Science.gov

Sample records for social hmo trends

  1. The determinants of HMO enrollment and growth.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W

    1981-01-01

    This paper analyzes why HMO enrollment and growth have varied greatly among states. Using Tobit analysis, a number of variables are related to state HMO market share in 1976 and the change in HMO market share from 1966 to 1976. Higher hospital costs and mobile populations are shown to have encouraged HMO development. There is some evidence that the extent of unionization and the presence of group practices encourages HMO enrollment and growth. Legal restrictions on HMO development imposed at the state level appear to have had little effect upon HMOs. In particular, certificate-of-need laws have not impeded HMO enrollment and growth. Consequently, our results suggest that the enrollment and growth of HMOs respond more to impersonal market and demographic conditions than to certain legal restrictions. PMID:7327943

  2. The determinants of HMO enrollment and growth.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W

    1981-01-01

    This paper analyzes why HMO enrollment and growth have varied greatly among states. Using Tobit analysis, a number of variables are related to state HMO market share in 1976 and the change in HMO market share from 1966 to 1976. Higher hospital costs and mobile populations are shown to have encouraged HMO development. There is some evidence that the extent of unionization and the presence of group practices encourages HMO enrollment and growth. Legal restrictions on HMO development imposed at the state level appear to have had little effect upon HMOs. In particular, certificate-of-need laws have not impeded HMO enrollment and growth. Consequently, our results suggest that the enrollment and growth of HMOs respond more to impersonal market and demographic conditions than to certain legal restrictions.

  3. Current Trends in Social Dialectology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W.

    The formal study of social dialects has received increasing attention since about the middle of the sixties. In linguistics, the study of social dialectology has resulted in the clear demonstration of the importance of sociolinguistic variation in linguistic theory in contrast to the former preoccupation with linguistic universals. In education,…

  4. Impact of HMO market structure on physician-hospital strategic alliances.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, L R; Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Wholey, D R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of HMO market structure on the formation of physician-hospital strategic alliances from 1993 through 1995. The two trends, managed care and physician-hospital integration have been prominent in reshaping insurance and provider markets over the past decade. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional data from the InterStudy HMO Census and the Annual Survey conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) between 1993 and the end of 1995 to examine the effects of HMO penetration and HMO numbers in a market on the formation of hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians. Because prior research has found nonlinear effects of HMOs on a variety of dependent variables, we operationalized HMO market structure two ways: using a Taylor series expansion and cross-classifying quartile distributions of HMO penetration and numbers into 16 dummy indicators. Alliance formation was operationalized using the presence of any alliance model (IPA, PHO, MSO, and foundation) and the sum of the four models present in the hospital. Because managed care and physician-hospital integration are endogenous (e.g., some hospitals also sponsor HMOs), we used an instrumental variables approach to model the determinants of HMO penetration and HMO numbers. These instruments were then used with other predictors of alliance formation: physician supply characteristics, the extent of hospital competition, hospital-level descriptors, population size and demographic characteristics, and indicators for each year. All equations were estimated at the MSA level using mixed linear models and first-difference models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contrary to conventional wisdom, alliance formation is shaped by the number of HMOs in the market rather than by HMO penetration. This confirms a growing perception that hospital-sponsored alliances with physicians are contracting vehicles for managed care: the greater the number of HMOs to contract with, the greater the development of alliances

  5. Determinants of HMO Formulary Adoption Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Dranove, David; Hughes, Edward FX; Shanley, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify economic and organizational characteristics that affect the likelihood that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) include new drugs on their formularies. Data Sources We administered an original survey to directors of pharmacy at 75 HMOs, of which 41 returned usable responses. We obtained drug-specific data from an industry trade journal. Study Design We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for fixed-drug effects and random-HMO effects. We used factor analysis to limit the number of predictors. Data Collection Methods We held initial focus groups to help with survey design. We administered the survey in two waves. We asked respondents to report on seven popular new drugs, and to describe a variety of HMO organizational characteristics. Principal Findings Several HMO organizational characteristics, including nonprofit status, the incentives facing the director of the pharmacy, size and make-up of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, and relationships with drugs makers, all affect formulary adoption. Conclusions There are many organizational factors that may cause HMOs to make different formulary adoption decisions for certain prescription drugs. PMID:12650387

  6. Case study. The little HMO that could: heart of America HMO in Rugby, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, L

    1995-11-01

    What does an HMO need to succeed in rural America? For this 3,000-member health plan, the key ingredients are enlightened self-interest by a committed medical group, support from local employers, low overhead, efficient practice styles, and luck in the form of benevolent state insurance rules. But a catastrophic illness almost doomed the plan in 1992 and convinced leaders of the need to grow. PMID:10152495

  7. Educational, Social, Technological and Scientific Trends and the Deaf Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The report of a section meeting of the 1987 Forum on Deafness contains transcripts of the following presentations: "Century 21: Social Trends and Deafness" (Raymond Trybus); "Technology and Science in the Management of Deafness" (Arthur Boothroyd); "Trends in Education" (Eva Baker). Highlights of the discussion following the presentations are…

  8. Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

    Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

  9. Trends in the measurement of social validity

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-1970s, social validity has provided applied behavior analysts with a critical measure of the social impact and importance of their interventions. Recent discussion, however, has questioned the use of this construct in regard to the frequency and types of social validty measures employed in research. Despite the ensuing discussion, virtually no quantitative information has been made available to frame various perspectives and opinions. The purpose of this report is to present a content analysis of social validity measures used over the previous 20 years. Social validity was assessed along three dimensions: (a) type of assessment, (b) focus of assessment, and (c) time of assessment. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968-1990) and Behavior Modification (1977-1990) were surveyed. The results of the content analysis indicate that current applications of social validation procedures are presented in 20% of the articles surveyed. The majority of articles used subjective evaluation of outcomes following intervention to assess social validity. In addition, the data indicated that normative comparison was a rarely used method of social validation and that its use has been decreasing over time. PMID:22478125

  10. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.

  11. The role of service recovery in HMO satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H

    1999-01-01

    Complaint handling and service recovery by HMOs may be more efficient to implement and more determinant of customer satisfaction and retention than other approaches such as improving access to care. The current findings are consistent with research on recovery efforts in other industries. Complaint handling systems must achieve rapid and comprehensive identification and resolution of HMO member problems. Both cultural change and appropriate incentives to re-educate employees within HMO organizations are additional requisites to effective service recovery. The benefits to the HMO of expenditures on service recovery should be more immediate and sustainable than the benefits derived from other methods of increasing member satisfaction. PMID:10351398

  12. Determinants of HMO success: the case of Complete Health.

    PubMed

    Widra, L S; Fottler, M D

    1992-01-01

    The health maintenance organization (HMO) industry has experienced a variety of difficulties and criticisms in recent years. Various hybrid models have been proposed to alleviate these problems. This article presents an in-depth case study of factors associated with the success of one such hybrid: an individual practice association (IPA)-model HMO affiliated with an academic health center. The major success factors identified include the plan design/structure, the strategic orientation/practices, and the stakeholder management orientation practices.

  13. China's Social Science Publications: Emerging Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Friedmann, Deborah

    The author describes characteristics of social science publications which suggest that in the future there will be an improved research climate for Chinese scholars and improved opportunities for collaborative work between Chinese and foreign researchers. The publications used as the data base for this presentation are quarterly or bimonthly…

  14. Epinephrine autoinjector refill history in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael S; Jung, Sandy Y; Chiang, Matthew L

    2011-02-01

    Epinephrine can be lifesaving in episodes of anaphylaxis, yet it is underprescribed and underused. Tracking of epinephrine refills over time for patients with a diagnosis of anaphylaxis has not been reported. This study reports on the refill history of 14,677 patients in a large HMO who received an initial dispensing of EpiPen (Dey Pharma, Basking Ridge, NJ) or EpiPen Jr between 2000 and 2006. A total of 6,776 (46%) refilled at least once. Twenty-five percent of the patients who were in the cohort for 5 years or more refilled multiple times, and 11% refilled consistently at all expected refill times. Infants through children 12 years of age were more likely to receive a refill dispensing (63%) compared with teenagers and adults (40%). The most common ICD-9 codes that were linked to the initial epinephrine dispensing were allergic disorder (37%), miscellaneous anaphylaxis/angioedema (23%), hymenoptera/insect bite or sting (14%), and specific or nonspecific food allergy (11%). A total of 79% of patients with a food-related ICD-9 code and 59% of patients with an insect sting-related ICD-9 code refilled epinephrine at least once. An opportunity exists to identify system-based as well as personal barriers in an ongoing effort to provide patients at risk with the tools and empowerment that could reduce their risk during life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. PMID:20957460

  15. Epinephrine autoinjector refill history in an HMO.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael S; Jung, Sandy Y; Chiang, Matthew L

    2011-02-01

    Epinephrine can be lifesaving in episodes of anaphylaxis, yet it is underprescribed and underused. Tracking of epinephrine refills over time for patients with a diagnosis of anaphylaxis has not been reported. This study reports on the refill history of 14,677 patients in a large HMO who received an initial dispensing of EpiPen (Dey Pharma, Basking Ridge, NJ) or EpiPen Jr between 2000 and 2006. A total of 6,776 (46%) refilled at least once. Twenty-five percent of the patients who were in the cohort for 5 years or more refilled multiple times, and 11% refilled consistently at all expected refill times. Infants through children 12 years of age were more likely to receive a refill dispensing (63%) compared with teenagers and adults (40%). The most common ICD-9 codes that were linked to the initial epinephrine dispensing were allergic disorder (37%), miscellaneous anaphylaxis/angioedema (23%), hymenoptera/insect bite or sting (14%), and specific or nonspecific food allergy (11%). A total of 79% of patients with a food-related ICD-9 code and 59% of patients with an insect sting-related ICD-9 code refilled epinephrine at least once. An opportunity exists to identify system-based as well as personal barriers in an ongoing effort to provide patients at risk with the tools and empowerment that could reduce their risk during life-threatening anaphylactic reactions.

  16. Distance Education Programs in Social Work: Current and Emerging Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Robert; Vakalahi, Halaevalu; Pierce, Dean; Pittman-Munke, Peggy; Adkins, Lynn Frantz

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on current and emerging trends in the use of distance education technologies in social work education. Areas studied include the extent of distance education programs, curricular areas covered, technologies used, pedagogical approaches, intentions for degree-program development, sources of pressure to adopt distance education…

  17. Patterns and Trends of Canadian Social Work Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Lach, Lucyana; Blumenthal, Anne; Akesson, Bree

    2015-01-01

    The first social work doctoral program in Canada began in 1952. Relatively recently, the number of programs has grown rapidly, doubling in the past 10 years to 14 programs. Despite the expansion there is no systematic understanding of the patterns and trends in doctoral research. In this study we review 248 publicly available dissertations from…

  18. How much segmentation is needed in the health care marketplace? An exploratory study of HMO and non-HMO customers.

    PubMed

    Tootelian, Dennis H; Mikhailitchenko, Andrey; Holst, Cindy; Gaedeke, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    The health care landscape has changed dramatically. Consumers now seek plans whose benefits better fit their health care needs and desires for access to providers. This exploratory survey of more than 1,000 HMO and non-HMO customers found significant differences with respect to their selection processes for health plans and providers, and their expectations regarding access to and communication with health care providers. While there are some similarities in factors affecting choice, segmentation strategies are necessary to maximize the appeal of a plan, satisfy customers in the selection of physicians, and meet their expectations regarding access to those physicians. PMID:26950537

  19. How much segmentation is needed in the health care marketplace? An exploratory study of HMO and non-HMO customers.

    PubMed

    Tootelian, Dennis H; Mikhailitchenko, Andrey; Holst, Cindy; Gaedeke, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    The health care landscape has changed dramatically. Consumers now seek plans whose benefits better fit their health care needs and desires for access to providers. This exploratory survey of more than 1,000 HMO and non-HMO customers found significant differences with respect to their selection processes for health plans and providers, and their expectations regarding access to and communication with health care providers. While there are some similarities in factors affecting choice, segmentation strategies are necessary to maximize the appeal of a plan, satisfy customers in the selection of physicians, and meet their expectations regarding access to those physicians.

  20. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contribution allocable to benefits (such as life insurance or insurance for supplemental health benefits)— (1... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions for the HMO alternative. 417.157 Section 417.157 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response...

  2. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may request and review the data specified in paragraph (f) of this section on its own initiative or in response...

  3. 42 CFR 417.157 - Contributions for the HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... brochures and enrollment literature, it must, in the case of the HMO alternative, determine and distribute... the plans offered to employees. (2) Related data about the employees who are eligible to enroll in a plan. (3) A description of the methodology for computation. (g) CMS review of data. (1) CMS may...

  4. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  5. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or..., COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules....

  6. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or..., COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules....

  7. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules. (1) Subject...

  8. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules. (1) Subject...

  9. 42 CFR 417.440 - Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or..., COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.440 Entitlement to health care services from an HMO or CMP. (a) Basic rules....

  10. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL.... An HMO or CMP may disenroll a Medicare enrollee for cause if the enrollee's behavior is disruptive... behavior is not related to the use of medical services or to mental illness. (4) Documentation. The HMO...

  11. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS.... An HMO or CMP may disenroll a Medicare enrollee for cause if the enrollee's behavior is disruptive... behavior is not related to the use of medical services or to mental illness. (4) Documentation. The HMO...

  12. HMO Risk Contracts--A "No Cost" Way to Manage Retiree Health Care Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Barbara F.

    1995-01-01

    Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) "risk contracts," under which HMOs cover Medicare-eligible individuals, are explained; and the costs, benefits, and coverage are compared with those of other managed care options. Employers with retiree medical plans are encouraged to consider using HMO risk contracts for both short- and long-term savings.…

  13. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not be more restrictive or...) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials before distribution. (2)...

  14. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and other relevant printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not... themselves of that access. (b) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials...

  15. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a minimum, opportunity to distribute educational literature, brochures, announcements of meetings... themselves of that access. (b) Review of HMO offering materials. (1) The HMO must give the employing entity or designee opportunity to review, revise, and approve HMO educational and offering materials...

  16. The impact of HMO penetration on the rate of hospital cost inflation, 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate of hospital cost inflation by .34 to 3.40 percentage points, depending on the base-year level and the annual change in HMO penetration. Declines in Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) margins also lowered hospital cost inflation; over the time period, annual hospital cost inflation was reduced by .38 percentage points. The estimates imply that the cumulative effect of HMO growth on hospital costs has been a $56.2 billion reduction (in 1993 dollars).

  17. Do HMO and its for-profit expansion jeopardize the survival of hospital safety net services?

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Chu

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the effect of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and for-profit HMO share on the survival of safety net services in hospitals between 1990 and 2004. The primary data sources are the American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, the Medicare hospital cost reports, and the HMO enrollment and ownership data from Interstudy. I analyze the risks of shutting down each safety net service separately using the proportional hazard models. I find that the risks of shutting down hospital safety net services do not vary by different levels of overall HMO penetration. However, conditional on the overall HMO penetration level, increasing for-profit presence of HMO does increase the risks of shutting down several safety net services. Policies evaluating the for-profit expansion or ownership conversion of health plans should take this potential adverse effect into consideration.

  18. Social Network Trend Analysis Using Frequent Pattern Mining and Self Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.; Christley, Rob; Coenen, Frans; Patel, Yogesh; Setzkorn, Christian; Williams, Shane

    A technique for identifying, grouping and analysing trends in social networks is described. The trends of interest are defined in terms of sequences of support values for specific patterns that appear across a given social network. The trends are grouped using a SOM technique so that similar tends are clustered together. A cluster analysis technique is then applied to identify "interesting" trends. The focus of the paper is the Cattle Tracing System (CTS) database in operation in Great Britain, and this is therefore the focus of the evaluation. However, to illustrate the wider applicability of the trend mining technique, experiments using a more standard, car insurance, temporal database are also described.

  19. Trends, Issues, and Gaps in Technology for Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.; Roach, Pamela S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the status of technology in elementary social studies. Reviews research on technology and elementary social studies, explores various examples of practice, discusses how preservice social studies methods textbooks treat the issue of using technology, and identifies beliefs held by elementary social studies teachers. (CMK)

  20. Out of plan. Certain HMO characteristics affect physicians' satisfaction and influence their decision to reenroll.

    PubMed

    Lamb, C W; Baker, J; Gates, R

    1998-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of continuity, which is directly associated with patient satisfaction, from the perspective of the physician. They attempt to determine which factors are most important in determining physician satisfaction with an HMO and the link between satisfaction with an HMO and intent to remain affiliated with that HMO. Their study reveals that 11 factors explain 71% of the variation in overall physician satisfaction and that a physician's satisfaction with a plan is closely linked to intentions to reenroll. Implications for HMOs, physicians, employers, and public policy makers are explored. PMID:10185306

  1. Profile of Rural Idaho: A Look at Economic and Social Trends Affecting Rural Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Commerce, Boise.

    This document examines population trends and economic and social indicators in rural Idaho. The first few sections discuss the definition of "rural," rural challenges and strengths, and outside economic and political forces impacting Idaho's rural areas. Subsequent sections present data on population trends, migration patterns, race and ethnicity,…

  2. #SocialNetworks: Making Nonfiction Trend in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta; Scott, Kelly; Simone, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Students must be proficient readers of nonfiction texts to be successful in school and life. Since engaging students in this genre can be challenging, this article focuses on how students can respond digitally and socially to nonfiction through the use of free, secure social networks. Not only can students become more engaged in learning when…

  3. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  4. How Has Educational Expansion Shaped Social Mobility Trends in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Hertel, Florian R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides a long-term assessment of intergenerational social mobility trends in the United States across the 20th and early 21st century and assesses the determinants of those trends. In particular, we study how educational expansion has contributed to the observed changes in mobility opportunities for men across cohorts. Drawing on recently developed decomposition methods, we empirically identify the contribution of each of the multiple channels through which changing rates of educational participation shape mobility trends. We find that a modest but gradual increase in social class mobility can nearly exclusively be ascribed to an interaction known as the compositional effect, according to which the direct influence of social class backgrounds on social class destinations is lower among the growing number of individuals attaining higher levels of education. This dominant role of the compositional effect is also due to the fact that, despite pronounced changes in the distribution of education, class inequality in education has remained stable while class returns to education have shown no consistent trend. Our analyses also provide a cautionary tale about mistaking increasing levels of social class mobility for a general trend towards more fluidity in the United States. The impact of parental education on son's educational and class attainment has grown or remained stable, respectively. Here, the compositional effect pertaining to the direct association between parental education and son's class attainment counteracts a long-term trend of increasing inequality in educational attainment tied to parents' education. PMID:26306053

  5. Evaluating employee assistance policy in an HMO-based alcoholism project.

    PubMed

    Putnam, S L; Stout, R L

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of successful employee assistance program (EAP) implementation is the adoption of a formal, written policy, reflecting company commitment to EAP guidelines and goals. This study of criteria predictive of such policy adoption was conducted at the occupational alcoholism project of a New England health maintenance organization (HMO). Data on nearly 400 organizations contacted by occupational program consultants (OPCs) over a 20-month period were collected by questionnaire and interview. One third of these organizations adopted employee assistance policies and set about establishing formal programs. Stepwise multiple regression is the principal method used to pinpoint the correlates of policy adoption. Two of the most important of these are the attitudes of contact persons within the organization toward alcoholism and employee assistance programs, particularly their admission of alcohol problems within their social networks; and the consultants' persistence and marketing skills. The adopting organizations also had reputations for being progressive, and actively concerned about employee welfare; they tended to be large, their executives autonomous, and their union membership rates high. Inhibiting policy acceptance were fears that a written policy would jeopardize the reputation and image of the organization, and that an employee assistance program would remove internal control of personal procedures. The adequacy of the evaluative data and methods are discussed, and recommendations are offered in the interests of streamlining the efforts of OPCs and of achieving greater penetration of targeted organizations.

