-one of which was conducted immediately before the introduction of central smoke-free legislation in the 2003-2006 period, the other approximately 6 years later from 2009 to 2012. A comparison is made between the answers given by the parents of children aged between 0 to 6 (KiGGS baseline study, n = 6680; KiGGS Wave 1, n = 4455). Domestic SHS exposure is covered in the parent interviews by asking whether anyone is allowed to smoke at home in the presence of their child. Parental smoking behaviour is determined separately for mothers and fathers. SES is determined on the basis of the parents' education, occupational status and income. The percentage of 0- to 6-year-old children exposed to SHS in the parental home fell from 23.9 to 6.6 % in the period from 2003-2006 to 2009-2012. At the same time, the percentage of children with at least one parent who smokes decreased from 49.8 to 41.8 %. While relative social inequalities in parental smoking behaviour have tended to increase over time, inequalities in domestic SHS exposure have persisted. Children whose parents smoke and children from low-SES families are still most likely to be exposed to tobacco smoke. In both study periods and after statistical adjustment for parental smoking behaviour, children with a low SES had a 6.6-fold higher risk for SHS exposure in the parental home

  5. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  6. Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagómez, Amanda A.; Easton-Brooks, Donald; Gomez, Karyn; Lubbes, Tawnya; Johnson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of…

  7. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  8. Recent Trends in German Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius

    1996-01-01

    Discusses trends in German higher education over the last decade, focusing on the expansion and differentiation of postsecondary education, societal changes in the student population, and the relationship between education and social class in light of the "individualization thesis" of sociologist Ulrich Beck. (MDM)

  9. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  10. Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagómez, Amanda A.; Easton-Brooks, Donald; Gomez, Karyn; Lubbes, Tawnya; Johnson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of…

  11. Poverty in America: Trends and New Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    1985-01-01

    Over 35 million Americans were officially poor in 1983, 15.2 percent of the total population-the highest figures since the mid-1960s. Some attribute continued poverty to government social welfare policies. But poverty among the nonelderly is linked much more to economic trends. The number in poverty dropped from 39.5 million (22.4 percent of the…

  12. Health Inequalities: Trends, Progress, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Bell, Caryn N.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities. PMID:22224876

  13. Access to health care and community social capital.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael S; Ahern, Melissa M; Lovrich, Nicholas P; McCurdy, Arthur H

    2002-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that variation in reported access to health care is positively related to the level of social capital present in a community. The 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 22 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States (n = 19,672). Additional data for the 22 communities are from a 1996 multicity broadcast media marketing database, including key social capital indicators, the 1997 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey, and Interstudy, American Hospital Association, and American Medical Association sources. The design is cross-sectional. Self-reported access to care problems is the dependent variable. Independent variables include individual sociodemographic variables, community-level health sector variables, and social capital variables. Data are merged from the various sources and weighted to be population representative and are analyzed using hierarchical categorical modeling. Persons who live in metropolitan statistical areas featuring higher levels of social capital report fewer problems accessing health care. A higher HMO penetration rate in a metropolitan statistical area was also associated with fewer access problems. Other health sector variables were not related to health care access. The results observed for 22 major U.S. cities are consistent with the hypothesis that community social capital enables better access to care, perhaps through improving community accountability mechanisms.

  14. Ten Trends: Educating Children for a Profoundly Different Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary

    This book focuses on 10 major trends expected to change society and affect education in the 21st century. The 10 trends are as follows: (1) for the first time in history, the old will outnumber the young; (2) the country will become a nation of minorities; (3) social and intellectual capital will become the primary economic values in society; (4)…

  15. Five Trends of School Arts Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Ren-Lai

    2006-01-01

    In the torrents of globalization and social transition in Taiwan, it is particularly important to reinforce a sense of cultural subjectivity and localization, and promote new trends of arts education that emphasize the development of self and spirit. The fundamental principles of these new trends are: (1) that the purpose of arts education is to…

  16. Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental…

  17. Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental…

  18. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1983 is presented. The most significant trend was a decline in the number of marriages to the lowest level since World War II. Topics covered include fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase, migration, and adoptions. Selected vital statistics for the first six months of 1984 are also presented.

  19. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  20. Trends in methodological differences

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Stynes; Malcolm I. Bevins; Tommy L. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Inconsistency in data collection has confounded attempts to identify and forecast outdoor recreation trends. Problems are highlighted through an evaluation of the methods employed in national outdoor recreation participation surveys and projections. Recommendations are advanced for improving data collection, trend measurement, and forecasting within outdoor recreation...

