Science.gov

Sample records for social impacts

  1. Social Representations as Dynamic Social Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Pascal; Latane, Bibb

    1996-01-01

    Describes Social Representation Theory (SRT), an important and controversial development in European social constructivism. Argues that, although SRT and Dynamic Social Impact Theory (DSIT) come from different research traditions, they are complementary. Maintains that DSIT goes further in providing a clear mechanism for how dialog creates…

  2. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  3. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  4. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  5. Social Impact Studies: An Expository Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Mark A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzed are some selected studies on the social impact of resources development and construction projects including dams, highways, nuclear power plants and strip mines. The analytical and methodological problem of assessing differential impacts is stressed. (BT)

  6. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  7. Reassessing the Social Impacts of New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gale

    1987-01-01

    Explores the social impacts of technological change on the library and the library profession as social institutions, the library as an organization, and librarians as professionals. The effects of automation on the library's role in providing public access to information, library management, professional status, and the work environment are also…

  8. Social impact analysis: monetary valuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wainger, Lisa A.; Johnston, Robert J.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Casey, Frank; Vegh, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This section provides basic guidance for using and conducting economic valuation, including criteria for judging whether valuation is appropriate for supporting decisions. It provides an introduction to the economic techniques used to measure changes in social welfare and describes which methods may be most appropriate for use in valuing particular ecosystem services. Rather than providing comprehensive valuation instructions,it directs readers to additional resources.More generally, it establishes that the valuation of ecosystem services is grounded in a long history of non-market valuation and discusses how ecosystem services valuation can be conducted within established economic theory and techniques.

  9. Climate change impact on neotropical social wasps.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997-2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals.

  10. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  11. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  12. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  13. [The impact of socially involved films].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, M

    1979-01-01

    During the past few years studies on linguistics and particularly on semiology have considerably renewed the approach and investigation methods in artistic expression. Ideology has several languages and expression systems (photography, painting, music, speech, architecture and so on). The film does not only carry an ideological content: besides the signification systems and the signs taken from other means of films. To consider only films which have the ostensible objective to urge the public to a political action as socially involved is wrong: any movie is socially involved. One must appreciate correctly and politically the place, role and level at which it intervenes in the framework of the ideological fight. Audiovisual alphabetization is essential for the progress of new ideas in the field of picture and sound. In the Third World, when they do exist, cinematographies rarely have the political power to consider such an action. Ideological impact depends mostly on the social, political and cultural environment. A movie is 1st questioned from the standpoint of the historical place and of the problems of the public. The example of Algerian cinematography as a socially involved one is given. At its origin, film-making in this country was working at informing the outside world of the meaning of the people's fight. Its goal was to capture the political and social reality in order to change it. Therefore the social involvement role of Algerian film-producing is tightly connected to the revolutionary process in which the whole country is engaged. Algerian film-producing is often understood as a propaganda cinematography. The stagnation or progress of a cinematography cannot be measured in relation to the universal mythical culture, but in relation to the social and cultural reality of the country where it originates. The present deepening of the reflection on film and ideology is a result of a recent accentuation of the ideologic fight.

  14. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  15. Learning from Experience: A Guide to Social Impact Bond Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The social sector's hottest "impact investing" product--the social impact bond (SIB)--has generated a range of reactions, from excitement to angst. An SIB uses private funds to pay for a social, educational, or health program, and the government repays investors (plus a return) only if the program achieves prespecified results. The…

  16. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-11-15

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community.

  17. The Impact of Social Media on College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna; Metellus, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous ways, positive and negative, in which social media impact college students. Understanding sheer volume of time and the type of activities for which college students use social networking sites is crucial for higher education administrators. Researchers have begun to empirically examine impacts on students' well-being and have…

  18. Impact of Netbook Computers on One District's Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Joel L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data to determine the overall impact of a pilot netbook initiative in five social studies classrooms. The researcher explored the impact on teaching and learning social studies with the primary source of curriculum delivery through one-to-one netbook computer access…

  19. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  20. Culture and social support: neural bases and biological impact.

    PubMed

    Sherman, David K; Kim, Heejung S; Taylor, Shelley E

    2009-01-01

    Social support is an effective means by which people cope with stressful events, and consequently, it beneficially affects health and well-being. Yet there are profound cultural differences in the effectiveness of different types of support and how people use their support networks. In this paper, we examine research on the impact of culture on social support, the neural underpinnings of social support, and how cultural differences in social support seeking are manifested biologically. We focus on cultural factors that may affect individuals' decisions to seek or not to seek social support and how culture moderates the impact of support seeking on biological and psychological health outcomes. We also examine recent research on the interaction between genes and culture in social support use. Discussion centers on the importance of developing an overarching framework of social support that integrates health psychology, cultural psychology, social neuroscience, and genetics.

  1. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  2. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  3. Does Social Work Education Have an Impact on Social Policy Preferences? A Three-Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Idit; Gal, John; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social work education on the social policy preferences of social work students through a panel study of 3 cohorts of students at universities in 2 countries--the United States and Israel. The findings of the study indicate that though the initial policy preferences of the students at the beginning of their…

  4. Restarting TMI unit one: social and psychological impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.

    1983-12-01

    A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.

  5. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  6. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2012-05-01

    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  7. Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer: Psychological and Social Impact

    MedlinePlus

    Genetic testing for breast cancer: Psychological and social impact Genetic testing to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Thinking about getting a genetic test to find out if you have a ...

  8. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  9. Community Values as the Context for Interpreting Social Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canan, Penelope; Hennessy, Michael

    A social impact assessment which focused on a Hawaiian community's evaluation of social change and development is reported. The research occurred on the island of Moloka'i, which depends largely on imports for its energy sources, although it has a number of natural sources (biomass, wind, solar, and water power). Specifically, the study identified…

  10. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  11. The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

  12. The impact of vasculitis on patients’ social participation and friendships

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Delesha M.; Meador, Amy E.; Elstad, Emily A.; Hogan, Susan L.; DeVellis, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our objective is to explore how vasculitis, affects patients’ friendships and social participation. Methods Vasculitis patients (n=221) completed an online questionnaire that asked if, and how, relationships with friends have changed since receiving a vasculitis diagnosis. Participants’ written responses were imported into Atlas.ti, and two independent researchers used both structured and unstructured coding to identify themes. After reaching 100% consensus on the themes present in each participant’s responses, the coders determined how themes were interrelated across participants. Results Over half of patients (52%) expressed that vasculitis negatively impacted their friendships and 25% noted a negative impact on their social participation. At limes, this negative impact was related to structural changes in patients’ social networks due to loss of friendships. Reduced social participation was also associated with friends’ inability to understand vasculitis and its effects, vasculitis-related fatigue, and lifestyle changes such as not being able to drink alcohol and avoiding infection-prone events. Additionally, patients withdrew from social engagements due to fatigue or because of physical symptoms and side effects. Conclusion The unique circumstances associated with a rare chronic illness like vasculitis can create significant barriers to friendships, including loss of these relationships. Interventions designed to help patients cope with the social impact of vasculitis are implicated, especially if they increase patients’ ability to engage in dialogue about their illness with their friends. PMID:22325346

  13. The Impact of College Student Socialization, Social Class, and Race on Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Goodman, Kathleen M.; Johnson, Megan P.; Saichaie, Kem; Umbach, Paul D.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    John C. Weidman (1989) was one of the first to argue that a socialization model is necessary to fully understand college impact. Weidman also contends that socioeconomic status (SES) is an important part of the socialization process for students. In fact, he placed such emphasis on SES that he included it in two locations within his model: (1)…

  14. [Social deprivation and time perception, the impact on smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Smoking addiction and smoking behaviour are closely related to social deprivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social deprivation and time perspective on smoking cessation in order to improve the support provided to socially deprived persons seeking to quit smoking. The study examined the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. 192 patients (including 45% of socially disadvantaged people) participated in the study. Social deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale, while time perspective was measured using the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Data relating to individuals' characteristics, smoking addiction, behaviour and smoking cessation were collected as part of this research. Compared to the rest of the population, socially disadvantaged people were found to be more likely to stop smoking for financial reasons (p < 0.0001). The study also found that their attempts to quit smoking are more likely to fail (p = 0,006). In addition, socially disadvantaged people suffer more frequently from anxio-depressive disorders (p < 0.0001) and are also prone to a higher level of nicotine dependence (p < 0.0001). The 'Past-Negative' and ?Present-Fatalistic' dimensions of time perspective, toward which socially disadvantaged people are more likely to lean (p < 0.0001), are associated with failed smoking cessation. The ?Future' dimension, in which socially disadvantaged people are less likely to project themselves (p < 0.0002), is a predictive factor of smoking cessation. The results highlight the importance of taking into account social deprivation and time perspective in helping socially disadvantaged patients to quit smoking.

  15. Technical and social impact of NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1972-01-01

    Estimates are made as to the direction in which a new generation of general purpose applications programs can be expected to migrate. Predictions are made as to the impacts that space technology is liable to have within the field of structural engineering and on the society in which it interacts.

  16. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p < 0.001) and the two correlated significantly (r = 0.50 p < 0.001). Then two hundred consecutive patients per city attending tertiary specialised 'dizzy patient' clinics, one in London led by a neurologist, one in Siena led by an ear, nose and throat specialist (ENT), were investigated with SWID. Amongst the 400 patients, 27% reported changing their jobs and 21% giving up work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  17. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  18. Social impact bonds and their application to preventive health.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John L

    2013-05-01

    Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their

  19. Social impact assessment: A review and proposed approach: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to assess the potential social impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social Impact Assessment (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. The Impact of Children's Social Adjustment on Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Lloyd, Stacey W.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether social adjustment added to the prediction of academic outcomes above and beyond prior academic functioning. School records and peer-, teacher-, and self-report measures were collected for 1,255 third grade children in the fall and spring of the school year. Social acceptance by and aggression with peers were included as measures of social adjustment. Academic outcomes included math and reading GPA, classroom behavior, academic self-esteem, and absenteeism. As expected, support for the causal model was found where both forms of social adjustment contributed independently to the prediction of each area of academic adjustment. Gender differences in the patterns of results were present, particularly for the impact of aggression on academic adjustment. Discussion focuses on the implications for social-emotional literacy programs to prevent negative academic outcomes. PMID:21603062

  1. The Impact of High School on Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Newman, Philip R.

    1987-01-01

    Literature review on social impact of high school revealed six themes which suggest that high school students have limited opportunities for flexible self-definition. It appeared that, as a result of treatment by authority figures and strong pressures toward conformity, many adolescents failed to learn extent of their rights or effective…

  2. The Impact of Social Software in Product Design Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurn, Karl

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to ignore the impact that Web 2.0 and the subsequent social software revolution has had on society in general, and young people in particular. Information is exchanged and interpreted extremely quickly and in ways that were not imagined 10 years ago. Universities are struggling to keep up with this new technology, with outdated…

  3. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Peter M; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L

    2015-05-26

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research.

  4. The impact of social media on the sexual and social wellness of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa M; Ryan, Ginny L

    2015-02-01

    For most adolescents in the United States, the use of social media is an integral part of daily life. While the advent of the Internet has enhanced information dispersal and communication worldwide, it has also had a negative impact on the sexual and social wellness of many of its adolescent users. The objective of this review is to describe the role of social media in the evolution of social norms, to illustrate how online activity can negatively impact adolescent self-esteem and contribute to high-risk adolescent behaviors, to elucidate how this activity can result in real-world consequences with life-long results, and to provide guidance regarding social media use for those who care for adolescents. Although research is now aimed at use of social media for positive health and wellness interventions, much work needs to be done to determine the utility of these programs. Adolescent healthcare providers are important contributors to this new field of study and must resolve to stay informed and to engage this up-and-coming generation on the benefits and risks of social media use.

  5. Virtual social interactions in social anxiety--the impact of sex, gaze, and interpersonal distance.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Grosseibl, Miriam; Molzow, Ina; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In social interactions, interpersonal distance between interaction partners plays an important role in determining the status of the relationship. Interpersonal distance is an important nonverbal behavior, and is used to regulate personal space in a complex interplay with other nonverbal behaviors such as eye gaze. In social anxiety, studies regarding the impact of interpersonal distance on within-situation avoidance behavior are so far rare. Thus the present study aimed to scrutinize the relationship between gaze direction, sex, interpersonal distance, and social anxiety in social interactions. Social interactions were modeled in a virtual-reality (VR) environment, where 20 low and 19 high socially anxious women were confronted with approaching male and female characters, who stopped in front of the participant, either some distance away or close to them, and displayed either a direct or an averted gaze. Gaze and head movements, as well as heart rate, were measured as indices of avoidance behavior and fear reactions. High socially anxious participants showed a complex pattern of avoidance behavior: when the avatar was standing farther away, high socially anxious women avoided gaze contact with male avatars showing a direct gaze. Furthermore, they showed avoidance behavior (backward head movements) in response to male avatars showing a direct gaze, regardless of the interpersonal distance. Overall, the current study proved that VR social interactions might be a very useful tool for investigating avoidance behavior of socially anxious individuals in highly controlled situations. This might also be the first step in using VR social interactions in clinical protocols for the therapy of social anxiety disorder.

  6. The Social Impact of P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorioso, Andrea; Pagallo, Ugo; Ruffo, Giancarlo

    The chapter deals with the social impact of P2P systems in light of a bidirectional connection by which technological developments influence, in a complex and often unpredictable way, the social environment whereas the dynamic evolution of the latter does affect technological progress. From this perspective, the aim is to deepen legal issues, sociological trends, economical aspects, and political dimensions of P2P technology, along with some of its next possible outputs, in order to assess one of the most compelling alternatives to the traditional frame of highly centralized human interaction.

  7. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  8. At what cost? The social impact of American Indian gaming.

    PubMed

    Peacock, T D; Day, P A; Peacock, R B

    1999-01-01

    American Indian gaming has been called the "new buffalo." It has the potential to greatly influence cultural traditions on American Indian reservations. This study looks at the social impact that American Indian gaming is having on one reservation in northern Minnesota. Tribal members share strong feelings, both positive and negative, about the issue. Concerns about gaming include an increase in gambling abuse and addiction; a lack of appropriate child care; and concern that gaming is replacing traditional social activities. Some express concern that American Indian values are being replaced by materialism. Supporters of gaming point out that gaming provides tribal members with an opportunity to learn job skills and have gainful employment. Implications for social policy are given.

  9. The impact of disability transitions on social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda; Nolan, Brian

    2007-04-01

    As the extent of disability increases in society, there is an increasing need to understand its consequences for many aspects of social inclusion. Using the Living in Ireland Survey 1995-2001 (n=2727 adults), we provide a rigorous analysis of the transitions into and out of disability and the related consequences for various characteristics of social inclusion. We compare the effect of onset, exit and persistent disability on household income and the probability of being in poverty. We also look at the impact on daily societal participation for individuals with varying durations of disability. Results show that people with disabilities have much lower levels of social inclusion and imply that related policy should focus on the heterogeneity of disabled people, depending on their respective transitions into disability and the duration of their disability.

  10. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Paula V. Vanclay, Frank

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  12. Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Brainerd, Scott M; Meier, Thomas J; Prugh, Laura R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of individuals to the dynamics of populations may depend on reproductive status, especially for species with complex social structure. Loss of reproductive individuals in socially complex species could disproportionately affect population dynamics by destabilizing social structure and reducing population growth. Alternatively, compensatory mechanisms such as rapid replacement of breeders may result in little disruption. The impact of breeder loss on the population dynamics of social species remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of breeder loss on social stability, recruitment and population growth of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska using a 26-year dataset of 387 radiocollared wolves. Harvest of breeding wolves is a highly contentious conservation and management issue worldwide, with unknown population-level consequences. Breeder loss preceded 77% of cases (n = 53) of pack dissolution from 1986 to 2012. Packs were more likely to dissolve if a female or both breeders were lost and pack size was small. Harvest of breeders increased the probability of pack dissolution, likely because the timing of harvest coincided with the breeding season of wolves. Rates of denning and successful recruitment were uniformly high for packs that did not experience breeder loss; however, packs that lost breeders exhibited lower denning and recruitment rates. Breeder mortality and pack dissolution had no significant effects on immediate or longer term population dynamics. Our results indicate the importance of breeding individuals is context dependent. The impact of breeder loss on social group persistence, reproduction and population growth may be greatest when average group sizes are small and mortality occurs during the breeding season. This study highlights the importance of reproductive individuals in maintaining group cohesion in social species, but at the population level socially complex species may be resilient

  13. Does social support impact on venous ulcer healing or recurrence?

    PubMed

    Brown, Annemarie

    2008-03-01

    Much of the leg ulcer literature focuses on clinical assessment and management of chronic venous leg ulceration in order to achieve healing. Chronic venous leg ulceration, however, should be classed as a chronic or long-term condition, defined as a condition,'that is currently not curable and therefore can only be managed', although it is not generally acknowledged as such. There is an extensive body of literature which focuses on the psychosocial issues that impact negatively on the quality of life of patients with long-term conditions, such as diabetes or arthritis. These include the emotional impact of pain, social support, coping mechanisms and response to stress and treatment adherence. Health care professionals are becoming increasingly aware of the impact psychosocial issues may have on wound healing in general, but particularly, in chronic venous leg ulceration and prevention of recurrence. This article reviews the current literature on the role of social support and its impact on venous ulcer healing/recurrence and concludes that health professionals caring for patients with chronic venous ulceration need to consider alternative outcome intervention measures for patients for whom healing may not be a realistic option.

  14. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  15. Neurotoxicology and development: human, environmental and social impacts.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonny; London, Leslie; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2014-12-01

    The 12th International symposium of the Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology, International Commission on Occupational Health was held in Cape Town, South Africa on March 24-27, 2013. Reflecting the meeting aiming to build greater focus on challenges facing working populations and communities in developing countries, the Symposium theme was Neurotoxicology and Development: Human, Environmental and Social Impacts. A total of 23 countries were represented with strong participation from 5 African countries. In addition to the more traditional topics of these Symposia, like metal, solvents and pesticides neurotoxicity, the conference embraced several new themes including affective disorders arising from chemical exposure, neurodevelopmental impacts in early life and novel approaches to genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for the assessment of neurotoxic impact. The theme of the conference prompted extensive discussions, which have laid the basis for a number of new directions for research, advocacy and capacity building to prevent and manage chemical neurotoxicity in workplace and community settings across the globe.

  16. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    SciTech Connect

    Vanclay, Frank . E-mail: Frank.Vanclay@utas.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion.

  17. Social impact assessments: Developing a consolidated conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arce-Gomez, Antonio Donovan, Jerome D. Bedggood, Rowan E.

    2015-01-15

    Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to assess and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated.

  18. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  19. Scholarometer: A Social Framework for Analyzing Impact across Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoling; Possamai, Lino; JafariAsbagh, Mohsen; Patil, Snehal; Menczer, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crowdsourced annotations of scholars, designed to keep up with the rapidly evolving disciplinary and interdisciplinary landscape. We describe a system called Scholarometer, which provides a service to scholars by computing citation-based impact measures. This creates an incentive for users to provide disciplinary annotations of authors, which in turn can be used to compute disciplinary metrics. We first present the system architecture and several heuristics to deal with noisy bibliographic and annotation data. We report on data sharing and interactive visualization services enabled by Scholarometer. Usage statistics, illustrating the data collected and shared through the framework, suggest that the proposed crowdsourcing approach can be successful. Secondly, we illustrate how the disciplinary bibliometric indicators elicited by Scholarometer allow us to implement for the first time a universal impact measure proposed in the literature. Our evaluation suggests that this metric provides an effective means for comparing scholarly impact across disciplinary boundaries. PMID:22984414

  20. Social Enterprise with International Impact: The Case for Fair Trade Certification of Volunteer Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mdee, Anna; Emmott, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise and fair trade are seen increasingly as redefining capitalist relationships through revaluing social impact and ownership in enterprise activities. One of the dilemmas in such activities is the tension between operating a viable and commercially-sustainable enterprise and maximising social and developmental impacts. This article…

  1. The social impact of dental problems and visits.

    PubMed Central

    Gift, H C; Reisine, S T; Larach, D C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this analysis was to assess selected social consequences of maintaining oral health and treating oral diseases. The associations among socioeconomic and demographic factors with time lost from work or school and reductions in normal activities are explored. METHODS. Data were gathered as part of the 1989 National Health Interview Survey from 50,000 US households (117,000 individuals), representing 240 million persons. The oral health care supplement was analyzed using the software SUDAAN to produce standard errors for estimates based on complex multistage sample designs. RESULTS. Because of dental visits or problems, 148,000 hours of work were lost per 100,000 workers, 117,000 hours of school were lost per 100,000 school-age children, and 17,000 activity days beyond work and school time were restricted per 100,000 individuals in 1989. Exploratory analyses suggest that sociodemographic groups have different patterns of such time loss and of reduced normal activities. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, there is low social impact individually from dental visits and oral conditions. At the societal level, however, such problems and treatments among disadvantaged groups appear to have a greater impact. PMID:1456343

  2. Comorbidities, Social Impact, and Quality of Life in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Valsamma; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied comorbidities as well as the social impact and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex, and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person's experiences, perceptions, and interactions with the environment. Furthermore, associated clinical features, comorbidities, and coexisting psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. In this regard, the common comorbidities include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behaviors, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and coexistent problems include anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated comorbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiraling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying, and discrimination are considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related comorbidities and other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long-term outcomes is also warranted.

  3. Impact of Repeated Exposures on Information Spreading in Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cangqi; Zhao, Qianchuan; Lu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Clustered structure of social networks provides the chances of repeated exposures to carriers with similar information. It is commonly believed that the impact of repeated exposures on the spreading of information is nontrivial. Does this effect increase the probability that an individual forwards a message in social networks? If so, to what extent does this effect influence people's decisions on whether or not to spread information? Based on a large-scale microblogging data set, which logs the message spreading processes and users' forwarding activities, we conduct a data-driven analysis to explore the answer to the above questions. The results show that an overwhelming majority of message samples are more probable to be forwarded under repeated exposures, compared to those under only a single exposure. For those message samples that cover various topics, we observe a relatively fixed, topic-independent multiplier of the willingness of spreading when repeated exposures occur, regardless of the differences in network structure. We believe that this finding reflects average people's intrinsic psychological gain under repeated stimuli. Hence, it makes sense that the gain is associated with personal response behavior, rather than network structure. Moreover, we find that the gain is robust against the change of message popularity. This finding supports that there exists a relatively fixed gain brought by repeated exposures. Based on the above findings, we propose a parsimonious model to predict the saturated numbers of forwarding activities of messages. Our work could contribute to better understandings of behavioral psychology and social media analytics.

  4. High-Impact Social Work Scholars: A Bibliometric Examination of SSWR and AASWSW Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the bibliometric contributions of high-impact social work faculty. Methods: Toward this end, we used a sample comprising fellows (N = 143) affiliated with the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) and the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare (AASWSW). To quantify…

  5. Essays on the Impact of Social Media: Evidence from the Music Industry and the Stock Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    As both individuals and businesses are starting to embrace social media, understanding the power and influence of social media becomes an important question. This dissertation aims to address this issue and study the impact of social media in different contexts. It consists of two essays. The first essay examines the effectiveness of social media…

  6. NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT: HUMAN, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonny; London, Leslie; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2014-01-01

    The 12th International symposium of the Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology, International Commission on Occupational Health was held in Cape Town, South Africa on March 24 – 27, 2013. Reflecting the meeting aiming to build greater focus on challenges facing working populations and communities in developing countries, the Symposium theme was Neurotoxicology and Development: Human, Environmental and Social Impacts. A total of 23 countries were represented with strong participation from 5 African countries. In addition to the more traditional topics of these Symposia, like metal, solvents and pesticides neurotoxicity, the conference embraced several new themes including affective disorders arising from chemical exposure, neurodevelopmental impacts in early life and novel approaches to genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for the assessment of neurotoxic impact. The theme of the conference prompted extensive discussions, which have laid the basis for a number of new directions for research, advocacy and capacity building to prevent and manage chemical neurotoxicity in workplace and community settings across the globe. PMID:25124738

  7. Social interactions in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats: impact of social deprivation and test context familiarity.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2008-04-09

    Interactions with peers become particularly important during adolescence, and age differences in social interactions have been successfully modeled in rats. To determine the impact of social deprivation on social interactions under anxiogenic (unfamiliar) or non-anxiogenic (familiar) test circumstances during ontogeny, the present study used a modified social interaction test to assess the effects of 5 days of social isolation or group housing on different components of social behavior in early [postnatal day (P) 28], mid (P35), or late (P42) adolescent and adult (P70) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. As expected, testing in an unfamiliar environment suppressed social interactions regardless of age, housing, and sex. Social deprivation drastically enhanced all forms of social behavior in P28 animals regardless of test situation, whereas depriving older animals of social interactions had more modest effects and was restricted predominantly to play fighting -- an adolescent-characteristic form of social interactions. Social investigation -- more adult-typical form of social behavior was relatively resistant to isolation-induced enhancement and was elevated in early adolescent isolates only. These findings confirm that different forms of social behavior are differentially sensitive to social deprivation across ontogeny.

  8. Topicality and Impact in Social Media: Diverse Messages, Focused Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user’s interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact. PMID:25710685

  9. Comorbidities, Social Impact, and Quality of Life in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Valsamma; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Robertson, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied comorbidities as well as the social impact and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex, and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person’s experiences, perceptions, and interactions with the environment. Furthermore, associated clinical features, comorbidities, and coexisting psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. In this regard, the common comorbidities include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behaviors, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and coexistent problems include anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated comorbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiraling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying, and discrimination are considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related comorbidities and other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long-term outcomes is also warranted. PMID:27375503

  10. Impact of Repeated Exposures on Information Spreading in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cangqi; Zhao, Qianchuan; Lu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Clustered structure of social networks provides the chances of repeated exposures to carriers with similar information. It is commonly believed that the impact of repeated exposures on the spreading of information is nontrivial. Does this effect increase the probability that an individual forwards a message in social networks? If so, to what extent does this effect influence people’s decisions on whether or not to spread information? Based on a large-scale microblogging data set, which logs the message spreading processes and users’ forwarding activities, we conduct a data-driven analysis to explore the answer to the above questions. The results show that an overwhelming majority of message samples are more probable to be forwarded under repeated exposures, compared to those under only a single exposure. For those message samples that cover various topics, we observe a relatively fixed, topic-independent multiplier of the willingness of spreading when repeated exposures occur, regardless of the differences in network structure. We believe that this finding reflects average people’s intrinsic psychological gain under repeated stimuli. Hence, it makes sense that the gain is associated with personal response behavior, rather than network structure. Moreover, we find that the gain is robust against the change of message popularity. This finding supports that there exists a relatively fixed gain brought by repeated exposures. Based on the above findings, we propose a parsimonious model to predict the saturated numbers of forwarding activities of messages. Our work could contribute to better understandings of behavioral psychology and social media analytics. PMID:26465749

  11. [Clinical impact of social marketing strategy on breast cancer detection].

    PubMed

    Quintana-Vidaurri, Adriana Guadalupe; Santana-Chávez, Luis Alejandro; González-Villalobos, Cynthia Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar el impacto clínico de la mercadotecnia social en la detección del cáncer mamario; el parámetro de medición fueron las solicitudes de mastografía. Métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental, antes y después, en una unidad de medicina familiar. Se incluyeron 69 médicos de la consulta externa y 14 enfermeras de PREVENIMSS. Se aplicaron estrategias de mercadotecnia social. Las solicitudes de mastografía fueron analizadas con suma de rangos de Wilcoxon (significación < 0.05). Resultados: en el turno matutino, al comenzar el estudio se registraron 1.5 solicitudes por consultorio al mes y 2.14 en PREVENIMSS; al primer y segundo mes posintervención, 2.45 (p = 0.007) en la consulta externa y 3.25 (p = 0.007) y 3.28 (p = 0.000) en PREVENIMSS. En el turno vespertino, al comenzar el estudio se registraron 0.47 solicitudes por consultorio al mes y 0.85 en PREVENIMSS; al primer y segundo mes posintervención, 2.38 (p = 0.000) y 2.35 (p = 0.000) en consulta externa y 2.79 (p = 0.000) y 3.91 (p = 0.000) en PREVENIMSS. Conclusiones: la mercadotecnia social impactó en la práctica clínica de los médicos y las enfermeras, al aumentar estadísticamente el número de solicitudes de mastografía.