  6. Caregiving, alcohol use, and mental health symptoms among HMO members.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A

    2001-08-01

    Using data from a survey of 5841 HMO members, we examined alcohol consumption, depression and anxiety symptoms, and health services use among 689 informal caregivers. Characteristics of caregivers included whom they cared for, types of care provided, number of people cared for, and whether care was provided in the caregiver's home. Outcome measures in hierarchical linear and logistic stepwise regression models included indicators of alcohol drinking pattern, symptoms of anxiety and depression, role limits due to emotional problems and self-reported doctor's visits. Adjusting for age and gender differences, caregivers reported more bodily pain, worse role functioning related to emotional problems, were more likely to screen as depressed, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety. Older caregivers, and those with greater vitality, had better mental health outcomes; caregivers with higher levels of education reported better psychological well-being and less interference with role functioning due to emotional problems. Caregivers did not make more doctor's visits than non-caregivers. No caregiving characteristics were consistently associated with both mental health and alcohol consumption outcomes. The relationship of the care recipient to the caregiver predicted mental health outcomes better than either the type of care, number cared for, or location of care. Both the type of care and relationship to the care provider were associated with alcohol consumption, and several gender interactions were identified. Our results confirm previous findings of greater mental health problems among caregivers, yet suggest that caregivers may not be seeking services commensurate to their needs. PMID:11488517

  7. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

  8. Social Bookmarking in Academic Libraries: Trends and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Carla S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of the potential utilization of social bookmarking web sites by academic libraries. These web sites, which allow users and organizations to create accounts for bookmarking online content, provide academic libraries tools to collaborate and network, organize and share electronic resources and teach information…

  9. Global Trends and School-Based Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Meares, Paula; Montgomery, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, substantial advancements have been made across the globe that positively affect the ability for school-based social workers in the fields of practice, policy, and research to meet the needs of the world's youths. Nonetheless, children continue to suffer from poverty-stricken environments, absence of basic needs, poor or…

  10. Who's Trending in Agriculture? A Look at Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jarai

    2013-01-01

    Information spreads fast, but even faster with the use of social media. For instance, if one goes to twitter and searches "Farm Bill" it can be seen that many people have tweeted about the recent passing of the Farm Bill and re-tweeted information about this. This increased the attention given to this bill as seen by the hundreds of tweets on this…

  11. New Trends in the Study of Social Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaguchi, Etsuko

    2009-01-01

    Social education is seen as one important way of building a learning society, through supporting people in solving their daily problems. In a learning society, people could participate in a big project to develop their community as well as enjoying learning, without being excluded because of economic status, gender, age or ethnicity. Implementing…

  12. Trends in complexity theories and computation in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Leslie

    2004-04-01

    A modified bibliometric study and citation analysis of the use of complexity theories, encompassing chaos and complexity theory, and computational simulation in published literature was conducted. Articles published during 1971-1999 in four disciplines were examined: business, education, psychology and sociology. Overall, there was a marked pattern of increased use in the terms within the social sciences. There was a differentiated use of the terms between disciplines. A qualitative study on a subset from each discipline was generated to create a disciplinary profile of the quantitative and qualitative use of the terms in research activities, called a problem topology. Three research implications that arise from the differential adaptation of the theories and methods into the four social sciences are discussed. PMID:15068739

  13. Competition among Hospitals for HMO Business: Effect of Price and Nonprice Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gary J; Burgess, James F; Valley, Danielle

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate patterns of competition among hospitals for the business of health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The study focused on the relative importance of hospital price and nonprice attributes in the competition for HMO business. Data Sources/Study Setting The study capitalized on hospital cost reports from Florida that are unique in their inclusion of financial data regarding HMO business activity. The time frame was 1992 to 1997. Study Design The study was designed as an observational investigation of acute care hospitals. Principal Findings Results indicated that a hospital's share of HMO business was related to both its price and nonprice attributes. However, the importance of both price and nonprice attributes diminished as the number of HMOs in a market increased. Hospitals that were market share leaders in terms of HMO business (i.e., 30 percent or more market share) were superior, on average, to their competitors on both price and nonprice attributes. Conclusions Study results indicate that competition among hospitals for HMO business involves a complex set of price and nonprice attributes. The HMOs do not appear to focus on price alone. Hospitals likely to be the most attractive to HMOs are those that can differentiate themselves on the basis of nonprice attributes while being competitive on price as well. PMID:12479496

  14. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  15. Breast Cancer Screening Use by African Americans and Whites in an HMO

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Lisa M; Barton, Mary B; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Kreuter, William; Elmore, Joann G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine racial differences in breast cancer screening in an HMO that provides screening at no cost. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of breast cancer screening among African-American and white women. Breast cancer screening information was extracted from computerized medical records. SETTING A large HMO in New England. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS White and African-American women (N =2,072) enrolled for at least 10 years in the HMO. MAIN RESULTS Primary care clinicians documented recommending a screening mammogram significantly more often for African Americans than whites (70% vs 64%; P <.001). During the 10-year period, on average, white women obtained more mammograms (4.49 vs 3.93; P <.0001) and clinical breast examinations (5.35 vs 4.92; P <.01) than African-American women. However, a woman's race was no longer a statistically significant predictor of breast cancer screening after adjustment for differences in age, estimated household income, estrogen use, and body mass index (adjusted number of mammograms, 4.47 vs 4.25, P =.17; and adjusted number of clinical breast examinations, 5.35 vs 5.31, P =.87). CONCLUSIONS In this HMO, African-American and white women obtained breast cancer screening at similar rates. Comparisons with national data showed much higher screening rates in this HMO for both white and African-American women. PMID:10759997

  16. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition. PMID:6887212

  17. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    PubMed

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  18. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employees who meet any of the following conditions: (i) Are new employees. (ii) Have been transferred or... Organizations in Employee Health Benefits Plans § 417.155 How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan. (a) HMO access to employees—(1) Purpose and timing—(i) Purpose. The employing entity...

  19. Changes in disease patterns and related social trends.

    PubMed

    Powles, J

    1992-08-01

    Both the material and non-material aspects of social life are viewed as determinants of major transformations in the patterns of fatal disease and injury. A 'worst case' scenario for the burden of fatal disease is taken as a poor agrarian society precariously dependent on starchy staples and a narrow range of other foods. In such a society life expectancy may be as low as 20. However in many 'pre-modern' societies the regime of roughly matching fertility and mortality levels was set at a 'submaximal' level, with completed fertility rates moderated by marriage conventions. The relative importance of the factors contributing to the historical decline in fatal infection continues to be debated. Evidence on the central role of maternal literacy in the recent decline in Third World mortality suggests the importance of changes in the body of civil society as well as the activities of professionals and public agencies. The decline in fatal infections has been offset to varying extents by an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD): the Mediterranean and East Asia having smaller epidemics of NCDs and Eastern Europe having sustained rises of NCDs. Most industrialised countries have experienced declines in overall NCD mortality in the last 2 decades. Both the fall in fatal infection and the rise and early fall of NCDs can usefully be viewed against the baseline of hunter gatherer cultures. When this is done, the relationship between economic development and disease is seen to be complex. Much 'progress' has been achieved by countering (and then doing better than countering) the adverse effects of earlier developments. Although most members of the generation now alive have experienced marked health benefits from economic and technical advance, it is unclear whether these gains can be both sustained and generalised. It is possible that adverse lagged effects of current industrial (and military) activities will disrupt the habitat of future generations of our species through

  20. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  1. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  2. Men and Cosmetics: Social and Psychological Trends of an Emerging Demographic.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Mu, Euphemia W; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Though still accounting for a small fraction of all cosmetic procedures in the United States, men are an emerging and rapidly expanding demographic in the field of aesthetic medicine. In this article we highlight the trends contributing to the rise of male aesthetic procedures in dermatology, touching on social influences, psychological motivations, and treatment outcomes.

  3. Social and Economic Trends: 1985-2000. Commission Report 84-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Major social and economic trends in American and California life that will affect California's colleges and universities during the next 15 years are identified. Characteristics of the information-based economy are examined, along with projections concerning the 40 fastest-growing jobs between 1982 and 1995. College and university research has…

  4. Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

  5. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  6. Men and Cosmetics: Social and Psychological Trends of an Emerging Demographic.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Mu, Euphemia W; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Though still accounting for a small fraction of all cosmetic procedures in the United States, men are an emerging and rapidly expanding demographic in the field of aesthetic medicine. In this article we highlight the trends contributing to the rise of male aesthetic procedures in dermatology, touching on social influences, psychological motivations, and treatment outcomes. PMID:26355623

  7. Prioritizing Social and Moral Learning Amid Conservative Curriculum Trends: Spaces of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Conservative trends across western schooling contexts are signalling an explicit devaluing of social and moral learning within their official curriculum mandates. These mandates are increasingly privileging the "academic rigour" of traditional subject disciplines. This paper draws on interview and observation data from a case study of a…

  8. Indexing Price Trends of French Academic Books in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ronald E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides data on price trends for French academic books in the humanities and social sciences for the years 1986-90 based on information from the "Bulletin Critique du Livre Francais," a monthly book-reviewing journal. A method for developing a price index for this material is demonstrated. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  9. Preparation and evaluation of novel hydrous metal oxide (HMO)-supported noble metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.J.; McLaughlin, L.I.; Evans, L.R.; Datye, A.K.

    1998-04-01

    Hydrous Metal Oxides (HMOs) are chemically synthesized materials that, because of their high cation exchange capacity, possess a unique ability to allow the preparation of highly dispersed supported-metal catalyst precursors with high metal loadings. This study evaluates high weight loading Rh/HMO catalysts with a wide range of HMO support compositions, including hydrous titanium oxide (HTO), silica-doped hydrous titanium oxide (HTO:Si), hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO), and silica-doped hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO:Si), against conventional oxide-supported Rh catalysts with similar weight loadings and support chemistries. Catalyst activity measurements for a structure-sensitive model reaction (n-butane hydrogenolysis) as a function of catalyst activation conditions show superior activity and stability for the ZrO{sub 2}, HZO, and HZO:Si supports, although all of the Rh/HMO catalysts have high ethane selectivity indicative of high Rh dispersion. For the TiO{sub 2}-, HTO-, and HTO:Si supported Rh catalysts, a significant loss of both catalyst activity and Rh dispersion is observed at more aggressive activation conditions, consistent with TiO{sub x} migration associated with SMSI phenomena. Of all the Rh/HMO catalysts, the Rh/HZO:Si catalysts appear to offer the best tradeoff in terms of high Rh dispersion, high activity, and high selectivity.

  10. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  11. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (iii) HMOs and CMPs that choose to exercise this exception must make the option available to all... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scope of services described in § 417.440. (iii) HMOs and CMPs that choose to exercise this exception... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP. 417.460 Section 417.460 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 42 CFR 417.520 - Effect on HMO and CMP contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect on HMO and CMP contracts. 417.520 Section 417.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Change of Ownership and Leasing of Facilities: Effect...

  14. 42 CFR 410.58 - Additional services to HMO and CMP enrollees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional services to HMO and CMP enrollees. 410.58 Section 410.58 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other...

  15. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the affiliation period. (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs... by the following examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits... this date and run concurrently. Therefore, the affiliation period ends on March 31, the waiting...

  16. 45 CFR 146.119 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the affiliation period. (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs... by the following examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits... this date and run concurrently. Therefore, the affiliation period ends on March 31, the waiting...

  17. 42 CFR 417.544 - Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.544 Physicians... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. 417.544 Section 417.544 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 42 CFR 417.544 - Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.544 Physicians... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physicians' services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. 417.544 Section 417.544 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the health benefits plan at...

  20. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in...'s request for inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the...

  1. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in...'s request for inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the...

  2. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in...'s request for inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the...

  3. Report finds Medicare HMO members are younger, healthier and lower cost than FFS seniors.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Data File: Are managed seniors healthier than those in fee for service? A recent study by the U.S. General Accounting Office looks at disenrollment rates and costs of chronically ill Medicare HMO members in California. The findings support the much-disputed theory that seniors enrolled in HMOs are younger, healthier, and lower cost. PMID:10175566

  4. 42 CFR 417.156 - When the HMO must be offered to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Inclusion of Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations in Employee Health... inclusion in a health benefits plan is received at a time when existing contracts or agreements do not provide for inclusion, the employing entity must include the HMO option in the health benefits plan at...

  5. Demographic trends in social work over a quarter-century in an increasingly female profession.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Robert; Morrish, Jennifer Naranjo; Liu, Gan

    2008-04-01

    This article depicts the changing demographic portrait of social work education in the United States from 1974 through 2000 and considers the demographic shifts in the profession of social work. During this period, BSW and joint MSW-BSW programs increased from 150 to 404, MSW programs increased from 79 to 139, and social work doctoral programs increased from 29 to 67. BSW graduates increased by 24 percent to almost 12,000, MSW graduates grew by almost 90 percent to over 15,000, and doctoral graduates increased by 44 percent to only 229. From 1974 to 2000, people of color represented increasing proportions of social work graduates to almost 30 percent of BSW graduates, 26 percent of MSW graduates, and 19 percent of social work PhD graduates. By 2000, the proportion of women earning social work degrees had grown to 88 percent at the BSW, 85 percent at the MSW, and 73 percent at the PhD levels, and women accounted for almost two-thirds of social work faculty. The most dynamic trends within the composition of the profession are the substantial increases in the proportion of women faculty, and among MSW graduates, a decrease in the proportion of men from 43 percent in 1960 to 15 percent in 2000. Findings suggest that issues of racial, ethnic, and gender representation in particular merit discussion within the profession.

  6. Managing Access: Extending Medicaid to Children Through School-Based HMO Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Coulam, Robert F.; Irvin, Carol V.; Calore, Kathleen A.; Kidder, David E.; Rosenbach, Margo L.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores how a health maintenance organization's (HMO) capacity and incentives to manage care might be used to improve access. In the early 1990s, the Florida Healthy Kids (FHK) demonstration extended Medicaid-like HMO coverage to indigent children in the public schools of Volusia County, Florida. The study finds that uninsured student months in area public schools were likely reduced by one-half. Utilization and cost levels for these indigent enrollees proved to be indistinguishable from commercial clients; and measures of access, utilization, and satisfaction for enrollees were in line with (and in some cases, superior to) non-enrollees with private insurance. Overall, these results suggest the value of using schools as a medium for providing coverage, and the importance of taking deliberate steps to manage access to reduce non-financial barriers to care. PMID:10170346

  7. Adjusted Community Rate Reforms to Promote HMO Participation in Medicare+Choice

    PubMed Central

    Encinosa, William E.; Sappington, David E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors review the financial regulations imposed on health maintenance organizations (HMOs) that participate in the Medicare+Choice program and identify elements of the regulations that may discourage HMO participation in the program. Modifications of the regulations are proposed that could encourage the participation of HMOs without affording them excessive profit. The modifications include smoothing and bounding profit estimates and authorizing and encouraging expanded use of benefit stabilization funds. PMID:11481733

  8. Integrating a consumer orientation into the planning of HMO programs: an application of conjoint segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akaah, I P; Becherer, R C

    1983-01-01

    Despite legislative support and considerable publicity, the predicted boom in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) has not materialized. This has been due, in part, to an absence of marketing-oriented planning in designing such programs. This paper presents a consumer-oriented approach utilizing conjoint segmentation methodology which can be used to develop HMO plans that stand a better chance of consumer acceptance and marketing success.

  9. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  10. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  11. Trends in Social Science: The Impact of Computational and Simulative Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico

    This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.

  12. Matisse: A Visual Analytics System for Exploring Emotion Trends in Social Media Text Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Beaver, Justin M; Pyle, Joshua M; BogenII, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.

  13. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers.

  14. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers. PMID:26230656

  15. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other’s TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers. PMID:26230656

  16. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G; Pyle, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  17. Evolving trends in nurse regulation: what are the policy impacts for nursing's social mandate?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan; Thorne, Sally; Rodney, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    We recognize a paradox of power and promise in the context of legislative and organizational changes in nurse regulation which poses constraints on nursing's capacity to bring voice and influence to pressing matters of healthcare and public policy. The profession is at an important crossroads wherein leaders must be well informed in political, economic and legislative trends to harness the profession's power while also navigating forces that may put at risk its central mission to serve society. We present a critical policy analysis of the impact of recent regulatory trends on what the International Council of Nurses considers nursing's three 'pillars' - the profession of nursing, socioeconomic welfare of nurses and nurse regulation. Themes surfacing from this analysis include regulatory discontinuity, a tightening of regulatory control, and an increasingly managerial governance culture. These themes illuminate insights and strategies required to renew and revitalize the social mandate of our profession amidst a climate of urgency in the questioning of nurse scholars with respect to the future of the profession. At this historic juncture, nurses must clearly understand the implications of legislative and organizational regulatory changes to ensure the profession contributes to full capacity in achieving health and health equity globally. PMID:25382628

  18. Using HMOs to serve the Medicaid population: what are the effects on utilization and does the type of HMO matter?

    PubMed

    Herring, Bradley; Adams, E Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    States have increasingly used Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) to provide medical services to the Medicaid population. However, the effects of these initiatives on total health-care expenses, the mix of utilization, and access to care remain unclear. We examine the effect of changes in Medicaid HMO penetration between 1996 and 2002 on these outcomes using data for the nonelderly Medicaid population in the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. We develop market-level measures of Medicaid HMO penetration from CMS and InterStudy data, distinguish whether the HMOs specialize in serving the Medicaid population, and use a market fixed-effects model to focus on changes in HMO penetration rates over time. Although limited by imprecise estimates, we find some evidence that utilization and access are related to the market penetration rates of commercial and Medicaid-dominant HMOs, but the pattern of results we observe does not appear to be consistent with welfare improvements.