  1. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Trends in Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    Based on the findings of a content analysis of representative literature on educational technology, this report examines the trends in educational technology from October 1, 1990 through September 30, 1991. Ten trends for 1991 are identified and discussed: (1) the creation of technology-based teaching/learning products is based largely on…

  4. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…

  5. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  6. Known Well by No-One: Trends in the Informal Social Networks of Middle-Aged and Older People with Intellectual Disability Five Years after Moving to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Informal relationships are central to conceptualisations of quality of life. Deinstitutionalisation studies consistently suggest a trend of increased contact with family and friends by people with intellectual disability (ID) following relocation from an institution to the community. In this study, changes in the nature of the informal…

  7. [Population trends in Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Population trends in Luxembourg in 1988 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, age and sex structure, and spatial distribution. Data are provided separately for the foreign resident population.

  8. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Population trends in Luxembourg in 1987 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, and family policy. Comparisons are made with the situation in other European countries.

  9. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  10. Bomber design trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Some basic trends in bomber aircraft are traced from the pre-World War I era to the present time. The historic review includes bombers of many countries. The primary discussion, however, will be based on U.S. bomber programs and, to the extent possible, on USSR bomber programs. The bomber aircraft will be examined in terms of performance and mission capability.Characteristics will include power or thrust loading, wing loading, maximum speed, cruising speed, weight and weight distribution, and payload. These trends can be used to indicate the rationale for certain design types. Performance characteristics can be used to indicate potential mission objectives. The overall design trends should be useful in revealing the influence of mission objectives, the influence of advanced technology and, in turn, may be useful in predicting likely future trends.

  11. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  12. Fertilizer trends 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of this publication are as follows: TVA fertilizer program; the fertilizer market; trends in nutrient use; nitrogen; phosphate; potash; sulfur; Canada; North American production capacity data; and statistical sources and suggested references.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions on Use of Social Media in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media is tremendously increasing trend for personal use. At the same time, social media are penetrating to the educational settings as well. Thus purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service social studies teachers' conceptions on use of social media in social studies education; it is possible implications on social…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions on Use of Social Media in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media is tremendously increasing trend for personal use. At the same time, social media are penetrating to the educational settings as well. Thus purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service social studies teachers' conceptions on use of social media in social studies education; it is possible implications on social…

  15. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  16. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  17. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  18. Psychological Consultation in an HMO Hospice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Warren

    Hospice care differs from traditional medical care in that it aims to optimize the quality of the patient's remaining life rather than to maximize its duration. The Hayward Hospice project, begun in November of 1977 as a pilot project to evaluate whether hospice quality care could be provided within manageable costs and thus be included as a…

  19. Quality management in a staff model HMO.

    PubMed

    Perry, B C; Kirz, H L

    1989-01-01

    Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound is gradually developing a quality management approach to the delivery of health care. Derived from the strong commitment of its medical staff and operations management to providing optimal health care and building on the best aspects of traditional quality assurance, the quality management approach provides a realistic program that makes a meaningful difference to the quality of patient care. This paper describes the various components of the evolving approach including physician performance management, departmental activities, multidiciplinary review, and the activities of the centralized office of quality of care assessment and regional quality action committees.

  20. Managing oncology agents: an HMO's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The only way to accomplish the goals discussed is for health plans to collaborate more constructively with the oncologist community. We have reached out to providers, but there is still plenty of room for improvement. It is critical for both our success and that of the oncology community, because no one benefits from an adversarial relationship. We have not really sat down as partners with care providers to talk about what both parties see as emerging issues and how to best address them. We are at a point in oncology where we have this opportunity.

  1. HMO strategies for managing workers' compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P A

    1996-03-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have become very active in managing workers' compensation medical expense benefits. A survey of 316 HMOs shows that this activity takes the form of various network models and a range of services--such as utilization review and case management--that may not be linked to a provider network. Of the HMOs surveyed, 78 reported that, by using managed care services and provider discounts, they were able to save from 20 percent to 30 percent on occupational health claim costs.

  2. Further Trends in Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders-A Comparison of Risk factors for Symptoms Using Quality of Work Life Data From the 2002, 2006 and 2010 General Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert B.; Lowe, Brian; Ming-Lun, Lu; Krieg, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Report trends for risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Methods Three QWL surveys examine the risk factors for MSDs. Results Findings similar for several risk factors, but differences across the reporting years may reflect economic conditions. 2010 respondent numbers were reduced, some risk factors had pattern changes and there were gender and age differences. Trend analysis showed most significant changes were for the “Work Fast” risk factor. New 2010 “Physical Effort” item showed gender differences and items reflective of total worker health showed strong associations with “Back Pain” and “Pain in Arms.” Conclusions Intervention strategies should focus on physical exposures and psychosocial risk factors (work stress, safety climate, job satisfaction, supervisor support, work fast, work freedom, work time) that have been consistently related to reports of MSDs. Economic conditions will influence some psychosocial risk factors. PMID:26247646

  3. The Defense Implications of Demographic Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    contingencies to protecting southern borders from an uncontrolled influx of refugees and migrants . Partly because of the social rami- fications, large...scale immigration will not be a viable long-term solution to population decline in developed countries. The number of migrants needed to keep...14 As many observers of international trends note, the sad prospects for these individuals can make them suscep- tible to radical ideologies and

  4. Trends in the Development of Secondary Education. Bulletin, 1927, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windes, Eustace E.