  12. How social evolution theory impacts our understanding of development in the social amoeba Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2011-05-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum has been very useful for elucidating principles of development over the last 50 years, but a key attribute means there is a lot to be learned from a very different intellectual tradition: social evolution. Because Dictyostelium arrives at multicellularity by aggregation instead of through a single-cell bottleneck, the multicellular body could be made up of genetically distinct cells. If they are genetically distinct, natural selection will result in conflict over which cells become fertile spores and which become dead stalk cells. Evidence for this conflict includes unequal representation of two genetically different clones in spores of a chimera, the poison-like differentiation inducing factor (DIF) system that appears to involve some cells forcing others to become stalk, and reduced functionality in migrating chimeras. Understanding how selection operates on chimeras of genetically distinct clones is crucial for a comprehensive view of Dictyostelium multicellularity. In nature, Dictyostelium fruiting bodies are often clonal, or nearly so, meaning development will often be very cooperative. Relatedness levels tell us what benefits must be present for sociality to evolve. Therefore it is important to measure relatedness in nature, show that it has an impact on cooperation in the laboratory, and investigate genes that Dictyostelium uses to discriminate between relatives and non-relatives. Clearly, there is a promising future for research at the interface of development and social evolution in this fascinating group.

  13. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  14. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  15. The Impact of User-Controlled Avatar Attributes on Social Presence within Select Higher Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Joel

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the impact of user avatar alteration in relation to social presence is needed to fully realize the potential of Second Life for higher education usages, which the research literature reveals as an environment that provides increased social presence. Prior studies focused primarily on the impact of system design attributes on…

  16. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  17. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  18. Generating social impact scenarios, a key step in making technology assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. V.

    1972-01-01

    The social impact scenario, a method used to trace the effects of new technological applications, is discussed. The research seeks to anticipate the secondary social impacts that arise from: (1) government or private programs that cope with major social problems like poverty, environmental pollution, or public safety; and (2) a concerted national effort to achieve a widely supported specific goal like landing a man on the moon or finding a cure for cancer.

  19. Social Interaction within a Web 2.0 Learning Environment: The Impact on Learner Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Debbie Cinque

    2010-01-01

    In this case study, the researcher observed the social interactions within a Web 2.0 learning environment to examine the nature of the learner social presence. Social presence is essential to facilitate group cooperation and plays a central role in establishing learners' sense of belonging and social cohesion to the group. Social presence is…

  20. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Daniela A.; Loucks, Colby J.; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.

    2015-01-01

    In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy. PMID:26132491

  1. The impact of social isolation on immunological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Ute; Fischer, Johannes; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2014-03-01

    In various toxicological studies, single housing of rodents is preferred to standardize for regulatory purposes. However, housing conditions can have severe, often underestimated, impact on results in toxicological examinations. As different husbandry conditions have been shown to impose stress, we investigated their influence on plasma cytokines. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one group housed in cages of four and another housed singly for 28 days. Eight animals per group were tested in the forced swim test (FST) for symptoms of "behavioral despair," and in another eight animals per group, plasma concentrations of the stress hormone ACTH, of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-22, and of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were analyzed. Group-housed animals had significantly lower body weight than individually housed animals. The FST revealed symptoms of "behavioral despair" of individually housed rats accompanied by higher levels of ACTH and TNF-α but also of IL-4 and IL-10. No significant differences between housing conditions were found for IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-22. Social isolation by husbandry conditions, apart from any other manipulation, alters the behavioral and immunological status of rats and must be considered when immunological effects are examined in various experimental protocols.

  2. From the bottom up: tracing the impact of four health-based social movements on health and social policies.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Robert H; Lane, Sandra D; Swarts, Heidi J

    2006-01-01

    Although health-based social movements organized by grassroots activists have a rich history in impacting health and social policy, few systematic studies have addressed their policy change efforts or effectiveness. In this article, the authors trace how four health-based social movements-the women's health movement, ACT UP, breast cancer, and needle exchange-influenced health and social policy legislation. The activists' efforts wrested control of "authoritative knowledge" that had once been the sole domain of "experts" with advanced medical training. They used this knowledge to empower "average" people with medical information, promote self help and engage in civil disobedience, which led to changes in healthcare delivery, drug testing and approval, and increased research funds for HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, and needle exchange. The activists' efforts led to other health-based social movements that are currently, or will become, issues for health and social policy analysts in the future.

  3. EFL Writers' Social Networks: Impact on Advanced Academic Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferenz, Orna

    2005-01-01

    For non-native English writers, second language (L2) advanced academic literacy encompasses knowledge of the rhetorical, linguistic, social and cultural features of academic discourse as well as knowledge of English as used by their academic disciplines. Literacy is acquired through a socialization process embedded in social practice, patterned by…

  4. Social impact evaluation: Some implications of the specific decisional context approach for Anticipatory Project Assessment (ARA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    An anticipatory project assessment is discussed which is characterized as the capacity to perform, and the disposition to take into account in relevant decisional areas, the following operations: identification of the significant effects which will result from the introduction of a specified project configuration into alternative projected future social environments during the planning, implementation, and operational states; evaluation of such effects in terms of social impacts on affected participants and social value-institutional processes in accord with specified concepts of social justice.

  5. The Chinese social benefit system in transition: reforms and impacts on income inequality.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Economic reforms since the late 1970s have made China one of the world's fastest growing economies but have also led to greater unmet social welfare needs and growing income inequality. This article describes social policy trends in urban and rural China and reviews recent empirical evidence on the transitions and impacts of its social benefit system. The evidence reveals that although urban social benefits experienced significant cutbacks, they are still much more generous than the minimal social benefits for rural residents and migrants. This extremely inequitable situation calls for a larger, progressive social benefit system in China.

  6. Modeling the determinants of the social impacts of agricultural development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah; Iman, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to help policy-makers improve the social sustainability of development projects, this study identifies the key determinants of farmers' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the floodwater spreading project (FWSP) on the Gareh-Bygone plain in Iran. In order to analyze the links between the various factors that affect the experience of social impact, a theoretical framework was developed. Stratified random sampling was used to survey 138 farm households from the four villages in the region. One male and one female from each house were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire, resulting in a total of 276 interviews. Structural factors were found to be the largest contribution to stakeholders' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the project. Results from a cluster analysis suggested that the level of floodwater information, level of participation, water access, ownership change, and environmental worldview were the most important factors explaining attitude towards social impact of the FWSP.

  7. An Investigation of the Ecological and Social Impacts Caused by Rock Climbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    This study examined the ecological and social impacts of rock climbing. The survey included climbing sites in 10 federal areas, 2 state parks, 1 private area, and 1 city park. Resource managers provided information on the observed impacts of rock climbing and current management practices to minimize impacts. Survey results indicate: (1) 71 percent…

  8. Impact of social determinants of health on outcomes for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebekah J; Smalls, Brittany L; Campbell, Jennifer A; Strom Williams, Joni L; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-09-01

    Social determinants of health include the social and economic conditions that influence health status. Research into the impact of social determinants on individuals with type 2 diabetes has largely focused on the prevention of or risk of developing diabetes. No review exists summarizing the impact of social determinants of health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. This systematic review examined whether social determinants of health have an impact on health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Medline was searched for articles that (a) were published in English (b) targeted adults, ages 18 + years, (c) had a study population which was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, (d) the study was done in the United States, and (e) the study measured at least one of the outcome measures-glycemic control, cholesterol (LDL), blood pressure, quality of life or cost. Using a reproducible strategy, 2,110 articles were identified, and 61 were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twelve were categorized as Economic Stability and Education, 17 were categorized as Social and Community Context, 28 were categorized as Health and Health Care, and three were categorized as Neighborhood and Built Environment. Based on the studies reviewed, social determinants have an impact on glycemic control, LDL, and blood pressure to varying degrees. The impact on cost and quality of life was not often measured, but when quality of life was investigated, it did show significance. More research is needed to better characterize the direct impact of social determinants of health on health outcomes in diabetes.

  9. Social Impact of Solar Eclipse in Indonesia: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpuni, Emanuel S.; Hidayat, Bambang

    2012-09-01

    The social impact and public comprehension of the natural phenomenon varies depending on how a particular cultural background perceives the phenomenon and how the interaction between general public and the authoritative bodies has persisted. While astronomers and scientists have taken for granted that solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon and subjected it to various scientific studies, large percentages of the population have been left uninformed scientifically and have responded to the phenomena quite differently. The technical and scientific aspects of the earliest expedition, to Padang (Sumatra) in 1901, have recently been discussed at length.Two major solar eclipses, namely the 1926 and 1929, offered many scientific outputs as well as results on observations of societies: anthropology, demography, and culinary habits of the local inhabitants. Those days, science was the preserve of a few selected. To a certain degree, many old perceptions of on natural phenomena, with their ruling deities still lingered on. The purpose of this paper is to show the changing views of the endogenous population in particular after the government's massive efforts to enlighten the people and to empower the younger generations in comprehending natural phenomena. The great efforts of the Government of Indonesia's Institute of Sciences (LIPI) related to the June 1983 solar eclipse produced a dramatic change in the sense of appreciation of solar eclipse as a natural phenomenon in consequence of relative motions of the Sun, Moon and the Earth. It took however another five years, till the time of the great eclipse in 1988, to a full fruition in which younger generations as well as older ones abandoned almost completely the old views and embarked on the understanding the value of solar eclipse for science.

  10. Being and feeling liked by others: how social inclusion impacts health.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Sproesser, Gudrun; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived and actual social inclusion on health across and within individuals from a network perspective. During the first semester, 75 freshmen students provided bi-weekly ratings on their perceived social inclusion and health. To capture actual social inclusion, each student nominated liked and disliked fellow students. Perceived social inclusion mediated the effect of actual social inclusion on health. Specifically, students with more 'likes' perceived more social inclusion and those with higher perceived inclusion reported a better health status (between-person effect). In addition, at time points, when students received more 'likes' they also perceived more social inclusion. They reported better health at times when they felt more included (within-person effect). Thus, the perception of social inclusion is rooted in reality and actual social inclusion has an impact on health when passing the filter of perception.

  11. Epigenetics and Understanding the Impact of Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Notterman, Daniel A; Mitchell, Colter

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Recently, a new research agenda emphasizing interactions between social factors and health has emerged. The term social determinant of health often refers to any nonmedical factor directly influencing health, including: values, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Health across the life span is strongly and adversely affected by social disadvantage. Research in epigenetics indicates that alterations in DNA methylation may provide a causal link between social adversity and health disparity. Likewise, accelerated loss of telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) is highly correlated with chronic stress including social stress and aging, and may provide a link between adversity and some of the physiological stigmata associated with health disparities. Considerable research is still required to develop a sound mechanistic understanding of the role of epigenetics and perturbed telomere function in linking social adversity with health outcome. PMID:26318949

  12. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    SciTech Connect

    McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette

    2015-11-15

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.

  13. The Impact of Social Media on Informal Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Angelina; Watkins, Jerry; Groundwater-Smith, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper posits that social networking can take a central role in learning in informal environments such as museums, libraries and galleries. It argues that social media offers young people agency previously unavailable in informal learning environments in order to explore complex responses to and participation with cultural content. The paper…

  14. Increasing Returns to Education and the Impact on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Gareth D.

    2014-01-01

    The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…

  15. Course Syllabus: The Social Impact of Computer Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    This syllabus describes the course background, central themes and issues, texts, resources, and recommended readings. Main topics are the sociology of information technology, computers and social change, telecommunications, computers and human interactions, applications in working, and social issues and political implications. (YP)

  16. Universities as Intermediaries: Impact Investing and Social Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekula, Rebecca; Shah, Archana; Jhamb, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan universities are well poised in communities to be intermediaries among various actors involved in social innovation. Pace University established one of the first institutes on social entrepreneurship. Its unique position at the university level allows programming to transcend certain institutional challenges. The emerging field of…

  17. Textbook vs. Historical Fiction: Impact on Social Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adding historical fiction novels as a supplement to the textbook in an eighth grade social studies course. This qualitative study focused on student interest and feedback as their social studies class was altered through the addition of historical fiction novels. The research questions were…

  18. Social Media Arrive in School; Principals Look at Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Social media have the potential to improve educational opportunities for high school students, but also present legal and policy challenges for public school principals. Those were among opinions expressed in the 2010 Principals' Partnership Poll. The most frequently-cited request by the 306 respondents was help in integrating social media into…

  19. The Impact of College Experience on Political and Social Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Ilsa L.; Kuriloff, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in political and social attitudes during college were studied for 303 Ivy League students in their freshman and senior years. Seniors scored higher on measures of liberalism, social conscience, tolerance of homosexuality, and feminist attitudes; they scored lower on male-dominant attitudes. Of particular interest is the increased tolerance…

  20. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  1. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  2. The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin; Clarke-Pearson, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Using social media Web sites is among the most common activity of today's children and adolescents. Any Web site that allows social interaction is considered a social media site, including social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Club Penguin, Second Life, and the Sims; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs. Such sites offer today's youth a portal for entertainment and communication and have grown exponentially in recent years. For this reason, it is important that parents become aware of the nature of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Pediatricians are in a unique position to help families understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and urge parents to monitor for potential problems with cyberbullying, "Facebook depression," sexting, and exposure to inappropriate content.

  3. Social impact evaluation of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppitti, James; Dietz, Thomas

    1983-11-01

    Debate over environmental policy often focuses on social impacts of those policies, but few empirical studies examine the impacts of environmental regulations once they are implemented. A quasi-experimental design based on survey data is used to assess the social impacts of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the West Virginia chemical industry. Changes in employment, manufacturing process, product line, and manufacturing costs are evaluated. RCRA seems to have produced changes in manufacturing processes, but we find no statistically significant impacts on.jobs, product line, or manufacturing costs.

  4. The impact of social housing on the labour market status of the disabled.

    PubMed

    Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled.

  5. Impact of social media on the health of children and young people.

    PubMed

    Richards, Deborah; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Go, Henry

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Relevant papers were identified from Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. The studies identified that the health impact of social media on children and young people was greatest on mental health and specifically in the areas of self-esteem and well-being, with related issues around cyberbullying and 'Facebook Depression', with an association between the use of social media and self-esteem and body image. However, it is difficult to determine the cause and effect, which is likely to be related to the nature of the young person. There is little work on the impact of social media on younger children. More research is needed to identify those most at risk of harm from social media and risk mitigation strategies to assist health-care professionals to provide essential education for parents and young people.

  6. Internal Social Media's Impact on Socialization and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ester S.

    2012-01-01

    Social media technologies present an opportunity for organizations to create value by acclimating new employees and increasing organizational commitment. Past research has indicated that many organizations have leveraged social media in innovative ways. The purpose of this study is to investigate an internal social media tool that was designed and…

  7. The Impact of a Social Justice Service-Learning Field Experience in a Social Foundations Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Barri; hannah, c. lynne; Tinkler, Alan; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This interpretive study examines the outcomes of using a social justice service-learning field experience in a social foundations course to help illuminate for teacher candidates the often "invisible" institutionalized inequities of public schools. The findings demonstrate how social justice service-learning can be used as a field…

  8. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  9. Social and Psycho-Political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Soraia

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and…

  10. The impact of family functioning on family racial socialization processes.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Szapocznik, José; Mayorga, Carla C; Dillon, Frank R; Burns, Myron; Feaster, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated the relationship between family functioning and family racial socialization processes in a clinical sample of African American youth referred for drug abuse treatment. Participants were 77 African American adolescents and their parents. Results showed that participants assigned to structural ecosystems therapy experienced a greater increase in family racial socialization processes during treatment than participants assigned to the treatment as usual in community settings condition. Participants in structural ecosystems therapy also demonstrated a greater increase in family functioning than participants in community settings condition, and this improvement in family functioning mediated the relationship between treatment condition and family racial socialization processes. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-07-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes.

  12. Metacognitive and social cognition approaches to understanding the impact of schizophrenia on social quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan-Msika, Moran; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Kravetz, Shlomo; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-02-01

    While some studies view metacognition and social cognition as representing the same phenomenon, others suggest that they represent distinctive sets of abilities that are related to different outcomes. The current study used a cross-sectional design that includes samples of persons with schizophrenia (N=39) and healthy individuals (N=60) to further explore the distinction between social cognition and metacognition and their associations with social quality of life. The Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Faux-Pas Task, Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (IPII), Metacognition Assessment Scale - Abbreviated (MAS-A), and Social Quality of Life Scale were administrated to all participants. Correlations, t-tests and regressions were conducted. Results showed that persons with schizophrenia performed more poorly on all measures than healthy controls. Social cognition and metacognition measures were related for the combined total sample, but only a few associations were found among both sub-samples. A diagnosis of schizophrenia and metacognitive capacity, but not social cognition, predicted social quality of life. Self-reflectivity had a negative relationship to social quality of life while understanding of others' minds had a positive relation to social quality of life. The current study provides evidence that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in both social cognition and metacognition and that those deficits may be distinct and have different kinds of relationships with social quality of life. Clinical implications include the need to emphasize narrative aspects of psychotherapy in order to promote metacognition.

  13. Social impacts of earthquakes caused by gas extraction in the Province of Groningen, The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Voort, Nick van der Vanclay, Frank

    2015-01-15

    Gas extraction from the Groningen gasfield in the northern Netherlands has led to localised earthquakes which are projected to become more severe. The social impacts experienced by local residents include: damage to property; declining house prices; concerns about the chance of dykes breaking; feelings of anxiety and insecurity; health issues; and anger. These social and emotional impacts are exacerbated by the increasing distrust Groningen people have towards the national government and the gas company, NAM, a partnership between Shell and ExxonMobil. The earthquakes have reopened discussions about the distribution of benefits from gas production and the extent to which benefits are retained locally. Mitigation of the impacts is attempted, but the lack of trust decreases the effectiveness of the mitigation measures. The extent of this experience of previously-unforeseen, unanticipated impacts suggests that a new social and environmental impact assessment needs to be undertaken, and a new Social Impact Management Plan (SIMP) and Impacts and Benefits Agreement (IBA) developed, so that the project can regain its legitimacy and social licence to operate. In addition to conventional gas, this paper has wider relevance for unconventional gas developments, for example shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing methods (fracking). - Highlights: • Gas production in Groningen has caused over 1000 earthquakes. • The induced seismicity has caused many social impacts. • Impacts include building damage, reduced house prices, fear and health issues. • Mitigation measures attempted to date are inadequate. • Distrust towards the national government and operator hinders mitigation efforts. • Gas production in Groningen has lost its social licence to operate.

  14. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  15. Evaluating the Social Impacts of Inclusion through a Multi-Method Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avramidis, Elias; Wilde, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Although the development of policy towards inclusive education in the UK is well advanced, very little is known about the social outcomes of existing inclusive arrangements in primary settings. A recent study sought to fill this gap by systematically investigating the social impacts of inclusion on children accredited with Special Educational…

  16. Social Capital on Facebook: The Impact of Personality and Online Communication Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiqin, Eliza Leong; Campbell, Marilyn; Kimpton, Melanie; Wozencroft, Kelly; Orel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Online relationship formation through social networking sites helps to meet the developmental need for intimacy in emerging adults. Through the use of the "rich get richer" and the "social compensation" hypotheses, it is evident that personality characteristics such as extraversion and introversion impact online relationship…

  17. Interrupted Trajectories: The Impact of Academic Failure on the Social Mobility of Working-Class Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Tina; Lightfoot, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Higher education (HE) is often viewed as a conduit for social mobility through which working-class students can secure improved life-chances. However, the link between HE and social mobility is largely viewed as unproblematic. Little research has explored the possible impact of academic failure (in HE) on the trajectories of working-class students…

  18. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  19. Alternative Sources of Social Support and Their Impacts on Institutional Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Deborah N.; Crown, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of social support dimensions on risk institutionalization. Specific aspects of social support (having spouse or adult child caregiver) or having caregiving relationship of at least three years' duration moderated impact of one type of stress on risk of entering nursing home. Networks that included paid provider modestly offset…

  20. Journalism 2.0: Exploring the Impact of Mobile and Social Media on Journalism Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Sissons, Helen; Mulrennan, Danni; Pamatatau, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of social media upon journalism education from two perspectives: both from the pedagogical changes Web 2.0 and mobile devices enable, and within the context of the changes in journalism that social media use are driving. A participatory action research approach was adopted, beginning with the establishment of a…

  1. Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

  2. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  3. Social Status and the Differential Impacts of Increasing Energy Costs on Families in Mississippi. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel; Smith, James C.

    Research was undertaken to determine how differences in social status among various segments of the population in Mississippi contribute to differences in household energy costs and how socioeconomic differences coupled with social status have impact on energy consumption behavior. Two samples of the state's population were used for comparative…

  4. Examining the Impact of Video Feedback on Instructor Social Presence in Blended Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Thomas, Rebecca; Graham, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed method research examined instructors' use of video feedback and its impact on instructor social presence in 12 blended sections of three preservice educational technology courses. An independent samples t-test was conducted and found no significant difference in perceptions of instructor social presence between students who received…

  5. The Impact of College Racial Composition on African American Students' Academic and Social Gains: Additional Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2002-01-01

    The College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEA) was used to estimate the impact of attending a historically Black college or university on social and academic outcomes in college. Findings extend previous research by suggesting attendance at a historically Black college significantly enhances academic and social growth of students. (Author)

  6. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  7. The impact of knowledge sharing through social media among academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2016-10-01

    The world of research require researcher, academia and lecturers to share knowledge among them. With the invention of social media, knowledge sharing process has been more effective and easy. Previously, there were numerous researches done to investigate the effect of social media utilization for public used. There were also study that aimed to study social media effects in educatioanal sector but those study were centered around student's perspective. Less consideration is given towards academia's perspective. Therefore, this study is directed to explore other niche area on knowledge sharing environment where it will focused on the effects of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Initially, literature review analysis was done to discover the potential factors that encourage academia to engage in social media. Ability to facilitate communication, idea generation and group establishment are the most cited reasons. Not only that, this paper will highlight the significance of performing this study. In conclusion, there is no doubt that social media do enhance and upgrading the knowledge sharing process thus assisting academia in their scholarly work.

  8. The Social and Productive Impacts of Zambia's Child Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Seidenfeld, David; Davis, Benjamin; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from dozens of cash transfer (CT) programs across the world suggests that there are few interventions that can match the range of impacts and cost-effectiveness of a small, predictable monetary transfer to poor families in developing countries. However, individual published impact assessments typically focus on only one…

  9. The impact of emotional faces on social motivation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Pfersmann, Vera; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Impairments in emotion recognition and psychosocial functioning are a robust phenomenon in schizophrenia and may affect motivational behavior, particularly during socio-emotional interactions. To characterize potential deficits and their interplay, we assessed social motivation covering various facets, such as implicit and explicit approach-avoidance tendencies to facial expressions, in 27 patients with schizophrenia (SZP) and 27 matched healthy controls (HC). Moreover, emotion recognition abilities as well as self-reported behavioral activation and inhibition were evaluated. Compared to HC, SZP exhibited less pronounced approach-avoidance ratings to happy and angry expressions along with prolonged reactions during automatic approach-avoidance. Although deficits in emotion recognition were replicated, these were not associated with alterations in social motivation. Together with additional connections between psychopathology and several approach-avoidance processes, these results identify motivational impairments in SZP and suggest a complex relationship between different aspects of social motivation. In the context of specialized interventions aimed at improving social cognitive abilities in SZP, the link between such dynamic measures, motivational profiles and functional outcomes warrants further investigations, which can provide important leverage points for treatment. Crucially, our findings present first insights into the assessment and identification of target features of social motivation.

  10. Head Start Impact on Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghee; Calkins, Andrea; Shin, Tae Seob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this study examines Head Start's impacts on social-emotional outcomes for children with disabilities. Method: Among 4,442 children, 570 children were reported to have disabilities. Ordinary least squares regression was used to determine whether the number of disabilities, having an individualized…

  11. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  12. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  13. Positive and negative effects of social impact on evolutionary vaccination game in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Genki; Kurisaku, Takehiro

    2017-02-01

    Preventing infectious disease like flu from spreading to large communities is one of the most important issues for humans. One effective strategy is voluntary vaccination, however, there is always the temptation for people refusing to be vaccinated because once herd immunity is achieved, infection risk is greatly reduced. In this paper, we study the effect of social impact on the vaccination behavior resulting in preventing infectious disease in networks. The evolutionary simulation results show that the social impact has both positive and negative effects on the vaccination behavior. Especially, in heterogeneous networks, if the vaccination cost is low the behavior is more promoted than the case without social impact. In contrast, if the cost is high, the behavior is reduced compared to the case without social impact. Moreover, the vaccination behavior is effective in heterogeneous networks more than in homogeneous networks. This implies that the social impact puts people at risk in homogeneous networks. We also evaluate the results from the social cost related to the vaccination policy.

  14. Cumulative and career-stage citation impact of social-personality psychology programs and their members.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Graham, Jesse; Lindner, Nicole M; Kesebir, Selin; Hawkins, Carlee Beth; Hahn, Cheryl; Schmidt, Kathleen; Motyl, Matt; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer; Frazier, Rebecca; Tenney, Elizabeth R

    2010-10-01

    Number of citations and the h-index are popular metrics for indexing scientific impact. These, and other existing metrics, are strongly related to scientists' seniority. This article introduces complementary indicators that are unrelated to the number of years since PhD. To illustrate cumulative and career-stage approaches for assessing the scientific impact across a discipline, citations for 611 scientists from 97 U.S. and Canadian social psychology programs are amassed and analyzed. Results provide benchmarks for evaluating impact across the career span in psychology and other disciplines with similar citation patterns. Career-stage indicators provide a very different perspective on individual and program impact than cumulative impact, and may predict emerging scientists and programs. Comparing social groups, Whites and men had higher impact than non-Whites and women, respectively. However, average differences in career stage accounted for most of the difference for both groups.

  15. The impact of a Portuguese middle school social-emotional learning program.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor; Sousa, Vanda; Raimundo, Raquel; Figueira, Ana

    2015-07-13

    This controlled pre-post study investigated whether a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program implemented in two consecutive school years in two distinct cohorts, would promote gains in the social-emotional competencies of Portuguese middle school students. Moreover, it also analyzed the moderating role of students' characteristics, such as gender and baseline levels, on the impact of the intervention. Program 'Positive Attitude' was applied to 472 seventh to ninth grade students (25 classes). One hundred and fifty-six students in control groups (8 classes) also participated in this study. Overall, there were 628 participants aged from 11 to 17 years (Mage = 13.54; SD = 1.36). Self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. There were significant intervention gains in three (of five) social-emotional competencies, namely increases in social awareness and self-control as well as decreases in the levels of social anxiety in the first cohort. The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. Girls revealed greater gains in social awareness and greater reductions of the levels of social isolation and social anxiety when compared with boys. Intervention students with lower social awareness pretest scores profited more than controls. These results indicated that the intervention improved the social and emotional competencies of middle school students, supporting the cross-cultural generalization of social-emotional learning programs' efficacy.

  16. From pen pals to chat rooms: the impact of social media on Middle Eastern Society.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elaine; Rapson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss what is known about a surprisingly popular phenomenon in the Middle East-the use of social media to communicate. We will begin with a discussion of what "social media" sites are (sites such as Facebook, Your Middle East, YouTube, Flickr, Muslima.com, chat rooms, and instant messaging) and point out how common they are in the Middle East. Next, we will discuss the reasons why men and women are currently using Internet and social media. Finally, we will discuss what impact social media have had on politics, political dissent, education, and men's and women's relationships-and the impact they might be expected to have in future years. Finally, we will focus on the impact of such media on men's and women's relationships-including cross-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships.

  17. Animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: impact of the social environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sandra J; Goodlett, Charles R; Hannigan, John H

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have been used to demonstrate the specificity of alcohol's teratogenic effects and some of the underlying changes in the central nervous system (CNS) and, more recently, to explore ways to ameliorate the effects of alcohol. The main point of this review is to highlight research findings from the animal literature which point to the impact of the social context or social behavior on the effect(s) of alcohol exposure during development, and also to point to research questions about the social environment and effects of prenatal alcohol exposure that remain to be answered. Alcohol exposure during early development alters maternal responding to the exposed pup in a variety of ways and the alteration in maternal responding could alter later stress responsivity and adult maternal and social behavior of the exposed offspring. Environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise have been shown to ameliorate some of alcohol's impact during development, but the roles of enhanced social interactions in the case of enrichment and of social housing during voluntary exercise need to be more fully delineated. Similarly, the role of social context across the lifespan, such as social housing, social experiences, and contact with siblings, needs further study. Because of findings that alcohol during development alters DNA methylation patterns and that there are alterations in the maternal care of the alcohol-exposed offspring, epigenetic effects and their relationship to social behavior in animal models of FASD are likely to become a fruitful area of research. Because of the simpler social behavior and the short lifespan of rodents, animal models of FASD can be useful in determining how the social context impacts the effects of alcohol exposure during development.