  19. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on education…

  20. Natural hazards and climate change in Dhaka: future trends, social adaptation and informal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.

    2009-04-01

    . Findings are then applied to future global climate scenario runs to obtain a first estimate of trends for the frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and their impact on spatial and temporal characteristics of floods in the Greater Dhaka region. From this estimate, a prediction method for the spatial patterns of flooding within the Dhaka area will be developed. The social part of the project analyzes the vulnerability and resilience of economic and social systems within high-risk areas by utilizing methods such as e.g. quantitative household surveys in Dhaka and qualitative expert interviews. Geographers are hoping to identify adaptation and recovery strategies of slum dwellers and informal businesses (e.g. brickfields, tanneries), analyze the role of social capital as well as formal and informal institutions for building up resilience, and analyze possibilities and limits of adaptation strategies under conditions of further urban growth and climate change. By paying attention to the important behavioral patterns of the informal sector, a meteorological early warning system can then be developed to make better use of weather predictions to mitigate weather-related risks for Greater Dhaka. If successful, this project poses as an exemplary intersection of social science and natural hazards research.

  1. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP.... (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs concurrently with any waiting... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan...

  2. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP.... (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs concurrently with any waiting... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan...

  3. 29 CFR 2590.701-7 - HMO affiliation period as an alternative to a preexisting condition exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP.... (6) The affiliation period for enrollment in the HMO under a plan runs concurrently with any waiting... examples: Example 1. (i) Facts. An employer sponsors a group health plan. Benefits under the plan...

  4. 42 CFR 417.556 - Apportionment: Provider services furnished by the HMO or CMP through arrangements with others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment: Provider services furnished by the HMO or CMP through arrangements with others. 417.556 Section 417.556 Public Health CENTERS...

  5. Prostate cancer treatment and ten-year survival among group/staff HMO and fee-for-service Medicare patients.

    PubMed Central

    Potosky, A L; Merrill, R M; Riley, G F; Taplin, S H; Barlow, W; Fireman, B H; Lubitz, J D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment patterns and the ten-year survival of prostate cancer patients in two large, nonprofit, group/staff HMOs to those of patients receiving care in the fee-for-service health setting. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of men age 65 and over diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1985 and the end of 1992 and followed through 1994. Subjects (n = 21,741) were ascertained by two population-based tumor registries covering the greater San Francisco-Oakland and Seattle-Puget Sound areas. Linkage of registry data with Medicare claims data and with HMO inpatient utilization data allowed the determination of health plan enrollment and the measurement of comorbid conditions. Multivariate regression models were used to examine HMO versus FFS treatment and survival differences adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among cases with non-metastatic prostate cancer, HMO patients were more likely than FFS patients to receive aggressive therapy (either prostatectomy or radiation) in San Francisco-Oakland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.46-1.96) but not in Seattle (OR = 1.15, 0.93-1.43). Among men receiving aggressive therapy, HMO cases were three to five times more likely to receive radiation therapy than prostatectomy. Overall mortality was equivalent over ten years (HMO versus FFS mortality risk ratio [RR] = 1.01, 0.94-1.08), but prostate cancer mortality was higher for HMO cases than for FFS cases (RR = 1.25, 1.13-1.39). CONCLUSION: Despite marked treatment differences for clinically localized prostate cancer, overall ten-year survival for patients enrolled in two nonprofit group/staff HMOs was equivalent to survival among patients receiving care in the FFS setting, even after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Similar overall but better prostate cancer-specific survival among FFS patients is most plausibly explained by differences between the HMO and FFS patients in both tumor

  6. Is the social volcano still dormant? Trends in Chinese attitudes toward inequality.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Martin King; Im, Dong-Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Data from two China national surveys, in 2004 and 2009, focusing on popular attitudes toward current inequalities and mobility opportunities, are compared to examine two key questions: (1) Did the continued rise in income gaps and the impact within China of the global financial crisis lead to rising popular anger about the unfairness of current inequality patterns in 2009? and (2) Did the social contours of attitudes toward current inequalities shift over the five years between surveys? Through systematic comparisons of data from both surveys, we conclude that there is no general increase in anger about inequalities in the 2009 survey, and that the predictors of variations in these attitudes had changed relatively little, with the unexpectedly positive views of villagers still visible in 2009, although a bit muted. Trends in Chinese society between 2004 and 2009, and in the personal experience of survey respondents, are used to explain why popular acceptance of current inequalities remains widespread, despite continuing increases in China's income gaps.

  7. Is the social volcano still dormant? Trends in Chinese attitudes toward inequality.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Martin King; Im, Dong-Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Data from two China national surveys, in 2004 and 2009, focusing on popular attitudes toward current inequalities and mobility opportunities, are compared to examine two key questions: (1) Did the continued rise in income gaps and the impact within China of the global financial crisis lead to rising popular anger about the unfairness of current inequality patterns in 2009? and (2) Did the social contours of attitudes toward current inequalities shift over the five years between surveys? Through systematic comparisons of data from both surveys, we conclude that there is no general increase in anger about inequalities in the 2009 survey, and that the predictors of variations in these attitudes had changed relatively little, with the unexpectedly positive views of villagers still visible in 2009, although a bit muted. Trends in Chinese society between 2004 and 2009, and in the personal experience of survey respondents, are used to explain why popular acceptance of current inequalities remains widespread, despite continuing increases in China's income gaps. PMID:25131275

  8. Tooth Loss in the United Kingdom – Trends in Social Inequalities: An Age-Period-and-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General’s Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from −28.4% to −15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5–2.9 in number of teeth and 22–26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10–11% more teeth and 25–28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but

  9. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  10. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Social Work for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Social Work…

  11. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Social Work for the Years 1995-96 and 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report covering 2,830 faculty in social work is part of an annual national survey of faculty salaries. The survey is in two parts one covering public and one covering private four-year colleges and universities. Data for the l995-96 baseline year and 1998-99 trend year were collected for full-time teaching faculty in 53 selected academic…

  12. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  13. Social media for empowering people with diabetes: Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain.

  14. Demographic Trends in Social Work over a Quarter-Century in an Increasingly Female Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert; Morrish, Jennifer Naranjo; Liu, Gan

    2008-01-01

    This article depicts the changing demographic portrait of social work education in the United States from 1974 through 2000 and considers the demographic shifts in the profession of social work. During this period, BSW and joint MSW-BSW programs increased from 150 to 404, MSW programs increased from 79 to 139, and social work doctoral programs…

  15. Outcome Studies in Social Work Journals: A Review of Publication Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig W.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2013-01-01

    Social work practice emerges from research conducted with outcome studies that attempt to capture the "change" that social work services are designed to influence. However, it is unclear the extent to which social workers are prioritizing, and thereby producing, publications that investigate this change. We find that both the number and…

  16. PhD versus DSW: A Critique of Trends in Social Work Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    Social work educators are in a phase of reintroducing the doctor of social work (DSW) degree and refining distinctions between PhD and DSW doctoral programs. This article examines how the two options have been prey to a noticeable "seesaw of precedence", resulting in a debatable history of social work's approach to doctoral education…

  17. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets. PMID:16752110

  18. The New Zealand Family and Social Change: A Trend Analysis. Occasional Papers in Sociology and Social Welfare No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburgh, Miriam Gilson

    Long term trends in non-Maori family formation, growth, and dissolution in New Zealand were investigated with data mainly derived from the statistical reports of government departments. Sources included census reports; vital, justice, medical, and migration statistics; life tables; and official yearbooks. To augment official statistical data, an…

  19. Tweet for health: using an online social network to examine temporal trends in weight loss-related posts.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have used social networking sites to track temporal trends in health-related posts, particularly around weight loss. To examine the temporal relationship of Twitter messages about weight loss over 1 year (2012). Temporal trends in #weightloss mentions and #fitness, #diet, and #health tweets which also had the word "weight" in them were examined using three a priori time periods: (1) holidays: pre-winter holidays, holidays, and post-holidays; (2) Season: winter and summer; and (3) New Year's: pre-New Year's and post-New Year's. Regarding #weightloss, there were 145 (95 % CI 79, 211) more posts/day during holidays and 143 (95 % CI 76, 209) more posts/day after holidays as compared to 480 pre-holiday posts/day; 232 (95 % CI 178, 286) more posts/day during the winter versus summer (441 posts/day); there was no difference in posts around New Year's. Examining social networks for trends in health-related posts may aid in timing interventions when individuals are more likely to be discussing weight loss.

  20. Hospital social work in Australia: emerging trends or more of the same?

    PubMed

    Cleak, Helen M; Turczynski, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Social work in health care has been established for more than 100 years and is one of the largest areas of practice for social workers. Over time, demographic changes and growth in the aging population, increased longevity rates, an explosion in rates of chronic illness together with rapidly increasing cost of health care have created serious challenges for acute hospitals and health social workers. This article reviews the Australian health care system and policies with particular emphasis on the public hospital system. It then examines current hospital social work roles, including the continued role in discharge planning and expanding responsibility for emerging client problems, such as patient complexity, legal, and carer issues. The article concludes with a discussion of evolving issues and challenges facing health social work to ensure that social work remain relevant within this practice context.

  1. Social media for empowering people with diabetes: Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain. PMID:26736711

  2. Elder Care for the 1980s: Health and Social Service in One Prepaid Health Maintenance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Larry M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of delivering combined health and social services to an elderly population. The social/health maintenance organization (S/HMO), incorporating features of health maintenance organizations with community social services, will be financed on a prepaid, capitated basis through premium contributions from Medicare, Medicaid,…

  3. Teaching Social Studies: Handbook of Trends, Issues, and Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Virginia S., Ed.; Litle, James A., Ed.; Wilson, Gerald Lee, Ed.

    This book of essays provides a set of reference sources on the field of social studies. The introduction places the discipline in context, connecting it with the society and the world that it helps to explain. The 15 chapters include: (1) "Persistent Issues in the Social Studies" (Stanley P. Wronski); (2) "Reform Revisited: The Story of Elementary…

  4. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time of a tax…

  5. Screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking in an HMO: effects on medical care utilization.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, D K; Polen, M R; Hollis, J F; Senft, R A

    2000-11-01

    This study examined whether a brief intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption among primary care patients reduced use of medical care. In a parent, randomized controlled trial, at-risk drinkers identified in HMO outpatient waiting rooms were randomly assigned to receive usual care or brief clinician advice plus a 15-minute motivational counseling session. The current study (n = 514) examined the groups' use of outpatient and inpatient medical services during two years after intervention. Although the intervention reduced alcohol consumption at six-month follow-up, intervention and control groups made similar numbers of outpatient visits (M = 17.7 vs. 18.3, respectively; p = .47), were equally likely to be hospitalized (21.2% vs. 22.0%; p = .81), and among those hospitalized, had similar lengths of stay (4.7 vs. 6.6 days; p = .37). Although brief interventions to reduce hazardous drinking may potentially reduce medical care utilization, more evidence is needed to substantiate their practicality and cost-effectiveness. PMID:11070638

  6. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Tyler R; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW's content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system.

  7. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  8. Trends that will affect your future...: nonlocal linkage and the social dimension.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  9. Comparison of use of outpatient mental health services in an HMO and fee-for-service plans. Sensitivity to definition of a visit.

    PubMed

    Wells, K B; Manning, W G; Benjamin, B

    1987-09-01

    Whereas previous authors have used a variety of strategies to identify use of mental health services, the sensitivity of estimates to the definition of a visit has been little studied. The authors examined the sensitivity of estimates of use of outpatient mental health services in both HMO and fee-for-service plans to the method of identifying outpatient mental health visits. The HMO and fee-for-service plans had identical benefits (i.e., free care). Data were from the Rand Health Insurance Study. Mental health visits were identified using two definitions: presence of a mental health diagnosis or procedure; and presence of a mental health procedure, diagnosis, or prescription for psychotropic medication in the absence of physical disorders requiring such medications. The major policy conclusions about lower levels of use in the HMO compared to fee-for-service plans were insensitive to the definition of a visit. Nevertheless, estimates of use of general medical providers were higher when psychotropic medications were included in the definition of a mental health visit; this sensitivity to definition was significantly greater for fee-for-service than HMO participants (P less than 0.05). Further, conclusions about the comparability of enrollment mental health status of patients treated by general medical providers in HMO and fee-for-service plans were somewhat sensitive to the definition of a visit. PMID:3695680

  10. Preservice Teachers' Social Networking Use, Concerns, and Educational Possibilities: Trends from 2008 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joan E.; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun; Liu, Sa

    2015-01-01

    This four-year, cross-sectional study, situated in one U.S. university, investigated 206 preservice teachers' use of social network services (SNS) in teacher preparation and their disposition toward using it in their future teaching. Using descriptive survey methodology, results revealed nearly all preservice teachers used a general SNS (e.g.,…

  11. The Postgraduate Premium: Revisiting Trends in Social Mobility and Educational Inequalities in Britain and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne; Machin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This report revisits the debate about why social mobility levels are relatively low in Great Britain and the United States of America compared to other countries. It focuses on three main areas within this debate: (1) the changing role of educational inequalities; (2) the expectation of ever higher levels of education as revealed in increasing…

  12. Social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors.

  13. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health. PMID:21461777

  14. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  15. Usability, Communicability and Cultural Tourism in Interactive Systems: Trends, Economic Effects and Social Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel

    We have developed a set of techniques and an analysis methodology aimed at boosting the quality of interactive tourism systems. The details of it will be presented in full and with real examples which have yielded interesting results in the last few years, both from the social and economical point of view, but with a huge wealth of cultural and natural heritage. We will also present a first guidelines to foster tourism in those villages that are willing to promote themselves in the national and international market at a low cost.

  16. Seasonal trends in the social composition and inside-trunk distribution of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) colonizing grapevines.

    PubMed

    Maistrello, Lara; Ocete, Rafael; López, M Angeles

    2010-04-01

    The polyphagous drywood termite Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius) can establish its colonies inside living trees, causing a progressive debilitation that ends with the death of the plant. For this reason, it is considered one of the major pests of Sherry vineyards in Andalusia, SW Spain. To analyze the trends of colonization of this termite, a detailed investigation was performed during 16 mo in seven districts of the Sherry area, cutting randomly selected grapevine trunks into six sections, from which all individuals were collected and counted according to their developmental instar or caste. The results detected variations in the social composition of the groups colonizing grapevines according to the spatial distribution inside the vine trunk and in the numerical trends over the seasons. A pattern of seasonal migrations of the termites inside the trunk was inferred, with upward movements from spring to autumn and downward movements from autumn to winter. During winter, when termites were mainly located in the medium-basal sections of the trunk, a higher proportion of eggs and larvae was detected. Going from spring to summer, when the majority of the termites was located in the medium-upper sections of the trunk, there was an increase of nymphal instars followed, during autumn, by the appearance of alates, mostly located in the upper sections of the grapevine. Pseudergates and reproductives maintained their proportions and locations almost unchanged during the year.

  17. Regional trends in psycho-social research in fertility and family planning.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the current status of research on social and psychological aspects of fertility and family planning in the ESCAP region. The mainstream of psychosocial research in the area is identified, to the extent possible, and methodologies used and findings are reviewed. Existing studies are examined to identify gaps calling for further study. Earlier studies in the West are identified, as well as regional studies: KAP studies and the World Fertility Survey, which provide information on desired family size, preference for the number and sex of additional children, desire to stop childbearing at parity, and knowledge and practice of family planning and methods used. Value of children studies, involving cultural advantages and disadvantages of children, and other studies relating directly or indirectly to psychosocial research are noted. Areas for future research are suggested. PMID:12310967

  18. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-08-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels.

  19. [Relations between social defense and criminological trends from the 1930s until today].

    PubMed

    Tagliarini, F

    1976-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the historical evolution of criminological schools, in the background, wider and more articulated, of a research by the National Council for Scientific Research directed to probing the outlines of the social defence concept. The work, then, proceeds in the field of criminology and, more particularly, of the evolution of criminological currents which, without defining aims, we will name classical to tell them from the original criminology, of positivistic imprint, and from the new criminology of critical, radical or marxist inspiration, whose examination in entrusted to another research unit. The method followed was that of the historical research with reference to the selected period and with a constant relation, in text and notes, to the enunciations of the examined Authors, considered essential. For such purpose, that is to say for more accuracy in references, it was considered convenient to have the text followed, not only by an ample bibliographical index, but also by an appendix of texts considered particularly significant in the documentation field.

  20. The trend of body donation for education based on Korean social and religious culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or organs for education in the past. However, by the end of the 20th century, a unique fusion of Western and Oriental medicines were produced on the Korean Peninsula, revolutionizing traditional perspectives on the human body, mortality, and the relationship of medical science to society. Koreans began to think about others' lives as well as their own by realizing the importance of donating one's organs and bodies for scientific purposes. Since then, the number of people donating their bodies to Korean medical and dental schools for the purpose of improving academic learning has increased dramatically. In response, Korean medical schools have begun to hold various types of funeral ceremonies to honor body donors. We have compared such ceremonies performed in Korea with those performed in the United States of America and Taiwan. These ceremonies are viewed as a suitable way to pay proper respect to the dead and to promote knowledge about body donation programs in Korea. Overall, the transition of religions and social ethics in Korea has greatly facilitated body bequeathal programs, benefiting both medical education and the Korean public health administration.

  1. Effects of short-term alcohol on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system (HMO) in rats receiving nutrition sufficient to promote normal' weight gains

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, T.; Ronis, M.; Lumpkin, C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Shahare, M.; Mercado, C.; Huang, J.; Irby, D.; Crouch, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two clinically relevant diets on HMO and to determine if ethanol has demonstrable effects in the presence of dietary sources that promote normal growth rates. A model in which ethanol was infused directly into the stomach as part of a total enteral nutrition system (TEN) was used in the current study. The effects of the two liquid diets alone or of TEN where 35% of the total calories in the diets were replaced by ethanol for 8 days were examined on HMO of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. HMO activities were determined using standard enzyme assays with specific substrates and cytochrome P450 apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. The results of these studies suggest: that short-term dietary ethanol can induce CYP 2E1 in well nourished animals but that the level of induction is smaller than that previously reported using Lieber-DeCarli pair feeding regimens; that diet alone has a significant influence on constitutive levels of P450 isozymes including CYP 2E1; that diet influences the effects of ethanol on HMO; and that the TEN system is a useful model for the study of diet/drug interactions.