    1927-01-01

    This bulletin includes: (1) a general statement of present thoughts and trends, covering the accepted philosophy of purpose, influence of modern educational psychology, trends in enrollment, and the nature and trends of the present social order; (2) secondary pupil population, addressing enrollment, chronological age representation in secondary…

  5. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  6. Astro Talk in Social Media - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.

    2015-03-01

    Social media is a new trend in communicating and connecting to people. It is also a good choice to build awareness of astronomy as issues spread easily and quickly, creating hot topics. This paper will analyze the trend of astro talk in Indonesia and hope to inspire astronomers to use social media in raising awareness.

  7. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S; Leonard, Charles E; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178.

  8. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S.; Leonard, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178. PMID:27775954

  9. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  10. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  11. Global Warming Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

  12. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Population dynamics in Luxembourg in 1986 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, natural increase and migration, adoption, and family policy. Some consideration is given to preliminary data for 1987 and to mortality trends among those affected by compulsory labor during World War II.

  13. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    The demographic situation in Luxembourg in 1985 is reviewed. Separate consideration is given to fertility, nuptiality and divorce, mortality, and migration. Significant trends include the continued decline in fertility among the foreign population, a new peak in the number of divorces, and a decline in infant mortality to under 10 per 1,000 for the first time.

  14. Historical Trends in Childlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Donald T.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the rates of childlessness over time are explored using European, Australian, American, and Japanese data from censuses, national registers, and large-scale surveys. The trends are remarkably similar across the countries for which data are available: a peak in childlessness rates for the 1880-1910 birth cohorts, a more or less…

  15. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  16. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  17. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  18. Technological trends in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D

    1984-08-10

    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.

  19. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Recently, almost all web services , including Twitter, Google, Internet News, and Wikipedia, analyze their user...smart service by utilizing them. In this project, we achieved the following aims: 1) identifying the relevance of trending topic to a target domain, 2

  20. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  1. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  2. Travel and tourism trends

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  3. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  4. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  5. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Klein, James D.; Brinkerfhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol; Moore, D. Michael; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.; Liu, Y.; Emerson, John D.; Boes, Lisa; Mosteller, Frederick; Ely, Donald P.; Belanger, Yvonne; Ellsworth, James B.; Lowe, Carrie A.; Russell, Shayne; Thomas, Lajeane; Richey, Rita C.; Earle, Rodney S.

    2002-01-01

    The articles in this section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" identify current trends and issues in the field of instructional technology. Two subsections are also included: ERIC Digests, which are reprints of ERIC reports available on the Internet, and a subsection on a variety of standards that emerged during the past…

  6. Trends in Delaware's Forests

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Forests protect watersheds, provide opportunities for recreation and settings for aesthetic enjoyment, serve as habitat for wildlife, and produce wood and other forest products. The forests of Delaware contribute greatly to the quality of life of the residents, making the State a better place in which to live. This brochure highlights significant trends in Delaware?s...

  7. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  8. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  9. Population Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, W. Parker

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations. It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. (Author/SA)

  10. Trends in Educational Expenditure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    This study provides an overview of expenditures for education and training by educational institutions in Australia, 1991-2001. The study used newly available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and administrative data from the main sectors' reports on the size and trends in public and private education expenditures. It analyzed…

  11. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  12. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  13. Evaluation of Project Trend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report is a descriptive evaluation of the five pilot sites of Project TREND (Targeting Resources on the Educational Needs of the Disadvantaged). The five Local Education Agency (LEA) pilot sites are the educational systems of: (1) Akron, Ohio; (2) El Paso, Texas; (3) Newark, New Jersey; (4) Portland, Oregon; and, (5) San Jose (Unified),…

  14. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  15. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  16. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  17. The Top Ten Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Trends shaping the workplace are increased skill requirements; more educated, diverse work force; continued corporate restructuring; change in size and composition of training departments; instructional technology advances; new training delivery methods; focus on performance improvement; integrated high-performance work systems; companies becoming…

  18. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet; McKenney, Susan; Harada, Violet H.; Lee, Jung

    2003-01-01

    Contains five articles covering general trends and issues in instructional technology, including: developments in corporate training, higher education, and K-12 education; women's contributions to the leading instructional technology journals; developing science education materials via computer-based support; learning in the Information Age; and…

  19. Global Warming Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

  20. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  1. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  2. Rural Conditions and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