  18. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  19. An Evidence-Based Framework to Optimise Social Impact in Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Eli

    2016-10-01

    Astronomy for development projects conceive of development in very broad terms and seek to affect a wide range of social outcomes. The histories of education, development economics and science communication research indicate that positive social impacts are often difficult to achieve. Without a scientific approach, astronomy's potential as a tool for development may never be realised nor recognised. Evidence-informed project design increases the chances of a project's success and likely impact while reducing the risk of unintended negative outcomes. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) Impact Cycle is presented here as a possible framework for integrating evaluation and evidence-based practice in global Astronomy outreach and education delivery. The suggested framework offers a way to gradually accumulate knowledge about which approaches are effective and which are not, enabling the astronomy community to gradually increase its social impact by building on its successes.

  20. The Impact of Social Interaction on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth; Wallace, Randall; Nixon, Sarah B.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of student engagement in the common lecture-centered model, we explored a model of instructional delivery where our undergraduate and graduate classes were structured so that students had opportunities for daily interaction with each other. Specifically, we examined how students perceived the value of social interaction on their…

  1. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  2. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  3. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  4. Identification and impact of discoverers in online social systems

    PubMed Central

    Medo, Matúš; Mariani, Manuel S.; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of users in online systems is of essential importance for sociology, system design, e-commerce, and beyond. Most existing models assume that individuals in diverse systems, ranging from social networks to e-commerce platforms, tend to what is already popular. We propose a statistical time-aware framework to identify the users who differ from the usual behavior by being repeatedly and persistently among the first to collect the items that later become hugely popular. Since these users effectively discover future hits, we refer them as discoverers. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate that discoverers are present in a wide range of real systems. Once identified, discoverers can be used to predict the future success of new items. We finally introduce a simple network model which reproduces the discovery patterns observed in the real data. Our results open the door to quantitative study of detailed temporal patterns in social systems. PMID:27687588

  5. Identification and impact of discoverers in online social systems.

    PubMed

    Medo, Matúš; Mariani, Manuel S; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-09-30

    Understanding the behavior of users in online systems is of essential importance for sociology, system design, e-commerce, and beyond. Most existing models assume that individuals in diverse systems, ranging from social networks to e-commerce platforms, tend to what is already popular. We propose a statistical time-aware framework to identify the users who differ from the usual behavior by being repeatedly and persistently among the first to collect the items that later become hugely popular. Since these users effectively discover future hits, we refer them as discoverers. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate that discoverers are present in a wide range of real systems. Once identified, discoverers can be used to predict the future success of new items. We finally introduce a simple network model which reproduces the discovery patterns observed in the real data. Our results open the door to quantitative study of detailed temporal patterns in social systems.

  6. Identification and impact of discoverers in online social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medo, Matúš; Mariani, Manuel S.; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the behavior of users in online systems is of essential importance for sociology, system design, e-commerce, and beyond. Most existing models assume that individuals in diverse systems, ranging from social networks to e-commerce platforms, tend to what is already popular. We propose a statistical time-aware framework to identify the users who differ from the usual behavior by being repeatedly and persistently among the first to collect the items that later become hugely popular. Since these users effectively discover future hits, we refer them as discoverers. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate that discoverers are present in a wide range of real systems. Once identified, discoverers can be used to predict the future success of new items. We finally introduce a simple network model which reproduces the discovery patterns observed in the real data. Our results open the door to quantitative study of detailed temporal patterns in social systems.

  7. Social-information-processing patterns mediate the impact of preventive intervention on adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Godwin, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that the Fast Track preventive intervention's positive impact on antisocial behavior in adolescence is mediated by its impact on social-cognitive processes during elementary school. Fast Track is the largest and longest federally funded preventive intervention trial for children showing aggressive behavior at an early age. Participants were 891 high-risk kindergarten children (69% male, 31% female; 49% ethnic minority, 51% ethnic majority) who were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group by school cluster. Multiyear intervention addressed social-cognitive processes through social-skill training groups, parent groups, classroom curricula, peer coaching, and tutoring. Assigning children to the intervention decreased their mean antisocial-behavior score after Grade 9 by 0.16 standardized units (p < .01). Structural equation models indicated that 27% of the intervention's impact on antisocial behavior was mediated by its impact on three social-cognitive processes: reducing hostile-attribution biases, increasing competent response generation to social problems, and devaluing aggression. These findings support a model of antisocial behavioral development mediated by social-cognitive processes, and they guide prevention planners to focus on these processes.

  8. A critical evaluation of science outreach via social media: its role and impact on scientists.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig; Neeley, Liz

    2014-01-01

    The role of scientists in social media and its impact on their careers are not fully explored.  While policies and best practices are still fluid, it is concerning that discourse is often based on little to no data, and some arguments directly contradict the available data.  Here, we consider the relevant but subjective questions about science outreach via social media (SOSM), specifically: (1) Does a public relations nightmare exist for science?; (2) Why (or why aren't) scientists engaging in social media?; (3) Are scientists using social media well?; and (4) Will social media benefit a scientist's career? We call for the scientific community to create tangible plans that value, measure, and help manage scientists' social media engagement.

  9. A critical evaluation of science outreach via social media: its role and impact on scientists

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig; Neeley, Liz

    2015-01-01

    The role of scientists in social media and its impact on their careers are not fully explored.  While policies and best practices are still fluid, it is concerning that discourse is often based on little to no data, and some arguments directly contradict the available data.  Here, we consider the relevant but subjective questions about science outreach via social media (SOSM), specifically: (1) Does a public relations nightmare exist for science?; (2) Why (or why aren’t) scientists engaging in social media?; (3) Are scientists using social media well?; and (4) Will social media benefit a scientist’s career? We call for the scientific community to create tangible plans that value, measure, and help manage scientists’ social media engagement. PMID:25866620

  10. Psychological resilience moderates the impact of social support on loneliness of "left-behind" children.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group.

  11. Social forces can impact the circadian clocks of cohabiting hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of field and laboratory studies have shown that the social environment influences daily rhythms in numerous species. However, underlying mechanisms, including the circadian system's role, are not known. Obstacles to this research have been the inability to track and objectively analyse rhythms of individual animals housed together. Here, we employed temperature dataloggers to track individual body temperature rhythms of pairs of cohabiting male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in constant darkness and applied a continuous wavelet transform to determine the phase of rhythm onset before, during, and after cohabitation. Cohabitation altered the predicted trajectory of rhythm onsets in 34% of individuals, representing 58% of pairs, compared to 12% of hamsters single-housed as ‘virtual pair’ controls. Deviation from the predicted trajectory was by a change in circadian period (τ), which tended to be asymmetric—affecting one individual of the pair in nine of 11 affected pairs—with hints that dominance might play a role. These data implicate a change in the speed of the circadian clock as one mechanism whereby social factors can alter daily rhythms. Miniature dataloggers coupled with wavelet analyses should provide powerful tools for future studies investigating the principles and mechanisms mediating social influences on daily timing. PMID:24500164

  12. The impact of social marketing on HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J R

    1999-01-01

    An article focuses on the influence of social marketing, particularly of condoms and efforts to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Condom sales have increased, especially in Africa. These sales are a good reflection of condoms purchased and used. Concerning the prevention of HIV/AIDS, availability of condoms is the most significant achievement of condom social marketing programs; however, HIV/AIDS prevalence has not declined. The marketing of condoms has been observed to be insufficient compared to the theoretical demand for condoms. All social marketing programs should be focused on marketing and communications, expressing messages that promote safer sexual behavior. Products and services aimed at safe sexual activity are being searched as tools in the fight against AIDS. In Uganda for instance, a kit called "Clear Seven" includes a large dose of pyprofloxin, a seven-day course of doxycycline, seven condoms and partner referral cards. The Population Services International is doing voluntary counseling and testing in Zimbabwe to prevent HIV transmission and contribute to destigmatizing people living with AIDS. It is too soon to assess the effectiveness of the program, yet many countries are already planning to duplicate it.

  13. The neural basis of stereotypic impact on multiple social categorization.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-11-01

    Perceivers extract multiple social dimensions from another's face (e.g., race, emotion), and these dimensions can become linked due to stereotypes (e.g., Black individuals → angry). The current research examined the neural basis of detecting and resolving conflicts between top-down stereotypes and bottom-up visual information in person perception. Participants viewed faces congruent and incongruent with stereotypes, via variations in race and emotion, while neural activity was measured using fMRI. Hand movements en route to race/emotion responses were recorded using mouse-tracking to behaviorally index individual differences in stereotypical associations during categorization. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) showed stronger activation to faces that violated stereotypical expectancies at the intersection of multiple social categories (i.e., race and emotion). These regions were highly sensitive to the degree of incongruency, exhibiting linearly increasing responses as race and emotion became stereotypically more incongruent. Further, the ACC exhibited greater functional connectivity with the lateral fusiform cortex, a region implicated in face processing, when viewing stereotypically incongruent (relative to congruent) targets. Finally, participants with stronger behavioral tendencies to link race and emotion stereotypically during categorization showed greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation to stereotypically incongruent targets. Together, the findings provide insight into how conflicting stereotypes at the nexus of multiple social dimensions are resolved at the neural level to accurately perceive other people.

  14. Parenting: linking impacts of interpartner conflict to preschool children's social behavior.

    PubMed

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H; McKelvey, Lorraine; Fussell, Jill J

    2009-10-01

    Family conflict is known to have detrimental impacts on the social development of young children. An important issue in counseling parents and the development of intervention for children is the extent to which other family environmental conditions are the path through which conflict impacts children's development. This study examined two maternal parenting behaviors (harsh discipline and warmth) that may alter the impact of interpartner conflict on child social development and behavior in a large (n = 440 girls, n = 451 boys) sample of ethnically diverse, low-income families of preschool children. Interpartner conflict was associated with poorer child social development and behavior problems. This study found that interpartner conflict increased harsh discipline, which resulted in poorer child social development. This study, however, found no evidence that interpartner conflict impacted child development through its impact on maternal warmth in that mothers experiencing conflict did not alter the level of warm parenting practices. These findings suggest that, when encountering families experiencing interpartner conflict, clinicians should not only direct families to interventions to lessen family conflict but also counsel them on the mechanism (harsh discipline) by which children are impacted by the conflict.

  15. Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital on Quality of Life among AIDS Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823

  16. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856

  17. The social impact of cost recovery measures in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyambuya, M N

    1994-03-01

    Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP.

  18. Ferromagnetic Fluid as a Model of Social Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    The paper proposes a new model of spin dynamics which can be treated as a model of sociological coupling between individuals. Our approach takes into account two different human features: Gregariousness and individuality. We will show how they affect a psychological distance between individuals and how the distance changes the opinion formation in a social group. Apart from its sociological aplications the model displays the variety of other interesting phenomena like self-organizing ferromagnetic state or a second order phase transition and can be studied from different points of view, e.g., as a model of ferromagnetic fluid, complex evolving network or multiplicative random process.

  19. Social impacts of civil aviation and implications for R and D policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which would or could flow from the introduction of advanced civil aviation systems. A broad range of social impact areas was investigated which included economic, environmental, political, sociological, psychological, legal, and urban/regional developmental factors. Data are arranged into two major parts. In the first part, a series of Major Policy Issues are identified and discussed which appear, on the basis of the social impact study, to merit serious consideration. The discussion of each "Issue' is presented both to explain its relevance and to raise considerations which will bear on its satisfactory resolution. The second part views the same overall body of information in a different manner: a series of "Findings' are pointed out from which more concrete guidance for R and D policy can be derived, and a set of "Candidate Basic Federal Undertakings' thus derived are presented.

  20. Social Issues Impacting on the Airland Battle 2000.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    family cohesion, children whose values are more impacted by the media than their parents , the sole parents , the role of child day care centers, the...have completed their education would reflect a low reproduction rate. The Office of Adolescent Pregnancy in Washington, D. C. reports that over 1...now live with only one parent , and among black children, three out of five do. The proportions are higher for those children who begin life with an

  1. The impact of congestion charging on social capital.

    PubMed

    Munford, Luke A

    2017-03-01

    We analyse a new data set to examine how congestion charging policies affect an individual's investment social capital. We exploit a (quasi-) natural experiment - the implementation of the Western Extension Zone (WEZ) to the London Congestion Charging zone in 2007. We measure investment in social capital by using the frequency of visits to friends and family before and after the implementation of the WEZ. Using longitudinal data collected in January and November 2007 made available by Transport for London, we perform difference-in-difference analysis, using both OLS and interval regression, with the treatment group defined as those who used a car to make visits pre-WEZ. We observe large and statistically significant reductions in visits as a result of the WEZ, with, for example, a reduction of around 20 visits a year to friends. The effect of the WEZ on the number of visits to act as an informal carer is much larger, with reductions of around 100 visits a year. Given that the changes occurred in such a small time frame (10 months), we conclude that the WEZ is likely to be the main driver of these reductions.

  2. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation’s first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education. PMID:26834449

  3. The Impact of Future World Events on Iranians’ Social Health: A Qualitative Futurology

    PubMed Central

    DAMARI, Behzad; HAJIAN, Maryam; MINAEE, Farima; RIAZI-ISFAHANI, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social health is a dimension of health affected and interacts with other dimensions. Considering the rate of world changes, foresighting the influence of future events and possible trends on social health could bring about advantageous information for social policy makers. Methods: This is a qualitative study of futurology with cross impact analysis approach. After studying possible trends and events in future, they were categorized in four domains including population, resources, climate changes, and globalization and 12 groups of events; and they were used to design a questionnaire. It was given to experts and their opinions were collected through depth interviews between May 2013 and Sep 2013. Results: Analysis of experts’ opinions reveals that future trends in four main potential domains may have some positive and more negative impacts on Iranians’ social health. Conclusion: The global “resource challenge” is the most important incoming event, considering to the four domains of global events and its final and potential effects will be the increase of inequalities leading to social threat. Since inequalities are considered the most important risk factor of health in the societies, the solution for dispel the impact of world trends on Iranians’ social health is managing the crisis of inequalities which is started with fore sighting and adopting preventive strategies in all four domains. PMID:27648424

  4. [Social and economic impact of violence in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Concha, Alberto

    2002-12-01

    Violence is a social and a public health problem that has grown in the Americas in recent decades that has negative effects on social, health, and the economy of countries, communities, families, and individuals. More than 115,000 people are murdered every year, the majority of them are men; other 55,000 commit suicide. In 20 to 60% of households some form of domestic violence against girls, boys, women, and the elderly occurs; juvenile gangs, involved in violent and criminal activities, increases at alarming rate. Other forms of violence are wars and internal or international conflicts, political violence, abductions, lynching, multinational violence by organized crime units involved in narcotic trafficking, sexual trade or smuggling of weapons. The public health approach is based on a methodology of work, as follows: 1. Characterization of the problem in its basic variables of person, place, time, circumstances, and related situations; 2. Identification of causes, associations, or risk factors; 3. Proposal of interventions and their evaluation; 4. Extension of the evaluated interventions. Violence is an intentional act of multicausal origin. Various factors are interconnected showing the relations among them. Those which have been primarily studied or that have shown greater evidence are discussed. A historical look is proposed, that integrates the repression and control, the prevention and the recovery of the social fabric. Violence demands an expenditure of money that represents a significant proportion of the GDP that was estimated in $168 billion dollars for Latin America. Violence can be prevented. Primary prevention projects are driven to avoid the occurrence of a violent act, but if it has already occurred it is necessary to avoid its repetition, through secondary prevention projects. Tertiary prevention is applied in order to avoid major damages; it aims at improving the quality of life of those already traumatized. The programs should be comprehensive

  5. The impact of socially-accountable health professional education: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; Woolley, Torres; Ross, Simone J; Mohammadi, Leila; Halili, Servando Ben; Cristobal, Fortunato; Siega-Sur, Jusie Lydia J; Neusy, A-J

    2017-01-01

    This literature review describes the impact of health professional schools with a social accountability mandate by identifying characteristics of medical education found to impact positively on medical students, health workforce, and health outcomes of disadvantaged communities. A critical appraisal tool was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the published articles. Data are presented as a narrative synthesis due to the variety of methodologies in the studies, and characterized using a logic model. Health professional schools aiming to improve health outcomes for their disadvantaged local communities described collaborative partnerships with communities, equitable selection criteria, and community-engaged placements in underserved areas as positively impacting the learning and attitudes of students. Students of socially accountable schools were more likely to stay in rural areas and serve disadvantaged communities, and were often more skilled than students from more traditional schools to meet the needs of underserved communities. However, published literature on the impact of socially accountable health professional education on communities and health outcomes is limited, with only one study investigating health outcomes. The findings of this literature review guide schools on the inputs likely to maximize their socially accountability outputs and increase their impact on students, local health workforce and local communities.

  6. Neighborhood green, social support, physical activity, and stress: assessing the cumulative impact.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingling; Das, Kirti V; Chen, Qian

    2011-11-01

    We estimate the cumulative stress mitigating impact of neighborhood greenness by investigating whether neighborhood green mitigates stress directly, and indirectly by encouraging physical activity and/or fostering social support. Using data from a recent community health survey in Chicago and two-stage instrumental variables regression modeling, we find that different components of neighborhood green play distinct roles in influencing stress. Park spaces are found to indirectly mitigate stress by fostering social support. Overall neighborhood vegetation is found to have direct stress mitigation impact, yet the impact is counteracted by its negative effect on social support. When comparing the effect size, park spaces show a more positive impact on health and well-being than the overall neighborhood vegetation level. Policy makers are recommended to focus on creating structured green spaces with public recreation and socialization opportunities rather than simply conserving green spaces in the neighborhood. Previous studies, as they often investigate the direct impact only and rarely use multiple measures of greenness, may have mis-estimated health benefits of neighborhood green.

  7. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    PubMed

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  8. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  9. Attenuating the effects of social stress: the impact of political skill.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Paul; Harris, Ranida B; Harris, Kenneth J; Wheeler, Anthony R

    2007-04-01

    This study investigates the impact of perceived social stressors on job and career satisfaction. Additionally, the authors investigate whether individuals' reported levels of political skill could attenuate the negative effects of social stressors on these outcome variables. The authors test these hypotheses with a sample of 246 alumni from a private, Midwestern university. The authors' results provide support for the hypothesized negative influence of social stressors on job and career satisfaction and indicate that political skill can moderate these relationships. Practical implications and directions for future research are offered.

  10. Social Support Buffers the Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Tangeria R.; Rabin, Laura A.; Da Silva, Valdiva G.; Katz, Mindy J.; Fogel, Joshua; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Life satisfaction is an important component of overall well-being. Decline in life satisfaction is related to many adverse health outcomes including mortality. Methods We investigate the association of various psychosocial and health-related factors to life satisfaction in 237 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Results Lower levels of depressive symptoms, less perceived stress, higher levels of social support, and better self-perceived general health were significantly associated with higher life satisfaction. Social support buffered the adverse impact of depressive symptoms on life satisfaction where more depressive symptoms were associated with much lower life satisfaction at low levels of social support than at high levels of social support. Discussion We discuss study implications, future research directions, and possible interventions that involve boosting social support in at-risk older adults. PMID:27418714

  11. PTSD and Trauma-Related Difficulties in Sexual Minority Women: The Impact of Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brandon J; Garvert, Donn W; Cloitre, Marylène

    2015-12-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related symptoms among sexual minority (SM) and heterosexual women and the influence of social support on the relationship between SM status and symptoms. We hypothesized that SM women would endorse higher symptoms of PTSD and related difficulties and that social support would moderate the relationship between SM status and symptoms. The sample, women seeking treatment for PTSD related to interpersonal violence (n = 477; mean age = 36.07 years; 22.9% SM) completed clinician-administered measures of PTSD and self-report measures of trauma-related difficulties and social support. The rate of PTSD diagnosis was higher for SM women. Social support and SM status were significantly associated with suicidality, self-perceptions, depression, somatic complaints, and functional impairment. The interaction between social support and SM status was significant for both functional impairment (β = -.26) and somatic complaints (β = -.39). High social support had an equal, positive effect among SM and nonminority women, whereas low social support had a greater negative impact among SM women. Results suggested the particular salience of social support on functioning and symptom severity among SM women and the potential importance of including interventions addressing social support into PTSD treatments for SM women.

  12. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  13. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  14. [The impact of drugs on social welfare. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The reasons and rationale for state intervention in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed with emphasis on two of the most frequent perspectives: the health-focused view and the income-centered approach; these perspectives tend to be ignored, to come into conflict, or to be confused in Spain. The growing impact of drugs on health and on the productivity of a knowledge-intensive industry - such as the pharmaceutical sector - is discussed. The impact of drugs on welfare will depend on how prescription is dealt with within the framework of some macro policies that could clearly be improved. The present article focuses on the effectiveness of Spanish pharmaceutical policy and assesses three families of policies. Several recommendations are made: greater use of price competition, regulatory signals rewarding the most innovative drugs (those that offer the greater incremental cost-effectiveness with respect to the already existing alternatives), a shake-up of the national system of innovation, and the indispensable alignment of prescriber incentives and the health system. An integrated pharmaceutical policy would help to bridge the quality chasm of the Spanish health system by making it more desirable, and therefore sustainable.

  15. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  16. The social and economic impact of biofortification through genetic modification.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Demont, Matty; Gellynck, Xavier; Stein, Alexander J

    2017-02-20

    Genetic modification (GM) has been advocated as an alternative or complement to micronutrient interventions such as supplementation, fortification or dietary diversification. While proof-of-concept of various GM biofortified crops looks promising, the decision tree of policy makers is much more complex, and requires insight on their socio-economic impacts: Will it actually work? Is it financially sound? Will people accept it? Can it be implemented in a globalized world? This review shows that GM biofortification could effectively reduce the burden of micronutrient deficiencies, in an economically viable way, and is generally well received by target beneficiaries, despite some resistance and uncertainty. Practically, however, protectionist and/or unscientific regulations in some developed countries raise the (perceived) bar for implementation in target countries.

  17. Impact of Social Networking Sites on Children in Military Families.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Austen B; Steele, Ric G

    2016-09-01

    Youth in military families experience a relatively unique set of stressors that can put them at risk for numerous psychological and behavior problems. Thus, there is a need to identify potential mechanisms by which children can gain resiliency against these stressors. One potential mechanism that has yet to be empirically studied with military youth is social networking sites (SNSs). SNSs have gained significant popularity among society, especially youth. Given the significance of these communication tools in youths' lives, it is important to analyze how SNS use may affect military youth and their ability to cope with common military life stressors. The current review examines the potential positive and negative consequences associated with SNS use in coping with three common stressors of youth in military families: parent deployment, frequent relocation, and having a family member with a psychological or physical disability. By drawing from SNS and military literature, we predict that SNS use can be a positive tool for helping children in military families to cope with stressors. However, certain SNS behaviors can potentially result in more negative outcomes. Recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  18. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap.

  19. Knockouts of high-ranking males have limited impact on baboon social networks.

    PubMed

    Franz, Mathias; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    Social network structures can crucially impact complex social processes such as collective behaviour or the transmission of information and diseases. However, currently it is poorly understood how social networks change over time. Previous studies on primates suggest that `knockouts' (due to death or dispersal) of high-ranking individuals might be important drivers for structural changes in animal social networks. Here we test this hypothesis using long-term data on a natural population of baboons, examining the effects of 29 natural knockouts of alpha or beta males on adult female social networks. We investigated whether and how knockouts affected (1) changes in grooming and association rates among adult females, and (2) changes in mean degree and global clustering coefficient in these networks. The only significant effect that we found was a decrease in mean degree in grooming networks in the first month after knockouts, but this decrease was rather small, and grooming networks rebounded to baseline levels by the second month after knockouts. Taken together our results indicate that the removal of high-ranking males has only limited or no lasting effects on social networks of adult female baboons. This finding calls into question the hypothesis that the removal of high-ranking individuals has a destabilizing effect on social network structures in social animals.

  20. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage: epidemiology, social impact and a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Fàbregas Julià, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Hernández-Palazón, J; Rubio Romero, R; Carmona Aurioles, J

    2010-12-01

    Cerebrovascular disease, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a worldwide problem, representing personal tragedy, great social and economic consequences, and a heavy burden on the health care system. Estimated to be responsible for up to 10% of mortality in industrialized countries, cerebrovascular disease also affects individuals who are still in the workforce, with consequent loss of productive years. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident that leads to around 5% of all strokes. SAH is most often due to trauma but may also be spontaneous, in which case the cause may be a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (80%) or arteriovenous malformation or any other abnormality of the blood or vessels (20%). Although both the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal SAH has improved in recent years, related morbidity and mortality remains high: 50% of patients die from the initial hemorrhage or later complications. If patients whose brain function is permanently damaged are added to the count, the percentage of cases leading to severe consequences rises to 70%. The burden of care of patients who are left incapacitated by SAH falls to the family or to private and public institutions. The economic cost is considerable and the loss of quality of life for both the patient and the family is great. Given the magnitude of this problem, the provision of adequate prophylaxis is essential; also needed are organizational models that aim to reduce mortality as well as related complications. Aneurysmal SAH is a condition which must be approached in a coordinated, multidisciplinary way both during the acute phase and throughout rehabilitation in order to lower the risk of unwanted outcomes.

  1. The impact of social science research on health policy.

    PubMed

    Orosz, E

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between research and health policy is discussed from a policy process perspective, describing communication problems in the course of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Policy process is often expected by researchers to be rational, having logical sequence of steps and the objective evaluation of alternatives based on scientific knowledge. In fact, policies are often formulated without clear problem identification or based on wrong assumption. The timing of research and policy-making differs. Policy-makers need to respond quickly. Evaluations may be regarded by politicians as embarrassing if they point to a need for significant change. It is not satisfactory to consider only research and policy-making: their relationship is influenced by the media, different interest groups and by the general public. Health policy formulation is embedded in the general policy environment of particular societies. Some countries have a long tradition of consensus-building, while in others health reforms have been formulated and introduced in a centralized way. Traditional bio-medical thinking influences health policy-makers. The importance of social and political acceptability tends to be overlooked. The paper emphasizes that we are experiencing an era of scarcity of resources and growing tension concerning allocation decisions. Existing institutions provide insufficient incentives for policy-makers and researchers to promote public dialogue about such issues. The paper concludes that there is a need for new approaches to policy development and implementation, new structures in policy-making, changes in research financing and co-operation between disciplines and new structures for public participation in policy-making. Research should facilitate more open and democratic dialogue about policy options and the consequences of alternative choices.

  2. The Impact of the Social Order to Increase Enrollment in Programs of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotareva, Angelina V.; Bayborodova, Liudmila V.; Lehomzeva, Elena N.; Sukhanova, Yulia V.; Razumova, Anzhelika B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the social demand impact on increasing the children's enrollment of supplementary education programs. The survey has involved children of younger and middle school age (n = 2,206), high school students (n = 2,162), and parents of children of preschool (n = 313), younger and middle school age (n = 262). The…

  3. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  4. The Impact of Cognitive Style on Social Networks in On-Line Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablokow, Kathryn; Vercellone-Smith, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of e-Learning in engineering education, understanding the impact of individual differences on the ways students communicate and collaborate on-line has become increasingly important. The research described here investigates the influence of cognitive style on the interactions within student social networks in an on-line learning…

  5. The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

  6. Citation Impact of Women in Social Work: Exploring Gender and Research Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.; Allen, Junior Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed citation impact scholarship of women in the top 25-ranked schools of social work in the United States. Method: We used a mixed methodology. Part 1 was a secondary data analysis of the top-25 "U.S. News and World Report" ranked schools from 2012 using the Hirsch h-index over a 10-year period. Qualitative interviews…

  7. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  8. Competence and Affect in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement: The Impact of Social Comparison Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-involving and ego-involving contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…

  9. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  10. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  11. Impacts of Campus Experiences and Parental Socialization on Undergraduates' Career Choices. Final Report, BSSR Project: 549.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, John C.

    The impact of selected aspects of the collegiate experience on changes in undergraduates' occupational preferences and personal goals is examined in this study. Two aspects of the college environment are assessed: the social structure and the students' perception of the institution's ability to facilitate the attainment of personal goals. The…

  12. Transdisciplinarity and Translation: Preparing Social Work Doctoral Students for High Impact Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research models are becoming increasingly transdisciplinary (TD), multilevel, community-connected, and bent on expediting the movement of research to impact. This requires not only fresh thinking about the science of social work but an educational architecture that fosters both cross-disciplinary understanding of complex underlying…

  13. Impact of Occupational Socialization on the Perspectives and Practices of Sport Pedagogy Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hong-Min; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Participants were 12 students. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews,…

  14. Purse, Sword, and Judgment: The Impact of Court Intervention on Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Donald N.