  2. Maintaining Medicare HMO's: Problems, Protections and Prospects. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine issues involved in maintaining and strengthening Medicare Health Maintenance Orgranizations (HMO). Opening statements are included from Representatives Edward Roybal, Matthew Rinaldo, Mario Biaggi, Don Bonker, Robert Borski, Louise…

  3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization International Symposium on "Trends in Social Science Research on Children" (Austin, Texas, September 9-13, 1979). Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Hogg Foundation for Mental Health.

    The purpose of this report is to highlight common themes and issues expressed in papers presented at the International Symposium on "Trends in Social Science Research on Children." Issues fall into four general areas: children's needs, particular groups of children, child-rearing environments, and research methodology. Major issues and themes were…

  4. Trends and social differentials in child mortality in Rwanda 1990–2010: results from three demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-01-01

    Background Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15–49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Results Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005–2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Conclusions Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. PMID:25870163

  5. Psychological and Social Factors Affecting Internet Searches on Suicide in Korea: A Big Data Analysis of Google Search Trends

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae Min; Song, Juyoung; Hayman, Laura L.; Woo, Jong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The average mortality rate for death by suicide among OECD countries is 12.8 per 100000, and 33.5 for Korea. The present study analyzed big data extracted from Google to identify factors related to searches on suicide in Korea. Materials and Methods Google search trends for the search words of suicide, stress, exercise, and drinking were obtained for 2004-2010. Analyzing data by month, the relationship between the actual number of suicides and search words per year was examined using multi-level models. Results Both suicide rates and Google searches on suicide in Korea increased since 2007. An unconditional slope model indicated stress and suicide-related searches were positively related. A conditional model showed that factors associated with suicide by year directly affected suicide-related searches. The interaction between stress-related searches and the actual number of suicides was significant. Conclusion A positive relationship between stress- and suicide-related searches further confirmed that stress affects suicide. Taken together and viewed in context of the big data analysis, our results point to the need for a tailored prevention program. Real-time big data can be of use in indicating increases in suicidality when search words such as stress and suicide generate greater numbers of hits on portals and social network sites. PMID:24339315

  6. Agricultural Yield Trends in Malawi: Utilizing Remote Sensing to Observe Crop Productivity and Sensitivity to Biophysical and Social Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this research is to distinguish primary and secondary trends in the spatiotemporal variability of agricultural productivity in Malawi. The assessment was performed by analyzing the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) product derived from NASA MODIS satellite imagery and by drawing comparisons between individual land areas and the country-wide statistics. The data were categorized by placing each individual land area into one of six categories: low, average, or high productivity, and whether or not they were resilient or sensitive to biophysical and/or social production drivers. In order to mitigate productivity interference from forest and other land cover types, a custom agricultural land use was developed. Five land cover datasets, including FAO, GLC, IFPRI, GlobCover, and MODIS were combined to minimize errors of commission. Model assessment occurred via field work in Malawi. Approximately 200 sites were visited across nearly the entire extent of the country. Cropland and land cover were assessed via visual inspection, true color/near-infrared photography, and on-site interviews with farmers and extension officers to inquire about productivity and limiting factors for yield. Additionally, we present a continental scale application of the model to demonstrate its performance across scales.

  7. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790

  8. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality.

  9. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  10. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health.

  11. Latino Population Growth, Characteristics, and Settlement Trends: Implications for Social Work Education in a Dynamic Political Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Kilty, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies a number of significant contemporary trends in the Latino population, including the striking growth of the community, new points of entry and settlement for recent immigrants, the mixed-status nature of families, and the increase in the proportion of U.S. households that speak Spanish. The implications of these trends for…

  12. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs.

  13. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs. PMID:2670835

  14. Gender differences in predictors of initiation, retention, and completion in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Dickinson, Daniel M; Lynch, Frances L; Bennett, Marjorie D

    2002-12-01

    We studied gender differences in treatment process indicators among 293 HMO members recommended for substance abuse treatment. Treatment initiation, completion, and time spent in treatment did not differ by gender, but factors predicting these outcomes differed markedly. Initiation was predicted in women by alcohol diagnoses; in men, by being employed or married. Failure to initiate treatment was predicted in women by mental health diagnoses; in men, by less education. Treatment completion was predicted in women by higher income and legal/agency referral; in men, by older age. Failure to complete was predicted in women by more dependence diagnoses and higher Addiction Severity Index Employment scores; in men, by worse psychiatric status, receiving Medicaid, and motivation for entering treatment. More time spent in treatment was predicted, in women, by alcohol or opiate diagnoses and legal/agency referral; in men, by fewer mental health diagnoses, higher education, domestic violence victim status, and prior 12-step attendance. Clinical implications of results are discussed. PMID:12495790

  15. A randomized trial of a serialized self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant women in an HMO.

    PubMed Central

    Ershoff, D H; Mullen, P D; Quinn, V P

    1989-01-01

    We report the results of a population-based randomized clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of a prenatal self-help smoking cessation program. The intervention consisted predominantly of printed materials received through the mail. The population (n = 242) consisted of a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse group of pregnant women enrolled in a large health maintenance organization (HMO) who reported they were smoking at the time of their first prenatal visit. Biochemical confirmation of continuous abstinence achieved prior to the 20th completed week of pregnancy and lasting through delivery revealed 22.2 per cent of the women in the eight-week serialized program quit versus 8.6 per cent of controls with usual care. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.80 (95 per cent CI = 1.17, 6.69). We conclude that a low-cost prenatal self-help intervention can significantly affect the public health problem of smoking during pregnancy and its associated risks for maternal and child health. PMID:2913837

  16. Gender differences in outcomes in an HMO-based substance abuse treatment program.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Lynch, Frances L; Dickinson, Daniel M; Bennett, Marjorie D

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in treatment outcomes and outcomes predictors among 155 men and 81 women attending a gender-sensitive substance abuse treatment program. Bivariate analyses indicated women improved more than men in social/family and daily functioning domains, but differences disappeared after controlling for baseline characteristics. Multivariate models predicting treatment outcomes revealed that, across Addiction Severity Index domains, outcomes for men were predicted primarily by mental health and medical conditions, severity of the substance abuse problem, and treatment com- pletion. For women, in addition to treatment completion, outcomes were more likely to be predicted by social, socio-demographic, and life-history characteristics. For abstinence outcomes, women who completed treatment were 9 times as likely to be abstinent at 7-month follow-up as other women; men who completed were 3 times more likely to be abstinent than other men. Women with more severe psychiatric status and those who felt their life was out of control were less likely to be abstinent, as were men who lived alone. Clinicians targeting such factors differentially for men and women may enhance the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:15132342

  17. Trends that will affect your future … the coming food crisis-the social tsunami headed our way.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzreport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. PMID:21907151

  18. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  19. Trends in Medicare Health Maintenance Organization Enrollment: 1986-93

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Alma

    1993-01-01

    This study examines Medicare health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 1982 (Public Law 97-248) from 1986 to 1993. It shows that there was moderate growth in the number of Medicare beneficiaries participating in the TEFRA risk program, reaching 1 in 20 beneficiaries in 1993. Medicare HMO enrollment is heavily concentrated in a few large plans, resulting in heavy concentrations geographically. California and Florida accounted for over one-third of Medicare HMO enrollees. One-half of the States have no Medicare HMO enrollment and one-fifth of the States have fewer than 15,000 Medicare HMO enrollees. PMID:10133705

  20. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Social Work for the Years 1996-97 and 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected academic disciplines. Data for the study were collected from a total of 296 public and 390 private four-year institutions from the baseline year of 1996-97 to the trend year of 1999-2000. A data table lists average salaries for both…

  1. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  2. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  3. Are you using social media to build your practice? Patient trends and healthcare changes give new value to online presence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an effective, efficient tool for physicians to use to grow their practices, network, and distribute information to large groups of people. While 87% of physicians use social media in their personal lives--everything from Facebook, to Twitter, to blogs and YouTube--only 26% use two or more sites for connecting professionally. What an opportunity they're missing! Healthcare professionals, in particular, must heed a few words of warning, but beyond that, there are some proven tricks for developing a respected, charismatic online presence.

  4. Are you using social media to build your practice? Patient trends and healthcare changes give new value to online presence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Social media is an effective, efficient tool for physicians to use to grow their practices, network, and distribute information to large groups of people. While 87% of physicians use social media in their personal lives--everything from Facebook, to Twitter, to blogs and YouTube--only 26% use two or more sites for connecting professionally. What an opportunity they're missing! Healthcare professionals, in particular, must heed a few words of warning, but beyond that, there are some proven tricks for developing a respected, charismatic online presence. PMID:23167037

  5. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  6. More evidence for trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce: a completed cohort approach using data from the general social survey.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the children of divorce are disproportionately likely to end their own marriages. In previous work, I showed that the transmission of divorce between generations weakened substantially for General Social Survey (GSS) respondents interviewed between 1973 and 1996 (Wolfinger 1999); Li and Wu (2006, 2008) contended that my finding is a methodological artifact of the GSS's lack of marriage duration data. This article presents a completed-cohort approach to studying divorce using the GSS. The results confirm a decline in the probability of divorce transmission that cannot be explained by the right-censoring bias alleged by Li and Wu. This finding contributes to an ongoing debate about trends in the negative consequences of parental divorce, as well as demonstrating a useful approach to right-censored phenomena when event history data are not available.

  7. Changing trends in European alcoholic beverage drinking: selected social, demographic, economic factors, drinking's related harms, and prevention control policies between the 1960s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Maccari, Francesco; Pepe, Pasquale; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This study confirms that during the decades following WW II there was a tendency towards closure of consumption of alcoholic beverages among the European countries. The Northern countries, which during the 1960s manifested the lowest rates of alcohol consumption, ended up with greater consumption rates than the Southern countries, manifested the opposite trend; greater amounts of consumptions in the 1960s and lower consumptions in the 2000s. During the same some period, social, demographic and economic indicators--urbanization, rate of elderly males, Income, female education, female employment and mother's age at their childbirths, tended to increase, while the alcoholic beverage control policy strategies showed differences according to the country. Liver disease-related mortality, decreased in most countries. Study limitations are noted.

  8. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century.

  9. Secular trends in social class differences of height, weight and BMI of boys from two schools in Lisbon, Portugal (1910-2000).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caninas, Madalena

    2010-03-01

    Data on the physical growth of children can provide useful information about the temporal changes in the economic conditions of the society in which they live and the extent of social inequalities within that society as well. Several studies have documented secular changes in the physical growth of children or of adult height, but seldom have the socioeconomic differences in secular trend been reported. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the secular trend of height, weight and BMI of 10-16-year-old boys enrolled in two schools of opposite socioeconomic makeup in Lisbon, Portugal, in the early and late 20th century. The samples from the upper-middle class come from the Colégio Militar, a military boarding school, and the lower-class samples come from the Casa Pia de Lisboa, a residential school for underprivileged boys. While boys from both schools show an approximate increase of 13.6cm in height, 13.5kg in weight and 2.4kg/m(2) in BMI, the Casa Pia students were shorter and lighter than their Colégio Militar counterparts throughout the 90-year period. Social class differences in mean height, weight and BMI tend to be greater in 1910 than in 2000, but results are statistically significant for height alone. When the two periods are taken together, Colégio Militar boys differ from their Casa Pia counterparts by approximately 6.4cm in height, 4.8kg in weight and 0.4kg/m(2) in BMI. Both samples show a considerable increase in height, weight and BMI but class differences in height, weight and BMI decreased slightly if at all, throughout the 90-year period. This suggests that socioeconomic disparities are persistent, having diminished only slightly since the early 20th century.

  10. HMO's and Medicare: Problems in the Oversight of a Promising Partnership. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine problems in the partnership of Medicare and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO's). Opening statements are included from committee chairman Claude Pepper and from Representative Lawrence J. Smith. Two panels of witnesses address…

  11. Stemming the global obesity epidemic: What can we learn from data about social and economic trends?✩

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Summary Although the policy debate is only slowly moving away from the focus on individual-level psychological and social factors, the research community has largely recognized that changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are driven by changes in the environment and by the incentives that people face. Many factors have been suggested as causes of the ‘obesity epidemic’. Putting a multitude of isolated data points into a coherent picture is a challenging, but necessary, task to assess whether proposed solutions are promising or likely to lead down a blind alley. Conventional wisdom is an unreliable guide and some widely held beliefs are incorrect. Can one distinguish between important and less important behavioural changes and relate them to environmental incentives? People face trade-offs in allocating their scarce resources of time and money to best achieve their goals, including health. Studying what people are doing with their time and money is a good start towards understanding how economic incentives have altered energy intake and energy expenditure in a way that has led to weight gain. A challenging task for policy will be finding the right levers. Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process, but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Economics and public health perspectives can complement each other, but harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. Arguably the most effective community intervention would be multi-faceted and would include several goals about diet and physical activity. In practice, however, it appears that much more effort is devoted to promoting increased fruit/vegetable consumption, and exhorting individuals to increase physical activity than to environmental intervention that would make it easier for people to reduce energy intake and sedentary entertainment. Politically, it may often be more expedient to promote an increase

  12. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE program; uniform HMO benefit; special health care delivery programs--DoD. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    This final rule establishes requirements and procedures for implementation of the TRICARE Program, the purpose of which is to implement a comprehensive managed health care delivery system composed of military medical treatment facilities and CHAMPUS. Principal components of the final rule include: establishment of a comprehensive enrollment system; creation of a triple option benefit, including a Uniform HMO Benefit required by law; a series of initiatives to coordinate care between military and civilian delivery systems, including Resource Sharing Agreements, Health Care Finders, PRIMUS and NAVCARE Clinics, and new prescription pharmacy services; and a consolidated schedule of charges, incorporating steps to reduce differences in charges between military and civilian services. This final rule also includes provisions establishing a special civilian provider program authority for active duty family members overseas. The TRICARE Program is a major reform of the MHSS that will improve services to beneficiaries while helping to contain costs. PMID:10151661

  13. Australian health professionals' social media (Web 2.0) adoption trends: early 21st century health care delivery and practice promotion.

    PubMed

    Usher, Wayne T

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies

  14. Trends Shaping Education--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This new biennial publication presents the latest available information on 26 major current trends in education, grouped in 9 broad themes (ageing, global challenges, the new economic landscape, work and jobs, the learning society, ICT, citizenship and the state, social connections and values, and sustainable affluence). For each trend, there is a…

  15. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  16. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julie Rowland

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  17. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... includes ecstasy and LSD) in the past month. Cocaine use has gone down in the last few ...

  18. Recent Trends in Alcohol Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blane, Howard T.

    1976-01-01

    There are two basic trends in alcohol education--one aiming at containment and control, the other envisioning a society in which alcohol is morally neutral, its use integrated into activities that reflect social solidarity, and in which drinking is not associated with social hazard. (JD)

  19. Rural Conditions and Trends, 1990-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Conditions and Trends, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The five volumes of Rural Conditions and Trends for 1990-1994 contain information and statistical data on economic and social conditions and trends of interest to rural educators and researchers. Articles cover the following areas: macroeconomic trends; employment; unemployment; industry; earnings; income; poverty; population; national economic…

  20. Diversity, social justice, and intersectionality trends in C/MFT: a content analysis of three family therapy journals, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Seedall, Ryan B; Holtrop, Kendal; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed the amount of attention given to diversity, social justice, and an intersectional approach to social inequalities over an 8-year period (769 articles) in three family therapy journals. Overall, 28.1% of articles addressed at least one diversity issue, and a social justice framework was utilized in 48.1% of diversity articles. A systemic, intersectional approach to conceptualizing and analyzing multiple social inequalities was utilized in 17.6% of diversity articles. The most common goals addressed in diversity articles, articles using a social justice framework, and articles using an intersectional approach are also identified. Findings indicate that, despite important work being carried out, more work remains to further identify how addressing diversity issues can improve client outcomes.

  1. Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  2. Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in HIV/AIDS trends in the Kagera region of Tanzania - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Gasto; Eriksson, Malin; Nystrom, Lennarth; Killewo, Japhet; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-01

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive social capital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms, values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members could adopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal and informal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinence from sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency to demand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members, particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increased their vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) were also found to increase youths' risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even though social capital may at times have negative effects on individuals' HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initial evidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and the poor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  3. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  4. Social health maintenance organizations' service use and costs, 1985-89

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Newcomer, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this article are aggregate utilization and financial data from the four social health maintenance organization (SIHMO) demonstrations that were collected and analyzed as a part of the national evaluation of the SIHMO demonstration project conducted for the Health Care Financing Administration. The S/HMOs, in offering a $6,500 to $12,000 chronic care benefit in addition to the basic HMO benefit package, had higher startup costs and financial losses over the first 5 years than expected, and controlling costs continues to be a challenge to the sites and their sponsors. PMID:10113612

  5. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  6. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  7. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  8. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  9. HMO physicians' use of referrals.

    PubMed

    Bachman, K H; Freeborn, D K

    1999-02-01

    Clinical uncertainty is a source of variation in medical decision-making as well as a source of work-related stress. Increasing enrollment in organized health care systems has intensified interest in understanding referral utilization as well as issues such as physician dissatisfaction and burnout. We examined whether primary care physicians' affective reactions to uncertainty and their job characteristics were associated with use of referrals and burnout. Data came from mail surveys of primary care physicians practicing in two large group model health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in the USA. Consistent with past research, we found that younger physicians had higher referral rates than older physicians, and that general internists had higher rates than either family practitioners or pediatricians. Greater stress from uncertainty increased referrals and referrals were negatively correlated with heavier work demands (patient visits per hour). Greater stress from uncertainty, perceived workload (too high) and a sense of loss of control over the practice environment were associated with higher levels of burnout.

  10. Information Technology: Perspectives and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Doug

    The full impact of the current information technology and networking revolution remains unknown, but the experiences of organizations and individuals who are using the tools and resources offered by information technology suggest that it may change our social fabric. Some of the current and emerging trends in information technology include: the…

  11. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Ida C.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the resources devoted by the United States to public social welfare programs. Compares these expenditures with those by other industrial nations and notes possible future trends. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  12. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  13. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  14. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  15. Trends in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  16. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  17. Moral Education USA: Background and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Current trends in ethical/moral instruction are placed in context by tracing educational and social change from the 19th century to the present. The focus on religion for salvation and on good behavior lasted in modified form well into the 19th century. In the late 19th century curriculum in the schools changed due to immigration, industrialism,…

  18. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  19. Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagómez, Amanda A.; Easton-Brooks, Donald; Gomez, Karyn; Lubbes, Tawnya; Johnson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of…

  20. Health inequalities: trends, progress, and policy.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Jarlenski, Marian P; Bell, Caryn N; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2012-04-01

    Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities. PMID:22224876

  1. Regional Kendall test for trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Frans, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred. Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables.