  3. Trends in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Discusses major potential trends in rehabilitation (identified through informal interviews with 94 individuals representing various organizations, progessions, or programs) e.g., services for the severely handicapped, return to the vocational emphasis, increased interagency cooperation, and consumer involvement. Modification of programs as a…

  4. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  5. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  6. Wireless Tech Trends 2010. Trend: smartphones.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-02-01

    THE LANDSCAPE: Physician use of handhelds is by no means a new concept. But as the devices--particularly the RIM BlackBerry, Apple iPhone and Google Android--become more sophisticated and more applications become available, the game is changing, quickly. And with so many hospitals upgrading their infrastructures to offer ubiquitous wireless coverage, clinicians are using smartphones in the hospital setting to access online tools such as drug references, and communicate with colleagues. For ClOs, it's a no-brainer--physicians and nurses are already carrying these devices, so why not capitalize on the trend by enabling users to access clinical information and link to patient records. A number of organizations have adopted this thinking and are on the road to enabling EMR access via mobile devices. And while there are certainly sticking points, it's an area that many say is poised for significant growth in the next few years. Many innovative organizations are looking to provide access to electronic records and other clinical data through smartphones. Plans are already being formulated to leverage the devices to facilitate patient handoff and sign-out, as well as to link charge capture with quality measures. Cutting-edge organizations are looking to create actionable information for clinicians through software that can analyze data, track patients'progress, and send out alerts when conditions worsen.

  7. The impact of social policy on changes in professional practice within learning disability services: different standards for children and adults? A two-part examination: part 2. Professional services under the coalition: the trends continue apace.

    PubMed

    Race, David G; Malin, Nigel A

    2011-12-01

    This is the second of two articles examining links between policy developments and changes in professional practice within learning disability services in England. The first article focused on policy foundations over the last 30 years, and concluded that there was a developing gap in professional inputs between children's and adult services. This article, written one year into the Coalition government, argues that its policies--especially the large-scale reduction in public expenditure, but also the decline in support for inclusion of children in mainstream education, the rapid growth of academies, and proposals for the reorganization of the NHS--have exacerbated the trends identified earlier. In addition, local authorities, though outwardly compliant, have variously interpreted their responsibilities under the personalization agenda, in particular in relation to individual budgets, and this has resulted in assessments of need being based on 'service hours' rather than service quality and staff qualifications.

  8. [Recent demographic trends].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  9. Trends in tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Calverley, M J; Seals, R R

    1994-06-01

    The production and use of tobacco have been accepted parts of the American life-style for over 500 years. Tobacco use in the United States has gone through many stages over the years. The present article reviews the trends of tobacco use over the last 100 years and the public health strategies recently initiated to control tobacco use and promote public health. Finally, suggestions regarding the dentist's role in limiting tobacco use and promoting public health are presented.

  10. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  11. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  12. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  13. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

    1991-01-01

    An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

  14. [Recent world fertility trends and their implications].

    PubMed

    Hama, H

    1976-10-01

    High fertility levels of 40-50% have continued in major parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. During the 1970's the upward fertility trend was seen in the socialistic countries. A downward trend in European countries began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's. Declining tendencies of fertility were still slow in the 1970's in some Western countries. Fertility trends reflect government policies which are divided into 7 categories: 1) family planning has been disseminated freely in Western countries; 2) birth control was realized with legalized abortion influenced by the difficulties of the postwar period (Japan); family planning is promoted by the government to restrain the rapid population increase (most Asian countries); 4) some Asian countries have adopted policies of social welfare giving privilege to lower parity children and compulsive adaptation to birth control (Singapore, India, and South Korea); 5) a high level of fertility is recognized in relation to a new economic order and shortage of labor (Latin America); 6) recovery of fertility is desireable because socialistic welfare policies have resulted in low fertility (Eastern European countries); and, 7) social reform and birth control are promoted though "overpopulation" theory is rejected (China). Categories 1 and 4 recognize birth control and 5 and 7 deny it. Political organizations of 1 to 5 differ from those of 6 and 7. (Author's Modified)

  15. Domestic violence and abuse, health status, and social functioning.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Brigid; Golding, Jacqueline M; Farley, Melissa; Minkoff, Jerome R

    2007-01-01

    Current and past history of domestic violence (DV), including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse is common among women patients seen in health care settings and is associated with a higher frequency of many health problems. However, the association of DV with self-assessed social functioning is less well known. We administered a telephone survey to a random sample of 391 women HMO members seen for a routine annual check-up. The survey included questions about current and past physical, sexual, and emotional violence and self-assessed social functioning and health status from the SF-36. We included questions about attitudes toward routine DV screening, likelihood of disclosure, and the health care setting as a resource. Seven percent of the women reported recent DV and 34% reported lifetime abuse. Abuse was related to limitations in social functioning (adjusted OR = 2.26). Among women with no recent history of abuse, those with a history of past physical (adjusted OR = 1.90), sexual (adjusted OR = 2.04), or emotional (adjusted OR = 2.20) abuse reported significantly poorer social functioning. Emotional abuse, even in the absence of a history of physical or sexual abuse, was strongly associated with limitations in social functioning (adjusted OR = 4.95). Most women believed it appropriate for clinicians to inquire routinely about DV (87%) and 83% believed that the health care setting was a source of help. Current and past DV, including emotional abuse, adversely affect social functioning. Therefore, clinicians in the health care setting have a unique and important opportunity to assist women victims of DV and abuse.