    The trend toward policymaking by the courts is reviewed, and the following four issues are considered: (1) the direct and indirect impact of court intervention on social policy outcomes; (2) the effect of that intervention on the process of policymaking; (3) the extent to which court intervention has shaped the politics policymaking in a…

  15. Social Impact of Distance Learning in Higher Education on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Doris R.; Eikum, Debbie

    This study examined the social impact of online, Web-based, distance learning (OWDL) technology on students enrolled in health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) Master's degree level courses as compared to students in traditional classroom courses. Surveys were developed and mailed to 137 students in both types of classrooms. The surveys…

  16. Evaluation of Federal Social Programs: An Uncertain Impact. Occasional Paper 1992-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.

    This paper explores the impact that the evaluation industry has had on the development and implementation of social policy and programs, primarily as carried out by the U.S. Departments of Labor and Health and Human Services. In addition, major tools evaluators have developed and used, and the institutional arrangements through which they have…

  17. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Victimization: The Moderating Impact of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; And Others

    The role of social support in moderating the impact of childhood sexual abuse on adult psychological adjustment was examined. Women were drawn from three clinical samples (women in treatment for alcoholism, for being battered, or for mental health treatment) and two nonclinical sources (women arrested for driving while intoxicated and a random…

  18. The Impact of Economic Shocks on Quality of Life and Social Capital in Small Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Terry L.; Recker, Nicholas; Agnitsch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Economic shocks are sudden events causing a significant impact on the local economy. Disaster community literature predicts that community outcomes from shocks will depend on the kind of shock. Consensus crisis shocks will be followed by increases in social capital and quality of life. Corrosive community shocks will result in declines in these…

  19. Can object affordances impact on human social learning of tool use?

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Tessari, Alessia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Borghi, Anna M

    2012-08-01

    The author describes "higher" and "uniquely human" sociocognitive skills that he argues as being necessary for tool use. We propose that those skills could be based on simpler detection systems humans could share with other animal tool users. More specifically, we discuss the impact of object affordances on the understanding and the social learning of tool use.

  20. An Approach for Addressing the Multiple Testing Problem in Social Policy Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    In social policy evaluations, the multiple testing problem occurs due to the many hypothesis tests that are typically conducted across multiple outcomes and subgroups, which can lead to spurious impact findings. This article discusses a framework for addressing this problem that balances Types I and II errors. The framework involves specifying…

  1. Communication and Social Presence: The Impact on Adult Learners' Emotions in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the role of communication and social presence in distance learning environments and their impact on the emotions of adult learners. A study was conducted at the Hellenic Open University (HOU), using a questionnaire that was completed by 94 undergraduate and postgraduate students. More than 94% of the students…

  2. Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy

    2017-02-01

    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare.

  3. Persisting Dreams: The Impact of the Doctoral Socialization Process on Latina Post-Doctoral Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerband, Yamissette Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Latinas are underrepresented within the professorate and within doctoral programs, particularly within Research Intensive Institutions. This dissertation explores how the doctoral socialization process impacts the pipeline from the Ph.D. to scholarly careers for Latinas in Research universities. Given the low numbers of representation and…

  4. The Impact of Canadian Social Discourses on L2 Writing Pedagogy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalan, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate the impact of Canadian social, political, and academic discourses on second language writing pedagogy in Ontario schools. Building upon the views that regard teacher knowledge as teachers' sociocultural interactions and lived experiences, and not merely intellectual capabilities gained within teacher preparation,…

  5. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions.

  6. China's Population Policy at the Crossroads: Social Impacts and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    China's total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China's population policy evolve in the future? This paper first reviews the history of China's population policy since 1970 in terms of three stages: 1970-1979; 1980-1999; and after 2000. We explore the impacts of China's population policy, including relief of pressure on China's environment and resources, fertility decline, the unexpectedly high male-biased sex ratio at birth (SRB), the coming shortage of labor force, and the rapid aging of the population. We also investigate ethical issues raised by the implementation of the policy and its results. Finally we introduce the controversy over potential adjustment of the policy, acknowledging the problems faced by western countries with low fertility and countermeasures they have taken. We offer some suggestions that might be appropriate in the Chinese context. PMID:26612983

  7. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-10-28

    Issue addressed: Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI).Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI.Results: Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI.Conclusions: These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays.So what?: The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  8. Identification with the SocialWork Profession: The Impact of Education

    PubMed Central

    Terum, Lars Inge; Heggen, Kåre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine how education affects students' identification with the social work profession. In particular, we examine the impact of students' experiences of their interactions with teachers, peers and supervisors at placement. A longitudinal design is applied. Data were collected from students during their first and third (final) year in social work education from seven universities and university colleges in Norway, representing a sample (panel) of 390 students. To evaluate the degree of students' identification with the profession, comparisons with student nurses are conducted. The analyses indicate (i) that students' dedication to and identification with the social work profession are largely established at a very early stage of education and (ii) that education has a positive impact on students' identification with the social work profession. At the end of their social work education, students who experience support and feedback from teachers and have confidence in their supervisors' competence express a higher degree of identification with the social work profession. PMID:27559201

  9. The Impact of Perinatal Depression on Children's Social-Emotional Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Junge, Carolin; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Slinning, Kari; Polte, Carolin; Simonsen, Tone Breines; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2017-03-01

    Objectives This longitudinal population study aimed to investigate if maternal depression at different time points during the perinatal period impacts children's social-emotional development at 2 years of age. Methods Participants were women (n = 1235) who gave birth at Akershus University Hospital in Norway. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at pregnancy week 32 and at 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum, whereas children's social-emotional development at the age of 2 years was assessed by using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Bi- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the linkage between maternal perinatal depression and children's early social-emotional development. Results Multivariate analyses showed that social-emotional problems in the child 2 years after birth were strongly associated with maternal depression at pregnancy week 32 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.4; 95 % CI 1.4-8.0), depression at 8 weeks postpartum (aOR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.7-8.6), and with depression at both time points (aOR 3.7; 95 % CI 1.5-10.1). Conclusion Findings indicate pre- and postnatal depression each bears an independent, adverse impact on children's social-emotional development.

  10. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  11. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Aledo, Antonio; García-Andreu, Hugo; Pinese, José

    2015-11-15

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams.

  12. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  13. Investigating the Potential Impact of Social Talk on Prevention Through Social Networks: the Relationships Between Social Talk and Refusal Self-Efficacy and Norms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Rachel A

    2017-02-18

    Interpersonal communication among participants plays an important role in the impact and effectiveness of prevention programs (Southwell & Yzer, Communication Theory 19:1-8, 2009). This study focused on adolescents' informal conversations about a prevention program, referred to as social talk, from a social network perspective. We provide both a conceptualization of social talk in relation to prevention programs and an operationalization of it by examining adolescents' social networks. Participants (N = 185) were eighth-grade students attending a middle school substance-abuse prevention program called keepin' it REAL (kiR). Participants engaged in both positive and negative social talk about kiR. Students with higher friendship indegree centrality were more likely to have greater positive social talk indegree centrality (r = .23 p < .01). These results indicated that youth considered as friends by most of their classmates were also reported as being positive in their comments with respect to kiR. Youth who talked positively about kiR tended to report personal anti-substance injunctive norms (b = 0.71, p < .05). On the other hand, youth who were nominated as negative social talkers by their peers appeared to have less personal anti-substance injunctive norms (b = -0.92, p < .05). Furthermore, youth who were more likely to talk negatively about kiR were less likely to perceive that their best friends (b = -1.66, p < .05) or most youth in their age (b = -1.49, p < .05) disapprove of substance use.

  14. Exploring the potential impacts of tourism development on social and ecological change in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Amy; Aswani, Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Pacific Island communities may be vulnerable to negative impacts of economic development, which is often considered a strategy for reducing vulnerability to environmental change. Studies that evaluate potential impacts of economic development in isolated communities may be inaccurate to only focus on asking people to anticipate impacts of phenomena they have had minimal exposure to. We used an open-ended approach to evaluate how communities in the Solomon Islands perceived change, and used this information to anticipate potential impacts of the government's plans to develop tourism. Our results showed mostly negative expectations of change, particularly socio-cultural, which was perceived as being driven by diminishing social capital, foreign influence, and economic development. Despite minimal exposure, locals supported tourism and had more positive expectations of change associated with this activity. Our findings emphasize the need for locally appropriate planning to ensure intended positive impacts of tourism and other forms of economic development.

  15. Environmental, economic and social impact of aviation biofuel production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cremonez, Paulo André; Feroldi, Michael; de Jesus de Oliveira, Carlos; Teleken, Joel Gustavo; Alves, Helton José; Sampaio, Silvio Cézar

    2015-03-25

    The Brazilian aviation industry is currently developing biofuel technologies that can maintain the operational and energy demands of the sector, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuels (mainly kerosene) and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the current research was to identify the major environmental, economic and social impacts arising from the production of aviation biofuels in Brazil. Despite the great potential of these fuels, there is a significant need for improved routes of production and specifically for lower production costs of these materials. In addition, the productive chains of raw materials for obtaining these bioenergetics can be linked to environmental impacts by NOx emissions, extensive use of agricultural land, loss of wildlife and intensive water use, as well as economic, social and political impacts.

  16. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment.

  17. The impact of pet loss on the perceived social support and psychological distress of hurricane survivors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza; Chan, Christian S

    2009-06-01

    Associations between pet loss and posthurricane perceived social support and psychological distress were explored. Participants (N = 365) were primarily low-income African American single mothers who were initially part of an educational intervention study. All participants were exposed to Hurricane Katrina, and 47% experienced Hurricane Rita. Three waves of survey data, two from before the hurricanes, were included. Sixty-three participants (17.3%) reported losing a pet due to the hurricanes and their aftermath. Pet loss significantly predicted postdisaster distress, above and beyond demographic variables, pre- and postdisaster perceived social support, predisaster distress, hurricane-related stressors, and human bereavement, an association that was stronger for younger participants. Pet loss was not a significant predictor of postdisaster perceived social support, but the impact of pet loss on perceived social support was significantly greater for participants with low levels of predisaster support.

  18. The Impact of the "Village" Model on Health, Well-Being, Service Access, and Social Engagement of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carrie L.; Scharlach, Andrew E.; Price Wolf, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Villages represent an emerging consumer-driven social support model that aims to enhance the social engagement, independence, and well-being of community-dwelling seniors through a combination of social activities, volunteer opportunities, service referral, and direct assistance. This study aimed to assess the perceived impact of…

  19. Impact of the Social Café Meals program: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise; O'Connor, Jacklin; Amezdroz, Emily; Bucello, Pieta; Mitchell, Hannah; Thomas, Arabella; Kleve, Sue; Bernardi, Anthony; Wallis, Liza; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Social Café Meals Programs aim to reduce food insecurity and social exclusion by providing participants access to subsidised meals in mainstream local cafés. This study aimed to explore the program's ability to address social exclusion and food insecurity and the impact of the program on the community. A qualitative evaluation approach was utilised whereby in-depth interviews were conducted with café owners, café staff and current program members of two Social Café Meals Programs operating in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Twelve program members and six café staff completed an in-depth interview at the local cafés. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach focusing on the lived experience of the café owners, staff and program members. Four key themes were identified. The program (i) improved food access for vulnerable groups and (ii) created community cohesiveness. (iii) The café environment was important in facilitating program use by community members. (iv) Café owners felt rewarded for their community contribution via the program. Social Café Meals Programs may provide a solution to improving food security and reducing social exclusion and may be considered as a strategy for improving nutrition and social health for at-risk and vulnerable groups.

  20. Development of a Conceptual Framework to Measure the Social Impact of Burns.

    PubMed

    Marino, Molly; Soley-Bori, Marina; Jette, Alan M; Slavin, Mary D; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Resnik, Linda; Acton, Amy; Amaya, Flor; Rossi, Melinda; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Kazis, Lewis E

    Measuring community reintegration following burn injury is important to assess the efficacy of therapies designed to optimize recovery. This project aims to develop and validate a conceptual framework for understanding the social impact of burn injuries in adults. The framework is critical for developing the item banks used for a computerized adaptive test. We performed a comprehensive literature review and consulted with clinical experts and burn survivors about social life areas impacted by burn injury. Focus groups with burn survivors and clinicians were conducted to inform and validate the framework. Transcripts were coded using grounded theory methodology. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, was chosen to ground the content model. The primary construct identified was social participation, which contains two concepts: societal role and personal relationships. The subdomains chosen for item development were work, recreation and leisure, relating with strangers, and romantic, sexual, family, and informal relationships. Qualitative results strongly suggest that the conceptual model fits the constructs for societal role and personal relationships with the respective subdomains. This conceptual framework has guided the implementation of a large-scale calibration study currently underway which will lead to a computerized adaptive test for monitoring the social impacts of burn injuries during recovery.

  1. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L.; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S.; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. Methods We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001) and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001). When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001) and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001). Conclusion The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. PMID:25834664

  2. The impact of social support on health related quality of life in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Charyton, Christine; Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have found that psychosocial factors have the greatest impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Social support can buffer the negative impact of stressful events and chronic health conditions. To date, no population studies have examined the association between social support and epilepsy. In the 2003 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), four questions were used to assess social support. A set of survey weight-adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted with self-rated health status as the outcome. In those regression models, we examined the effect of epilepsy status, social support, and their interactions, after controlling for demographics. Analyses examining the interaction between epilepsy and social support showed a significant interaction between epilepsy and "availability of someone to love you and make you feel wanted." Once demographics were controlled for, persons without epilepsy and poor affectionate support reported fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=1.7). Persons with epilepsy and good affectionate support also reported fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=3.3). Persons with epilepsy and poor affectionate support were the most likely to report fair/poor self-rated health status (odds ratio=9.1). Persons with epilepsy need encouragement to actively seek and sustain supportive personal relationships that may help improve their quality of life.

  3. An Analysis of How Building a Collaborative Community of Professional Social Studies Teachers through Targeted Ambient Professional Development Impacts Social Studies Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brown, Karen; Shaffer, LaShorage; Werner, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a yearlong ambient professional development (PD) program-The Wayne Schools Global Geography Project (WSGG-project)-that focused on improving teacher quality through PD and classroom observations for in-service social studies teachers. The project targeted middle and high school social studies teachers and used…

  4. Using Social Impact Games (SIGS) to Support Constructivist Learning: Creating a Foundation for Effective Use in the Secondary Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Beverly; Faure, Caroline; Kelle, Fay

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how Social Impact Games (SIGs) can provide important instructional support in secondary social studies classrooms. When used within the framework of the constructivist teaching philosophy and teaching methods, as recommended by the NCSS (2010), SIGs have the potential to hone critical thinking, collaboration, and problem…

  5. Primary lower limb lymphedema: a focus on its functional, social and emotional impact

    PubMed Central

    Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios I; Lionis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Primary lymphedema is a rare, chronic and distressing condition with negative effects on physical, social and emotional level. The purpose of these reports was to present and discuss two different cases of primary lower limb lymphedema with a focus on its physical and mental impact and on some qualitative aspects of patients' self-reported experiences. The patients were recruited as they used occasional services within the University Hospital of Heraklion (Crete, Greece). The functional and mental impact of primary lymphedema was measured using the generic Medical Outcome Study short form-36 questionnaire and open-ended questions led to give more emphasis to patients' experiences. The analysis of short form-36 results in the first patient disclosed a significant functional impairment with a minor impact of the condition on emotional and social domains. For the second patient quality of life scores in the emotional and social domains were affected. Our findings support further the statement that physicians should pay full attention to appraise the patient's physical and emotional condition. General practitioners have the opportunity to monitor the long-term impact of chronic disorders. Posing simple open-ended questions and assessing the level of physical and mental deficits in terms of well-being through the use of specific metric tools can effectively follow-up rare conditions in the community. PMID:20975845

  6. Social Media Impact: Utility of Reflective Approach in the Practice of Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Zia; Shahid, Hassan; Shuaib, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Social media is rapidly being incorporated into medical education. We created a small group, reflective practice sessions by integrating specific medical cases to improve awareness about professionalism on social media. Medical scenarios were generated for reflective practice sessions on social media professionalism. Anonymous pre/post-session surveys evaluated residents' use of social media and gathered their opinions on the session. Thirty-eight of 48 (79 %) residents replied to the presession survey with 50 % (19/38) reporting daily digital media use, 76 % (29/38) witnessed unprofessional postings on social media, and 21 % (8/38) posted unprofessional content themselves. Of the 79 % (30/38) residents who attended the session, 74 % (28/38) completed the post-session survey. Residents reported the session added to the longevity of their professional career 4.11, 95 % CI (3.89-4.36). As a result of the session, they were more conscious of using the social media more professionally 3.47, 95 % CI (2.88-3.96) and would be proactive in protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.96, 95 % CI (3.50-4.37). In summary, reflective practice-based sessions regarding the impact of social media on professionalism in surgery was well favored by the residents. The majority agreed that it had important implications for the longevity of their professional career. Participants reported having an increased awareness to protect patient privacy and utilize social media more professionally.

  7. Impacts of social support on symptoms in Brazilian women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Andrade, Sandra Cristina de; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral; Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de

    2016-06-30

    We aimed to assess the impact of social support on symptoms in Brazilian women with FM. An observational, descriptive study enrolling sixty-six women who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Social support was measured by the Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), functionality was evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), affectivity was measured by Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and algometry was carried out to record pressure pain threshold (PPth) and tolerance (PPTo) at eighteen points recommended by the ACR. Patients were divided into normal (NSS) or poor social support (PSS) groups with PSS defined as having a MOS-SSS score below the 25th percentile of the entire sample. Mann-Whitney or Unpaired t-test were used to compare intergroup variables and Fisher's for categorical variables. Analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation test were used. No differences in sociodemographic variables between PSS and NSS were found. Differences between NSS and PSS groups were observed for all 4 subcategories of social support and MOS-SSS total score. Significant differences between NSS and PSS on depression (p= 0.007), negative affect (p= 0.025) and PPTh (p= 0.016) were found. Affectionate subcategory showed positive correlation between pain and positive affect in PSS. Positive social interaction subcategory showed a negative correlation between FIQ and depression state. Therefore social support appears to contribute to ameliorate mental and physical health in FM.

  8. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  9. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2017-03-09

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  10. So close yet so far: Motor anomalies impacting on social functioning in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Casartelli, Luca; Molteni, Massimo; Ronconi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Difficulties in the social domain and motor anomalies have been widely investigated in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, they have been generally considered as independent, and therefore tackled separately. Recent advances in neuroscience have hypothesized that the cortical motor system can play a role not only as a controller of elementary physical features of movement, but also in a complex domain as social cognition. Here, going beyond previous studies on ASD that described difficulties in the motor and in the social domain separately, we focus on the impact of motor mechanisms anomalies on social functioning. We consider behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings supporting the idea that motor cognition is a critical "intermediate phenotype" for ASD. Motor cognition anomalies in ASD affect the processes of extraction, codification and subsequent translation of "external" social information into the motor system. Intriguingly, this alternative "motor" approach to the social domain difficulties in ASD may be promising to bridge the gap between recent experimental findings and clinical practice, potentially leading to refined preventive approaches and successful treatments.

  11. Impacts of hazardous technology: The psycho-social effects of restarting TMI-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.; Bolin, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an evaluation of the psycho-social impacts of hazardous technology. Using a multiple research strategy, the authors show the possible effects of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island. The book includes background information concerning environmental policy, the accident and restart issues, and forecasted impacts and implications for environmental management. The topic, however, extends well beyond that of TMI and nuclear power. Linkages are made with other environmental problems including chemical accidents such as Bhopal and waste disposal problems such as Love Canal.

  12. Early impact of social isolation and breast tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Szpunar, Mercedes J; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from cancer patients and animal models of cancer indicates that exposure to psychosocial stress can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the pathways underlying stress-induced cancer pathogenesis are not fully understood. Social isolation has been shown to promote tumor progression. We examined the impact of social isolation on breast cancer pathogenesis in adult female severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice using the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, a high β-adrenergic receptor (AR) expressing line. When group-adapted mice were transferred into single housing (social isolation) one week prior to MB-231 tumor cell injection into a mammary fat pad (orthotopic), no alterations in tumor growth or metastasis were detected compared to group-housed mice. When social isolation was delayed until tumors were palpable, tumor growth was transiently increased in singly-housed mice. To determine if sympathetic nervous system activation was associated with increased tumor growth, spleen and tumor norepinephrine (NE) was measured after social isolation, in conjunction with tumor-promoting macrophage populations. Three days after transfer to single housing, spleen weight was transiently increased in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice in conjunction with reduced splenic NE concentration and elevated CD11b+Gr-1+ macrophages. At day 10 after social isolation, no changes in spleen CD11b+ populations or NE were detected in singly-housed mice. In the tumors, social isolation increased CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+Gr-1-, and F4/80+ macrophage populations, with no change in tumor NE. The results indicate that a psychological stressor, social isolation, elicits dynamic but transient effects on macrophage populations that may facilitate tumor growth. The transiency of the changes in peripheral NE suggest that homeostatic mechanisms may mitigate the impact of social isolation over time. Studies are underway to define the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the

  13. Highlighting the importance of social dimension with Social Impact Assessment for more transparent Water Policy and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitalar, Maruša. Å.; Mitja Brilly, , ., Dr. _., Prof.

    2010-05-01

    We are often faced with the situation that phase of creating a policy tends to be a field where all ideas, visions seem clear, realistic and simple but when it comes to the next stage which means transferring policy into reality we are suddenly confronted with complex network that because of its human dimension consequently shows us that while planning we must have forgotten to consider this important segment. Implementation reveals were things went wrong in stage of planning, were tend to be "black holes" and with evaluation we point out positive and negative connotation of implementation and policy itself. Theory can often build the ground that cannot support the sequence of events or cannot create an appropriate system that could potentially function in society. Any kind of policy should be done in a conjunction with society, people. Therefore it is important that we fill first gap which is human capital. A social dimension is very important and needs attention. We need to assure that social component will be considered and discussed in water policy management if we want it to be transparent and accountable. Usage of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is very essential when considering new projects, policies etc. Its role to assess impact on people, society highlights the meaning of this method itself as an important source of information. We have to be aware of importance of human and social capital and that its understanding, satisfaction is key to success. Having all the analysis done, having good theory, project or policy it still not the end. Because putting policy into happening is not enough. Next gap that needs to be filled is related to organisation. This takes under a need of keeping a good coordination between all the actors which means all the people, institutions, stakeholders involved. Well defined roles are crucial and also a good cooperation between all the segments involved. Regarding to this, system should consider transparent local self

  14. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Bosin Wong Siuwai Lau, Milton Chi-hong

    2008-01-15

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture.

  15. Modeling the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Shunjiang; Weng, Wenguo; Zhang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    We investigate by mean-field analysis and extensive simulations the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in various typical networks with two types of nodes: active nodes and passive nodes, of which the behavior patterns are modeled according to the social impact theory. In this study, nodes are not only the media to spread the virus, but also disseminate their opinions on the virus-whether there is a need for certain self-protection measures to be taken to reduce the risk of being infected. Our results indicate that the interaction between epidemic spreading and opinion dynamics can have significant influences on the spreading of infectious diseases and related applications, such as the implementation of prevention and control measures against the infectious diseases.

  16. How Ebola impacts social dynamics in gorillas: a multistate modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Genton, Céline; Pierre, Amandine; Cristescu, Romane; Lévréro, Florence; Gatti, Sylvain; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly; Le Gouar, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases can induce rapid changes in population dynamics and threaten population persistence. In socially structured populations, the transfers of individuals between social units, for example, from breeding groups to non-breeding groups, shape population dynamics. We suggest that diseases may affect these crucial transfers. We aimed to determine how disturbance by an emerging disease affects demographic rates of gorillas, especially transfer rates within populations and immigration rates into populations. We compared social dynamics and key demographic parameters in a gorilla population affected by Ebola using a long-term observation data set including pre-, during and post-outbreak periods. We also studied a population of undetermined epidemiological status in order to assess whether this population was affected by the disease. We developed a multistate model that can handle transition between social units while optimizing the number of states. During the Ebola outbreak, social dynamics displayed increased transfers from a breeding to a non-breeding status for both males and females. Six years after the outbreak, demographic and most of social dynamics parameters had returned to their initial rates, suggesting a certain resilience in the response to disruption. The formation of breeding groups increased just after Ebola, indicating that environmental conditions were still attractive. However, population recovery was likely delayed because compensatory immigration was probably impeded by the potential impact of Ebola in the surrounding areas. The population of undetermined epidemiological status behaved similarly to the other population before Ebola. Our results highlight the need to integrate social dynamics in host-population demographic models to better understand the role of social structure in the sensitivity and the response to disease disturbances.

  17. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Diana I; Thornton, Mark A; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-01-05

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others' internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others' mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people.

  18. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence

    PubMed Central

    Tamir, Diana I.; Thornton, Mark A.; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others’ internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others’ mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people. PMID:26621704

  19. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-30

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  20. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  1. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27575915

  2. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  3. Proof of impact and pipeline planning: directions and challenges for social audit in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Social audits are typically observational studies, combining qualitative and quantitative uptake of evidence with consultative interpretation of results. This often falters on issues of causality because their cross-sectional design limits interpretation of time relations and separation out of other indirect associations.Social audits drawing on methods of randomised controlled cluster trials (RCCT) allow more certainty about causality. Randomisation means that exposure occurs independently of all events that precede it--it converts potential confounders and other covariates into random differences. In 2008, CIET social audits introduced randomisation of the knowledge translation component with subsequent measurement of impact in the changes introduced. This "proof of impact" generates an additional layer of evidence in a cost-effective way, providing implementation-ready solutions for planners.Pipeline planning is a social audit that incorporates stepped wedge RCCTs. From a listing of districts/communities as a sampling frame, individual entities (communities, towns, districts) are randomly assigned to waves of intervention. Measurement of the impact takes advantage of the delay occasioned by the reality that there are insufficient resources to implement everywhere at the same time. The impact in the first wave contrasts with the second wave, which in turn contrasts with a third wave, and so on until all have received the intervention. Provided care is taken to achieve reasonable balance in the random allocation of communities, towns or districts to the waves, the resulting analysis can be straightforward.Where there is sufficient management interest in and commitment to evidence, pipeline planning can be integrated in the roll-out of programmes where real time information can improve the pipeline. Not all interventions can be randomly allocated, however, and random differences can still distort measurement. Other issues include contamination of the subsequent

  4. Considerations about gust wind thresholds related to social impact: study of different regions in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberia, Laura; Amaro, Jéssica; Aran, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Severe weather events can cause several damages on a territory and its population, affecting urban infrastructure and housing, among others. In particular, wind is one of the most important phenomena which cause remarkable economic losses. Since 2008, different studies conducted by the Social Impact Research Group, in the frame of HYMEX project, determined that requests related to damage claims which are received in Meteorological Services are a good proxy indicator of social impact. However, the strong wind studies took into account a unique threshold, which proved to be insufficient. It was found that it was necessary to define a threshold for each area, according to its vulnerability and exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define, for each county in Catalonia, thresholds of gust wind speed for which a remarkable social impact is observed. To accomplish this, the database of requests received in the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) between 2011 and 2015 has been used. For each request, the most representative automatic weather stations are associated. Statistical treatments of the gust wind data recorded by these stations have been carried out in order to determine which values are related to social impact. As an example, one of the first results shows that in a populated area like Barcelona, the average gust is approximately 70 km/h. On the contrary, in other less populated counties and usually more exposed to strong winds, the mean is over 85 km/h. Besides, the relation between gusts and requests has been analyzed to detect significant slope changes. In general, it has been detected an increase of requests at certain gust wind values. These results, which vary depending on the region's vulnerability and exposure, could be used to establish new thresholds for Civil Protection alarms. Therefore, a higher accuracy by region will be reached.

  5. Reasoning about the implications of facial expressions: a behavioral and fMRI study on low and high social impact.

    PubMed

    Prochnow, D; Brunheim, S; Steinhäuser, L; Seitz, R J

    2014-10-01

    Inferring the cause of another person's emotional state is relevant for guiding behavior in social interactions. With respect to their potentially evoked behavioral reactions some emotional states like anger or happiness are considered to have high social impact while others such as fear and sadness have low social impact. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to map the brain activation patterns related to reasoning about facial expressions of emotions with high or low social impact in twenty-six healthy volunteers with good emotional competence, self-reported empathy, and explicit facial affect recognition abilities. Our data show that empathic reasoning was faster and more accurate for high impact emotional states than for low impact emotional states. Activated brain areas involved brain circuits associated with basic and higher order empathy and decision-making in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral frontal cortex. However, activation in higher order areas was less during reasoning about emotional states of high social impact. Taken together, reasoning of high and low impact emotional states relied on similar empathy-related brain areas with reasoning about emotional states of low social impact being more erroneous and requiring more cognitive resources.