  2. Five Trends of School Arts Education Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Ren-Lai

    2006-01-01

    In the torrents of globalization and social transition in Taiwan, it is particularly important to reinforce a sense of cultural subjectivity and localization, and promote new trends of arts education that emphasize the development of self and spirit. The fundamental principles of these new trends are: (1) that the purpose of arts education is to…

  3. Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…

  4. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Trend Book, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents an assortment of statistical data about Maryland postsecondary education. The information is presented for a period of years, so that trends can be highlighted. The Trend Book is organized into nine sections: (1) Factors Affecting Enrollments; (2) Enrollment; (3) Retention, Transfer and Graduation; (4) Degrees; (5) Graduate…

  3. Social Security and Undergraduates with Disabilities: An Analysis of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey. Addressing Trends in Development in Secondary Education and Transition. Information Brief. Vol. 3, Issue 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; Conway, Megan A.; Change, Kelly B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to describe the characteristics of undergraduate students receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Social Security Administration (SSI) benefits as they relate to issues of participation in postsecondary education and employment. This brief describes results from the National Postsecondary Student Aid…

  4. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Palamuleni, M E

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi.... The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions on Use of Social Media in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media is tremendously increasing trend for personal use. At the same time, social media are penetrating to the educational settings as well. Thus purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service social studies teachers' conceptions on use of social media in social studies education; it is possible implications on social…

  6. Skin Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian/Alaska Native men. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Increased significantly by 1.4% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  7. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.1% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ... significantly by 1.4% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Data source: Ryerson AB, Eheman CR, ...

  8. Lung Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... significantly by 1.8% per year among Asian/Pacific Islander men. Women Decreased significantly by 0.9% ... Indian/Alaska Native women. Remained level among Asian/Pacific Islander women. Mortality Trends From 2003 to 2012 ...

  9. Trends in stratospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

  10. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  11. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  12. Further Trends in Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders-A Comparison of Risk factors for Symptoms Using Quality of Work Life Data From the 2002, 2006 and 2010 General Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert B.; Lowe, Brian; Ming-Lun, Lu; Krieg, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Report trends for risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Methods Three QWL surveys examine the risk factors for MSDs. Results Findings similar for several risk factors, but differences across the reporting years may reflect economic conditions. 2010 respondent numbers were reduced, some risk factors had pattern changes and there were gender and age differences. Trend analysis showed most significant changes were for the “Work Fast” risk factor. New 2010 “Physical Effort” item showed gender differences and items reflective of total worker health showed strong associations with “Back Pain” and “Pain in Arms.” Conclusions Intervention strategies should focus on physical exposures and psychosocial risk factors (work stress, safety climate, job satisfaction, supervisor support, work fast, work freedom, work time) that have been consistently related to reports of MSDs. Economic conditions will influence some psychosocial risk factors. PMID:26247646

  13. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  14. An outlier pool for Medicare HMO payments

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Medicare pays “at-risk” health maintenance organizations a prospective capitation amount that is established by the adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) formula for estimating the amount enrollees would have cost had they remained in the fee-for-service sector. Because the AAPCC accounts for a very small percentage of the variation in beneficiary costs, considerable research has been devoted to improving the formula. A way to improve the explained variance is to remove the most expensive beneficiaries from the AAPCC payment system and pay for them separately. This article examines one approach to a payment system that combines the AAPCC with an outlier payment mechanism. PMID:10124439

  15. Medicare HMO exodus: system correction or prediction?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G C

    1999-01-01

    In a blow to seniors, numerous HMOs made a hasty withdrawal from the Medicare market, citing increased costs and inadequate federal reimbursement. This action forced more than 400,000 Medicare recipients to scramble for health coverage. In some parts of the country, coverage through a managed care plan may not be available, resulting in higher out-of-pocket costs. Even more disconcerting is the potential loss of added non-Medicare benefits, such as prescription drugs, eyeglasses, and dental care for those who return to traditional Medicare. Policymakers at all levels are searching for solutions to this disruption in health care delivery. Events such as this demonstrate the critical relationship between the mechanism of financing and service delivery.

  16. Total quality management in the HMO environment.

    PubMed

    Omachonu, V K; Johnson, J A

    1993-01-01

    Increasing numbers of healthcare organization are turning to total quality management (TQM) to contain costs and improve quality. This article describes the implication of TQM for health maintenance organizations.

  17. Trends in the Development of Secondary Education. Bulletin, 1927, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windes, Eustace E.

    1927-01-01

    This bulletin includes: (1) a general statement of present thoughts and trends, covering the accepted philosophy of purpose, influence of modern educational psychology, trends in enrollment, and the nature and trends of the present social order; (2) secondary pupil population, addressing enrollment, chronological age representation in secondary…

  18. Astro Talk in Social Media - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.

    2015-03-01

    Social media is a new trend in communicating and connecting to people. It is also a good choice to build awareness of astronomy as issues spread easily and quickly, creating hot topics. This paper will analyze the trend of astro talk in Indonesia and hope to inspire astronomers to use social media in raising awareness.

  19. Trends and Issues in Vocational Education 1988. Information Series No. 334.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budke, Wesley E.

    Vocational education providers need knowledge of trends and critical issues in order to prepare workers for the future. The context of vocational education and training programs is greatly influenced by social, economic, and technological forces to which they must respond. Among the most important social trends are the following: (1) increase in…

  20. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  1. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  2. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet; McKenney, Susan; Harada, Violet H.; Lee, Jung

    2003-01-01

    Contains five articles covering general trends and issues in instructional technology, including: developments in corporate training, higher education, and K-12 education; women's contributions to the leading instructional technology journals; developing science education materials via computer-based support; learning in the Information Age; and…

  3. Five Trends for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,…

  4. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  5. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  6. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  7. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  8. Trends in Schoolhouse Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reida, George W.

    Much material has been written, printed, and published on trends in schoolhouse construction but many of the experts have not bothered to concern themselves in carefully analyzing and understanding the program which is to be housed or the specific needs of the children in the community. In discussing this subject, two distinct realities must be…

  9. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  10. Trends in Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gary H.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews trends in copyright law, including changes resulting from technological advances that include audio and video tape recordings, motion pictures, photocopying equipment, CD-ROM, and multimedia; amendments to the law, including administrative issues; compensation to authors of computer software programs; court cases; and a movement toward…

  11. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  12. Trends Reshaping Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…

  13. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  14. Trends in Educational Expenditure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    This study provides an overview of expenditures for education and training by educational institutions in Australia, 1991-2001. The study used newly available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and administrative data from the main sectors' reports on the size and trends in public and private education expenditures. It analyzed…

  15. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  16. Ozone and temperature trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

    1991-01-01

    An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

  17. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  18. Construction Trends Dictate Vital Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivchak, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Vocational education can provide opportunities for students by anticipating trends. Four trends in the construction industry are (1) remodeling, (2) building and apartment maintenance, (3) quality, and (4) smart houses. (JOW)

  19. Moving to universal coverage? Trends in the burden of out-of-pocket payments for health care across social groups in India, 1999-2000 to 2011-12.

    PubMed

    Karan, Anup; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In the background of ongoing health sector reforms in India, the paper investigates the magnitude and trends in out-of-pocket and catastrophic payments for key population sub-groups. Data from three rounds of nationally representative consumer expenditure surveys (1999-2000, 2004-05 and 2011-12) were pooled to assess changes over time in a range of out-of-pocket -related outcome indicators for the poorest 20% households, scheduled caste and tribe households and Muslims households relative to their better-off/majority religion counterparts. Our results suggest that the poorest 20% of households experienced a decline in the proportion reporting any OOP for inpatient care relative to the top 20% and Muslim households saw an increase in the proportion reporting any inpatient OOP relative to non-Muslim households during 2000-2012. The change in the proportion of Muslim households or SC/ST households reporting any OOP for outpatient care was similar to that for their respective more advantaged counterparts; but the poorest 20% of households experienced a faster increase in the proportion reporting any OOP for outpatient care than their top 20% counterparts. SC/ST, Muslim and the poorest 20% of households experienced as faster increase in the share of outpatient OOP in total household spending relative to their advantaged counterparts. We conclude that the financial burden of out of pocket spending increased faster among the disadvantaged groups relative to their more advantaged counterparts. Although the poorest 20% saw a relative decline in OOP spending on inpatient care as a share of household spending, this is likely the result of foregoing inpatient care, than of accessing benefits from the recent expansion of cashless publicly financed insurance schemes for inpatient care. Our results highlight the need to explore the reasons underlying the lack of effectiveness of existing public health financing programs and public sector health services in reaching less

  20. Moving to universal coverage? Trends in the burden of out-of-pocket payments for health care across social groups in India, 1999-2000 to 2011-12.

    PubMed

    Karan, Anup; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In the background of ongoing health sector reforms in India, the paper investigates the magnitude and trends in out-of-pocket and catastrophic payments for key population sub-groups. Data from three rounds of nationally representative consumer expenditure surveys (1999-2000, 2004-05 and 2011-12) were pooled to assess changes over time in a range of out-of-pocket -related outcome indicators for the poorest 20% households, scheduled caste and tribe households and Muslims households relative to their better-off/majority religion counterparts. Our results suggest that the poorest 20% of households experienced a decline in the proportion reporting any OOP for inpatient care relative to the top 20% and Muslim households saw an increase in the proportion reporting any inpatient OOP relative to non-Muslim households during 2000-2012. The change in the proportion of Muslim households or SC/ST households reporting any OOP for outpatient care was similar to that for their respective more advantaged counterparts; but the poorest 20% of households experienced a faster increase in the proportion reporting any OOP for outpatient care than their top 20% counterparts. SC/ST, Muslim and the poorest 20% of households experienced as faster increase in the share of outpatient OOP in total household spending relative to their advantaged counterparts. We conclude that the financial burden of out of pocket spending increased faster among the disadvantaged groups relative to their more advantaged counterparts. Although the poorest 20% saw a relative decline in OOP spending on inpatient care as a share of household spending, this is likely the result of foregoing inpatient care, than of accessing benefits from the recent expansion of cashless publicly financed insurance schemes for inpatient care. Our results highlight the need to explore the reasons underlying the lack of effectiveness of existing public health financing programs and public sector health services in reaching less

  1. High School & Youth Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Since 1975, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey has annually studied the extent of drug use among high school 12th-graders. The survey was expanded in 1991 to include 8th- and 10th graders. It is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and is conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. The goal of…

  2. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Zari

    This literature survey examines trends in higher education requiring a broad base of support from the changing institutions and the people who have to respond to, plan for, and manage the changes. Trends are identified in the areas of enrollment, financial aid, curricula, faculty, financial status, and assessment. Trends affecting enrollment…

  3. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  4. Application trends for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    This paper presents the results of studies by MONEGON to develop forecasts of PV system application markets. These forecasts consider economic factors such as conventional energy costs now and in the future, the relationship between world economic conditions, as represented by each country's Gross National Product, and energy demand; the cost potential for PV systems technologies; and the application trends in the past and future. The application sectors analyzed are: remote, stand-alone systems; residential systems; service/commercial/industrial/institutional; and central utility systems. An overall market forecast is developed and this forecast is segmented into the four market sectors.

  5. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  6. Trend-driven information cascades on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Threshold models of global cascades have been extensively used to model real-world collective behavior, such as the contagious spread of fads and the adoption of new technologies. A common property of those cascade models is that a vanishingly small seed fraction can spread to a finite fraction of an infinitely large network through local infections. In social and economic networks, however, individuals' behavior is often influenced not only by what their direct neighbors are doing, but also by what the majority of people are doing as a trend. A trend affects individuals' behavior while individuals' behavior creates a trend. To analyze such a complex interplay between local- and global-scale phenomena, I generalize the standard threshold model by introducing a type of node called global nodes (or trend followers), whose activation probability depends on a global-scale trend, specifically the percentage of activated nodes in the population. The model shows that global nodes play a role as accelerating cascades once a trend emerges while reducing the probability of a trend emerging. Global nodes thus either facilitate or inhibit cascades, suggesting that a moderate share of trend followers may maximize the average size of cascades.

  7. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  8. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  9. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  10. Socioeconomic trends in radiology.

    PubMed

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. PMID:9477292

  11. Marital Status and Personal Happiness: An Analysis of Trend Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed General Social Survey data from 1972 through 1989 on personal happiness of married and never-married individuals. Showed that never-married males and younger never-married females were happier in late 1980s than in 1970s and that younger married women were somewhat less happy in late 1980s than in 1970s. Trends were weaker than earlier…

  12. Trends and Issues in Not for Profit Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, Deborah; Henderson, Karla; Dahowski, Kate

    A study explored current issues affecting camps run by nonprofit agencies. A literature review revealed areas of concern related to social trends and management practices. A survey of 85 camping professionals and agency executives involved with nonprofit camps examined organizational mission, strategic management issues, and perceived critical…

  13. The Pharmaceutical Sector of Kazakhstan's Economy: Trends and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurpeisov, Borankul G.; Nabiev, Erboz N.; Mukashev, Temirbay A.; Daribekov, Serik S.; Raimbekov, Bagdat Kh.; Asanova, Maral K.; Bazarbaeva, Leila M.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the investigation of the general trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the current conditions of economical socialization. The determination of the economic specificity of the modern operation of the pharmaceutical industry is the purpose of the research. It was found that pharmacy is a profitable…

  14. [Trends, determinants, and implications of mortality in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bayona Nunez, A

    1985-06-01

    Trends and patterns of mortality in Colombia during the twentieth century are investigated. Mortality differentials are analyzed by sex, age, rural or urban area, department, and cause of death. The impact on mortality of various factors associated with modernization is examined, and effects on demographic, economic, and social behavior are considered.

  15. POPULATION TRENDS AND EDUCATIONAL CHANGE IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, VINCENT A.; SCHMID, CALVIN F.

    THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POPULATION CHANGES IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS TO AND INFLUENCES UPON PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL TRENDS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO PHYSICAL FACILITIES, CURRICULUMS, STAFF, FINANCES, AND ADMINISTRATION. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY, THE STATE WAS GROUPED INTO LOGICAL AND…

  16. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  17. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  18. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  19. Trends in financial satisfaction: does poverty make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Gerontological studies on financial satisfaction have been limited by the dearth of longitudinal research and the lack of research that includes the concept of poverty. In order to bridge these gaps, this longitudinal study examines and compares the intracohort and intercohort effects on financial satisfaction trends by poverty status among Americans age 45 and above, using data from the General Social Surveys. The results suggest that for both the poor and the non-poor, changes in financial satisfaction trends are mostly due to strong negative intercohort effects, indicating that younger cohorts are less satisfied financially than the older ones. There appears to be a significant difference in the intercohort effects of financial satisfaction trends between the poor and the non-poor. However, such difference can be accounted for by the differences in the effects of education and social comparison (or relative deprivation) on financial satisfaction between the poor and the non-poor.

  20. Identifying longitudinal trends within EEG experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasenstab, Kyle; Sugar, Catherine A; Telesca, Donatello; McEvoy, Kevin; Jeste, Shafali; Şentürk, Damla

    2015-12-01

    Differential brain response to sensory stimuli is very small (a few microvolts) compared to the overall magnitude of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG), yielding a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in studies of event-related potentials (ERP). To cope with this phenomenon, stimuli are applied repeatedly and the ERP signals arising from the individual trials are averaged at the subject level. This results in loss of information about potentially important changes in the magnitude and form of ERP signals over the course of the experiment. In this article, we develop a meta-preprocessing step utilizing a moving average of ERP across sliding trial windows, to capture such longitudinal trends. We embed this procedure in a weighted linear mixed effects model to describe longitudinal trends in features such as ERP peak amplitude and latency across trials while adjusting for the inherent heteroskedasticity created at the meta-preprocessing step. The proposed unified framework, including the meta-processing and the weighted linear mixed effects modeling steps, is referred to as MAP-ERP (moving-averaged-processed ERP). We perform simulation studies to assess the performance of MAP-ERP in reconstructing existing longitudinal trends and apply MAP-ERP to data from young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing counterparts to examine differences in patterns of implicit learning, providing novel insights about the mechanisms underlying social and/or cognitive deficits in this disorder.

  1. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites.

  2. Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

  3. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  4. International Trends in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation: Future Directions for Australian Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Uzzell, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, heritage and environmental interpretation shifted from technical emphasis to social perspective, reflected in five international trends: growing concern with theory, increasing ecotourism and consequent changes in environmental interpretation, reactions to globalization (homogeneity versus uniqueness), interpretation of…

  5. Trends in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    The future of reservoir simulation is driven by two different and, on the surface, paradoxical trends. On the one hand, the user base is on average becoming less experienced, and on the other, increasingly complex models are being built to honor the advances in reservoir-description technology. The job of the software development community is to create software that satisfies both the ease-of-use needs of the novice and the accuracy needs of the integrated geoscience team. One of the near-term effects of these demands will be to improve the capabilities and quality of the fully integrated geoscience work-station. This will include the need for implementation of industry-wide data standards. Reservoir simulators will need to incorporate increasing amounts of interactivity and built-in expertise. Accuracy of results will be improved by increased use of unstructured grids, including automatic gridding software with dynamic capabilities. Additional research will focus on complex wells, including both in-flow performance and wellbore hydraulics. Finally, grid size will continue to escalate in step with advances in hardware and software. The growth of grid size will be mitigated by substantial efforts in upscaling, but ultimately parallel computing must provide the mechanism for continued growth.

  6. Trends in cardiac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karwinski, B; Svendsen, E

    1989-11-01

    A review of 8571 autopsies disclosed 2833 patients with malignant tumours from 1975 to 1984 at the Department of Pathology, The Gade Institute. Cardiac metastases were found in 130 cases. An increase of cardiac involvement was shown in the autopsy material from 1.2% in 1975-1979 to 1.8% in 1980-1984. The same trend was seen if cardiac metastases were related to malignant tumours. Numerically, lung cancer accounted for most of the metastases seen, but the increase was made up by other tumours than lung cancer. especially malignant melanoma, mesothelioma, breast cancer and sarcomas. These tumours have a high frequency of heart metastases and the increased incidence of these cancers in the material explains the rise of cardiac metastases. Cardiac metastases increased with rising number of distant metastases. This study shows that mesotheliomas have the highest percentage of cardiac spread. The importance of autopsy for detecting metastatic spread in sites that are difficult to detect clinically is emphasized.