  16. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  17. Global population trends and policy options.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [TRENDS IN THE RATE OF OCCUPATIONAL PHYSICIANS VERSUS MANPOWER IN ISRAEL - STATUS AND SOLUTIONS].

    PubMed

    Moshe, Shlomo; Chuwers, Patricia; Solomon Cohen, Efrat

    2017-06-01

    The specialization in occupational health was recognized in Israel in 1990. The number of specialists grew gradually over the years, yet a systematic analysis of occupational health physicians (OHP)/workers' ratio was never conducted. To determine the trends of OHP/workers' ratio in Israel and the future activities needed in order to achieve the standards of developed countries. The socio-demographic data was obtained by personal communication, from the Israeli Association of Occupational Medicine and Maccabi Health Services. The remaining data was obtained from publications of the Ministry of Health and the National Insurance Institute. By March 2014, 157 OHPs were registered in Israel, 104 active specialists and 25 residents. Among the specialists, 78 worked in the Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), 18 in the public sector (other than HMOs) and 8 in the private sector. Even though the number of workers rises every year, the number of OHP has remained stable in the last 10 years, around 90-100 physicians. The ratio of occupational health physicians/workers in the HMOs is 1:48,000. The ratio of OHP/workers in Israel is comparable to the ratio in developing countries and 8-10 times less in comparison to the developed countries with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) similar to Israel. The rate has decreased since 2007. The reason for the stable numbers is the lack of payments by the employers and the fact that the subject has been ignored by the regulatory authorities. The way to improve this situation is by doubling the number of residents every year by providing the required resources to support this new arrangement. The funds have to come from the employers, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Health.

  19. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  20. Modern trends in lipomodeling

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Lipomodeling is the process of relocating autologous fat to change the shape, volume, consistency, and profile of tissues, with the aim of reconstructing, rejuvenating, and regenerating body features. There have been several important advancements in lipomodeling procedures during the last thirty years. Four clinical steps are important for the success of engraftment: fat harvesting, fat processing, fat reinjection, and preconditioning of the recipient site. With the discovery of adipose derived stem cells and dedifferentiated cells, fat cells become a major tool of regenerative medicine. This article reviews recent trends in lipomodeling trying to understand most of the issues in this field. PMID:28401032

  1. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  2. [Trends in surgery].

    PubMed

    Cerantola, Y; Christoforidis, D; Halkic, N; Matter, M; Romy, S; Suter, M; Tempia-Caliera, A; Demartines, N; Givel, J-C

    2009-01-21

    More than the number of real novelties, trends and preliminary results characterise the annual development in surgery. The wealth and diversity of topics to be covered require arbitrary choices, therefore not necessarily complete. The constant development of choledocolithiasis management, dominated by minimal invasive technology, treatments of unusual nature of two frequent proctological conditions, fistulae and haemorrhoids, the increasing importance of metabolic bariatric surgery, as well as the strict rules of effective melanoma treatment, represent as many directions in which the operating procedure, although unseen, continue to gain quality and security.

  3. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  4. Moving to Universal Coverage? Trends in the Burden of Out-Of-Pocket Payments for Health Care across Social Groups in India, 1999–2000 to 2011–12

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Anup; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In the background of ongoing health sector reforms in India, the paper investigates the magnitude and trends in out-of-pocket and catastrophic payments for key population sub-groups. Data from three rounds of nationally representative consumer expenditure surveys (1999–2000, 2004–05 and 2011–12) were pooled to assess changes over time in a range of out-of-pocket -related outcome indicators for the poorest 20% households, scheduled caste and tribe households and Muslims households relative to their better-off/majority religion counterparts. Our results suggest that the poorest 20% of households experienced a decline in the proportion reporting any OOP for inpatient care relative to the top 20% and Muslim households saw an increase in the proportion reporting any inpatient OOP relative to non-Muslim households during 2000-2012. The change in the proportion of Muslim households or SC/ST households reporting any OOP for outpatient care was similar to that for their respective more advantaged counterparts; but the poorest 20% of households experienced a faster increase in the proportion reporting any OOP for outpatient care than their top 20% counterparts. SC/ST, Muslim and the poorest 20% of households experienced as faster increase in the share of outpatient OOP in total household spending relative to their advantaged counterparts. We conclude that the financial burden of out of pocket spending increased faster among the disadvantaged groups relative to their more advantaged counterparts. Although the poorest 20% saw a relative decline in OOP spending on inpatient care as a share of household spending, this is likely the result of foregoing inpatient care, than of accessing benefits from the recent expansion of cashless publicly financed insurance schemes for inpatient care. Our results highlight the need to explore the reasons underlying the lack of effectiveness of existing public health financing programs and public sector health services in reaching less