  6. Analysis of opinion spreading in signed social networks under the impact of structural balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; He, Su; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Social networks have attracted remarkable attention and it is of great importance to understand the process of opinion spreading in popular social networks. However, most research on diffusion cannot be applied directly to investigate social networks, where relationships are heterogeneous and structural balance is a common phenomenon. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the process of opinion spreading in signed social networks under the impact of structural balance. We classify users into different types according to the numbers of their positive links, and define the term user influence to represent the average number of times that users are influenced, which is incurred by a user spreading an opinion. We then propose an approach to analyze the user influence theoretically and the analysis accuracy is verified by simulations. We observe that the user influence increases with user type and also increases with the fraction of negative links in the network if this fraction value exceeds some point. That's to say, negative relationships may enhance opinion spreading if we consider the impact of structural balance, which is an interesting result.

  7. The impact of illness on social networks: implications for transmission and control of influenza.

    PubMed

    Van Kerckhove, Kim; Hens, Niel; Edmunds, W John; Eames, Ken T D

    2013-12-01

    We expect social networks to change as a result of illness, but social contact data are generally collected from healthy persons. Here we quantified the impact of influenza-like illness on social mixing patterns. We analyzed the contact patterns of persons from England measured when they were symptomatic with influenza-like illness during the 2009 A/H1N1pdm influenza epidemic (2009-2010) and again 2 weeks later when they had recovered. Illness was associated with a reduction in the number of social contacts, particularly in settings outside the home, reducing the reproduction number to about one-quarter of the value it would otherwise have taken. We also observed a change in the age distribution of contacts. By comparing the expected age distribution of cases resulting from transmission by (a)symptomatic persons with incidence data, we estimated the contribution of both groups to transmission. Using this, we calculated the fraction of transmission resulting from (a)symptomatic persons, assuming equal duration of infectiousness. We estimated that 66% of transmission was attributable to persons with symptomatic disease (95% confidence interval: 0.23, 1.00). This has important implications for control: Treating symptomatic persons with antiviral agents or encouraging home isolation would be expected to have a major impact on transmission, particularly since the reproduction number for this strain was low.

  8. Depression during the menopause transition: impact on quality of life, social adjustment, and disability.

    PubMed

    Wariso, Bathsheba A; Guerrieri, Gioia M; Thompson, Karla; Koziol, Deloris E; Haq, Nazli; Martinez, Pedro E; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    The impact of depression on quality of life (QOL) and social support has neither been well characterized in clinical samples of women with perimenopausal depression (PMD) nor have the relative contributions of depression and other menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flushes) to declining QOL been clarified. In this study, we compared QOL measures, social support, and functional disability in PMD and non-depressed perimenopausal women. We evaluated women aged 40-60 years who presented with menstrual cycle irregularity, elevated plasma FSH levels, and met criteria for perimenopause. A structured clinical interview was administered to determine the presence or absence of major and minor depression. Outcome measures included the Quality of Life Enjoyment Scale Questionnaire, the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, the Social Adjustment Scale, and the Duke Social Support Index. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANOVAs were used to compare outcome measures. Ninety women with PMD and 51 control women participated in this study. Women with PMD reported significantly decreased QOL, social support, and adjustment and increased disability compared with non-depressed perimenopausal women. Neither perimenopausal reproductive status alone nor the presence of hot flushes had a significant negative impact on QOL measures. PMD is accompanied by significant reductions in QOL, social support, and disability similar to depression in women at other stages of life. PMD may also contribute to decreased QOL in community- or clinic-based samples of perimenopausal women. It remains unclear whether the clinical characteristics we identified reflect pre-existing risk factors for depression during the perimenopause or the effects of a current depression. Future clinical and treatment studies in perimenopausal women should distinguish depressed women when outcome measures include QOL.

  9. Decreasing Risky Behavior on Social Network Sites: The Impact of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited impact on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental involvement, we hypothesized that involving parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures involving 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the impact of an intervention without parental involvement with one that included active parental involvement by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental involvement was not necessary to improve the intervention's impact on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial impact was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental involvement is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to involve parents.

  10. Using hydraulic modeling to address social impacts of small dam removals in southern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Wyrick, Joshua R; Rischman, Brian A; Burke, Christopher A; McGee, Craig; Williams, Chasity

    2009-07-01

    Small relic mill dams are common in the watersheds of southern New Jersey, dotting the landscape with many small neighborhood lakes. Originally built in the late 1800s, most of these dams have become increasingly unable to handle current design storms due to increased urbanization of the watersheds. Several of these dams have also been classified as "high hazard" by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Dam Safety Division because their failure has the potential for loss of life or extensive property damage. The current private owners are generally unable to afford the high repair costs needed to rehabilitate the dams to current safety standards, and are therefore more inclined to remove them. This research analyses both the physical and social impacts of the removal of two small dams in southern New Jersey, and integrates the two seemingly disparate concepts. Using hydraulic modeling and previous case studies, it is predicted that there will be limited effects to the hydrological and biological characteristics of the stream corridor. A survey distributed to the affected homeowners that live on these lakes shows that the community, however, expects significant impacts to the bio-physical characteristics of the stream corridor, as well financial impacts to their property value and social impacts to their recreational activities. The current study exposes the widening gap between policy makers and landowners, and highlights where complete stakeholder interaction could and should occur.

  11. A model of social network formation under the impact of structural balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Cheng, Jiajun; Chen, Yingwen; Wang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Social networks have attracted remarkable attention from both academic and industrial societies and it is of great importance to understand the formation of social networks. However, most existing research cannot be applied directly to investigate social networks, where relationships are heterogeneous and structural balance is a common phenomenon. In this paper, we take both positive and negative relationships into consideration and propose a model to characterize the process of social network formation under the impact of structural balance. In this model, a new node first establishes a link with an existing node and then tries to connect to each of the newly connected node’s neighbors. If a new link is established, the type of this link is determined by structural balance. Then we analyze the degree distribution of the generated network theoretically, and estimate the fractions of positive and negative links. All analysis results are verified by simulations. These results are of importance to understand the formation of social networks, and the model can be easily extended to consider more realistic situations.

  12. The impact of changes in health and social care on enteral feeding in the community.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2012-11-13

    This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined.

  13. The Impact of Changes in Health and Social Care on Enteral Feeding in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined. PMID:23201842

  14. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    PubMed

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-04-07

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  15. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals. PMID:20383280

  16. Perceived Social Support and Its Impact on Mental Fatigue in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, En quan; Zeng, Ben qiang; Tian, Jing lun; Du, Bing; Tian, Xiao bing; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although mental fatigue was well-recognized as one of the long-term consequences following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) that required ongoing support, evidences for the optimal management remained inadequate. Aims: To investigate the temporal profile of mental fatigue during the first year after MTBI and examine the impact of perceived social support on the recovery from post-MTBI fatigue. Study Design: Observational case-control study. Methods: This study was conducted among post-MTBI patients admitted to the emergency department in a tertiary-care hospital in Sichuan, China. During four waves of assessments at 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months, mental fatigue was assessed through Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) whereas social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: There were 65.1%, 37.1%, 34.8% and 32.5% individuals being identified as those with mental fatigue at 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. The scores of MFS didn’t change substantially since 3 months post-injury. Compared to non-fatigued MTBI patients, those with long-lasting post- MTBI fatigue reported extremely lower level of perceived social support. Moreover, improved social support at 1 week was negatively associated with the occurrence of long-lasting fatigue. Conclusion: Sufficient social support could significantly decrease the occurrence of long-lasting mental fatigue among MTBI cases. It seemed of great importance to modify the emphasis of rehabilitation to include assessment and improvement of perceived social support at earlier stages after injury. PMID:27403383

  17. Social inequalities in the impact of flexible employment on different domains of psychosocial health

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, L.; Benach, J.; Borrell, C.; Cortes, I.

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: (1) To analyse the impact of flexible employment on mental health and job dissatisfaction; and (2) to examine the constraints imposed by flexible employment on men's and women's partnership formation and people's decision to become parents. For the two objectives the potentially different patterns by sex and social class are explored. Design: Cross sectional health survey. Multiple logistic regression models separated for sex and social class (manual and non-manual workers) and controlling for age were fitted. Four types of contractual arrangements have been considered: permanent, fixed term temporary contract, non-fixed term temporary contract, and no contract. Setting: Catalonia (a region in the north east of Spain). Participants: Salaried workers interviewed in the 2002 Catalonian health survey with no longstanding limiting illness, aged 16–64 (1474 men and 998 women). Main results: Fixed term temporary contracts were not associated with poor mental health status. The impact of other forms of flexible employment on mental health depended on the type of contractual arrangement, sex, and social class and it was restricted to less privileged workers, women, and manual male workers. The impact of flexible employment on living arrangements was higher in men. Among both manual and non-manual male workers, those with fixed term temporary contracts were less likely to have children when married or cohabiting and, additionally, among non-manual male workers they also were more likely to remain single (aOR = 2.35; 95%CI = 1.13 to 4.90). Conclusion: Some forms of temporary contracts are related to adverse health and psychosocial outcomes with different patterns depending on the outcome analysed and on sex and social class. Future research should incorporate variables to capture situations of precariousness associated with flexible employment. PMID:16100314

  18. The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?

    PubMed

    Bacigalupe, Amaia; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, Western countries are going through a deep economic crisis whose health impacts seem to be fundamentally counter-cyclical: when economic conditions worsen, so does health, and mortality tends to rise. While a growing number of studies have presented evidence on the effect of crises on the average population health, a largely neglected aspect of research is the impact of crises and the related political responses on social inequalities in health, even if the negative consequences of the crises are primarily borne by the most disadvantaged populations. This commentary will reflect on the results of the studies that have analyzed the effect of economic crises on social inequalities in health up to 2013. With some exceptions, the studies show an increase in health inequalities during crises, especially during the Southeast Asian and Japanese crises and the Soviet Union crisis, although it is not always evident for both sexes or all health or socioeconomic variables. In the Nordic countries during the nineties, a clear worsening of health equity did not occur. Results about the impacts of the current economic recession on health equity are still inconsistent. Some of the factors that could explain this variability in results are the role of welfare state policies, the diversity of time periods used in the analyses, the heterogeneity of socioeconomic and health variables considered, the changes in the socioeconomic profile of the groups under comparison in times of crises, and the type of measures used to analyze the magnitude of social inequalities in health. Social epidemiology should further collaborate with other disciplines to help produce more accurate and useful evidence about the relationship between crises and health equity.

  19. Predicting social impacts associated with roadway development in a scenic area

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-12

    The issue of predicting social impacts that could result from the construction and use of new roadways is one that faces, or will face, many communities in the U.S. and throughout the world. Where road development takes place in a scenic area, especially one that is dependent on tourist trade, the nature of the secondary land conversion that often accompanies road construction is especially important. We have assessed the social impacts likely to accompany construction of a scenic parkway in a rural area abutting the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In this paper, we share the substantive findings of that study as well as our methodological observations on the challenges of projecting impacts in an area that has no planning or zoning, a situation that is common to many rural areas. We also discuss how we dealt with the fact that the major effects of the project would not begin until nearly 15 years in the future, when construction is completed and the roadway is opened to traffic. In order to predict land use patterns at the completion of roadway construction, we studied plat maps, which accurately reflect changing ownership patterns before such changes become apparent on the ground. We also conducted interviews with local realtors and developers who, in the absence of a local government planning department, tend to be the best sources of information concerning local land use trends. Uncertainty of future events was accounted for by projecting impacts for different scenarios, reflecting varying rates of growth and types of development. We believe that the description of our methodological approach should prove helpful to other analysts faced with the need to predict long-term transformations without the benefit of existing land use plans. In our assessment, we examined potential effects to local population, housing, land use, public services, taxes, economic structure, cultural resources, and social structure. Our findings are discussed briefly in this paper.

  20. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory.

  1. The Utility of Vulnerability and Social Capital Theories in Studying the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a disaster is followed by an explanation of vulnerability and social capital theories. The importance of using a sound theoretical framework and the utility and efficacy of vulnerability and social capital theories in studying the impact of natural disasters on the elderly population are emphasized and discussed. The conclusion…

  2. Residents' Yard Choices and Rationales in a Desert City: Social Priorities, Ecological Impacts, and Decision Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Casagrande, David; Harlan, Sharon L.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-11-01

    As a dominant land use in urban ecosystems, residential yards impact water and other environmental resources. Converting thirsty lawns into alternative landscapes is one approach to water conservation, yet barriers such as cultural norms reinforce the traditional lawn. Meanwhile, the complex social and ecological implications of yard choices complicate programs aimed at changing grass and other yard features for particular purposes. In order to better understand individual landscape decisions, we qualitatively examined residents’ rationales for their preferred yard types in the desert metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona. After briefly presenting landscape choices across two survey samples, the dominant reasons for preferences are discussed: appearance, maintenance, environment, recreation, microclimate, familiarity, and health/safety. Three broader analytical themes emerged from these descriptive codes: (1) residents’ desires for attractive, comfortable landscapes of leisure encompassing pluralistic tastes, lifestyles, and perceptions; (2) the association of environmental benefits and impacts with different landscape types involving complex social and ecological tradeoffs; and (3) the cultural legacies evident in modern landscape choices, especially in terms of a dichotomous human-nature worldview among long-time residents of the Phoenix oasis. Given these findings, programs aimed at landscape change must recognize diverse preferences and rationalization processes, along with the perceived versus actual impacts and tradeoffs of varying yard alternatives.

  3. Trends in Social Science: The Impact of Computational and Simulative Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario; Cecconi, Federico

    This paper discusses current progress in the computational social sciences. Specifically, it examines the following questions: Are the computational social sciences exhibiting positive or negative developments? What are the roles of agent-based models and simulation (ABM), network analysis, and other "computational" methods within this dynamic? (Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, 3(01n04), 19-38, 2000; Conte 2010; Macy, Annual Review of Sociology, 143-166, 2002). Are there objective indicators of scientific growth that can be applied to different scientific areas, allowing for comparison among them? In this paper, some answers to these questions are presented and discussed. In particular, comparisons among different disciplines in the social and computational sciences are shown, taking into account their respective growth trends in the number of publication citations over the last few decades (culled from Google Scholar). After a short discussion of the methodology adopted, results of keyword-based queries are presented, unveiling some unexpected local impacts of simulation on the takeoff of traditionally poorly productive disciplines.

  4. Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries). PMID:26388809

  5. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Alan; Bateson, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Large, multinational resource development projects can affect many aspects, including social, economic and ecological realities, in the regions where they operate. Social and environmental issues that are usually ignored in such projects are increasingly affecting the financial future of multinational corporations in negative ways. In this article, we advance the argument that corporations can successfully manage these issues and that if they choose to view these management efforts as an investment rather than an expense, they may well acquire a competitive advantage over companies that do not. We describe as a case study the Camisea natural gas and condensates development project in Peru, operated by Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Camisea is one of the first projects anywhere in the world to conduct a detailed analysis of key industry-related social issues and the processes, required investment and financial impact of managing them. The Camisea example supports the argument that addressing social and environmental concerns makes financial sense. In present value terms, the benefit of managing these concerns was expected to surpass the cost investment by approximately US$50 million.

  6. Breast cancer in two regimes: the impact of social movements on illness experience.

    PubMed

    Klawiter, Maren

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the narrative of one woman, Clara Larson, to explore changes over time in the experiences of illness available to women diagnosed with breast cancer. To claim that different illness experiences become available at different times is simply to acknowledge that experiences of disease are shaped not only by the individual circumstances of disease sufferers and the particular character of their pathologies, but by culturally, spatially and historically specific regimes of practices. This article explores the impact of social movements on the regime of breast cancer and makes four contributions to the scholarship on illness experience. First, it offers the concept disease regime as a way of conceptualising the structural shaping of illness experience. Second, it demonstrates the value of incorporating social movements more thoroughly into the study of illness experience. Third, it proposes that social movements change illness experiences in two ways: (1) by changing the sufferer or her relationship to the regime's practices; and (2) by changing and expanding the regime's actual practices. And fourth, it demonstrates how gender and sexuality are constituted within disease regimes and are challenged by social movements. This article is informed by four years of ethnographic research conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1994 and 1998, supplemented by historical research and more than 40 taped interviews and oral histories with current and former breast cancer patients, activists, educators, scientists, support group leaders and volunteers.

  7. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling.

  8. Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries).

  9. Rural North Dakota's oil boom and its impact on social services.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bret A; Geigle, Julia; Barkdull, Carenlee

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five years, North Dakota has experienced an oil boom based on high oil prices and hydraulic fracturing technologies. This has brought economic expansion and population growth to rural communities that had previously experienced decades of depopulation and economic struggle. Although the state has enjoyed many benefits--especially in juxtaposition to a sluggish national economy--the boom has also meant the arrival of economic refugees and dramatic impacts on largely rural social service systems. In the midst of a rapidly changing situation, available information tends to swing between euphoria over economic success and hysteria about rising crime and shifting cultures. In response, the authors used a primary focus group with county social service directors from across the state and a followup focus group with social workers operating on the edge of oil activity. Grounded in resilience theory, qualitative analysis of the primary focus group, and triangulation of data from other sources, this study provides a more objective report of the housing and social challenges, the benefits of the boom, and the challenges to solutions.

  10. COMORBIDITY IMPACT ON SOCIAL FUNCTIONING AFTER HIP FRACTURE: THE ROLE OF REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Radosavljevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Dejan; Lazovic, Milica; Hrkovic, Marija; Ilic-Stojanovic, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of rehabilitation treatment on social functioning in elderly patients after hip fracture during a rehabilitation program. Methods: This study included 203 patients with hip fracture. Four groups were analyzed on rehabilitation: Group 1, at admission, Group 2, at discharge, Group 3, three months after discharge and Group 4, six months after discharge. The analyzed parameters included: musculoskeletal, neurological and cognitive impairments. Impairment severity was graded by cumulative index rating scale for geriatrics (CIRS-G). Evaluation of social functioning was completed by social functioning component (SFC) from quality of life (SF-36) questionnaire. Results: There was a significant improvement in SF-36 SFC values for observed impairments from admission to six months after discharge for each severity degree (p<0.01), except for CIRS-G severity degree 4 for cognitive impairment, where significance was p<0.05. For the group of patients with musculoskeletal impairment, there was a significant difference between the values of SF-36 SFC concerning different severity degrees of CIRS-G only at six months after discharge (p<0.05). Patients with neurological or cognitive impairments have shown significant differences between the values of SF-36 SFC in regard to severity degrees of CIRS-G in all observational groups. Conclusion: Different degrees of observed impairments influence the degree of social functioning recovery in the elderly after hip fracture. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic Studies . PMID:28243177

  11. Source unreliability decreases but does not cancel the impact of social information on metacognitive evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Jacquot, Amélie; Eskenazi, Terry; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith; Montalan, Benoît; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Through metacognitive evaluations, individuals assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goals. We have previously shown that non-verbal social cues spontaneously influence these evaluations, even when the cues are unreliable. Here, we explore whether a belief about the reliability of the source can modulate this form of social impact. Participants performed a two-alternative forced choice task that varied in difficulty. The task was followed by a video of a person who was presented as being either competent or incompetent at performing the task. That person provided random feedback to the participant through facial expressions indicating agreement, disagreement or uncertainty. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation by rating their confidence in their answer. Results revealed that participants’ confidence was higher following agreements. Interestingly, this effect was merely reduced but not canceled for the incompetent individual, even though participants were able to perceive the individual’s incompetence. Moreover, perceived agreement induced zygomaticus activity, but only when the feedback was provided for difficult trials by the competent individual. This last result strongly suggests that people implicitly appraise the relevance of social feedback with respect to their current goal. Together, our findings suggest that people always integrate social agreement into their metacognitive evaluations, even when epistemic vigilance mechanisms alert them to the risk of being misinformed. PMID:26441760

  12. The goal of forming accurate impressions during social interactions: attenuating the impact of negative expectancies.

    PubMed

    Neuberg, S L

    1989-03-01

    Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur.

  13. Hope, Interpreter Self-efficacy, and Social Impacts: Assessment of the NNOCCI Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, J.; Swim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Conservation educators at informal science learning centers are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate action but have resisted the topic. Our research demonstrates their resist is due to self-doubt about climate science facts and the belief they will encounter negative audience feedback. Further, this self-doubt and self-silencing is emotional taxing. As a result we have developed a National Network for Ocean Climate Change Interpretation's (NNOCCI) program that addresses educators' needs for technical training and emotional scaffolding to help them fully engage with this work. The evaluation of this program sought to understand how to support educators interested in promoting public literacy on climate change through engagement with a structured training program aimed at increased the efficacy of interpreters through teaching strategic framing strategies. The program engaged educator dyads from informal science learning sites to attend an online and in-person program that initiated a new community of practice focused on sharing techniques and tools for ocean climate change interpretation. The presentation will summarize a model for embedded assessment across all aspects of a program and how social vectors, based upon educators' interpersonal and professional relationships, impact the understanding of an educator's work across their life-world. This summary will be followed by results from qualitative front-end research that demonstrated the psychologically complex emotional conditions that describe the experience of being an environmental educator. The project evaluators will then present results from their focus groups and social network analysis to demonstrate how training impacted in-group relationships, skill development, and the layered social education strategies that help communities engage with the content. Results demonstrated that skill training increased educator's hope--in the form of increased perceived agency and plans for educational

  14. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  15. A social-ecological impact assessment for public land management: application of a conceptual and methodological framework

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), federal action to manipulate habitat for species conservation requires an environmental impact statement (EIS), which should integrate natural and social sciences in planning and decision-making. Nonetheless, most impact assessm...

  16. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-04-13

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  17. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  18. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-11-05

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare.

  19. The power of the situation: The impact of Milgram's obedience studies on personality and social psychology.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2009-01-01

    Few psychological studies, if any, can claim a legacy as imposing as the obedience studies of Stanley Milgram. Their impact was of notable consequence in the separate spheres of research ethics, research design, and theory in psychology, and they changed the ways that psychologists conceptualize and conduct their research. The authors discuss the legacy of these studies, especially as they effected dramatic changes in the fields of personality and social psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of what psychological science has lost in the aftermath of Milgram--high impact studies--and the salience that such research has in illuminating the most significant problems of our society, studies that could produce great human benefits.

  20. Physical and Social Impacts on Hydrologic Properties of Residential Lawn Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Band, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Land development practices result in compacted soils that filter less water, increase surface runoff and decrease groundwater infiltration. Literature review of soil infiltration rates reveals that developed sites’ rates, 0.1 to 24 cm/hr, are reduced when compared to rates of undeveloped sites, 14.7 to 48.7 cm/hr. Yet, most hydrologic models neglect the impacts of residential soil compaction on infiltration and runoff. The objectives of this study included: determination of differences between soil properties of forested and residential lawn sites in Baltimore Ecosystem Study; parcel-scale location impacts on soil properties; and the impact of social and physical factors on the distribution of soil properties of residential lawns. Infiltration measures were collected in situ using a Cornell Sprinkle Infiltrometer and soil cores were collected for water retention and texture analysis. These soil properties were paired with GIS data relating to age of house construction, property value, parcel area, percent canopy cover per parcel and parcel distance from stream. The study finds that saturated infiltration rates in residential lawn soils are significantly lower than forest soils due to reduced macroporosity of residential lawn soils. Intra-parcel differences in bulk density and soil depth indicate that runoff from residential lawns is more likely from near-house and near-curb locations than the mid-front or backyards. The range of infiltration rate, bulk density and percent organic matter can be explained by readily attainable social and physical factors—age of house construction and parcel distance to stream. The impacts of land management on soil properties appear to be more prominent than percent canopy.

  1. Medical journals, impact and social media: an ecological study of the Twittersphere

    PubMed Central

    Cosco, Theodore D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Twitter is an increasingly popular means of research dissemination. I sought to examine the relation between scientific merit and mainstream popularity of general medical journals. Methods: I extracted impact factors and citations for 2014 for all general medical journals listed in the Thomson Reuters InCites Journal Citation Reports. I collected Twitter statistics (number of followers, number following, number of tweets) between July 25 and 27, 2015 from the Twitter profiles of journals that had Twitter accounts. I calculated the ratio of observed to expected Twitter followers according to citations via the Kardashian Index. I created the (Fifty Shades of) Grey Scale to calculate the analogous ratio according to impact factor. Results: Only 28% (43/153) of journals had Twitter profiles. The scientific and social media impact of journals were correlated: in adjusted models, Twitter followers increased by 0.78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38%–1.18%) for every 1% increase in impact factor and by 0.62% (95% CI 0.34%–0.90%) for every 1% increase in citations. Kardashian Index scores above the 99% CI were obsverved in 16% (7/43) of journals, including 6 of the 7 highest ranked journals by impact factor, whereas 58% (25/43) had scores below this interval. For the Grey Scale, 12% (5/43) of journals had scores above and 35% (15/43) had scores below the 99% CI. Interpretation: The size of a general medical journal’s Twitter following is strongly linked to its impact factor and citations, suggesting that higher quality research received more mainstream attention. Many journals have not capitalized on this dissemination method, although others have used it to their advantage. PMID:26644544

  2. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed.

  3. The Impact of Social Media on the Nature of Conflict, and a Commander’s Strategy for Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Social media is a phenomenon that has changed the way information is passed across societies and around the world. The rapid spread of blogs, social...discourse and therefore is changing the conditions in which the US Military operates. The speed with which information can be shared using social media has...increased dramatically. The traditional roles of the media have changed with the ubiquitous nature of the new media. Finally, social media allows

  4. Social impact evaluation : Some implications of the specific decisional context approach for anticipatory project assessment with special reference to available alternatives and to techniques of evaluating the social impacts of the anticipated effects of such alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The implications are explored of the specific decision context approach to anticipatory project assessment. More specifically, it is hypothesized that with respect to any given effect of a proposed project or action (mobility, job opportunities, air pollution, population distribution, etc.) such effect will likely differ in probability and/or magnitude from one decisional context to another; that the social desirability or undesirability of a given effect is a function (will differ with) each specific decisional context; that therefore the social impact of such effect will in all likelihood differ with each specific decisional context; and that the social significance of even the dame social impact of a given effect will vary from one decisional context to another when such social impact interacts with (competes with or reinforces) the social impacts of other effects. It also follows from this analysis that the respective roles of scientific method (demonstrable data) and adversarial system will not only differ with each specific decisional context but with each alternative course of action available to the decisional entity in each specific context.

  5. The Impact of MSW Education on Social Worker Empowerment and Commitment to Client Empowerment through Social Justice Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhis, Rebecca Morrison; Hostetter, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes among graduate students (N=52) in perception of social worker empowerment and commitment to client empowerment through social justice advocacy. Pre-post data showed that most entering MSW students possessed important beliefs about empowerment for themselves as social workers and for members of oppressed population…

  6. The social group influences of US health journalists and their impact on the newsmaking process.

    PubMed

    McCauley, M P; Blake, K D; Meissner, H I; Viswanath, K

    2013-04-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--'media agenda-setting' and 'framing'. Using data from a national survey of health and medical science journalists, the authors conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to study the links between the gender, age and race/ethnicity of respondents, and the ways in which they utilized news sources, other resources, news priorities and story angles. Female respondents were more likely than males to say that educating people to make informed decisions and disseminating new, accurate information are important priorities. Female and minority journalists were more likely than white males to use a variety of sources, and to say it is important to develop the health and scientific literacy of audiences and influence public health behaviors. The gender and race/ethnicity of journalists play an important role in the production of health news. Health educators can foster improved coverage by learning more about the life experiences of health journalists and developing better working relationships with them.

  7. Geographical impacts on social networks from perspectives of space and place: an empirical study using mobile phone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li; Wu, Lun; Chi, Guanghua; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Space and place are two fundamental concepts in geography. Geographical factors have long been known as drivers of many aspects of people's social networks. But whether and how space and place affect social networks differently are still unclear. The widespread use of location-aware devices provides a novel source for distinguishing the mechanisms of their impacts on social networks. Using mobile phone data, this paper explores the effects of space and place on social networks. From the perspective of space, we confirm the distance decay effect in social networks, based on a comparison between synthetic social ties generated by a null model and actual social ties derived from real-world data. From the perspective of place, we introduce several measures to evaluate interactions between individuals and inspect the trio relationship including distance, spatio-temporal co-occurrence, and social ties. We found that people's interaction is a more important factor than spatial proximity, indicating that the spatial factor has a stronger impact on social networks in place compared to that in space. Furthermore, we verify the hypothesis that interactions play an important role in strengthening friendships.

  8. The impact of demographic, economic and social trends on oral health care.

    PubMed

    Clovis, J

    1994-01-01

    Concurrent with the new technologies in oral disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are the changing global perspectives on health which impact significantly on who will actually receive the new technologies and services. Issues of access to care, the rapidly changing social, political, and economic environments and the growing recognition of the disparities and barriers to oral health are stimulating new strategies for positive change and enhancement. Governments, in partnership with professional associations, private sector concerns and consumer interests in Canada and the United States, have recently reviewed current oral health status and identified needs and inequities. A few bold new multisectoral initiatives have evolved but not enough to address all the trends. The challenges not adequately addressed by current policies and practices have been identified. Goals for oral health have been established both nationally and internationally to address the trends and the challenges. Critical areas for taking action have been also been identified and include research in epidemiology, behavioural and social sciences, health services, and evaluation. This type of research considers the social and environmental context of where and how oral services are provided. Ultimately this is the kind of research that can radically change the role of the dental hygienist in the delivery of oral health care.