  7. Trends in nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  8. Using Social Media to Engage and Educate Teen Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kim; Jolly, Christina; Barnes, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    Employing social media to engage youth in real-time learning is a growing trend. Although the use of social media by youth is increasing, barriers exist for Extension educators wanting to capitalize on youth interest in social media, including a lack of information on how best to employ social media in programming. This article highlights a teen…

  9. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  10. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  12. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  13. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  15. Trends in Technology and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrath, Nancy L.

    Drawing from literature on technological advances, economic trends, and employment and labor market projections, this paper provides an overview of trends and their implications for California. After briefly analyzing the characteristics and effects of the information age, the paper examines the growth and development of high technology…

  16. HRD Future and Trends. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on the future of human resource development (HRD) and trends in HRD. "Searching for the Future of Human Resource Development" (Wendy E.A. Ruona, Susan A. Lynham, Tom Chermack) reports on a survey of 55 HRD and HRD-related practitioners and academics that examined trends in the HRD profession,…

  17. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  18. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

  19. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  20. Global fertility and population trends.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends.

  1. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  2. Worrying trends in econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegati, Mauro; Keen, Steve; Lux, Thomas; Ormerod, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Econophysics has already made a number of important empirical contributions to our understanding of the social and economic world. These fall mainly into the areas of finance and industrial economics, where in each case there is a large amount of reasonably well-defined data. More recently, Econophysics has also begun to tackle other areas of economics where data is much more sparse and much less reliable. In addition, econophysicists have attempted to apply the theoretical approach of statistical physics to try to understand empirical findings. Our concerns are fourfold. First, a lack of awareness of work that has been done within economics itself. Second, resistance to more rigorous and robust statistical methodology. Third, the belief that universal empirical regularities can be found in many areas of economic activity. Fourth, the theoretical models which are being used to explain empirical phenomena. The latter point is of particular concern. Essentially, the models are based upon models of statistical physics in which energy is conserved in exchange processes. There are examples in economics where the principle of conservation may be a reasonable approximation to reality, such as primitive hunter-gatherer societies. But in the industrialised capitalist economies, income is most definitely not conserved. The process of production and not exchange is responsible for this. Models which focus purely on exchange and not on production cannot by definition offer a realistic description of the generation of income in the capitalist, industrialised economies.

  3. [Trends in current medicine].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1999-09-01

    Predicting the future of medicine is daring. One can speculate about some of its future traits at the most. The spectacular progress in biological sciences has nurtured the hope that medicine will be able to dominate all ailments, improve the quality of life and longevity. Physicians are uncomfortable with the weak knowledge that they have about some diseases such as cancer, connective tissue diseases, degenerative diseases, mental and psychosocial conditions. They are also worried about the aggressive and mutilating surgical procedures that are required nowadays. One can foresee that molecular medicine and applied technology will advance at a great speed and will modify the therapy of several diseases and the social organization of health care. Scientific progress will also change our values and will pose new political and economical challenges. I believe that medical ethics and bioethics will become a growing concern for medical education and professional organizations. The so called biotechnology century will also be the bioethics century. The revision and elucidation of the fundamentals of medicine will differentiate, in the future, a medicine devoted to mankind with a solid ethical background from an impersonal health care that considers man as an object or maybe a merchandise. The second option will cast medical care through the abyss of decadence, to its end.

  4. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members. PMID:12292274

  5. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  6. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  7. Shotgun weddings: trends in the sociopathology of marriage.

    PubMed

    Kraus, J

    1977-12-01

    The study was concerned with secular trends in forced marriages in N.S.W. The definition of forced marriage was first nuptial birth occurring within six months of the wedding. The typical demographic profile of such marriages portends a "risk" of marital breakdown and child abuse. Formal analysis of the time series showed upward trends in the proportions of brides "at risk" in the 16-17 age groups, and in the proportions of children "at risk" born to brides in the 16 to 22 age range. The findings were discussed critically, and some prophylactic and remedial social measures suggested.

  8. Trends and differentials in menarcheal age in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duolao; Murphy, Michael

    2002-07-01

    This study examines trends in menarcheal age of women born in China between 1950 and 1973, and explores the impact of relevant social background characteristics on the timing of first menarche. Data on recalled ages of menarche collected in the 1988 Chinese Two-per-Thousand Fertility Survey are used in a linear regression model where the covariates are transformed with the help of an Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm. The results indicate that a trend towards early menarche has evolved in China during recent decades. The pattern of early menarche is especially pronounced among women residing in urban areas, and those who are better educated.

  9. The Practice of Adoption: History, Trends, and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamostny, Kathy P.; O'Brien, Karen M.; Baden, Amanda L.; Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the practice of adoption to counseling psychologists to promote clinical understanding of the adoption experience and to stimulate research on adoption. The article includes definitions of adoption terminology, important historical and legal developments for adoption, a summary of adoption statistics,…

  10. NEW PROGRAMS AND TRENDS IN GUIDANCE FOR SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JAMES W.

    THE BUREAU OF GUIDANCE OF THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT INITIATES DEMONSTRATION GUIDANCE PROJECTS FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH ARE CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE STATE. PROPOSALS FOR THESE PROJECTS ARE SUBMITTED BY THE LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS BECAUSE GUIDANCE AND EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS CONDUCTED AT THIS LEVEL ARE MOST PROMISING. PROJECT ABLE…

  11. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  12. Monitoring grizzly bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

  13. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  14. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  15. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  16. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  17. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  18. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding.

  19. Social Distance among the Yoruba of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunlade, James O.

    1980-01-01

    Despite the fact that the subjects and the other groups formed the same ethnic group, subjects expressed a social proximity to their own group and social distance to others in terms of choice of spouses. A reverse trend was revealed in terms of acceptance of others as employees. (Author)

  20. Technology Tools in the Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.; Fernlund, Phyllis; White, Charles S.

    This book is designed to help educators understand different types of technological resources for teaching social studies, plan and evaluate these resources in the curriculum, and examine potential future trends. The topics include an overview of social studies education and resources for exploring technologies, and guidance on how technology and…

  1. Comparative Review of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Barbara A.

    Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world history, and…

  2. Social Media and the Job Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katie

    2012-01-01

    As thousands of graduates search for new jobs each school year, networking with potential employers through social media sites can help preservice and new teachers connect with current teachers, learn about potential job openings, and engage in professional conversations. By using social media sites to follow trends in education, preservice…

  3. Muslim divorce trends and patterns in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper attempts to discuss the general trends in the incidence of divorce among the Muslim population in Singapore since 1921 and the patterns of divorce in the 1980s when detailed statistics were made available.... The Singapore Muslims experienced an extremely high and steady incidence of divorce during the period up to 1958 when the procedures for processing divorce petitions were not well organised. Following the introduction of new legislation and the creation of the Syariah Court to handle marital disputes in 1958, there occurred an immediate and dramatic downturn in the rate of Muslim divorce. By 1970 the decline appeared to have stalled and a slight upturn has even taken place in the 1980s." The impact of rapid social and economic development is assessed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  4. Trends in financial satisfaction among middle-age and old-age Americans, 1972-1996.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the General Social Surveys (1972-1996), this study decomposes the trends in financial satisfaction into intercohort and intracohort patterns to assess the intracohort change and cohort replacement effects on financial satisfaction. The results suggest that a positive intracohort component of financial satisfaction trends, indicating more financial satisfaction with time; and a negative intercohort component, indicating that younger cohorts are less satisfied financially. The multivariate analysis further suggests that the change in financial satisfaction trends is mostly due to a strong intercohort replacement effect. That is, the change in financial satisfaction trends can be largely accounted for by the intercohort replacement effect of younger cohorts' being less satisfied financially.

  5. Practice Variation in Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Placement: Trends and Predictors among Providers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Day, Lukejohn W.; Nazareth, Michelle; Sewell, Justin L.; Williams, J. Lucas; Lieberman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteral access placement is performed among a variety of providers and specialties, yet there is a dearth of literature on trends and factors related to enteral access placement in the United States. Objective To examine trends in the incidence of enteral access procedures performed by gastroenterologists in the United States. Design Retrospective review of upper endoscopic procedures that involved percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement between 2000 and 2010 was performed. Setting Endoscopy sites participating in the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (CORI). Patients Patients undergoing an upper endoscopy. Intervention PEG tube placement. Main Outcome Measurements Number of PEG tubes placed. Results Overall PEG tube placement by a provider from 2000-2010 was 1.7% (number of PEG tubes performed/number of upper endoscopies performed) with the majority of them being performed by gastroenterologists. Very young and very old, non-white racial background (Hispanic OR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13-1.28; blacks OR 2.24; 95% CI, 2.12-2.36) and males (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.39-1.50) were patient characteristics associated with greater PEG tube placement. In terms of practice setting, PEG tube placement occurred more frequently in a community/HMO environment and the East Coast. With respect to provider characteristics, male providers were less likely than females to perform a PEG tube (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71) and there was a trend that as providers were further out of medical school they were less likely to perform a PEG tube procedure. Interestingly, surgeons (OR 6.69; 95% CI, 6.18-7.24) and other providers (non-pediatric/non-general practitioner) (OR 3.22; 95% CI, 2.63-3.94) were more likely to perform PEG tubes than gastroenterologists. Limitations Participation in CORI is voluntary and may not capture data on non-GI providers. Conclusions Significant practice variation was noted in PEG tube placement in the United States with respect to patient and

  6. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  7. Social Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    Just as programs and organizations have too frequently been established for the presumed benefit of mankind but do not work out as expected because the social methods available are not good enough, so the author proposes that the existence of social problems in general bespeak the need for new social inventions. Social inventions provide laws,…

  8. Disentangling collective trends from local dynamics.

    PubMed

    Barthélemy, Marc; Nadal, Jean-Pierre; Berestycki, Henri

    2010-04-27

    A single social phenomenon (such as crime, unemployment, or birthrate) can be observed through temporal series corresponding to units at different levels (i.e., cities, regions, and countries). Units at a given local level may follow a collective trend imposed by external conditions, but also may display fluctuations of purely local origin. The local behavior is usually computed as the difference between the local data and a global average (e.g, a national average), a viewpoint that can be very misleading. We propose here a method for separating the local dynamics from the global trend in a collection of correlated time series. We take an independent component analysis approach in which we do not assume a small average local contribution in contrast with previously proposed methods. We first test our method on synthetic series generated by correlated random walkers. We then consider crime rate series (in the United States and France) and the evolution of obesity rate in the United States, which are two important examples of societal measures. For the crime rates in the United States, we observe large fluctuations in the transition period of mid-70s during which crime rates increased significantly, whereas since the 80s, the state crime rates are governed by external factors and the importance of local specificities being decreasing. In the case of obesity, our method shows that external factors dominate the evolution of obesity since 2000, and that different states can have different dynamical behavior even if their obesity prevalence is similar.

  9. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  10. Secular trends and geographical variations in sex ratio at birth.

    PubMed

    Pavic, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have established the presence of secular trends and geographical variations in sex ratio at birth, albeit with mixed and often contradictory results. In addition, a multitude of environmental, social, economic, demographic and other factors has been proposed to influence the sex ratio at birth, thus complicating the interpretation of both secular trends and geographical variations. In this paper, the current state of knowledge on these issues is presented and critically assessed. Analyzing longer time series of sex ratio at birth with possible cycles and random components is given priority over establishing simple linear trends in the data. In analyzing the geographical variation in the sex ratio at birth, two different levels of analysis are distinguished (global and local), and two different sets of factors affecting the sex ratio at birth are proposed accordingly. Some key guidelines and future research directions are also proposed.

  11. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. PMID:24033767

  12. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data.

  13. Trends in the fight against tuberculosis in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Sillastu, H

    1990-02-01

    The problems of epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Soviet Union are analysed. The dominating trends in the fight against tuberculosis include: the decrease in the evidence, prevalence and mortality, the relatively high incidence among male persons who are capable of working in newly detected cases, the increase in patients with social deviations (mainly alcoholics), as well as the integration between specific and non-specific lung diseases in the form of respiratory medicine. PMID:2367491

  14. Temperature trends in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Berger, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    We have performed trend studies in the mesosphere in the period 1961-2009 with LIMA (Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model) which is based on ECMWF below approximately 40 km and adapts temporal variations of CO2 and O3 according to observations. There is general agreement between LIMA and observations. Temperatures in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere vary non-uniformly with time, mainly due to the influence of ozone. We have therefore separated the influence of CO2(t) and O3(t) when determining trends. It is important to distinguish between trends on pressure altitudes, zp, and geometric altitudes, zgeo, where the latter includes the effect of shrinking due to cooling at lower heights. Maximum total temperature trends reach approximately -1,3 K/dec at zp ~60 km and -1.8 K/dec at zgeo ~70 km, respectively. Carbon dioxide is the main driver of these trends in the mesosphere, whereas ozone contributes approximately one third, both on geometric and pressure heights. Depending on the time period chosen, the ozone effect on trends can be significantly smaller or larger. Temperature trends on geometric and pressure altitudes can differ by as much as -0.9 K/dec in the mesosphere. The altitudes of pressure levels in the mesosphere decrease up to several hundred meters. The shift maximizes at mesopause levels where it accumulates to more than 1 km. Most of the shrinking occurs in the mesosphere and a smaller fraction (~20%) in the stratosphere. For the first time, we have performed long term runs with LIMA applying the 20th Century Reanalysis from NCEP/NCAR dating back to 1871. Again, trends are non-uniform with time. Since the late 19th century temperatures in the mesosphere have dropped by approximately 5-7 K on pressure altitudes, and up to 10-12 K on geometric altitudes. This is much more then typical trends in the troposphere and stratosphere. It is therefore justified to summarize that the mesosphere (at least in summer and at middle latitudes) reacts

  15. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  16. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  17. Ethnic trends in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sturm-O'Brien, Angela K; Brissett, Annette E A; Brissett, Anthony E

    2010-05-01

    The appearance of patients seeking cosmetic surgery is changing to reflect our multicultural society. Integral to addressing the desires of a cross-cultural patient population is an understanding of one's perception of race, ethnicity, and culture. Race is an objective description, whereas ethnicity is a subjective description of a person's social group. Culture, on the other hand, defines the behaviors, beliefs, and values of a group. How a person perceives their place within these groups affects his or her self-image and approach to cosmetic surgery. These cultural perceptions are important, as patients of Asian, Hispanic, and African descent make up the fastest growing groups that desire cosmetic surgery. Factors contributing to this trend include population growth, especially within multicultural communities, improvements in social status, and increasing disposable income, combined with a positive perception of cosmetic surgery. Surgical philosophies have also changed, shifting from the perspective of racial transformation, defined as the use of a common set of surgical goals for all ethnicities, toward a view of racial preservation, with the goal of preserving one's racial and ethnic features. PMID:20446200

  18. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  19. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  20. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  1. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  2. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  3. Trends in Student Aid, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Trends in Student Aid, an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report documents grant aid from federal and state governments, colleges and universities, employers, and other private sources, as well as loans, tax…

  4. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  5. A Checklist for Selecting Elementary Social Studies Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Guy

    A scale, summary sheet, and checklist provide a guide for selecting elementary social studies materials. The checklist is based on trends in social studies as found in professional literature and published social studies materials. It is appropriate for use by individual teachers, curriculum committees, or curriculum coordinators. Aimed at being a…

  6. Social Acceptance of Wind: A Brief Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses concepts and trends in social acceptance of wind energy, profiles recent research findings, and discussions mitigation strategies intended to resolve wind power social acceptance challenges as informed by published research and the experiences of individuals participating in the International Energy Agencies Working Group on Social Acceptance of Wind Energy

  7. SOCIAL STUDIES IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (THIRTY-SECOND YEARBOOK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICHAELIS, JOHN U., ED.

    THIS YEARBOOK IS INTENDED TO PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS, ISSUES, AND PROBLEMS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES. CHAPTER I EXAMINES THE CURRENT CHALLENGE TO SOCIAL STUDIES, DISCUSSES THE CHARACTERISTICS AND PURPOSES OF AN EFFECTIVE SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM, AND PROVIDES A SUMMARY OF THE YEARBOOK'S CONTENTS. CHAPTER II EXAMINES ISSUES…

  8. Soil temperature trends in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-04-01

    Global warming increasingly is becoming a concern for society. Most reported warming trends are based on measured increases in air temperatures. However, trends in soil temperatures, also an important indicator of climate change, are less often reported. Qian et al. analyzed soil temperature data from 30 climate stations across Canada covering the period from 1958 to 2008; the data cover soil temperatures at several depths up to 150 centimeters. They also analyzed air temperature, precipitation, and snow cover depth at the same locations. (Journal of Geophysical Research­Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015012, 2011)

  9. Population in Africa: trends, problems and policies.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    The population of Africa is expected to increase from 553 million in 1985 to 877 million by the year 2000 and to reach 1.64 billion by 2025 before eventually stabilizing at 2.2 billion in the 22nd century. Further population growth will reflect a combination of further improvements in mortality the continuation of moderately high fertility rates, and a young age structure. Another crucial aspect of Africa's demography is overurbanization (42% of the population will be in urban areas by 2000) without concomitant economic growth, social change, or industrial development. These demographic trends manifest themselves in 4 problems: 1) fetal wastage, infant deaths, child losses, shortened life expectancy, and a lack of motivation to live better; 2) frequent childbirth, combined with poverty, malnutrition, ill health, and an incapacity to provide for one's children; 3) social, political, and economic chaos resulting from overcrowding, unemployment, the spread of slums and squatters, inadequate infrastructure, and the breakdown of social services caused by overurbanization; and 4) inadequate land resources, and thus food insufficiency, resulting from deforestation, environmental stress, and resource constraints. The following policies are needed to respond to these problems: 1) an integrated package of policies and programs to improve infant, child, and maternal health; 2) an integrated package of measures to induce rapid reductions in desired family size and to make family planning services available; 3) a comprehensive program to improve the status, role, and participation of women in development activities; 4) an integrated approach to population and development that takes into account spatial and territorial planning; and 5) a program to develop manpower capacities through comprehensive training and transfer of technology and skills.

  10. No trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

    PubMed

    Li, Jui-Chung Allen; Wu, Lawrence L

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  11. Growth of the Proprietary Sector in Social Welfare: A Challenge to the Social Policy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Elizabeth T.

    The rapid growth of the proprietary sector in the provision of social services traditionally administered under non-profit or government auspices creates a problem and challenge for teachers of social policy. Instructors need to interpret this new trend, without much literature support, to a group of students with increasing potential for…

  12. Art in Social Studies Assessments: An Untapped Resource for Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirn, Susan; Libresco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a relatively new trend in assessment in American history education which offers interesting opportunities to inject the arts into mainstream education in ways that could provide a catalyst for engagement with social justice issues. Document-based questions (DBQs) on statewide social studies assessments afford art and social…

  13. TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the focus of environmental management has shifted toward regional- scale strategies, there is a growing need to develop statistical methodology for the estimation of regional trends in air pollution. This information is critical to assessing the effects of legislated emission ...