  5. Differential Sex Role Socialization in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Jack; Weinstein, Josh

    Differential sex role socialization in Thailand was investigated, and the results were compared with trends observed in the literature based on samples from the United States. Two issues were of particular interest: socialization for aggression and severity of socialization. A sample of 1,896 Thai children, stratified according to sex, grade…

  6. Contemporary social media engagement by breast surgeons.

    PubMed

    Ekatah, Gregory E; Walker, Stephanie G; McDonald, James J; Dixon, J Michael; Brady, Richard R W

    2016-12-01

    There continues to be a steady rise in the use of social media among healthcare professionals. We present an overview of social media use among breast surgeons within the United Kingdom including demographic variations and some of the factors that underpin these trends. The benefits and drawbacks of open social media platforms are also considered.

  7. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  8. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    MedlinePlus

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on ... of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...

  9. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    MedlinePlus

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. ... of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...

  10. Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends

    PubMed Central

    Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini-Nami, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Alishah, Khadijeh; Hadi, Mahdieh; Karimi, Ali; Hosseinian, Saeedeh; Fard, Rouhallah Ramezani; Mirhassani, Reihaneh Sadat; Hosseini, Zhaleh; Shojaie, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the “visibility” of an article influences its citation count. More specifically, it is believed that the social media can influence article citations.Here we tested the hypothesis that inclusion of scholarly references in Wikipedia affects the citation trends. To perform this analysis, we introduced a citation “propensity” measure, which is inspired by the concept of amino acid propensity for protein secondary structures. We show that although citation counts generally increase during time, the citation “propensity” does not increase after inclusion of a reference in Wikipedia. PMID:27034629

  11. Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends.

    PubMed

    Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini-Nami, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Alishah, Khadijeh; Hadi, Mahdieh; Karimi, Ali; Hosseinian, Saeedeh; Fard, Rouhallah Ramezani; Mirhassani, Reihaneh Sadat; Hosseini, Zhaleh; Shojaie, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the "visibility" of an article influences its citation count. More specifically, it is believed that the social media can influence article citations.Here we tested the hypothesis that inclusion of scholarly references in Wikipedia affects the citation trends. To perform this analysis, we introduced a citation "propensity" measure, which is inspired by the concept of amino acid propensity for protein secondary structures. We show that although citation counts generally increase during time, the citation "propensity" does not increase after inclusion of a reference in Wikipedia.

  12. Trend-driven information cascades on random networks.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Threshold models of global cascades have been extensively used to model real-world collective behavior, such as the contagious spread of fads and the adoption of new technologies. A common property of those cascade models is that a vanishingly small seed fraction can spread to a finite fraction of an infinitely large network through local infections. In social and economic networks, however, individuals' behavior is often influenced not only by what their direct neighbors are doing, but also by what the majority of people are doing as a trend. A trend affects individuals' behavior while individuals' behavior creates a trend. To analyze such a complex interplay between local- and global-scale phenomena, I generalize the standard threshold model by introducing a type of node called global nodes (or trend followers), whose activation probability depends on a global-scale trend, specifically the percentage of activated nodes in the population. The model shows that global nodes play a role as accelerating cascades once a trend emerges while reducing the probability of a trend emerging. Global nodes thus either facilitate or inhibit cascades, suggesting that a moderate share of trend followers may maximize the average size of cascades.

  13. CHANGING TRENDS IN DIETETICS

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Anjali

    1996-01-01

    Our body needs food everyday that supplies all the nutrients in required amount to keep the body healthy. But eating of food sometimes gets affected by socio- cultural factors that condition the dietary habits of the people which contribute significantly to nutritional deprivation in the communities, these faulty feeding habits arising from ignorance, superstitions, and social prejudices have bee so strongly entrenched that it is very difficult to dislodge them from the community in which malnutrition aggravates. PMID:22556772

  14. Hurricane Katrina: addictive behavior trends and predictors.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Post-disaster trends in alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as their predictors, were identified. Methods. Data from cross-sectional and panel surveys of African American adults in New Orleans, Louisiana, were used from before (2004: n = 1,867; 2005: n = 879) and after (2006a: n = 500; 2006b: n = 500) Hurricane Katrina. Alcohol consumption increased significantly from pre- to post-Hurricane Katrina, while cigarette smoking remained constant. In 2006, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with cigarette smoking, whereas "news attention" and "provided social support" were inversely associated with cigarette smoking. "News attention" was also inversely associated with cigarette smoking frequency, while "neighborliness" was associated with alcohol consumption. In addition, the effects of PTSD on alcohol consumption were moderated by "neighborliness." In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, there were complex predictive processes of addictive behaviors involving PTSD, news information, and social capital-related measures.