  9. Impact of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression on mood regulation, social support, and coping.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Leis, Julie A; Perry, Deborah F; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Tandon, S Darius

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal depression prevention trials have rarely examined proximal outcomes that may be relevant for understanding long-term risk for depression. The Mothers and Babies (MB) Course is a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention intervention, which has been shown to prevent depressive symptoms among at-risk perinatal women of color. This study examined intervention impact on three proximal outcomes that are theoretically linked with the intervention's model of change and have been empirically linked with risk for depression: mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping. The study used data from a randomized intervention trial of the MB Course with 78 low-income, predominantly African-American perinatal women enrolled at one of four home visitation programs in Baltimore City. Mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping were assessed with self-report instruments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The intervention group experienced 16 % greater growth in mood regulation from baseline to 6-month follow-up compared to the usual care group, suggesting a prevention effect. The pattern of findings was similar, although not statistically significant, for social support. Contrary to prediction, the control group experienced less growth in avoidant coping than the intervention group. Findings indicate the MB Course enhances mood regulation, which may facilitate prevention of depression over time. Assessment of intervention effects on proximal outcomes is beneficial for understanding how interventions may enhance protective factors relevant to successful long-term outcomes.

  10. Impacts of social research on policy formulation: lessons from the Brazilian experience in the population field.

    PubMed

    Martine, G; Faria, V

    1988-10-01

    Numerous changes in population growth and distribution patterns and significant social transformations have occurred in Brazil and 20 years of impressive population research have analyzed these changes. Quality demographic data have existed since 1940, and, since the early 1970s, the data base has expanded greatly. Yet Brazil has never set a distinct population policy nor employed population specialists to formulate the nation's views in population policy. This intimates that the interests and peculiarities of the predominant styles of development and of the dominant interest groups in any given time period filters any influence of population research. Hence, contrary to popular belief, Brazilian government planners determining programs and projects do not necessarily incorporate the results of demographic research into their decision making. Therefore, it is wrong to judge the quality of any population research, or of any social research, based on its confirmed influence, or lack of influence, on social policies and on planning in general. In addition, population researchers have different methodological outlooks, value orientations, and /or ideological commitments so the definition of scientific growth cannot be universally recognized. Nevertheless, in the long run, major advances in population policy can be attributed to a true increase in academic interest in population, and different interest groups have access to an improved data base and to the large amount of information available on demographic trends with which to discuss population problems and make adequate appraisals. In the short run, however, population research does not make a significant impact on population policy.

  11. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Methods Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness

  12. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  13. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  14. A health equity critique of social marketing: where interventions have impact but insufficient reach.

    PubMed

    Langford, Rebecca; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Health interventions increasingly rely on formative qualitative research and social marketing techniques to effect behavioural change. Few studies, however, incorporate qualitative research into the process of program evaluation to understand both impact and reach: namely, to what extent behaviour change interventions work, for whom, in what contexts, and why. We reflect on the success of a community-based hygiene intervention conducted in the slums of Kathmandu, Nepal, evaluating both maternal behaviour and infant health. We recruited all available mother-infant pairs (n = 88), and allocated them to control and intervention groups. Formative qualitative research on hand-washing practices included structured observations of 75 mothers, 3 focus groups, and 26 in-depth interviews. Our intervention was led by Community Motivators, intensively promoting hand-washing-with-soap at key junctures of food and faeces contamination. The 6-month evaluation period included hand-washing and morbidity rates, participant observation, systematic records of fortnightly community meetings, and follow-up interviews with 12 mothers. While quantitative measures demonstrated improvement in hand-washing rates and a 40% reduction in child diarrhoea, the qualitative data highlighted important equity issues in reaching the ultra-poor. We argue that a social marketing approach is inherently limited: focussing on individual agency, rather than structural conditions constraining behaviour, can unwittingly exacerbate health inequity. This contributes to a prevention paradox whereby those with the greatest need of a health intervention are least likely to benefit, finding hand-washing in the slums to be irrelevant or futile. Thus social marketing is best deployed within a range of interventions that address the structural as well as the behavioural and cognitive drivers of behaviour change. We conclude that critiques of social marketing have not paid sufficient attention to issues of health

  15. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'.

  16. Social Issue Entertainment 2.0: How pop culture, behavioral science and impact evaluation can motivate social and environmental change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mainstream entertainment’s influence on our cognition, emotions, and behavior is often profound. Mass media permeates both the public and private spheres of society, saturating communities with messages from a diverse range of sources. While advertisers regularly take advantage of the extensive reach and influence of the media, social scientists, policy makers, and nonprofits have seen little success in incorporating social and environmental messaging into entertainment. Harmony Institute’s goal is to harness the power of mainstream media to provide US audiences with entertainment that educates on social and environmental issues and increases both individual and community action. The entertainment the Institute helps to produce connects with viewers on both a cognitive and emotional level. The Institute uses innovative methods across disciplines in order to measure entertainment’s impact and influence. Since its founding two years ago, the Institute has worked on a wide range of projects that have helped to establish its methodology for measured impact that applies behavioral science theory and entertainment to social and environmental issues. Projects spanning media platforms and social/environmental issues have included a web serial drama incorporating issues of water conservation and ocean stewardship into the narrative and a fotonovela for Hispanic youth in Houston focused on local environmental issues. In summer 2010, the Harmony Institute released FTW! Net Neutrality For The Win: How Entertainment and the Science of Influence Can Save Your Internet, an issue-specific communications guide about open Internet access that explains how to craft a communications strategy that connects with audiences using behavioral science research findings. In 2010-2011, the Institute will focus on measuring the impact and influence that media can have on social and environmental issues. The Institute has developed a comprehensive media evaluation methodology that employs

  17. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the

  18. Impact of the gap between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms: unique insights from a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether gaps between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class affect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. We collected data from the Korean Health Panel Survey, years 2009 and 2011, and performed a longitudinal analysis of 12,357 individuals at baseline (2009), estimating the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with disparate socioeconomic stratum (High, Middle, or Low household income and education level, respectively) and subjective social class (High, Middle, or Low). The odds ratio for depressive symptoms among individuals with High household income and High social class, or Low household income and Low social class, was 0.537 and 1.877, respectively (p<0.0001), and that among individuals with High education level and High social class, or Low education and Low social class, was 0.700 and 1.597, respectively (p: 0.001, p<0.0001, respectively). The likelihood of having depressive symptoms increased within each level of income and education, as the subjective social class decreased from High to Low. The adjusted effect of the gap between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms deteriorated, as a whole, across the socioeconomic spectrum. The gap between socioeconomic stratum and perceived position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. It is important to consider the impact of discrepancies between different measures of socioeconomic well-being on depressive symptoms rather than looking at the subjective social class alone.

  19. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations.

  20. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction.

  1. The Impact of Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Training on the Social Interaction Skills of Four Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (SODA) on the social interaction skills of 4 elementary school children with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the abilities of 4 children with AS to participate in cooperative learning activities,…

  2. Measuring the Impact of Students' Social Relations and Values: Validation of the Social-Relational Support for Education Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Margaret; Finger, Linda; Barker, Katrina; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of literature attests to the influence of social contexts on students' engagement with school. A review of this literature led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure Social-Relational Support for Education (SRSE). The conceptual framework underlying the SRSE instrument focuses on the factors that can…

  3. Assessing the social impact of direct-to-consumer genetic testing: understanding sociotechnical architectures.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Shobita

    2010-09-01

    To properly understand the social impact of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, we must consider the "sociotechnical architectures" of these technologies--how developers design and assemble the human and technical components of individual testing systems to perform specific functions. In particular, the way testing systems perform their main functions--providing access to testing, analyzing genetic material, and conveying test results--influence the technology's utility and the distribution of expertise in the medical system. I illustrate this concept by comparing two systems that offer single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, a relatively new type of genetic testing. I conclude by exploring how policy officials and other decision makers might intervene in the development of sociotechnical architectures to maximize the benefits of genomic technologies.

  4. Social impact of the 2004 Manawatu floods and the 'hollowing out' of rural New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Willie; Davies-Colley, Christian; Mackay, Alec; Bankoff, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The Manawatu floods of 2004 have had significant, long-lasting social consequences. This paper draws on findings from a series of detailed surveys of 39 farm households directly affected by the floods and 17 individuals directly involved in managing the flood recovery programme. The nature of the impact on rural families highlights how the 'hollowing out' of rural New Zealand has changed the capacity of rural communities to respond to natural hazards and increased their sense of isolation. In addition, the floods exposed the vulnerability of rural communities. This is shown to have implications for policies designed to build resilience and improve responses to adverse events, including the need to support local, community initiatives on self-reliance and mutual support. Approaches to manage better long-term flood risks should be designed within a context of ongoing rural decline that has compromised the health of both individuals and communities.

  5. Impact of Community Interventions on the Social Representation of Depression in Rural Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Mindlis, I; Schuetz-Mueller, J; Shah, S; Appasani, R; Coleman, A; Katz, C L

    2015-09-01

    There is a pressing need to develop community interventions that will address stigma against mental illness in rural India. This cross-sectional study will compare social representations of depression in villages where educational programs have targeted mental illness and stigma versus control villages. Participants from the villages exposed to the educational interventions (n = 146) will be compared with a sample from six control villages (n = 187) in the same geographic region, using a structured questionnaire. The impact of the intervention as a predictor for questionnaire score will be assessed along with socio-demographic variables. The intervention villages showed higher levels of literacy regarding depression and lower levels of stigma, after adjusting for all other socio-demographic variables. While some demographic factors associated with the knowledge and attitudes towards depression are not modifiable, our research provides evidence in favor of the positive influence a community grassroots intervention can have on mental health literacy in rural settings.

  6. Negative Bystander Behavior in Bullying Dynamics: Assessing the Impact of Social Capital Deprivation and Anti-social Capital.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Bystanders witness bullying, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim; however, they often engage in negative bystander behavior. This study examines how social capital deprivation and anti-social capital are associated with the likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior in a sample (N = 5752) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. Data were collected using an online, youth self-report; the current study uses cross sectional data. Following multiple imputation, a binary logistic regression with robust standard errors was run. Results partially supported the hypothesis and indicated that social capital deprivation in the form of peer pressure and verbal victimization and anti-social capital in the form of delinquent friends, bullying perpetration, verbal perpetration, and physical perpetration were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior. Findings highlight the importance of establishing sources of positive social support for disenfranchised youth.

  7. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  8. Drugs and development: the global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2008-12-01

    Locating development efforts within the context of globalism and global drug capitalism, this article examines the significant health and social impact both legal and illegal drugs have on international development efforts. The paper takes on an issue that is generally overlooked in the development debate and is not much addressed in the current international development standard, the Millennium Development Goals, and yet is one that places serious constraints on the ability of underdeveloped nations to achieve improvement. The relationship between psychotropic or "mind/mood altering" drugs and sustainable development is rooted in the contribution that the legal and illegal drug trade makes to a set of barriers to development, including: (1) interpersonal crime and community violence; (2) the corruption of public servants and the disintegration of social institutions; (3) the emergence of new or enhanced health problems; (4) the lowering of worker productivity; (5) the ensnarement of youth in drug distribution and away from productive education or employment; (6) the skewing of economies to drug production and money laundering. The paper emphasizes the need for new approaches for diminishing the burden placed by drugs on development.

  9. Impact of variation in the BDNF gene on social stress sensitivity and the buffering impact of positive emotions: replication and extension of a gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    van Winkel, Mark; Peeters, Frenk; van Winkel, Ruud; Kenis, Gunter; Collip, Dina; Geschwind, Nicole; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-06-01

    A previous study reported that social stress sensitivity is moderated by the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor(Val66Met) (BDNF rs6265) genotype. Additionally, positive emotions partially neutralize this moderating effect. The current study aimed to: (i) replicate in a new independent sample of subjects with residual depressive symptoms the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity, (ii) replicate the neutralizing impact of positive emotions, (iii) extend these analyses to other variations in the BDNF gene in the new independent sample and the original sample of non-depressed individuals. Previous findings were replicated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Negative Affect (NA) responses to social stress were stronger in "Val/Met" carriers of BDNF(Val66Met) compared to "Val/Val" carriers. Positive emotions neutralized the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity in a dose-response fashion. Finally, two of four additional BDNF SNPs (rs11030101, rs2049046) showed similar moderating effects on social stress-sensitivity across both samples. The neutralizing effect of positive emotions on the moderating effects of these two additional SNPs was found in one sample. In conclusion, ESM has important advantages in gene-environment (GxE) research and may attribute to more consistent findings in future GxE research. This study shows how the impact of BDNF genetic variation on depressive symptoms may be explained by its impact on subtle daily life responses to social stress. Further, it shows that the generation of positive affect (PA) can buffer social stress sensitivity and partially undo the genetic susceptibility.

  10. Impact of offshore oil exploration and production on the Social Institutions of Coastal Louisiana. University research initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Laska, S.; Baxter, V.K.; Seydlitz, R.; Thayer, R.E.; Brabant, S.

    1993-08-01

    The research contained in the report considers the relationship of oil production--a primary economic activity--to five social institutions: the family; poverty and social service provision; communities; government; and the political economy. Findings suggest a direct impact of offshore oil and gas production on these institutions. The impact is both positive and negative. It is long-term as well as short-term. It affects different institutions and sub-populations differently. The effects are on the entire state, not just the area directly involved with oil production. Mitigation recommendations range from research, data collection, impact monitoring, a national policy requiring the use of American contractors, the sharing of severance taxes with the affected area, the escrowing of monies by oil companies, and the expansion of government assistance to mitigate impacts.

  11. The Impact of Social Structures on Deviant Behaviors: The Study of 402 High Risk Street Drug Users in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Maryam; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Sadeghi, Maneli; Nikfarjam, Ali; Hajebi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources. In addition, the epidemiology model of regression analysis provides a brief explanation to assess the association between the demographical and etiological variables, and the drug users' deviant behaviors. In sum, substance use is discussed as a deviant behavior pattern which stems from a comorbidity of weak social structures.

  12. The Impact of Social Structures on Deviant Behaviors: The Study of 402 High Risk Street Drug Users in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources. In addition, the epidemiology model of regression analysis provides a brief explanation to assess the association between the demographical and etiological variables, and the drug users' deviant behaviors. In sum, substance use is discussed as a deviant behavior pattern which stems from a comorbidity of weak social structures. PMID:27994907

  13. [The impact of social security system reform on health services equity in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cespedes-Londono, Juan Eduardo; Jaramillo-Perez, Iván; Castano-Yepes, Ramón Abel

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on access to, and use of, health services in Colombia's new national health insurance system, the authors compared two cross sections of the population: before (1993) and after (1997), with the approval of Act 100, creating the General System for Social Security in Health (SGSSS). Two equity indicators were assessed: concentration curves (CC) and concentration indices (CI), summarizing the distribution of access to health care and utilization of health care services provided by the SGSSS according to income deciles. Between 1993 and 1997, the CI for access to insurance halved from 0.34 to 0.17; simultaneously, coverage increased from 23% to 57%, especially among the poorest segments of the population, where it increased from 3.7% to 43.7% as a result of subsidies provided by local governments. The CI for utilization of health care services did not vary significantly. Increased disease prevalence and utilization of services among the insured, due to biased selection of risks and moral hazards, were also documented. These findings suggest a positive impact by the Reform on inequalities in access to health care insurance; however, a similar effect on inequities in utilization of health services is not clear.

  14. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  15. A Social Movements' Perspective on Human Rights Impact of Mining Liberalization in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aytin, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    When it comes to minerals like gold, copper, or nickel, the Philippines ranks among the world's richest countries, but it has continued to perform poorly in terms of human and economic development. In the belief that foreign investments will bring development, the government in 1995 liberalized its mining industry allowing full foreign ownership and control of the mining activities. After almost two decades of mining liberalization, the country has never achieved its goal of development but is now reeling from the adverse impacts of large-scale corporate mining on the environment and lives of mining-affected communities. Moreover, human rights violations against anti-mining activists and environmental advocates have escalated at an alarming rate making the country one of the most dangerous places for land and environmental defenders. But social movements are now taking big steps to empower the people, especially the mining-affected communities, to confront the adverse impacts of corporate mining and to reverse the current path of the mining industry to one that aims to achieve national industrialization where national development is prioritized over transnational corporations' interests.

  16. Health and social impacts of a flood disaster: responding to needs and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth; Morbey, Hazel; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2010-10-01

    Carlisle in northwest England suffered its worse floods for more than 180 years in 2005. A study, reported here, was undertaken to assess the health and social impacts of these floods via in-depth, taped individual and focus-group interviews with people whose homes had been flooded and with agency workers who helped them. Respondents spoke of physical health ailments, psychological stress, water health-and-safety issues related to the floods, and disputes with insurance and construction companies, which they felt had caused and exacerbated psychological health problems. Support workers also suffered from psychological stress. Furthermore, it was found that people had low expectations of a flood and were not prepared. The findings are presented in five sections covering flood risk awareness, water contamination issues, physical health, mental health, and impact on frontline support workers. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for policy and practice vis-à-vis psychological health provision, contamination issues, training and support for frontline support workers, matters relating to restoration, and preparation for flooding.

  17. The impact of a pathogenic bacterium on a social carnivore population.

    PubMed

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Goller, Katja V; Hofer, Heribert; Runyoro, Victor; Thierer, Dagmar; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Müller, Thomas; East, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    1. The long-term ecological impact of pathogens on group-living, large mammal populations is largely unknown. We evaluated the impact of a pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus equi ruminatorum, and other key ecological factors on the dynamics of the spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta population in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. 2. We compared key demographic parameters during two years when external signs of bacterial infection were prevalent ('outbreak') and periods of five years before and after the outbreak when such signs were absent or rare. We also tested for density dependence and calculated the basic reproductive rate R(0) of the bacterium. 3. During the five pre-outbreak years, the mean annual hyena mortality rate was 0.088, and annual population growth was relatively high (13.6%). During the outbreak, mortality increased by 78% to a rate of 0.156, resulting in an annual population decline of 4.3%. After the outbreak, population size increased moderately (5.1%) during the first three post-outbreak years before resuming a growth similar to pre-outbreak levels (13.9%). We found no evidence that these demographic changes were driven by density dependence or other ecological factors. 4. Most hyenas showed signs of infection when prey abundance in their territory was low. During the outbreak, mortality increased among adult males and yearlings, but not among adult females - the socially dominant group members. These results suggest that infection and mortality were modulated by factors linked to low social status and poor nutrition. During the outbreak, we estimated R(0) for the bacterium to be 2.7, indicating relatively fast transmission. 5. Our results suggest that the short-term 'top-down' impact of S. equi ruminatorum during the outbreak was driven by 'bottom-up' effects on nutritionally disadvantaged age-sex classes, whereas the longer-term post-outbreak reduction in population growth was caused by poor survival of juveniles during the outbreak and subsequent

  18. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  19. The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify trends and assess changes in food insecurity among subgroups differentiated by main source of income and housing tenure. Models were run against overall food insecurity, moderate and severe food insecurity, and severe food insecurity to explore whether the impact of policy changes differed by severity of food insecurity. Overall food insecurity rose significantly among households in BC between 2005 and 2012. Following the increase in social assistance benefits, overall food insecurity and moderate and severe food insecurity declined among households on social assistance, but severe food insecurity remained unchanged. We could discern no effect of the RAP on any measure of food insecurity among renter households. Our findings indicate the sensitivity of food insecurity among social assistance recipients to improvements in income and highlight the importance of examining severity of food insecurity when assessing the effects of policy interventions.

  20. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  1. The Impact of Group Teaching on the Acquisition of Key Skills to Teach Personal, Social and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Malcolm; Jones, Sian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report the impact of a partnership training intervention on trainee teachers' confidence to teach Personal, Social and Health Education. Design/methodology/approach: This intervention required trainee teachers to work in 15 groups of four across subject disciplines. Each group was required to negotiate, plan and deliver…

  2. Impact of Mainstreaming and Disability Visibility on Social Representations of Disability and Otherness Held by Junior High School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harma, Kahina; Gombert, Anne; Roussey, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to gauge the impact of integrating pupils with disabilities in ordinary schools on the social representations of disability and otherness held by their classmates. In particular, we studied the effects of the disability's visibility--a visible disability (i.e., cerebral palsy) versus a non-visible disability (i.e., severe…

  3. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  4. Developing Social Responsibility and Political Engagement: Assessing the Aggregate Impacts of University Civic Engagement on Associated Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Cameron T.; Yoder, Scot D.

    2015-01-01

    Universities have become increasingly interested in incorporating civic engagement into undergraduate education with the goal of enhancing leadership skills and creating socially responsible global citizens. What is unclear is which educational experiences are most effective in achieving this goal. In this study, we seek to determine the impact of…

  5. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  6. Assessing the Impact and Social Perception of Self-Regulated Music Stimulation with Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Grumo, Gianluca; Pinto, Katia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Signorino, Mario; Groeneweg, Jop

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impact and social rating of an active and a passive music condition implemented with six patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the active condition, the patients used a simple hand response and a microswitch to self-regulate music stimulation inputs. In the passive condition, music stimulation was automatically presented throughout…

  7. The Impact of Childhood Obesity upon Academic, Personal/Social, and Career Development: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter D.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood obesity upon the academic, career, and personal/social development of students. The four components of the American School Counselor Association's (ASCA) delivery model, (classroom guidance, consultation, responsive services, and system support), are utilized to offer suggestions to the professional…

  8. Contributions toward a Conceptual Framework for Social Impact Assessment in Semi-Arid Lands of the Western United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James G.; And Others

    This paper reviews empirical findings from recent social impact assessments (SIAs) conducted in Arizona, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming where energy development occurred in the 1970s and points out efficient research strategies for policy decisions. Topics covered by the SIAs include characteristics of…

  9. 78 FR 70586 - Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Doc No: 2013-28242] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order No. 12866 AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  10. The Impact of a Post-Master's Program in Substance Abuse on Social Work and Other Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.; Vairo, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem encountered by social workers in all settings. This study investigated the impact of a postmaster's program in the treatment of substance-abusing clients on the domains of "Attitudes and Values," "Knowledge and Skills," and "Behaviors" of its graduates. Overall, 91 percent of…

  11. The Impact of Community Bonding and Bridging Social Capital on Educational Performance in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menahem, Gila

    2011-01-01

    The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…

  12. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health. PMID:27763548

  13. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-10-18

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  14. The Impact of Social Deprivation on Paranoia, Hallucinations, Mania and Depression: The Role of Discrimination Social Support, Stress and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health. PMID:25162703

  15. The impact of social deprivation on paranoia, hallucinations, mania and depression: the role of discrimination social support, stress and trust.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.

  16. Ranking the Effects of Urban Development Projects on Social Determinants of Health: Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Health impact assessment (HIA) offer a very logical and interesting approach for those aiming to integrate health issues into planning processes. With a lot of works and plans waiting to be done (e.g., developing and updating plans, counseling planning commissions, cooperation with other organizations), planners find it difficult to prioritize health among a variety of possible issues and solutions they confront. Method: In the present article, first, the list of social determinants of health associated with Chitgar man-made lake was extracted out using a qualitative method and with content analysis approach, and then they were prioritized using analytic hierarchy process. Results: 28 social determinants of health including “intermediary” and “structural” determinants were extracted out. Regarding positive effects of lake on these determinants, “recreational services” and “traffic” received the highest and the lowest weights with 0.895 and 0.638 respectively among structural determinants and with consideration to “construction” option. Furthermore, among intermediary determinants for “construction” option, sub-criteria of both “physical activity” and “air quality” received the final highest weight (0.889) and “pathogenesis” indicated the lowest weight with 0.617. Moreover, lake demonstrated the highest negative effects on “housing” among “structural” determinants which it takes the highest weight (0.476) in “non-construction” option. Additionally, lake had the highest negative effects on “noise pollution” among “intermediary determinants” and it takes the highest weight (0.467) in “non-construction” option. Conclusion: It has been shown that urban development projects such as green spaces, man-made lakes … have a huge range of effects on community’s health, and having not considered these effects by urban planners and mangers is going to confront urban health with many

  17. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Methods Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Results Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Conclusions Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury. PMID:23243104

  18. [Analysis of the social and health impacts of large hydroelectric plants: lessons for a sustainable energy management].

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Adriana Renata Sathler; Motta-Veiga, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the social and health impacts resulting from the construction of the Tucuruí (Pará, Brazil) and James Bay (Quebec, Canada) Hydroelectric Plants. The comparative method study used in analysis of the literature review revealed lessons to be learned from the national and international experience in order to ensure sustainable management of future major energy projects in Brazil. In this study, a successive negative domino effect was observed in terms of social impacts on jobs, income, sanitation, and culture, all with associated health problems. These included stress, nutritional and psychosocial disturbances, cardiopathies, as well as respiratory and digestive problems. The actions seeking to mitigate the effects of these negative impacts were slow to be implemented. Moreover, even though three decades have elapsed, these actions proved inefficient to resolve all the health and socio-environmental problems caused.

  19. Social impacts of hazardous and nuclear facilities and events: Implications for Nevada and the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository; [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenburg, W.R.; Carter, L.F.; Willard, W.; Lodwick, D.G.; Hardert, R.A.; Levine, A.G.; Kroll-Smith, S.; Couch, S.R.; Edelstein, M.R.

    1992-05-01

    Social impacts of a nuclear waste repository are described. Various case studies are cited such as Rocky Flats Plant, the Feed Materials Production Center, and Love Canal. The social impacts of toxic contamination, mitigating environmental stigma and loss of trust are also discussed.

  20. Measuring the Impact of Employment-Related Social Programs. A Primer on the Evaluation of Employment and Training, Vocational Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, and Other Job-Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.

    An approach and methodology for the systematic measurement of the impact of employment-related social programs is presented in this primer. Chapter 1 focuses on evaluation as the third step (the first two being planning and operation) in the process of program implementation. Chapter 2 examines the impacts of social programs. Topics include…

  1. Motivations for Social Media Use and Impact on Political Participation in China: A Cognitive and Communication Mediation Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Chan, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Integrating uses and gratifications theory and the cognitive/communication mediation model: this study examines Chinese students' use of social media and subsequent impact on political participation. An integrative framework is proposed where media use, political expression, and political cognitions (efficacy and knowledge) play important mediating roles between audience motivations and participation. Structural equation analyses showed support for the integrated model. Guidance and social utility motivations exhibited different indirect effects on online and offline participation through social media news, discussion, and political efficacy. Entertainment motivations exhibited no direct or indirect effects. Contrary to expectations and previous literature, surveillance motivations exhibited negative direct and indirect effects on offline participation, which may be attributed to the particular Chinese social and political context. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. The interplay between neighbourhood characteristics: The health impact of changes in social cohesion, disorder and unsafety feelings.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Hardyns, Wim; Groenewegen, Peter P; Stronks, Karien

    2016-05-01

    This study examined how the health of Dutch residents in 2012 was influenced by changes in neighbourhood social cohesion, disorder, and unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011. Multilevel regression analyses on repeated cross-sectional survey data included 43,635 respondents living in 2100 areas. Deteriorating social cohesion and unsafety feelings were negatively associated with general health, while improvement in social cohesion was associated with better general health of the population. When the interplay of neighbourhood features was considered, deteriorating neighbourhood safety appeared decisive for health, i.e. improving social cohesion did not mitigate the health effect of deteriorating neighbourhood safety. Our results show it is important to take concurrent interactions between neighbourhood features into account when examining their health impact.