  14. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  15. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  16. New Trends in Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David; Wesse, David; Stickney, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the influence of residence halls in supporting a college's admissions and recruiting process for attracting highly qualified students. It explores the trends in student housing needs and how a school can meet those needs, and examines possible funding solutions for dormitory renovations. Recommendations for developing housing strategies…

  17. The Internet: Trends and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    1996-01-01

    Examines current trends and directions in information technology and telecommunications. Discusses legislation; mergers and acquisitions; Internet service providers; fiscal control in libraries and the pooling of electronic information access through consortiums; demand for more bandwidth; technology selection; Internet usage patterns; the…

  18. Trends in Turkish Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varisoglu, Behice; Sahin, Abdullah; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends in the subject areas, methods, data collection tools, data analysis methods, and sample types used in recent studies on Turkish education, published in journals from 2000-2011. A total of 558 articles from 44 journals were selected from databases by the purposive sampling method and examined using…

  19. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  20. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in hiring reported…

  1. Academic Libraries: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leacy

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues and trends affecting Canadian academic libraries that were major themes at the 1996 Canadian Library Association annual conference in Halifax (Nova Scotia). Topics include government funding decreases; restructuring in education and library services; consortia; library cooperation and collaboration; computer networks; interlibrary…

  2. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    There are two stories about political trends affecting nonmetropolitan America. The old story, which is the story of declining rural population and declining rural influence on public policy formation, has its roots in early deliberations about governance in this country. Jefferson's republicanism focused on direct citizen involvement in decision…

  3. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  4. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  5. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  6. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  7. Recent Trends in Karst Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends related to the karst processes and the evolution of karst landscapes are discussed. The hydrochemical processes responsible for the origin of karst are expanded on to illustrate the present scope of karst studies. These geomorphological studies are combined with concepts and techniques from hydraulics, chemistry, and mathematics. (JN)

  8. Overview of Selected Drug Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Edgar H.; And Others

    This document begins with a brief overview of findings from national surveys conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse which show increasing drug use throughout the 1970s and a decreasing trend in drug use during the 1980s. In spite of this decline, drug use in the U.S. is described as still constituting a major public health problem that…

  9. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  10. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Jonathan D.; Barnett, Lynn

    Trends and projections for higher education are identified. Increased public concern about the purposes and standards of higher education has followed the publication of four major publications about higher education in the United States. Changing demographics are projected for 1983-1993, including fewer 18- to 22-year-olds, decreased full-time…

  11. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  12. Trends in College Pricing, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents data on college costs from the Annual Survey of Colleges for the 1998-99 academic year, as well as trends in costs over the past 25 years and analyses of college prices in relation to family income and available financial aid. Ten tables and seven figures present such data as average fixed charges for undergraduates, sample…

  13. Bucking Trends: Expanding the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kathi R.

    2008-01-01

    The arts and music have been unintended victims of the No Child Left Behind Act. Several reports point to sharp reductions in student access to K-12 arts education, yet some school districts nationwide have managed to buck the trend. These districts, in communities rural through urban, are systemically embedding the arts at the core of teaching…

  14. SETDA's National Trends Report 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) is pleased to release its fifth annual National Trends Report on the use of federal funds to support educational technology. This report documents findings from Round 5 (FY 06) of the No Child Left Behind, Title II, Part D, Enhancing Education Through Technology (NCLB IID) program. The…

  15. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  16. Trends in Personal Injury Suits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Smissen, Betty

    1985-01-01

    Professional competence becomes more important as personal injury suits against recreation enterprises and parks focus increasingly on the professional responsible for facility safety. All professionals should be aware of and educated in risk management. Trends in liability awards and providers' legal responsibilities in various situations are…

  17. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  18. Trends...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, B. W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Includes 11 sub-articles dealing with innovative recreational programs in Alaska, Michigan, Tennessee, Illinois, and California. Activities and facilities described include bus rides, artificial ice skating and skiing, rooftop playgrounds, wood structures, dam sites, and enclosed buildings. (NQ)

  19. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume I. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  20. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume II. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  1. Re-Writing Social Policy and Changes within the Life Course Organization. A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillemard, Anne-Marie

    1997-01-01

    Social assistance mechanisms are driving the early retirement trend in Europe. Traditional life stages are disappearing, being replaced by new flexibility in managing the life course. The social security system needs to be reconsidered. (SK)

  2. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  3. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  4. Trends Important to the California Community Colleges. A Technical Paper for the 2005 Task Force of the Chancellor's Consultation Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    Demographic, economic, and social trends were examined in order to assist the 2005 Task Force of the Chancellor's Consultation Council develop strategies to address expected changes California will undergo between 1997 and 2005. Arranged by five categories, the trends most important to community colleges appeared to be: (1) demographic: emerging…

  5. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  6. Using SPC and Trending to Reduce FOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs showing the trends and Statistical Process Control (SPC) used by ATK-Thiokol to reduce Foreign Object Debris (FOD). Some of the topics include: 1) Amazing Little Known and Less Used Facts; 2) Critical Nature of Rocket Manufacturing; 3) ATK-Thiokol Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Philosophy; 4) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Philosophy; 5) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC) Basic Philosophy; 6) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC); 7) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Trending; 8) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Specific Instances; 9) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Contamination in Air; and 10) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Nitrogen Dewpoint.

  7. What's social about social learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents. PMID:21895355

  8. Emerging trends in metalloprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rouffet, Matthieu; Cohen, Seth M

    2011-04-14

    Numerous metalloproteins are important therapeutic targets that are gaining increased attention in the medicinal and bioinorganic chemistry communities. This Perspective article describes some emerging trends and recent findings in the area of metalloprotein inhibitor discovery and development. In particular, increasing recognition of the importance of the metal-ligand interactions in these systems calls for more input and consideration from the bioinorganic community to address questions traditionally confined to the medicinal chemistry community.

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring and trend accuracy: news about a trend compass.

    PubMed

    Signal, Matthew; Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-09-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  10. Decadal Trends in Ensemble Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liess, S.; Snyder, P. K.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, V.

    2012-12-01

    A simple method to rank multi-model ensemble members of CMIP3 simulations by their representation of phases of decadal oscillations is introduced. A period of 22 years (1979-2000) from the 20th century simulations is used to generate ensemble projections of trends for an 11-year (2001-2011) lead time for the SRES A1B scenario. Although greenhouse-gas forcing is identical for all 20th century simulations, the phases of decadal oscillations are quite different. Thus, the suggested minimum requirements for a simple selection criterion for adequate ensemble members are that (a) trends in high-, mid-, and low-latitude zones need to be treated separately and (b) information about the state of teleconnections between the zones needs to be included, when projecting decadal variability and trends in climate. The new method indicates that half (19 out of 38) ensemble members retain their rank when each GCM is treated separately without any assumptions of which model might be superior. Thus, the overall ensemble size can be reduced without a large loss of information but with a greatly reduced range of uncertainty, when only the least well performing ensemble members of each GCM are omitted for an 11-year projection.

  11. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  12. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  13. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  14. Demography and the social contract.

    PubMed

    Tienda, Marta

    2002-11-01

    As the most demographically complex nation in the world, the United States faces ever more formidable challenges to fulfill its commitment to the democratic values of equity and inclusion as the foreign-born share of the population increases. Immigration, the major source of the contemporary diversification of the population, provides several lessons about how to prepare for that future within a framework of social justice and how to realign recent demographic trends with cherished democratic principles. A review of historical and contemporary controversies about the representation of the foreign-born and alien suffrage both illustrates the reemergence of ascriptive civic hierarchies and highlights some potentially deleterious social and civic consequences of recent demographic trends. PMID:12471845

  15. WSR-88D Cell Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the Applied Meteorology Unit's evaluation of the Cell Trends display as a tool for radar operators to use in their evaluation of storm cell strength. The objective of the evaluation is to assess the utility of the WSR-88D graphical Cell Trends display for local radar cell interpretation in support of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) operational requirements. The analysis procedure was to identify each cell and track the maximum reflectivity, height of maximum reflectivity, storm top, storm base, hail and severe hail probability, cell-based Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) and core aspect ratio using WATADS Build 9.0 cell trends information. One problem noted in the analysis phase was that the Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT) algorithm had a difficult time tracking the small cells associated with the Florida weather regimes. The analysis indicated numerous occasions when a cell track would end or an existing cell would be give a new ID in the middle of its life cycle. This investigation has found that most cells, which produce hail or microburst events, have discernable Cell Trends signatures. Forecasters should monitor the PUP's Cell Trends display for cells that show rapid (1 scan) changes in both the heights of maximum reflectivity and cell-based VIEL. It is important to note that this a very limited data set (four case days). Fifty-two storm cells were analyzed during those four days. The above mentioned t=ds, increase in the two cell attributes for hail events and decrease in the two cell attributes for wind events were noted in most of the cells. The probability of detection was 88% for both events. The False Alarm Rate (FAR) was a 36% for hail events and a respectable 25% for microburst events. In addition the Heidke Skill Score (HSS) is 0.65 for hail events and 0.67 for microburst events. For random forecast the HSS is 0 and that a

  16. Publicizing and Encouraging Elementary Social Studies: Strategies for State and Local Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    Strategies to help state and local social studies councils encourage the teaching of social studies in the elementary grades address the trend to eliminate social studies from the primary grades altogether. The erosion of social studies instruction for young children must be stopped, and this can best be accomplished by leadership at the state and…

  17. Stargazing: Future Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    Describes the trends in higher education predicted and discussed at a staff retreat of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). Trends include an evolving role for business officers, increasing enrollment, competition, and e-learning. (EV)

  18. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  19. Five basic steps to problem trending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bombara, Elwood L.

    1990-01-01

    Five basic steps to problem trending evolved from experience in trending problems on Space Shuttle hardware are discussed: extracting data; constructing a Pareto chart of all failure modes; constructing normalized subsystem, component, and failure-mode trend charts; identifying trend direction; and providing a summary assessment. The five-step method has been useful for identifying failure modes of concern, evaluating the effectiveness of corrective actions, and determining funding allocation.

  20. A Google Trends-based approach for monitoring NSSI

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an intentional, direct, and socially unacceptable behavior resulting in the destruction of one’s own body tissues with no intention of dying or committing suicide, even though it is associated with a higher risk of attempted, planned, or just considered suicide. In this preliminary report, we introduce the concept of “NSSI 2.0”; that is to say, the study of the Internet usage by subjects with NSSI, and we introduce a Google Trends-based approach for monitoring NSSI, called NSSI infodemiology and infoveillance. Despite some limitations, Google Trends has already proven to be reliable for infectious diseases monitoring, and here we extend its application and potentiality in the field of suicidology. Ad hoc web portals and surveys could be designed in light of the reported results for helping people with NSSI. PMID:24376364

  1. Trends in teenage pregnancy in Australia, 1971-1981.

    PubMed

    Siedlecky, S

    1983-08-01

    Between 1971 and 1981 the age-specific birth rate among Australian teenagers declined by 49%, faster than in any other age group. This is a reflection of several trends--a decline in the total number of pregnancies indicating better use of contraception, a marked decline in marital births as both the planned births and the ex-nuptially conceived births fell, and a rise in the rates of abortion among teenagers. Since nuptial births declined faster than ex-nuptial births the proportion of ex-nuptial births among teenagers rose from 32% to 57%. However, unmarried teenagers have consistently shown lower rates of ex-nuptial births than other age groups. The options available to young women faced with unplanned pregnancy appear to be changing in emphasis--abortion or single parenthood rather than adoption or forced marriage. The decline may have halted since 1980 and several social factors which may be contributing to the various trends are discussed.

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  8. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a novel field of interdisciplinary research that examines socio-emotional cognition and behavior by emphasizing the neural substrates of these processes. Insights from this biological perspective have established that socio-emotional processing does not happen in a sequential order but in a recursive and interlinked fashion; that individual brain regions are not associated with one, but multiple, distinct social functions; and that brain regions are organized into dynamically interacting networks. These factors explain why it is difficult to pinpoint the neural substrates of particular social deficits in patients with brain diseases. With that said, there are specific brain regions that are highly specialized for the perception, regulation, and modulation of emotion and behavior. This article will review key aspects of social processing beginning with their underlying neural substrates, including (1) perception of social signals, (2) social and emotional evaluation, and (3) behavioral response generation and selection. Case studies will be used to illustrate the real-life social deficits resulting from distinct patterns of neuroanatomic damage, highlighting the brain regions most critical for adequate social behavior. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2010;16(4):69-85. PMID:22810514

  9. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  10. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  11. Beowulf Supercomputers: Scope and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Saeed, M. Alam; Ahmed, Rashid; Fazal-e-Aleem

    2005-03-01

    As we have entered in twenty 1st century, a century of information technology, the need of supercomputing is expanding in many fields of science and technology. With the availability of low cost commodity hardware, free software, Beowulf style supercomputers have solved the problem of scientific community. The supercomputer helps in solving complex problems, store, process, and manage huge amount of scientific data available all over the globe. In this paper we have tried to discuss the functioning of Beowulf style supercomputer, its scope and future trends.

  12. New trends in aminoglycosides use

    PubMed Central

    Fosso, Marina Y.; Li, Yijia; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite their inherent toxicity and the acquired bacterial resistance that continuously threaten their long-term clinical use, aminoglycosides (AGs) still remain valuable components of the antibiotic armamentarium. Recent literature shows that the AGs’ role has been further expanded as multi-tasking players in different areas of study. This review aims at presenting some of the new trends observed in the use of AGs in the past decade, along with the current understanding of their mechanisms of action in various bacterial and eukaryotic cellular processes. PMID:25071928

  13. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery.

  14. International programs - A growing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has collaborated successfully in space science missions with a multiplicity of partners, including the European Space Agency, Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Japan, and the Soviet Union, among others. These collaborations generally arise out of common scientific goals and in the interest of economizing to take advantage of skills and capabilities among the partners. A trend towards increased cooperation in space is expected to continue as the global scientific community works together to plan future space science missions and the missions become more sophisticated.

  15. [Social phobia].

    PubMed

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

    2014-05-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice.

  16. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  17. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  18. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  19. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.

  20. Regime Changes in California Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Kessomkiat, W.; Mauget, S.

    2008-12-01

    Annual and seasonal temperature trends are analyzed for California using surface data from the US Historical Climate Network and the larger COOP network. While trends in Tmax and Tmin both show warming over the last 50 years, the temporal and spatial structure of these trends is quite different. An analysis using Mann Whitney U statistics reveals that the patterns of warming and cooling from individual stations have a distinct temporal signature that differs between Tmax and Tmin. Significant cooling trends in Tmin are found between 1920-1958, while significant warming only starts after the 1970s. In contrast, Tmax trends show a more variable pattern of warming and cooling between 1920-1980, with California wide warming only occurring after 1980. These results suggest regime changes in California temperature trends that could only occur through large scale forcing. A discussion of the various forcing mechanisms contributing to California trends and their spatial and temporal variability will be presented.

  1. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  2. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  3. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life. PMID:20718280

  4. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  5. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  6. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  7. Current trends in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2014-04-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants.

  8. Global warming: trends and effects.

    PubMed

    Tickell, C

    1993-01-01

    As animals we have been a remarkably successful species; but also as animals we are vulnerable to environmental, in particular climate change. Such change is accelerating as a result of human activity, and global warming may already be taking place. Although we can foresee the trends, we cannot yet be specific about the results. Change usually proceeds by steps rather than gradients. But warming would probably include new risks to human health and contribute to an increase in human displacement. Of course climate change is only one among other complex problems facing human society, but it is closely related to them all, including population increase, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. We cannot prevent global warming but we can anticipate and mitigate some of its worst effects. Peoples and governments still need persuading of the need for action and of the magnitude of the issue at stake.

  9. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  10. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  11. Historical trends and human futures.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Onora

    2008-12-01

    Kant's essay Idea for a universal history with a cosmopolitan purpose differs in deep ways from standard Enlightenment views of human history. Although he agrees with many contemporaries that unsocial sociability can drive human progress, he argues that we know too little about the trends of history to offer either metaphysical defence or empirical vindication of the perfectibility of man or the inevitability of progress. However, as freely acting beings we can contribute to a better future, so have grounds for committing ourselves to human progress even if we cannot guarantee or know that it will continue indefinitely. As Kant sees, it, human progress is better seen as a practical assumption--an Idea of Reason--than as a theoretical claim.

  12. Solar trends and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2009-07-01

    We use a suite of global climate model simulations for the 20th century to assess the contribution of solar forcing to the past trends in the global mean temperature. In particular, we examine how robust different published methodologies are at detecting and attributing solar-related climate change in the presence of intrinsic climate variability and multiple forcings. We demonstrate that naive application of linear analytical methods such as regression gives nonrobust results. We also demonstrate that the methodologies used by Scafetta and West (2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2008) are not robust to these same factors and that their error bars are significantly larger than reported. Our analysis shows that the most likely contribution from solar forcing a global warming is 7 ± 1% for the 20th century and is negligible for warming since 1980.

  13. Recent trends in marital disruption.

    PubMed

    Martin, T C; Bumpass, L L

    1989-02-01

    The post-1980 decline in the crude divorce rate must be interpreted in the context of the long-term trend and in terms of what we know about composition effects on crude measures-particularly given shifts in age at marriage and the age composition effects of the baby boom. Data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey permit more detailed, exposure-specific measurements as well as the use of separation as the event terminating marriage. Estimates from these data suggest a decline followed by a recovery. Taking into account well-known levels of underreporting, we find that recent rates imply that about two-thirds of all first marriages are likely to end in separation or divorce. We examine the persistence of major differences in marital stability and evaluate the comparative stability of first and second marriages.