  15. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  16. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  17. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  18. Breastfeeding Trends and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Nisreen; Katende, Godfrey; Arulappan, Judie

    2017-01-01

    Optimal breastfeeding practices entail the early initiation of breastfeeding soon after delivery of the baby, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and the continuation of breastfeeding complemented by solid food up until two years of age. Breastfeeding has wide-ranging health benefits for both the mother and her child; however, many factors contribute to low rates of exclusive breastfeeding. This article highlights the benefits of optimal breastfeeding as well as trends and determinants associated with breastfeeding both worldwide and in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Strategies to optimise breastfeeding and overcome breastfeeding barriers in the GCC region are recommended, including community health and education programmes and ‘baby-friendly’ hospital initiatives. Advocates of breastfeeding are needed at the national, community and family levels. In addition, more systematic research should be conducted to examine breastfeeding practices and the best strategies to promote breastfeeding in this region. PMID:28690886

  19. Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; Schladow, G.; Healey, N.

    2016-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal and implications for ecosystem change in inland waters.

  20. Trends in childhood disease.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  1. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  2. Trends and Issues in Not for Profit Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, Deborah; Henderson, Karla; Dahowski, Kate

    A study explored current issues affecting camps run by nonprofit agencies. A literature review revealed areas of concern related to social trends and management practices. A survey of 85 camping professionals and agency executives involved with nonprofit camps examined organizational mission, strategic management issues, and perceived critical…

  3. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  4. Career Development Trends and Issues in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, L. Sunny

    1993-01-01

    Discusses global economic, political, and social trends affecting the workplace, families, education, and gender roles. Depicts current career development programs and practices with children and young, midlife, and older adults. Presents current issues in schools, adult education, and business/industry for career development. (SK)

  5. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  6. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  7. The Pharmaceutical Sector of Kazakhstan's Economy: Trends and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurpeisov, Borankul G.; Nabiev, Erboz N.; Mukashev, Temirbay A.; Daribekov, Serik S.; Raimbekov, Bagdat Kh.; Asanova, Maral K.; Bazarbaeva, Leila M.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the investigation of the general trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the current conditions of economical socialization. The determination of the economic specificity of the modern operation of the pharmaceutical industry is the purpose of the research. It was found that pharmacy is a profitable…

  8. The Changing Nature of Assessment in Public Schools: Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Richard W.

    The paper examines trends in the assessment of children in the public schools. A brief history notes changes in the role of school personnel relative to the assessment process, and considers economic factors (specialization and accountability) influencing the assessment function. Among the social/political factors influencing the assessment…

  9. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  10. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  11. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  12. Alberta Children and Youth: Trends and Issues, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy & Planning Branch.

    Education is part of a complex and dynamic system in which family, social, economic, and other factors have a tremendous influence on students. This environmental scanning report for Alberta, Canada is intended to draw attention to societal trends and issues that may be relevant to educators and to disseminate information that will support…

  13. Trends in financial satisfaction: does poverty make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Gerontological studies on financial satisfaction have been limited by the dearth of longitudinal research and the lack of research that includes the concept of poverty. In order to bridge these gaps, this longitudinal study examines and compares the intracohort and intercohort effects on financial satisfaction trends by poverty status among Americans age 45 and above, using data from the General Social Surveys. The results suggest that for both the poor and the non-poor, changes in financial satisfaction trends are mostly due to strong negative intercohort effects, indicating that younger cohorts are less satisfied financially than the older ones. There appears to be a significant difference in the intercohort effects of financial satisfaction trends between the poor and the non-poor. However, such difference can be accounted for by the differences in the effects of education and social comparison (or relative deprivation) on financial satisfaction between the poor and the non-poor.

  14. [Trends in population aging].