  3. Psychological Processes Mediate the Impact of Familial Risk, Social Circumstances and Life Events on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread acceptance of the ‘biopsychosocial model’, the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Methods and Findings Participants were 32,827 (age 18–85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ2 (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654·8, p<·001; RCFI = ·97; RMSEA = ·04 (·038–·039). As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. Conclusion These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This

  4. The social impact of the snowfall of 8 March 2010 in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall of 8 March 2010 affected almost all Catalonia, but especially the northeast where snow thickness was between 20 and 30 cm, locally with higher values up to 60 cm. Strong winds followed the event, exceeding 90 km/h in some places. As a result, infrastructures and public services, also private properties were damaged. Thousands of people were left stranded by the circulatory collapse, suspensions of railway service and by falling branches or trees on road infrastructures blocking accesses to residential areas. The regional government approved funds of 21.4 millions of Euros to mitigate the damage caused by this event, mainly invested in forest cleanup operations and in repairing road damage. The social impact of this event has been so high that 210 news have been published in a newspaper until 23 April, 190 of them during the month of March. From the study of the characteristics of this episode it can be stated that in the coast and pre-costal area, temperature at the same moment of precipitation was between 0ºC and 2ºC and humidity was high. In these zones, the type of precipitation was wet snow. It has to be considered that the combination of wet snow and wind can be a risk because of the ice-weight accumulated on objects (trees, electricity pylons...). As a consequence important damage happened in power network with significant collateral effects and more than 450,000 customers were affected by a power outage during some days. In this study we will compare the consequences of this event with others by means of information published in press. As a result, some set of consequences that are repeated regardless of the magnitude of the phenomenon will be identified. Finally, this event is also an example of the incision of social networks. This snowfall has been classified by mass media as the first "snowfall 2.0": 81600 entrances in Google, 132 Facebook groups and 750 videos made by amateurs in internet. From this study, we will present some reflexions

  5. Impact of Income Inequality and Other Social Determinants on Suicide Rate in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daiane Borges; Rasella, Davide; dos Santos, Darci Neves

    2015-01-01

    Studies about suicide worldwide have mainly focused on individual-level psychiatric risk factors. In Brazil, suicide is an important public health problem. Brazil has evidenced important socioeconomic changes over the last decades, leading to decreasing income inequality. However, the impact of income inequality on suicide rate has never been studied in the country. Purpose To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. Method This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. Results The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR) was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011–1.101). Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948–0.988), whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010–1.021). Conclusions Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population’s socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in

  6. The impact of neighborhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviors among a cohort of smokers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898

  7. Impact of weak social ties and networks on poor sleep quality: A case study of Iranian employees.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    The poor sleep quality is one of the major risk factors of somatic, psychiatric and social disorders and conditions as well as the major predictors of quality of employees' performance. The previous studies in Iran had neglected the impacts of social factors including social networks and ties on adults sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between social networks and adult employees' sleep quality. This study was conducted with a correlational and descriptive design. Data were collected from 360 participants (183 males and 177 females) who were employed in Yazd public organizations in June and July of 2014. These samples were selected based on random sampling method. In addition, the measuring tools were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Social Relations Inventory (SRI). Based on the results, the prevalence rate of sleep disorder among Iranian adult employees was 63.1% (total PSQI>5). And, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, there was significant difference between individuals with strong and poor social network and ties in terms of overall sleep quality (p<.01), subjective sleep quality (p<.01), habitual sleep efficiency (p<.05), and daytime dysfunction (p<.01). The results also revealed that the employees with strong social network and ties had better overall sleep quality, had the most habitual sleep efficiency, and less daytime dysfunction than employees with poor social network and ties. It can be implied that the weak social network and ties serve as a risk factor for sleep disorders or poor sleep quality for adult employees. Therefore, the social and behavioral interventions seem essential to improve the adult's quality sleep.

  8. The Impact of a Well-Developed Social Media Communication Strategy on K12 Schools in a Social Media Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, Curtis W.

    2015-01-01

    The digital revolution has created a new ways for society to interact. As technology continues to evolve so does the way culture begins to use it as a channel for communication. Social media has developed as a two way communication tool used by both corporate America as well as individuals. This research begins to look at how Missouri school…

  9. Do Consumers Expect Companies To Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Lois A.; Webb, Deborah J.; Harris, Katherine E.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 48 consumers found that they desired moderate to high levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Precontemplators (n=16) did not base purchasing on CSR and contemplators (n=11) only moderately. The action group (n=8) had stronger beliefs about CSR but did not always purchase accordingly. Maintainers (n=9) practiced socially…

  10. Marital Satisfaction: The Differential Impact of Social Support Dependent on Situation and Gender in Medical Staff in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff. PMID:23777731

  11. Marital satisfaction: the differential impact of social support dependent on situation and gender in medical staff in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-05-12

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff.

  12. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  13. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households.

    PubMed

    Onazi, O; Gidado, M; Onazi, M; Daniel, O; Kuye, J; Obasanya, O; Odusote, T; Gande, S

    2015-06-21

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness.

  14. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  15. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-01

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ18O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ18O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  16. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  17. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-13

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ(18)O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ(18)O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  18. Social Impact Assessment (SIA) from a multidimensional paradigmatic perspective: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Aledo-Tur, Antonio; Domínguez-Gómez, J Andrés

    2016-11-08

    The literature specialized in Social Impact Assessment (SIA) concurs that there is still much work to do in the discussion and thorough grounding of its theories and conceptual bases. The authors of this paper consider that the understanding of SIA as a paradigm may prove useful as a foundation on which more robust and better grounded SIA knowledge production may be built. Further, we suggest that the application of the concept of the paradigm in the terms expressed here may offer a comprehensive guide to practice in SIA studies. The paradigmatic approach to SIA is based on six basic, consecutive questions, related to each other and independent at the same time: questions in the axiological, ontological, epistemological, methodological and theoretical fields, in addition to one on governance in SIA (and in the specific project analysed). We explain how the two currently predominant SIA paradigms (which we have named technocratic and constructivist, following the commonly accepted terms) answer these questions. Finally, the variability of the different answer options may involve intermediate positions between the two paradigms which may also involve comprehensive ways of defining and grounding practice.

  19. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  20. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana. PMID:27694657

  1. [Social and health impact of Institutes of Legal Medicine in Spain: beyond justice].

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Xifró, Alexandre; Suelves, Josep María; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    The main mission of Spanish Institutes of Legal Medicine (ILMs) is to serve the justice system. We review the potential broader role of the work done by ILMs, with an emphasis on forensic pathology. The relevance of forensic information to increase the quality of mortality statistics is highlighted, taking into account the persistence of the low validity of the external causes of death in the Mortality Register that was already detected more than a decade ago. The new statistical form and reporting system for the deaths under ILMs jurisdiction, as introduced by the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Estadística in 2009, are also described. The IMLs role in the investigation of the following mortality causes and of their determinants is reviewed in detail: traffic accidents, suicide, drugs of abuse, child deaths and sudden deaths. We conclude that an important public role of IMLs is emerging beyond their valuable service to the justice system, mainly through the gathering of data critical to assess and prevent several medical and public health and safety issues of great social impact and through their participation in epidemiologic research and surveillance.

  2. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, L.; Sandham, L.A.

    2014-09-15

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations.

  3. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, S.; Franettovich, M.; Petkova-Timmer, V.; Rolfe, J.; Ivanova, G.

    2009-09-15

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects - the resource community cycle - was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies. and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  4. Social Anxiety and Post-Event Processing: The Impact of Race

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. Design We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African American (AA; n=127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n=127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Method Data were collected online among undergraduates. Results PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr=.30, p=.001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β=−1.57, 95% C.I.: −5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β=0.00, 95% C.I.: −0.02, 0.02. Conclusions PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety. PMID:27576610

  5. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF AGE, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  6. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  7. The impact of social media and technology on professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Essary, Alison C

    2011-01-01

    The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely.

  8. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  9. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  10. The Impact of Child-Centered Group Play Therapy on Social Skills Development of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kascsak, Theresa Marie

    2012-01-01

    The development of social adjustment during elementary school is of critical importance because early socialization skills are an important predictor of both future social and emotional functioning. However, an examination of current literature reveals there is limited research utilizing sound research methodology and evaluation protocols for…

  11. The Impact of Media on Collaborative Learning in Virtual Settings: The Perspective of Social Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shih-Wei; Min, Hui-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an alternative function of information sharing--social construction of meaning. Drawing on social construction, social interaction, and task closure theories, we explored the influence of both the media environment in which students are situated and the medium that group members choose to communicate with one another on the…

  12. Use of Social Media by University Accounting Students and Its Impact on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Tehmina; Kend, Michael; Robertson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation in the use of social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, among university students is well documented. With many universities providing student resources in formats suitable for iPad, laptop, and mobile phone use, the use of social media for university activities has become easier. This study explores the use of social media by…

  13. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  14. How a SURFing Social Skills Curriculum Can Impact Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Lauren Katrina; Rademacher, Sarah Beth

    2014-01-01

    An average of one in 88 children in the United States are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Individuals with ASD demonstrate poor social interaction, poor social competence, and lowered self-esteem. Early intervention treatment can improve social development. In recent years more…

  15. The Impact of News Use and Social Capital on Youth Wellbeing: An Aggregate-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the socioenvironmental determinants of youth development, with a focus on the mass media and social capital; it tests a model in which news use and social capital influence youth wellbeing. Social capital is operationally defined in terms of youth involvement and perceptions of place, and youth wellbeing is measured with…

  16. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  17. A case study of professional change: the impact of the National Gerontological Social Work Competencies Survey.

    PubMed

    Curl, Angela L; Tompkins, Catherine J; Rosen, Anita L; Zlotnik, Joan Levy

    2010-01-01

    Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and assist social work faculty to infuse gerontological content into social work curriculum, which helped practitioners to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to meet the needs of a growing aging population. This social work education framework can be replicated in an effort to infuse gerontology content throughout other disciplines.

  18. The Impact of Social Services Interventions in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence of Impact on Clinical Outcomes in People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bateganya, Moses H.; Dong, Maxia; Oguntomilade, John; Suraratdecha, Chutima

    2015-01-01

    Background Social service interventions have been implemented in many countries to help people living with HIV (PLHIV) and household members cope with economic burden as a result of reduced earning or increased spending on health care. However, the evidence for specific interventions—economic strengthening and legal services—on key health outcomes has not been appraised. Methods We searched electronic databases from January 1995 to May 2014 and reviewed relevant literature from resource-limited settings on the impact of social service interventions on mortality, morbidity, retention in HIV care, quality of life, and ongoing HIV transmission and their cost-effectiveness. Results Of 1685 citations, 8 articles reported the health impact of economic strengthening interventions among PLHIV in resource-limited settings. None reported on legal services. Six of the 8 studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 reported on all 5 outcomes and 2 reported on 4 and 2 outcomes, respectively. The remaining 5 reported on 1 outcome each. Seven studies reported on quality of life. Although all studies reported some association between economic strengthening interventions and HIV care outcomes, the quality of evidence was rated fair or poor because studies were of low research rigor (observational or qualitative), had small sample size, or had other limitations. The expected impact of economic strengthening interventions was rated as high for quality of life but uncertain for all the other outcomes. Conclusions Implementation of economic strengthening interventions is expected to have a high impact on the quality of life for PLHIV but uncertain impact on mortality, morbidity, retention in care, and HIV transmission. More rigorous research is needed to explore the impact of more targeted intervention components on health outcomes. PMID:25768875

  19. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention.

  20. Social anxiety and alcohol-related impairment: The mediational impact of solitary drinking.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Terlecki, Meredith A

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to drinking frequency. Inconsistent findings may be at least partially due to lack of attention to drinking context - it may be that socially anxious individuals are especially vulnerable to drinking more often in specific contexts that increase their risk for alcohol-related problems. For instance, socially anxious persons may drink more often while alone, before social situations for "liquid courage" and/or after social situations to manage negative thoughts about their performance. Among current (past-month) drinkers (N=776), social anxiety was significantly, positively related to solitary drinking frequency and was negatively related to social drinking frequency. Social anxiety was indirectly (via solitary drinking frequency) related to greater past-month drinking frequency and more drinking-related problems. Social anxiety was also indirectly (via social drinking frequency) negatively related to past-month drinking frequency and drinking-related problems. Findings suggest that socially anxious persons may be vulnerable to more frequent drinking in particular contexts (in this case alone) and that this context-specific drinking may play an important role in drinking problems among these high-risk individuals.

  1. Diminished social motivation negatively impacts reputation management: autism spectrum disorders as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Coralie; Molesworth, Catherine; Happé, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Human beings are endowed with a unique motivation to be included in social interactions. This natural social motivation, in turn, is thought to encourage behaviours such as flattery or self-deprecation aimed to ease interaction and to enhance the reputation of the individual who produces them. If this is the case, diminished social interest should affect reputation management. Here, we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)--primarily characterised by pervasive social disinterest--as a model to investigate the effect of social motivation on reputation management. Children first rated a set of pictures and were then given the opportunity to inflate their initial ratings in front of an experimenter who declared that she had drawn the picture. Contrary to the controls, children with ASD did not enhance their ratings in the drawer's presence. Moreover, participants' flattery behaviour correlated with self-reports of social enjoyment. Our findings point to a link between diminished social interest and reputation management.

  2. Diminished Social Motivation Negatively Impacts Reputation Management: Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Case in Point

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Coralie; Molesworth, Catherine; Happé, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Human beings are endowed with a unique motivation to be included in social interactions. This natural social motivation, in turn, is thought to encourage behaviours such as flattery or self-deprecation aimed to ease interaction and to enhance the reputation of the individual who produces them. If this is the case, diminished social interest should affect reputation management. Here, we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) –primarily characterised by pervasive social disinterest– as a model to investigate the effect of social motivation on reputation management. Children first rated a set of pictures and were then given the opportunity to inflate their initial ratings in front of an experimenter who declared that she had drawn the picture. Contrary to the controls, children with ASD did not enhance their ratings in the drawer's presence. Moreover, participants' flattery behaviour correlated with self-reports of social enjoyment. Our findings point to a link between diminished social interest and reputation management. PMID:22303483

  3. The Strong Wind event of 24th January 2009 in Catalonia: a social impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Barberia, L.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    Although strong winds are frequent in Catalonia, one of the events with the strongest impact in recent years was on January 24th 2009. An explosive cyclogenesis process took place in the Atlantic: pressure fell 30 hPa in less than 24 hours. The strong wind storm pounded the northern of Spain and the south of France with some fatalities and important economic losses in these regions. Several automatic weather stations recorded wind gusts higher than 100 km/h in Catalonia. Emergency services received more than 20.000 calls in 24 hours and there were 497 interventions in only 12 hours. As a consequence of fallen and uprooted trees railway and road infrastructures got damages and more than 30.000 customers had no electricity during 24 hours. Unfortunately there were a total of 6 fatalities, two of them because of fallen trees and the other ones when a sports centre collapsed over a group of children. In Spain, insurance policies cover damages due to strong winds when fixed thresholds are overcome and, according to the Royal Decree 300/2004 of 20th February, extraordinary risk are assumed by the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros. Subsequently, Public Weather Services (PWS) had an increased on the number of requests received from people affected by this event and from insurance companies, for the corresponding indemnity or not. As an example, during the first month after the event, in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (SMC) more than 600 requests were received only related to these damages (as an average PWS of SMC received a total of 400 requests per month). Following the research started by the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX project, a good vulnerability indicator of a meteorological risk can be the number of requests reported. This study uses the information received in the PWS of the SMC during the six months after the event, according the criteria and methodology established in Gayà et al (2008). The objective is to compare the vulnerability with the

  4. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

  5. Social and functional impact of reduced posterior dental units in older adults.

    PubMed

    Leake, J L; Hawkins, R; Locker, D

    1994-01-01

    The number of teeth needed to maintain adequate dental function in older adults is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between oral function and the number of opposing pairs of posterior teeth. We identified 338 subjects with complete anterior dentitions from an interview and examination survey of Ontario adults aged 50 and over; 261 had no partial denture and 77 had removable partial dentures (RPD). Oral function was measured using questions assessing chewing ability, mandibular function and socio-psychological impact. Subjects with no partial dentures were further allocated to five groups, based on their dental status: complete dental arch (n = 69); 5-7 functional units-pairs of opposing posterior teeth (n = 109); 3 or 4 functional units (n = 48) and 0-2 functional units (n = 35). Oral function problems increased with decreasing functional units being markedly more prevalent among the groups with 0-2 functional units. 34% of subjects in the 0-2 group reported one or more problems with chewing ability compared to 6-17% in the other groups (chi 2 P = 0.001 d.f. = 3). The 77 subjects who wore removable partial dentures, reported social and dental function at levels comparable to those with no dentures. From these results, there appears to be little socio-functional need to replace lost posterior teeth with a partial denture unit the person has fewer than, 3 posterior functional units. The low number of partial denture wearers limited our ability to detect a lasting benefit from RPD treatment.

  6. Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Andrew M; Gray, Maryke; Basabose, Augustin; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide can be a major influence upon the social structure of species in which females maintain long-term associations with males. Previous studies have suggested that female mountain gorillas benefit from residing in multimale groups because infanticide occurs when one-male groups disintegrate after the dominant male dies. Here we measure the impact of infanticide on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas, and we examine whether their dispersal patterns reflect a strategy to avoid infanticide. Using more than 40 years of data from up to 70% of the entire population, we found that only 1.7% of the infants that were born in the study had died from infanticide during group disintegrations. The rarity of such infanticide mainly reflects a low mortality rate of dominant males in one-male groups, and it does not dispel previous observations that infanticide occurs during group disintegrations. After including infanticide from causes other than group disintegrations, infanticide victims represented up to 5.5% of the offspring born during the study, and they accounted for up to 21% of infant mortality. The overall rates of infanticide were 2-3 times higher in one-male groups than multimale groups, but those differences were not statistically significant. Infant mortality, the length of interbirth intervals, and the age of first reproduction were not significantly different between one-male versus multimale groups, so we found no significant fitness benefits for females to prefer multimale groups. In addition, we found limited evidence that female dispersal patterns reflect a preference for multimale groups. If the strength of selection is modest for females to avoid group disintegrations, than any preference for multimale groups may be slow to evolve. Alternatively, variability in male strength might give some one-male groups a lower infanticide risk than some multimale groups, which could explain why both types of groups remain common.

  7. Social impacts of technological diffusion: prenatal diagnosis and induced abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, H M

    2000-01-01

    Scientific and technological development plays an essential part in shaping contemporary societies, and medicine and health care are considered to be particularly receptive to the incorporation of new concepts, techniques and products, producing impacts not only on the health problems for which they were originally intended, but also varied 'side-effects', less frequently recognised and studied. In this study the point of departure was the hypothesis that the intensive diffusion in Brazil of prenatal ultrasound would create new problems for individuals (pregnant women, their families and health professionals) and society in coping with foetal malformations, due to the existence of a very restrictive induced abortion legislation. The objective of the research was to study the social visibility of these problems, in the written mass media. The period under analysis went from 1991 to 1996. The four most important daily newspapers and two medical council journals were studied, with a criteria oriented selection of articles, and their macrotextual thematic analysis. The results indicate that the basic elements in the relationships between medical technology, prenatal diagnosis, foetal malformations and induced abortions stayed the same along the period - a restrictive Penal Code, the public recognition of the disseminated and usually tolerated practice of induced abortion, done in risky conditions for the majority of women, with very evident consequences on maternal health, a divided Congress, a divided 'public opinion', religious opposition and new scientific and technological practices in health care. Nevertheless, tension between these 'contradictory' factors increases, so much so, that new elements are introduced which make an accommodation possible, without implying in major changes of position. This is achieved through the development of new alliances between Science, the judiciary and obstetrical leaders, which benefit individual initiatives, instead of leading

  8. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  9. The impact of parents' fear of strangers and perceptions of informal social control on children's independent mobility.

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Villanueva, Karen; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-03-01

    Declines in children's independent mobility are commonly attributed to parents' fear of strangers, yet few empirical studies have investigated this relationship. We examined: (1) the impact of parents' fear of strangers on children's independent mobility; and (2) whether informal social control (i.e., parents' confidence that other residents would look out for local children) mitigated any association. Gender stratified logistic regression models tested these associations for 10-12 year-olds and their parents (n=1231) in Perth, Australia. For girls, parental fear of strangers was associated with lower odds of independent mobility (OR=0.71, p=0.002), and informal social control and other social and built environment variables had little attenuating influence. This pattern was consistent for boys; however odds ratios were lower and statistical significance weaker. Initiatives that target parental fears combined with interventions that normalise children's walking may help increase independent mobility.

  10. Utilization of same- vs. mixed-sex dyads impacts the observation of sex differences in juvenile social play behavior

    PubMed Central

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    The study of juvenile social play behavior has gained popularity due to the disruption of social behaviors in several psychiatric illnesses. In contrast to many tests currently utilized in animal models of psychiatric illness, juvenile social play behavior is part of the normal behavioral repertoire in the laboratory rat and can be observed in a controlled setting but without evocation by the experimenter. Understanding sources of naturally occurring differences in the juvenile social play behavior of the rat is a fundamental first step to guide future research on identifying factors that disrupt this behavior. One of the most commonly found variations is a sex difference, with male rats displaying higher levels of rough-and-tumble play behavior relative to females. This sex difference is also observed in human play. In our recent paper published in Biology of Sex Differences, we investigated how the sex and familiarity of the play partner can impact different components of rough-and-tumble play behavior (pouncing, pinning, boxing, and chasing) and the observation of sex differences within each of these components. Our findings suggest that juvenile male rough-and-tumble play behavior is impacted by the sex of their play partner, while females are more sensitive to the familiarity of their play partner. In this review, we discuss our recent findings and provide a comprehensive comparison of methodology and the reporting of sex differences in the literature on this topic. PMID:26924913

  11. A qualitative analysis of adolescent, caregiver, and clinician perceptions of the impact of migraines on adolescents' social functioning.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Mehringer, Stacey; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2013-12-01

    Migraines dramatically affect adolescents' quality of life. One area of particular importance is the impact of migraines on adolescents' social functioning. To understand the impact of migraines on adolescents' social functioning from multiple informants, we performed semistructured interviews with adolescents who have migraines, their caregivers, and clinicians who treat adolescents who have migraines. Three major themes related to social functioning were identified from the adolescent interviews: The need to be alone; lack of support from siblings; and the feeling of not being understood by others. The caregiver interviews yielded three main themes related to family functioning: that plans can change quickly; that family life revolves around helping the child with the migraine; and parents' feelings of inadequacy in helping their child. There were two main themes derived from the clinician interviews related to perception of family functioning: the importance of parental involvement; and the role of adolescents' school and social lives in migraine prevention. There are a number of unmet needs among adolescents with recurrent migraine and their families. Interviews with adolescents, caregivers, and clinicians suggest a number of areas for intervention.

  12. Impact of Dual Disorders, Trauma, and Social Support on Quality of Life Among Women in Treatment for Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Suzanne; Jun, Min Kyoung; Min, Meeyoung Oh; Tracy, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Women with dual disorders report lower levels of social support than women with substance dependence alone, and lower levels of social support have been associated with lower quality of life among individuals with substance use disorders. However, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms and violence exposure on quality of life for women with dual disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dual disorders, trauma, and social support related to recovery on various domains of quality of life among women in substance abuse treatment. Methods This study utilized multiple standardized measures and hierarchical ordinary least squares regression to examine quality of life, trauma, and social support in women with dual disorders. Four domains of quality of life were measured (Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environmental Domains). Participants (N=369) were recruited from three inner city women only addiction treatment programs. IRB approval was obtained prior to sample recruitment. Results Presence of a dual disorder was significantly associated with lower quality of life in the Physical and Psychological domains. However, this difference was no longer significant when trauma symptoms were added to the model. Trauma symptoms and Support for Recovery significantly predicted quality of life across all four domains and Friends Support for Abstinence across three domains. Conclusions Findings suggest that the presence of a dual disorder in women may indicate a history of trauma. They also support the importance of both friend’s support for abstinence and recovery support as predictors of quality of life in women with dual disorders. Interventions that focus on social support and quality of life in treatment with women with substance use disorders may potentially enhance treatment outcomes. PMID:23543844

  13. [Resilience and psychological impairment in adulthood: the impact of age and social inequality].

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Petermann, F; Brähler, E; Decker, O; Schmidt, S

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional study the influence of social inequality on resilience and psychological distress was investigated in a sample of N=4 142 adults. A social stratum was created, including education, financial income and job-status, as well as age (≥ 25 years). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed influences of gender, social status and age on resilience (RS-11) and psychological distress: depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-7), life satisfaction (FLZ(M)). In contrast to the most continuous influence of the social background in women across any age-group, older males (≥ 65 years) were not affected by their social background. In both sexes members of the social underclass had the lowest resilience. The results indicate the need for specific intervention as to prevention.

  14. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  15. Daily social exchanges and affect in middle and later adulthood: the impact of loneliness and age.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C S; Scott, Stacey B

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses investigated whether loneliness or age moderate the relationship between daily affect and daily social exchanges with family and friends. Results indicated differences between events involving family and those involving friends. Furthermore, lonelier individuals benefitted more from positive events than less lonely adults but were not more negatively reactive to negative events. Moreover, results suggested that older adults' affect is more independent of both positive and negative social events compared to younger people. Implications are discussed for the importance of daily social exchanges, daily social stress vulnerability, and the influences of loneliness across middle and later adulthood.

  16. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  17. Impact of Short Social Training on Prosocial Behaviors: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lukinova, Evgeniya; Myagkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Efficient brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are in need of knowledge about the human brain and how it interacts, plays games, and socializes with other brains. A breakthrough can be achieved by revealing the microfoundations of sociality, an additional component of the utility function reflecting the value of contributing to group success derived from social identity. Building upon our previous behavioral work, we conduct a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments (N = 10 in the Pilot Study and N = 15 in the Main Study) to measure whether and how sociality alters the functional activation of and connectivity between specific systems in the brain. The overarching hypothesis of this study is that sociality, even in a minimal form, serves as a natural mechanism of sustainable cooperation by fostering interaction between brain regions associated with social cognition and those related to value calculation. We use group-based manipulations to induce varying levels of sociality and compare behavior in two social dilemmas: Prisoner’s Dilemma and variations of Ultimatum Game. We find that activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region previously associated with cognitive control and modulation of the valuation system, is correlated with activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to a greater degree when participants make economic decisions in a game with an acquaintance, high sociality condition, compared to a game with a random individual, low sociality condition. These initial results suggest a specific biological mechanism through which sociality facilitates cooperation, fairness and provision of public goods at the cost of individual gain. Future research should examine neural dynamics in the brain during the computation of utility in the context of strategic games that involve social interaction for a larger sample of subjects. PMID:27458349

  18. The Impacts of Social Media on Citizen Security Behavior in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/world/americas/mexico-turns-to-twitter-and- facebook-for-information-and-survival.html. 28 Darren Barefoot and Julie Szabo...Friends With Benefits: A Social Media Marketing Handbook (San Francisco: No Starch Press, 2010), 221. 29 Barefoot and Szabo, Friends With Benefits: A...social movement organizational’ forms, and ‘modular social 30 Barefoot and Szabo, Friends With

  19. Analysis of Department of Defense Social Media Policy and Its Impact on Operational Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    from http://www.webroot.com/us/en/home/resources/tips/ online - shopping - banking/secure-what-is-social-engineering 50 Department of the Army...personnel should represent their organization in a respectable manner while operating online . The services’ policies, however, inadequately address OPSEC...The second opportunity is the addition of a directive to DOD social media policy that requires online monitoring of DOD personnel using social media

  20. Impact of cognitive profile on social functioning in prepubescent females with Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Jean-François; Dunkin, Bria; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    Social deficits are prevalent in TS, however, the extent to which these difficulties are secondary to characteristic cognitive impairments is not well known. Here, we sought to establish the relative contribution of executive functions, visuospatial abilities and IQ to social difficulties in young girls with TS. Forty TS girls and 19 typically developing (TD) children were assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Motor-Free Visual Spatial test (MVPT-3), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and an IQ test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with the SRS subscales as outcome variables. In a first step, the cognitive factors were entered (verbal IQ, BRIEF global score, MVPT-3 and age), followed by the group variable in a second step. In comparison to TD, TS were significantly impaired on all main measures. All six regression models with the SRS subscales were significant and revealed that global executive functions explained the largest portion of the variance on all subscales and the total score. Even after controlling for cognitive elements, the group factor still explained a significant portion of the variance of the Social Cognition, Social Awareness, and Autistic Mannerisms subscales. In contrast, the group factor was not a significant predictor of Social Motivation and Social Communication scores. These results suggest that executive dysfunction play a role in social impairments encountered in TS, but also that some specific aspects of social behavior are altered beyond what can be attributed to cognitive difficulties in this population. PMID:22372383

  1. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to

  2. The Impact of Online Social Networks on Health and Health Systems: A Scoping Review and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Frances; Dobermann, Tim; Cave, Jonathan A. K.; Thorogood, Margaret; Johnson, Samantha; Salamatian, Kavé; Gomez Olive, Francis X.; Goudge, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Interaction through online social networks potentially results in the contestation of prevailing ideas about health and health care, and to mass protest where health is put at risk or health care provision is wanting. Through a review of the academic literature and case studies of four social networking health sites (PatientsLikeMe, Mumsnet, Treatment Action Campaign, and My Pro Ana), we establish the extent to which this phenomenon is documented, seek evidence of the prevalence and character of health‐related networks, and explore their structure, function, participants, and impact, seeking to understand how they came into being and how they sustain themselves. Results indicate mass protest is not arising from these established health‐related networking platforms. There is evidence of changes in policy following campaigning activity prompted by experiences shared through social networking such as improved National Health Service care for miscarriage (a Mumsnet campaign). Platform owners and managers have considerable power to shape these campaigns. Social networking is also influencing health policy indirectly through increasing awareness and so demand for health care. Transient social networking about health on platforms such as Twitter were not included as case studies but may be where the most radical or destabilizing influence on health care policy might arise. PMID:27134699

  3. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  4. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  5. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J.; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26300814

  6. Online Actions with Offline Impact: How Online Social Networks Influence Online and Offline User Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Jindal, Pranav; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-01-01

    Many of today’s most widely used computing applications utilize social networking features and allow users to connect, follow each other, share content, and comment on others’ posts. However, despite the widespread adoption of these features, there is little understanding of the consequences that social networking has on user retention, engagement, and online as well as offline behavior. Here, we study how social networks influence user behavior in a physical activity tracking application. We analyze 791 million online and offline actions of 6 million users over the course of 5 years, and show that social networking leads to a significant increase in users’ online as well as offline activities. Specifically, we establish a causal effect of how social networks influence user behavior. We show that the creation of new social connections increases user online in-application activity by 30%, user retention by 17%, and user offline real-world physical activity by 7% (about 400 steps per day). By exploiting a natural experiment we distinguish the effect of social influence of new social connections from the simultaneous increase in user’s motivation to use the app and take more steps. We show that social influence accounts for 55% of the observed changes in user behavior, while the remaining 45% can be explained by the user’s increased motivation to use the app. Further, we show that subsequent, individual edge formations in the social network lead to significant increases in daily steps. These effects diminish with each additional edge and vary based on edge attributes and user demographics. Finally, we utilize these insights to develop a model that accurately predicts which users will be most influenced by the creation of new social network connections. PMID:28345078

  7. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    While the "social determinants of health" view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's "capabilities" framework and its derivative the "health capabilities" (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We classified respondents into low, medium, and high resource groups based on economic circumstances, and compared how economic resources, social relationships, health-related knowledge and values combine to enhance or weaken health capability and dietary management. Economic, social, and cultural resources conspired to undermine dietary management among most in the low resource group, whereas social influences significantly influenced diet among many in the medium group. High resource respondents appeared most motivated to maintain a healthy diet, and also had the social and cultural resources to enable them to do so. Understanding the influence of all three types of resources is critical for constructing ways to enhance health capability, chronic

  8. The Impact of Self and Peer Perceptual Differences on Student Social Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: The development of socially appropriate behaviour is increasingly seen as an important part of a student's education. Aim: To examine whether changes in a student's behaviour, as part of an ongoing social empathy intervention, can in part be explained by the difference between the student's self-perception of their behaviour and their…

  9. How Might Social Education Resist Heterosexism? Facing the Impact of Gender and Sexual Ideology on Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the mutually-reinforcing problems of sexism and heterosexism, and the actions that may be taken by social educators to ameliorate such injustices. Various approaches to anti-heterosexism education are organized in relation to the three dimensions of handling social conflict: intervention procedures (in particular the management…

  10. The Impact of Social Networking: A Study of the Influence of Smartphones on College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harrasi, Abir S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networking by college students has become increasingly relevant to their academic lives. Smartphones have added great potential by enabling an increase in the use of social networking and in the number of hours spent on such sites. Being online for a long time and being able to access different information from different sources…

  11. Adolescents' Construction of Social Reality: The Impact of Television and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.