  14. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  15. Supporting data for Environmental Trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunstall, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Information has been compiled as a companion document to ' Environmental Trends ' to provide analysts and researchers with statistical data to understand better how natural and man-made environments were changing. Subjects include land and climate; wetlands; wild areas; historic places; risk zones; settlement patterns; housing units; housing conditions; neighborhood conditions; transportation systems, including use and impacts on the environment such as noise, energy consumption; material use and solid waste; toxic substances, including radiation; cropland , forests and rangeland; wildlife, including extinct, threatened and endangered species; energy; water resources, water quality and air quality; and the biosphere. Statistics in the tables were taken from various published and unpublished sources. Therefore, the number of significant figures for the same information may differ. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  17. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  18. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  19. Age Discrimination, Social Closure and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Mong, Sherry; Byron, Reginald; Tester, Griff

    2007-01-01

    Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility…

  20. Ethical Teaching and the Social Justice Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a conceptual argument that positions two broad areas of educational scholarship--the moral and ethical dimensions of teaching and social justice education as being quite separate, different, and ultimately antithetical, despite contemporary trends towards merging them in both theoretical and practical ways. It argues that an…

  1. A Scoping Review of Social Media Use in Social Work Practice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chitat

    2016-01-01

    The trend of using social media in social work is increasing, but research which systematically reviews and evaluates their uses in actual practice is limited. This article reviews the social work literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media in social work practice, and identifies current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future social work research. Articles in 64 social work journals published between 2000 and 2014 were screened and analyzed. The included articles (n = 20) were analyzed with particular reference to their level of evidence and ways of social media use. The methodological quality of the studies in this review was low, and this was consistent with the findings of recent systematic reviews of social media use in medical healthcare. The findings initially suggested that social media can potentially contribute to various social work processes, including: service user engagement, need assessment, intervention, and program evaluation. Limitations include lack of quality control, reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. In social work, the dominant research concern in social media is more about professional ethics than their application in intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Development Trends in the Fields of Education and Care for Vulnerable Groups in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobolt, Alenka; Pavel, Jana Rapus

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main developments in education and care for vulnerable groups of children and youth in Slovenia over the past twenty years. It describes the education system and provides an overview of the development of social pedagogy as a discipline and the practice of working with some groups of vulnerable young people. The trends can…

  3. Substance Use among Welfare Recipients: Trends and Policy Responses. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Harold A.; Danziger, Sheldon; Seefeldt, Kristin S.; Jayakody, Rukmalie

    Substance use by welfare recipients is frequently mentioned as an important barrier to well-being and social performance. This article uses nationally representative cross-sectional data and Michigan-specific panel data to summarize trends in substance use among Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance to Needy…

  4. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  5. Past, Present, and Future Trends in Teaching Clinical Skills through Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe Regan, Jo Ann R.; Youn, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in social work has grown significantly due to the use of interactive television and computer networks. Given the recent developments in delivering distance education utilizing Web-based technology, this article presents a literature review focused on identifying generational trends in the development of Web-based learning…

  6. Alaska Native Population Trends and Vital Statistics, 1950-1985. ISEGR Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    Utilizing U.S. census data and vital statistics (births and deaths adjusted to residence as provided by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services), this statistical report presents a comparative analysis of Alaska Native population trends. Specifically, the following are presented via tabular and narrative analysis: (1) general…

  7. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  8. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  9. Drug Dependence in Adolescents: Changing Trends at a De-Addiction Centre in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is scarcity of Indian data on substance dependence in children and adolescents. Methods: Case records of 85 adolescents with the final diagnosis of substance dependence were analyzed (out of 115 registrations during 1978-2003). Results: Time trends showed an increase in individuals with good social support and higher family…

  10. Permanent Exclusions from Schools in England in the 1990s: Trends, Causes and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Reviews trends in numbers of students excluded from school in England because of behavior problems, illustrating that permanent exclusions are rising. Proposes that causes for exclusion are psychosocial problems, family and social problems, stretched educational resources, and a cultural response to alienated and alienating behavior. Suggests…

  11. Trends in Pre-School Enrolment in Turkey: Unequal Access and Differential Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirdag, Orhan; Yazici, Zeliha; Sierens, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a historical and international analysis of early childhood education in Turkey is made. More specifically, we explore the trend in pre-school enrolment, compare Turkey's enrolment rate with other countries, study whether access to pre-school is related to social class and gender, and investigate the impact of pre-school attendance…

  12. Time Trends in Reported Autism Spectrum Disorders in Israel, 1986-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Abiri, Lili; Reichenberg, Abraham; Gabis, Lidia; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    Reports indicate sharp increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to assess the time trend in prevalence of ASD in Israel and describe demographic characteristics of the registered cases. We reviewed the autism registry of the Israeli Ministry of Social Affairs which includes 4,709 cases and identified 4,138 cases born…

  13. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    MedlinePlus

    ... phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order ... If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety ...

  14. Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in a Rural Medicaid HMO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert Jr., James F.; Goldenberg, Paula C.; Schock, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHCI) is an increasingly common problem, affecting about 2% of the US population. The cost and complexity of treatment and difficulties in communicating with the infected population are of concern to insurers and health planners. Purpose: To describe the clinical features of patients with CHCI in a rural…

  15. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exams; (iv) Immunizations; (v) Periodic health promotion and disease prevention exams; (vi) Blood... applies to family health services, home health care visits, eye examinations, and immunizations. It...

  16. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exams; (iv) Immunizations; (v) Periodic health promotion and disease prevention exams; (vi) Blood... applies to family health services, home health care visits, eye examinations, and immunizations. It...

  17. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exams; (iv) Immunizations; (v) Periodic health promotion and disease prevention exams; (vi) Blood... applies to family health services, home health care visits, eye examinations, and immunizations. It...

  18. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exams; (iv) Immunizations; (v) Periodic health promotion and disease prevention exams; (vi) Blood... applies to family health services, home health care visits, eye examinations, and immunizations. It...

  19. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exams; (iv) Immunizations; (v) Periodic health promotion and disease prevention exams; (vi) Blood... applies to family health services, home health care visits, eye examinations, and immunizations. It...

  20. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  1. Science/Technology/Society in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Phillip A.

    The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…

  2. Social Media for School Communication. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    It's easy to dismiss social media as a fascination of young people but to do so minimizes one of the fastest growing trends in technology. The Pew Internet and American Life Project recently found that over 71% of teens have a Facebook profile and 75% of adults have one too. Social media tools have become the way for a school or business to…

  3. The Buzz on Campus: Social Networking Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about the latest trend in education, which is social networking. As this phenomenon continues to grow, community colleges are getting into the act, launching online initiatives and harnessing the technology to communicate, promote, and conduct important school business. School administrators believe that social networking can…

  4. Striding Toward Social Justice: The Ecologic Milieu of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519

  5. Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

  6. [Social support and health: standpoints from the social and human sciences].

    PubMed

    Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida

    2012-05-01

    This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.

  7. Nutritional status of Brazilian children: trends from 1975 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C A; Benicio, M H; Iunes, R; Gouveia, N C; Taddei, J A; Cardoso, M A

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition among under-5-year-olds in Brazil fell by more than 60% between 1975 and 1989. The benefits were smaller for population strata that were more affected by malnutrition in the 1970s, i.e., children from the North and North-east regions and those from poor families in general. Regional and socioeconomic differentials in the prevalence of malnutrition therefore increased between 1975 and 1989. Trends in family income indicate extraordinary economic gains in the 1970s, some losses in the 1980s, and a modest net gain over the period 1975-89. The availability of sanitation, health, and education services, and the provision of preschool supplementary feeding programmes increased markedly in the 1970s and 1980s. Demographic trends were also positive, reducing the demand for services and programmes, increasing the economic efficiency of families, and concentrating the population in urban areas, where incomes, job opportunities, and social and material infrastructures are better. The observed nutritional improvement was therefore probably due to a moderate increase in family income associated with a substantial expansion in the provision of services and programmes, both of which were facilitated by favourable demographic trends. Also, the nutritional improvement was probably concentrated during the 1970s, while little, if any, occurred after 1980; prospects for the 1990s point to a stagnant situation. This is a reason for great concern particularly in the North and North-east regions of the country, where high rates of child malnutrition are still found. PMID:1464153

  8. Snow in Castile-León: trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; Campos, L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Sánchez, J. L.; Marcos, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The location of Castile and León, inside the Iberian Peninsula, in the Northwestern quadrant, determines, in large measure, the climatic conditions of its territory, granting it very characteristic traits, mostly in the mountainous areas. It is important to note that during a large part of the year, the region is under the influence of Jet Stream, and thus, gives way to very diverse dynamic situations, which turn into different and heterogeneous types of weather. So, in many areas of the region, especially in the most elevated areas, these synoptic and mesoscale situations generate snow precipitation. We should point out that snowfall is one of the principal meteorological risks of Castile and León. Thus, on average, in some mountainous areas there are more than 40 events of snowfall registered annually, with the month of January being the month in which the highest frequency of snowfall appears. The social repercussions of this snowfall are represented in the isolation of places, essentially mountainous, highways being blocked, increase in traffic accidents, etc. As proof of this, it is this type of episode that receives ample coverage by the media, which has a linear relationship with the social perception of risk. As such, the objective of the current work is to analyze the annual trend of days with snow in the different meteorological stations pertaining to AEMET placed in the Community. The period of study is from 1960-2010. Additionally, we have also evaluated trends in annual days of freezing temperature and annual absolute minimum temperature, with the objective of facilitating a meteorological interpretation of the trends obtained on days with snowfall. Finally, the results show that in the majority of stations, a significant negative trend in days with snowfall and annual days with freezing temperatures, and a positive trend in annual absolute minimum temperatures. However, we observed variability in the different regions in the area of study

  9. American families: trends and correlates.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  10. [Social pain].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2011-09-01

    This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment.

  11. Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694

  12. Recent Trends and Advances in Sedimentology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttner, Lee J.

    1979-01-01

    Briefly surveys recent trends and developments in sedimentology. Includes Clastic sedimentary petrology, petrology of argillaceous rocks, terrigenous depositional environments, and chemical sedimentology. (MA)

  13. Signal trend identification with fuzzy methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Wang, X.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    1999-08-19

    A fuzzy-logic-based methodology for on-line signal trend identification is introduced. Although signal trend identification is complicated by the presence of noise, fuzzy logic can help capture important features of on-line signals and classify incoming power plant signals into increasing, decreasing and steady-state trend categories. In order to verify the methodology, a code named PROTREN is developed and tested using plant data. The results indicate that the code is capable of detecting transients accurately, identifying trends reliably, and not misinterpreting a steady-state signal as a transient one.

  14. Meteorology: are there trends in hurricane destruction?

    PubMed

    Pielke, Roger A

    2005-12-22

    Since the record impact of Hurricane Katrina, attention has focused on understanding trends in hurricanes and their destructive potential. Emanuel reports a marked increase in the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on identification of a trend in an accumulated annual index of power dissipation in the North Atlantic and western North Pacific since the 1970s. If hurricanes are indeed becoming more destructive over time, then this trend should manifest itself in more destruction. However, my analysis of a long-term data set of hurricane losses in the United States shows no upward trend once the data are normalized to remove the effects of societal changes.

  15. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the ...

  16. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  17. Future trends in global blindness

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Keys, Tricia U

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms “global AND blindness” and “global AND vision AND impairment”, resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002–2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity. PMID:22944747

  18. Total ozone trend over Cairo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, G. K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    A world wide interest in protecting ozone layer against manmade effects is now increasing. Assessment of the ozone depletion due to these activities depends on how successfully we can separate the natural variabilities from the data. The monthly mean values of total ozone over Cairo (30 05N) for the period 1968-1988, have been analyzed using the power spectral analysis technique. The technique used in this analysis does not depend on a pre-understanding of the natural fluctuations in the ozone data. The method depends on increasing the resolution of the spectral peaks in order to obtain the more accurate sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. Also it handles the possible sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. The results show that it is possible to detect some of the well known national fluctuations in the ozone record such as annual, semiannual, quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations. After separating the natural fluctuations from the ozone record, the trend analysis of total ozone over Cairo showed that a decrease of about -1.2% per decade has occurred since 1979.

  19. Vascular Injuries: Trends in Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Wani, Nasir-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. Sometimes serious vascular injury presents with only subtle or occult signs or symptoms. The patient may present weeks or months after initial injury with symptoms of vascular insufficiency, embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula etc. Although the majority of vascular injuries are caused by penetrating trauma from gunshot wounds, stabbing or blast injury, the possibility of vascular injury needs to be considered in patients presenting with displaced long bone fractures, crush injury, prolonged immobilization in a fixed position by tight casts or bandages and various invasive procedures. iatrogenic vascular injuries constitute about 10% of cases in most series; however the incidence is an increasing trend because more endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and cardiac catheterization are being performed routinely. Civilian trauma is more frequently seen in young males. However, it can occur at any age due to road accidents, firearms, bomb blasts and diagnostic procedures. Most of the time, civilian trauma causes less tissue damage. There is an epidemic of vascular injuries in Kashmir valley because of problems in law and order in the past two decades. This review deals with the topic in detail. PMID:24350103

  20. Trends in stratospheric minor constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Chu, W. P.; Coffey, M. T.; Heaps, W. S.; Kaye, J. A.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Photochemical models predict that increasing source gas concentrations are also expected to lead to changes in the concentrations of both catalytically active radical species (such as NO2, ClO, and OH) and inactive reservoir species (such as HNO3, HCl, and H2O). For simplicity, we will refer to all these as trace species. Those species that are expected to have increasing concentration levels are investigated. Additionally, the trace species concentration levels are monitored for unexpected changes on the basis of the measure increase in source gases. Carrying out these investigations is difficult due to the limited data base of measurements of stratospheric trace species. In situ measurements are made only infrequently, and there are few satelliteborne measurements, most over a time space insufficient for trend determination. Instead, ground-based measurements of column content must be used for many species, and interpretation is complicated by contributions from the troposphere or mesosphere or both. In this chapter, we examine existing measurements as published or tabulated.

  1. Social Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    This is not only the time to get down to work, as I noted at the end of the last chapter, but also a time to thank you for your patience in coming along with me on this trip to Netland. We have reached an important point. We are just about to rise above ourselves. In the last chapter, we surveyed some of the networks in our body, and in this chapter the same body will be an element of a larger network, the social net. The current chapter will give me a good opportunity to understand my obsession with building social networks.

  2. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  3. Reviewing social media use by clinicians.

    PubMed

    von Muhlen, Marcio; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Adoption studies of social media use by clinicians were systematically reviewed, up to July 26th, 2011, to determine the extent of adoption and highlight trends in institutional responses. This search led to 370 articles, of which 50 were selected for review, including 15 adoption surveys. The definition of social media is evolving rapidly; the authors define it broadly to include social networks and group-curated reference sites such as Wikipedia. Facebook accounts are very common among health science students (64-96%) and less so for professional clinicians (13-47%). Adoption rates have increased sharply in the past 4 years. Wikipedia is widely used as a reference tool. Attempts at incorporating social media into clinical training have met with mixed success. Posting of unprofessional content and breaches of patient confidentiality, especially by students, are not uncommon and have prompted calls for social media guidelines.

  4. Reviewing social media use by clinicians

    PubMed Central

    von Muhlen, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    Adoption studies of social media use by clinicians were systematically reviewed, up to July 26th, 2011, to determine the extent of adoption and highlight trends in institutional responses. This search led to 370 articles, of which 50 were selected for review, including 15 adoption surveys. The definition of social media is evolving rapidly; the authors define it broadly to include social networks and group-curated reference sites such as Wikipedia. Facebook accounts are very common among health science students (64–96%) and less so for professional clinicians (13–47%). Adoption rates have increased sharply in the past 4 years. Wikipedia is widely used as a reference tool. Attempts at incorporating social media into clinical training have met with mixed success. Posting of unprofessional content and breaches of patient confidentiality, especially by students, are not uncommon and have prompted calls for social media guidelines. PMID:22759618

  5. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. PMID:25516347

  6. Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.

    PubMed

    Chary, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; McKenzie, Andrew; Manini, Alex F

    2013-06-01

    The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These

  7. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.

  8. Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.

    PubMed

    Chary, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; McKenzie, Andrew; Manini, Alex F

    2013-06-01

    The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These

  9. Fractionation Trends Among IVA Iron Meteorites: Contrasts with IIIAB Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Richardson, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    A neutron-activation study of 49 group-IVA irons shows much lower negative slopes on Ir-Au and Ir-As diagrams than observed in the larger magmatic group IIIAB. This difference seems to reflect the tendency of D(sub Ir), D(sub Au), and D(sub As) to increase with increasing S content. Contents of S and other volatiles are much lower in IVA irons than IIIAB irons. We show that both groups can be fit with Dx values that depend quadratically on S, with initial IVA S contents about 6X lower than those in IIIAB. The IVA scatter fields show a spread in Au or As at constant Ir that appears to reflect variations in the fraction of trapped melt between 0% and 30%. Copper shows an S-shaped trend that may reflect moderate positive and negative changes in D(sub Cu) as the magma evolved or, less likely, sampling variations in a broad band reflecting fractionation and trapping of melt. Gibeon, the largest IVA iron with a mass greater than 30 tons, shows an appreciable range in compositions consistent either with differences in the degree of magma crystallization or with differences in the content of trapped melt. A striking difference between IVA and IIIAB is observed in the Ir/Au ratios in the most Ir-rich irons in the groups; that in IVA is 40% lower than the IIIAB ratio, and lower than those in other iron-meteorite groups, The IVA Ir/Au ratio is about half the ratios in the chondrite groups. We examined three possible explanations of this anomaly: (1) the high-Ir irons contain large amounts of trapped melt: or (2) half of the IVA core (i.e., the first 50% to crystallize) is missing from the terrestrial set of IVA irons; or (3) the IVA magma formed by incomplete melting of the metal in the chondritic precursor material, with the metal that remained in the mantle having high Ir and low Au contents. Plausibility arguments favor the third possibility. The third scenario is the most plausible, but the second cannot be ruled out. We review recent evidence regarding the cooling rates

  10. Schoolhouse Socialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rome, Gregory; Block, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Public schools are part and parcel of socialism. This system of economics does not function well. Not in the Soviet Union, and not in any industry in the United States, certainly including education. The present paper attempts to show that education is no exception to this general rule. (Contains 6 notes.)

  11. Socials Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

  12. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Edward

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents social study concepts and activities relative to education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on the study of man (past, present, and future) interacting with his environment. Listed below are activity examples: (1)…

  13. Trends in the Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey shows consistent and substantial improvements in the relative health of the aged from 1961-81. Explanations for this trend include cohort effects, Medicare and Medicaid, and other programs for the aged. Increasing health service needs should be partially offset by this trend.…

  14. Ecotherapy: A Counter to Society's Unhealthy Trend?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Corrine R.

    2010-01-01

    We are facing a societal trend of lethargy in today's youth. Technology, fear, and limited green spaces keep our children inside and inactive. This article explores this trend and proposes ecotherapy, which promotes mental health in the context of the environment and through the use of green spaces, as a method the counseling profession can…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Alaska showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the proficient level for almost all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls (subgroup trends were not available at the basic or advanced levels). Most student subgroups had upward trends in percentages proficient, with a few exceptions. Gains in math tended to be…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maryland, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Maryland for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maryland had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. The percentage of students reaching the…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…