    PubMed

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  15. Trends and Issues In Urban and Minority Education, 1987. ERIC/CUE Trends and Issues Series, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    Social and demographic changes in American society have given rise to an abundance of educational literature about the role of schools. Schools must provide both basic and advanced academic preparation, but should they also compensate for and assume some of the roles of the family? This document identifies current trends and issues in education by…

  16. Aerosol trends over China, 1980-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yu, C.; Wu, Y.; Chin, M.; Zhao, Z.; Hayasaka, T.; Shi, G.; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; China Meteorological Administration; Research Center for Humanity and Nature, Japan; Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, China

    2008-05-01

    Annual emission trends of sulfur dioxide, black carbon, and organic carbon are presented for East Asia for the period 1980-2000. Emissions of sulfur dioxide peaked in about 1996, and emissions of the carbonaceous aerosols peaked in about 1994-1995, due to a variety of economic, environmental, and social forces. These emissions are converted to their contributions to aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia, using regional results from the GOCART global chemical transport model. We calculate that, on average, AOD over China rose from a value of 0.25 in 1980, peaked at a value of about 0.305 in 1995-1996, and then decreased to about 0.29 in 2000. This trend is consistent with surface shortwave irradiance measurements at 52 weather stations in China, as well as with other radiation-related trends. It may also be consistent with a rise in mean surface temperatures in China starting about the middle of the 1990s.

  17. Aerosol trends over China, 1980 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Yu, Carolyne; Wu, Ye; Chin, Mian; Zhao, Zongci; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Shi, Guangyu

    2008-05-01

    Annual emission trends of sulfur dioxide, black carbon, and organic carbon are presented for East Asia for the period 1980-2000. Emissions of sulfur dioxide peaked in about 1996, and emissions of the carbonaceous aerosols peaked in about 1994-1995, due to a variety of economic, environmental, and social forces. These emissions are converted to their contributions to aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia, using regional results from the GOCART global chemical transport model. We calculate that, on average, AOD over China rose from a value of 0.25 in 1980, peaked at a value of about 0.305 in 1995-1996, and then decreased to about 0.29 in 2000. This trend is consistent with surface shortwave irradiance measurements at 52 weather stations in China, as well as with other radiation-related trends. It may also be consistent with a rise in mean surface temperatures in China starting about the middle of the 1990s.

  18. [Trends of adolescent injury and poisoning mortality].

    PubMed

    Celis, Alfredo; Gómez-Lomelí, Zoila; Armas, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    To describe the external causes of death and mortality trends due to injuries and poisoning in Mexican adolescents, from 1979 to 1997. This is a descriptive study of deaths occurring in Mexico from 1979 to 1997. Data were abstracted, coded, and entered in electronic format, by Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics, INEGI). Data were analyzed during the second half of year 2000, in Jalisco, at the Research Unit of Epidemiologic and Adolescent Health Services, of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, IMSS). Injuries and poisoning ranked first as causes of adolescent mortality in Mexico (rate = 13.35/100,000), decreasing 41.4% from 1979 to 1997. However, an increasing trend was observed for homicides and suicides (9.5% y 104.0%, respectively). The most frequent mechanisms of injury were: motor vehicles, firearms, intoxications, suffocation, and drowning. Injuries and poisoning in developing countries show differences from those reported in developed countries. Further studies should be conducted to find preventive measures consistent with the sociocultural and environmental determinants of injuries and poisoning.

  19. Mortality trends and setbacks: global convergence or divergence?

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Valkonen, Tapani

    2004-04-03

    Health trends over much of the past century have been generally, and notably, positive throughout the world. In several regions, however, life expectancy has declined over the past 1-2 decades. This trend suggests that the expectation that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s of worldwide gains and convergence in population health status is not guaranteed by a general deterministic process. National populations can now be clearly grouped into those that have achieved rapid gains in life expectancy; those whose gains are slower or are perhaps plateauing; and those in which the trends have reversed. Over the past two centuries, outside times of war and famine, such reversals have been rare. Exploration of these varied population health trends elucidates better the close relation between population health and the processes of economic, social, and technological change. Such analysis has shown that the health status of human populations should be a guiding criterion in the debate on sustainable development.

  20. Geophysical trends from 12+ years of AIRS radiance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Strow, Larrabee; Tangborn, Andrew; Hepplewhite, Chris; Motteler, Howard; Schou, Paul; Buczkowski, Steve

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder has daily been providing low noise, stable top-of-the atmosphere hyperspectral radiances since 2002. Here we present analysis from 12 year linear radiance trends obtained from two AIRS radiance subsets : (1) clear-sky scenes over ocean and (2) all-sky scenes along the nadir track, which are used to retrieve a geophysical trends using an optimal estimation approach. The retrieved clear sky trends compare favorably with ERA and MERRA re-analysis trends, and in-situ trends for the minor gases. Analysis of all-sky trends show they agree better with ERA than either MERRA or the AIRS Level-2 retrievals. The radiance trends provide highly accurate measurements of atmospheric variability with easily understood error characteristics, unlike typical Level 2 retrievals. These approaches should provide highly accurate measurements of a variety of climate trends (temperature and humidity profiles, land surface temperature, cloud radiative forcing) as the AIRS (or AIRS + JPSS/CrIS + IASI) instrument time-series extends to 15+ years.