    1983-01-01

    Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…

  12. Autistic Traits Moderate the Impact of Reward Learning on Social Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    A deficit in empathy has been suggested to underlie social behavioural atypicalities in autism. A parallel theoretical account proposes that reduced social motivation (i.e., low responsivity to social rewards) can account for the said atypicalities. Recent evidence suggests that autistic traits modulate the link between reward and proxy metrics related to empathy. Using an evaluative conditioning paradigm to associate high and low rewards with faces, a previous study has shown that individuals high in autistic traits show reduced spontaneous facial mimicry of faces associated with high vs. low reward. This observation raises the possibility that autistic traits modulate the magnitude of evaluative conditioning. To test this, we investigated (a) if autistic traits could modulate the ability to implicitly associate a reward value to a social stimulus (reward learning/conditioning, using the Implicit Association Task, IAT); (b) if the learned association could modulate participants’ prosocial behaviour (i.e., social reciprocity, measured using the cyberball task); (c) if the strength of this modulation was influenced by autistic traits. In 43 neurotypical participants, we found that autistic traits moderated the relationship of social reward learning on prosocial behaviour but not reward learning itself. This evidence suggests that while autistic traits do not directly influence social reward learning, they modulate the relationship of social rewards with prosocial behaviour. Autism Res 2016, 9: 471–479. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26280134

  13. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  14. Impact of Peer Teaching on the Acquisition of Social Skills by Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Serna, Loretta; Nakamura, Kayleen K.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared instruction in three social skills (giving positive feedback, contributing to discussion, and accepting negative feedback) by either a special-education teacher or peers with learning disabilities. Both groups improved in all three skills. Results suggest that social skill instruction by peers may be as effective and more…

  15. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  16. Early Childhood Education Directors' Impact on Social-Emotional Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) centers are more than a series of contiguous classrooms. They are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are ever-present and integral to learning. Although much research has focused on classroom quality and teacher-child interactions that support children's social-emotional development,…

  17. A Case Study of Professional Change: The Impact of the National Gerontological Social Work Competencies Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curl, Angela L.; Tompkins, Catherine J.; Rosen, Anita L.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy

    2010-01-01

    Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and…

  18. The Impact of Modern Information and Communication Technologies on Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konieczny, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have empowered non-state social actors, notably, social movements. They were quick to seize ICTs in the past (printing presses, television, fax machines), which was a major factor in their successes. Mass email campaigns, blogs, their audio- and video- variants (the podcasts and the videocasts),…

  19. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  20. Autistic Traits Moderate the Impact of Reward Learning on Social Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Puzzo, Ignazio; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2016-04-01

    A deficit in empathy has been suggested to underlie social behavioural atypicalities in autism. A parallel theoretical account proposes that reduced social motivation (i.e., low responsivity to social rewards) can account for the said atypicalities. Recent evidence suggests that autistic traits modulate the link between reward and proxy metrics related to empathy. Using an evaluative conditioning paradigm to associate high and low rewards with faces, a previous study has shown that individuals high in autistic traits show reduced spontaneous facial mimicry of faces associated with high vs. low reward. This observation raises the possibility that autistic traits modulate the magnitude of evaluative conditioning. To test this, we investigated (a) if autistic traits could modulate the ability to implicitly associate a reward value to a social stimulus (reward learning/conditioning, using the Implicit Association Task, IAT); (b) if the learned association could modulate participants' prosocial behaviour (i.e., social reciprocity, measured using the cyberball task); (c) if the strength of this modulation was influenced by autistic traits. In 43 neurotypical participants, we found that autistic traits moderated the relationship of social reward learning on prosocial behaviour but not reward learning itself. This evidence suggests that while autistic traits do not directly influence social reward learning, they modulate the relationship of social rewards with prosocial behaviour.

  1. The Impact of the Physical Environment on the Social Integration of Individuals with Disabilities in Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Social integration in community is especially important for individuals with disabilities well-being. Although individuals with disabilities reside within the community's physical environment, they are often marginalized in the social environment. This may be the result of individuals with disabilities residing in physical environments that…

  2. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Lucy; Bird, Geoffrey; Gökçen, Elif; McCrory, Eamon; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472) to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  3. "Facebook"--It's Not Just for Pictures Anymore: The Impact of Social Media on Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kisha N.; Billingsley, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the research on the use of social media (specifically Facebook) in an effort to promote critical thinking and reflection. It purports that although often overlooked as a teaching, learning and assessment strategy, social media is a viable method that supports cooperative learning through the encouragement of thoughtful…

  4. Challenges, Changes, and Impact of the Council on Social Work Education Women's Council: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Lazzari, Marceline M.; Faul, Anna C.; Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the contributions of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women's Council) as well as the role and status of women in social work education. For this historical analysis update, the authors drew on several primary and secondary data sources. The first major theme was organizational…

  5. The Impact of Family Socialization on Sociomoral Development in Childhood and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Grundmann, Matthias; Keller, Monika; Schmid, Christine

    This longitudinal study examined effects of family socialization on sociomoral reasoning in the context of the peer and parent-child relationships. Subjects were 121 urban Icelandic children. Social class was constructed as a multinominal measure defined by the nature of work, education, authority, and responsibility of the parents in the work…

  6. The Impact and Influence of HBCUs on the Social Work Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Dorcas D.; Hopps, June Gary; Clayton, Obie

    2016-01-01

    Faculties at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) have demonstrated stellar contributions to social work, which include early thought and epistemology related to strengths, empowerment, and social justice perspectives; religious orientation; inclusive learning environment, and community-based research. W. E. B. DuBois was the most…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  8. The impact of social context on self-management in women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01), HIV social support (F = 4.50, adjusted R(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01), and accepting the chronic nature of HIV (F = 5.57, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01). We found evidence to support the influence of the traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of

  9. The Impact of Social Context on Self-Management in Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G.; Asher, Alice K.; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicated all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F=5.40, adjusted R2=0.27, p<0.01), HIV social support (F=4.50, adjusted R2=0.22, p<0.01), and accepting the chronic nature of HIV (F=5.57, adjusted R2=0.27, p<0.01). We found evidence to support the influence of the traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women’s social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. PMID

  10. The impact of clonal mixing on the evolution of social behaviour in aphids.

    PubMed

    Bryden, John; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-06-07

    Reports of substantial clonal mixing measured in social aphid colonies seem, on the face of it, to rule out population structure as an explanation of this enigmatic insect's social behaviour. To clarify how selection operates in aphids, and to disentangle direct and indirect fitness components, we present a model of the life cycle of a typical colony-dwelling aphid. The model incorporates ecological factors and includes a trade-off between investing in social behaviour and investing in reproduction. Our focus on inclusive fitness contrasts with previous approaches that optimize colony output. Through deriving a variant of Hamilton's rule, we show that a simple relationship can be established between the patch-carrying capacity and immigration rates into patches. Our results indicate that the levels of clonal mixing reported are not inconsistent with social behaviour. We discuss our model in terms of the evolutionary origins of social behaviour in aphids.

  11. Little behaviors with big impacts: Exploring the sense of community surrounding socially conscious consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devincenzo, Marie E. Hafey

    The thesis is a study of socially conscious consumption practices and the meanings those behaviors have for consumers who participate in them. Psychological sense of community was used as the theoretical grounding for the study because it provided a way to examine socially conscious behaviors not solely as the behaviors of individuals but as behaviors within a social context with social meaning. Data were collected in two phases. First, a written, projective instrument compared cultural perceptions of various types of socially conscious consumption practices. Then, in-depth interviews were conducted to collect consumption narratives from participants and nonparticipants in a wind energy program called Blue Sky. The interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutical approach. The findings identified a new type of consumption community not recognized in prior literature: the principle based consumption community.

  12. Social comparisons on social media: the impact of Facebook on young women's body image concerns and mood.

    PubMed

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Vartanian, Lenny R; Halliwell, Emma

    2015-03-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of Facebook usage on women's mood and body image, whether these effects differ from an online fashion magazine, and whether appearance comparison tendency moderates any of these effects. Female participants (N=112) were randomly assigned to spend 10min browsing their Facebook account, a magazine website, or an appearance-neutral control website before completing state measures of mood, body dissatisfaction, and appearance discrepancies (weight-related, and face, hair, and skin-related). Participants also completed a trait measure of appearance comparison tendency. Participants who spent time on Facebook reported being in a more negative mood than those who spent time on the control website. Furthermore, women high in appearance comparison tendency reported more facial, hair, and skin-related discrepancies after Facebook exposure than exposure to the control website. Given its popularity, more research is needed to better understand the impact that Facebook has on appearance concerns.

  13. Social Networks Across Common Cancer Types: The Evidence, Gaps, and Areas of Potential Impact.

    PubMed

    Rice, L J; Halbert, C H

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between social context and health has been demonstrated previously, much less is known about network interactions by gender, race/ethnicity, and sociodemographic characteristics. Given the variability in cancer outcomes among groups, research on these relationships may have important implications for addressing cancer health disparities. We examined the literature on social networks and cancer across the cancer continuum among adults. Relevant studies (N=16) were identified using two common databases: PubMed and Google Scholar. Most studies used a prospective cohort study design (n=9), included women only (n=11), and were located in the United States (n=14). Seventy-five percent of the studies reviewed used a validated scale or validated items to measure social networks (n=12). Only one study examined social network differences by race, 57.1% (n=8) focused on breast cancer alone, 14.3% (n=2) explored colorectal cancer or multiple cancers simultaneously, and 7.1% (n=1) only prostate cancer. More than half of the studies included multiple ethnicities in the sample, while one study included only low-income subjects. Despite findings of associations between social networks and cancer survival, risk, and screening, none of the studies utilized social networks as a mechanism for reducing health disparities; however, such an approach has been utilized for infectious disease control. Social networks and the support provided within these networks have important implications for health behaviors and ultimately cancer disparities. This review serves as the first step toward dialog on social networks as a missing component in the social determinants of cancer disparities literature that could move the needle upstream to target adverse cancer outcomes among vulnerable populations.

  14. How Oral Contraceptives Impact Social-Emotional Behavior and Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems. Research domains and challenges for the future, as well as implications, are discussed.

  15. Impact of Social Marketing in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

  16. The impact of rehabilitation and counseling services on the labor market activity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Robert R; Bailey, Michelle Stegman

    2014-01-01

    We use data from a social experiment to estimate the impact of a rehabilitation and counseling program on the labor market activity of newly entitled Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries. Our results indicate that the program led to a 4.6 percentage point increase in the receipt of employment services within the first year following random assignment and a 5.1 percentage point increase in participation in the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program within the first three years following random assignment. The program led to a 5.3 percentage point increase, or almost 50 percent increase, in employment, and an $831 increase in annual earnings in the second calendar year after the calendar year of random assignment. The employment and earnings impacts are smaller and not statistically significant in the third calendar year following random assignment, and we describe SSDI rules that are consistent with this finding. Our findings indicate that disability reform proposals focusing on restoring the work capacity of people with disabilities can increase the disability employment rate.

  17. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  18. The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dismuke, Clara E.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As much as 45% of the US population has at least one chronic condition while 21% have multiple chronic diseases. The study examined the impact of cognitive, social and physical limitations on the personal income of U.S. adults with seven chronic diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 19,357 US adults with seven chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, depression, emphysema and joint disease) from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) was performed. The effect of seven chronic diseases and their associated cognitive, social, and physical limitations on personal income was assessed using a two-stage Heckman model. Results: Depression emerged as the only chronic disease that was independently associated with a significant $1,914 decrease in personal income (95% CI -$2,938--$890). Social and cognitive limitations resulted in $1,944 (95% CI -$3,378--$511) and $3,039 (95% CI -$4,418-$1,659) decreases in personal incomes respectively while physical limitations did not result in a statistically significant reduction. Being Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other Race, female, never married, married, less than a bachelor’s degree, publicly insured, uninsured, or having a health status less than very good were also associated with significant reductions in personal income. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest a need to determine the specific limitations associated with common chronic diseases and identify appropriate compensatory strategies to reduce their impact on income. PMID:26156924

  19. Two-Year Impacts of a Universal School-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention: An Experiment in Translational Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Lawrence Aber, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to ongoing scholarship at the nexus of translational research, education reform, and the developmental and prevention sciences. It reports 2-year experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development on children's social-emotional, behavioral, and…

  20. Marital Status and Birthrate of Deaf People in Two Swedish Counties: The Impact of Social Environment in Terms of Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, P. -I.; Danermark, B.; Borg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Deafness affects many social interactions. The impact of deafness depends on several factors, e.g., the type of social environment in terms of the particular Deaf community a person lives in. The authors recorded the birthrate and the proportions of married and divorced people among deaf people in two Swedish counties: Narke, which had a strong…

  1. The Impacts of Network Centrality and Self-Regulation on an E-Learning Environment with the Support of Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2015-01-01

    An e-learning environment that supports social network awareness (SNA) is a highly effective means of increasing peer interaction and assisting student learning by raising awareness of social and learning contexts of peers. Network centrality profoundly impacts student learning in an SNA-related e-learning environment. Additionally,…

  2. Incorporating Social Oriented Agent and Interactive Simulation in E-learning: Impact on Learning, Perceptions, Experiences to Non-Native English Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballera, Melvin; Elssaedi, Mosbah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    There is an unrealized potential in the use of socially-oriented pedagogical agent and interactive simulation in e-learning system. In this paper, we investigate the impact of having a socially oriented tutor agent and the incorporation of interactive simulation in e-learning into student performances, perceptions and experiences for non-native…

  3. The Impact of the Social, Academic, and Moral Development Programs of an Achievable Dream on Students during Their College and University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…

  4. The impact of displacement on the expression of depressive disorder and social functioning among the war refugees.

    PubMed

    Radanović-Grgurić, Ljiljana; Barkić, Jelena; Filaković, Pavo; Koić, Oliver; Laufer, Davor; Petek, Anamarija; Mandić, Nikola

    2009-12-01

    Our research objective was to estimate the characteristics of major depressive disorder and social adaptation of women displaced during the war in Croatia in the early 1990s. We aimed to establish the relationship between major depressive disorder and displacement and study its impact on the outcome of depression in order to improve treatment and avoid possible complications. A group of 20 women, 35 to 55 years of age, displaced some time during the 199l.-1995. war in Croatia were compared to 27 women of the same age but with no experience of exile. All the patients suffered from major depressive disorder based upon DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale were used. The objective intensity of depression of the displaced significantly decreased over time but not their personal experience of depression. All depressed patients manifested poor social adaptation. Many aspects of social functioning remained poor even after the improvement of depressive disorder. Displacement characteristics were: the length of time spent in exile, the place, and the circumstances of displacement regarding the members of the family accompanying the displaced women. These characteristics significantly influenced the expression of their major depressive disorder as well as social functioning. Displaced persons/refugees are at high risk of developing depressive disorder. Recognition of all risk factors and early diagnosis of depressive disorder followed by appropriate treatment could decrease the risk of chronic and complicated depression as well as the risk of poor social adaptation.

  5. Social support as a protective factor for children impacted by HIV/AIDS across varying living environments in southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Barenbaum, Edna; Smith, Tamarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The literature on the psychological well-being of children impacted by HIV/AIDS in Africa highlights increased vulnerability due to loss of parents and environmental stressors (e.g., hunger). Research shows that the lack of attachment and social support due to loss limits the grieving process in children. Access to trusting adults and social support through caregivers can be an important protective factor to allow for coping and better emotional adjustment in the future. This study examined social support systems across varying living environments to determine if social support promoted higher levels of well-being in children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. The participants included 100 children from a small targeted population in southern Africa who receive varying levels of support from a private not-for-profit organization. Children’s well-being was assessed through the Psycho-Social Adjustment Scale-Adolescents developed specifically for vulnerable child populations in Africa. Children were individually interviewed either on their homestead, school or hostel. Data demonstrated that children who do not share their feelings had significantly lower measures of positive well-being (M = 2.61 (0.87) vs. M = 3.10 (0.57), d = 0.60). Children with trusted adults were significantly more likely to share their feelings and had lower incidence of hunger (49.1% vs. 62.5%), suicide ideation (15.1% vs. 62.5%) and witnessing violence (69.8% vs. 87.5%). Sharing feelings with caregivers was more pronounced among children who had greater access to trusted adults and correlated with stronger attachment scores (r = .30, p < .01). An important component to decrease levels of anxiety and depression in this vulnerable population is providing access to trusted individuals. Social support interventions are discussed. PMID:27392004

  6. Impact of Bullying in Childhood on Adult Health, Wealth, Crime and Social Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E.; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents and public policy makers alike. While bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, it is unclear if this risk extends into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood to assess health, risky/illegal behavior, wealth and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying including those that bullied others (bully-victim) were at increased risk of poor health, wealth and social relationship outcomes in adulthood even after controlling for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor adult outcome once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people’s lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long term health and social costs. PMID:23959952

  7. The Impact of Social Pressure and Monetary Incentive on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Ličen, Mina; Hartmann, Frank; Repovš, Grega; Slapničar, Sergeja

    2016-01-01

    We compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms—social pressure and monetary incentive—on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior by activating proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence of how social pressure affects cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under social pressure and monetary incentive beyond mere instructions to perform better. Our results indicate that instructing participants to improve their performance on its own leads to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and that both social pressure and monetary incentive further enhance performance. PMID:26903901

  8. [The impact of the social economic conditions on the reproduction processes].

    PubMed

    Leonova, N G

    2007-01-01

    The social economic conditions of population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region with the emphasis on its specifics are analyzed. The natural dynamics of population is estimated including gender and age peculiarities, marriage and divorces statistics, migration processes and population health in the region. It is shown that the population reproduction dynamics follows the natural laws and processes. The role of the post-Soviet period social economic conditions harmful to health are considered. The interdependencies between the social economic development and population reproduction are revealed. The recommendations related to the means of the further enhancement of social economic conditions as related to population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region are proposed.

  9. The impact of social support: an analogue investigation of the aftermath of trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Larry D; Zoellner, Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic studies suggest that social support plays an important role in regulating the severity of post-traumatic adjustment; however, few studies have manipulated potential underlying mechanisms. This analogue study examined how various social reactions, following trauma exposure, influenced subsequent anxiety, affect, and intrusive thoughts. Ninety-three participants viewed a distressing videotape followed by a portrayal of positive, negative, or neutral social reactions. While negative reactions increased initial negative affect, neutral reactions increased later frequency and severity of intrusive thoughts. Based on this, it was suggested that "neutral" social reactions following trauma exposure may have the potential for being highly invalidating and in some circumstances may actually have more negative later effects than overtly negative ones.

  10. Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime, and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people's lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs.

  11. Service-learning in nursing education: its impact on leadership and social justice.

    PubMed

    Groh, Carla J; Stallwood, Lynda G; Daniels, John J

    2011-01-01

    Although studies suggest that service-learning is positive for students, findings reported are primarily qualitative. A convenience sample of 306 senior-level nursing students completed the Service-Learning Self-Evaluation Tool (SLSET) pre- and post-service-learning experience over a six-year span. The constructs measured were leadership skills and social justice. Paired t-tests were calculated. Statistically significant differences were noted between pre- and post-service-learning experience, with students rating themselves higher on leadership and social justice items after the experience. Cronbach's alpha for leadership and social justice were greater than 0.80. Service-learning as an educational methodology that combines community service with academic learning objectives is a viable strategy for facilitating leadership skills and increased awareness of social justice issues in nursing students.

  12. The genomic impact of 100 million years of social evolution in seven ant species.

    PubMed

    Gadau, Jürgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne; Roux, Julien; Simola, Daniel F; Smith, Chris R; Suen, Garret; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general.

  13. Social reinforcement of substance abuse treatment aftercare participation: Impact on outcome.

    PubMed

    Lash, Steven J; Burden, Jennifer L; Monteleone, Brian R; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2004-02-01

    Although adherence to aftercare therapy in substance abuse treatment is associated with improved outcome, little research has explored the effects of adherence interventions on outcome. We compared 20 graduates of our 28-day intensive treatment program who received a standard aftercare orientation with 20 graduates who received this intervention plus social reinforcement of aftercare group therapy attendance. The social reinforcement group showed less alcohol use than the standard care group at a 6-month follow-up assessment as measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), but not less drug use. Additionally, compared to standard care, the social reinforcement participants were more likely to be abstinent at the 6-month follow up (76% vs. 40%). The groups did not differ on hospital readmission rates over a 12-month follow-up period. Additionally, the social reinforcement group showed better long-term aftercare attendance compared to the standard care group.

  14. Earnings sharing in Social Security: projected impacts of alternative proposals using the MINT model.

    PubMed

    Iams, Howard M; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Changes in American family and work patterns over the past decades have prompted various policy proposals for changing the structure of Social Security benefits. In this article, we use the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model to project how Social Security benefit amounts would change in response to incorporating earnings sharing into benefit calculations for the population aged 62 or older in 2030 under three hypothetical policy scenarios. The earnings sharing scenarios modeled in the article would reduce benefits for the majority of individuals, although there are important differences among married, divorced, and widowed individuals. Some groups of men and women would experience increases in Social Security benefits, while some would receive reduced benefits in comparison to current law, particularly widowed individuals. Allowing widows to inherit the earnings records of their deceased husbands would improve their outcomes.

  15. Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: A negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Kornreich, C; Delle-Vigne, D; Knittel, J; Nerincx, A; Campanella, S; Noel, X; Hanak, C; Verbanck, P; Ermer, E

    2011-01-01

    Aims To study the “social brain” in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind, and emotional intelligence. Design A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Setting Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Participants 25 recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and 8 women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and 8 women) matched for sex, age, and education level. Measurements Wason Selection Task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary, and descriptive), Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version), and additional control measures. Findings Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conclusions Conditional reasoning and emotional intelligence appear impaired in alcoholics. Impairment was particularly severe on descriptive rules. Though alcoholics' performance was better on social contract and precautionary rules, overall reasoning performance was still low. Differential performance is consistent with distinct neurocognitive reasoning mechanisms and partial resilience of evolutionarily-relevant functions. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. PMID:21205056

  16. Oxytocin Pathway Genes: Evolutionary Ancient System Impacting on Human Affiliation, Sociality, and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across

  17. Gender moderates the impact of need for structure on social beliefs: implications for ethnocentrism and authoritarianism.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The present research examines the interplay between individual differences in need for structure, social beliefs, and gender. It is well documented that need for structure, that is, a preference for structure and simplicity in one's thinking, predicts authoritarianism and ethnocentrism. Further, women tend to score lower in authoritarianism and ethnocentrism than men. Although there seem to be no gender differences in need for structure, the present research hypothesizes that the association between need for structure and social beliefs is stronger for men than for women. This hypothesis comes from the observation that, all else being equal, men tend to think more about the domain of beliefs such as authoritarianism and ethnocentrism, which should strengthen the relationship between men's cognitive needs and their social beliefs. The hypothesis is also motivated by the finding that, more than men, women often give priority to caring and compassion when forming beliefs about outgroups. This should weaken the link between women's cognitive needs and their social beliefs. Three studies conducted in the USA (n = 398) and one study conducted in Germany (n = 112) examined whether gender moderated the influence of need for structure on authoritarianism and racism. Using a variety of measures, need for structure predicted authoritarianism and racism for men, but not for women. The discussion focuses on the implications of the present findings for the relationship between cognitive orientations and social beliefs. It is argued that research on cognitive orientation and social beliefs needs to take gender into account to improve its accuracy of prediction.

  18. Liking food less: the impact of social influence on food liking evaluations in female students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Social factors are known to influence food intake and choice. However, whether social influence acts on evaluations of food and drink liking has not been studied. Across two studies, we tested whether leading a participant to believe that other people do not like a food affects food liking evaluations. In Study 1, we exposed participants to social normative information suggesting a) that an in-group disliked orange juice, b) that an out-group disliked orange juice or c) that an in-group were neutral about orange juice. We then examined how much participants believed they liked orange juice. In Study 2, participants consumed a snack food before being led to believe that two previous participants had also eaten the food and either disliked or quite liked it. We asked participants to rate how much they had enjoyed eating the snack food. Across both studies, social influence was observed, as underlined by decreases in liking evaluations. In Study 1, beliefs about liking were only influenced by social normative information when the norm was expressed by an in-group. In Study 2, exposure to others' accounts of a negative experience with a food decreased evaluated liking of the recent consumption experience. These results suggest that social influence can act upon food liking evaluations.

  19. Similarity between community structures of different online social networks and its impact on underlying community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    As social networking services are popular, many people may register in more than one online social network. In this paper we study a set of users who have accounts of three online social networks: namely Foursquare, Facebook and Twitter. Community structure of this set of users may be reflected in these three online social networks. Therefore, high correlation between these reflections and the underlying community structure may be observed. In this work, community structures are detected in all three online social networks. Also, we investigate the similarity level of community structures across different networks. It is found that they show strong correlation with each other. The similarity between different networks may be helpful to find a community structure close to the underlying one. To verify this, we propose a method to increase the weights of some connections in networks. With this method, new networks are generated to assist community detection. By doing this, value of modularity can be improved and the new community structure match network's natural structure better. In this paper we also show that the detected community structures of online social networks are correlated with users' locations which are identified on Foursquare. This information may also be useful for underlying community detection.

  20. The impact of social amplification and attenuation of risk and the public reaction to mad cow disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Roxanne E; Tyshenko, Michael G

    2009-05-01

    Following the detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Canada, and subsequently in the United States, confidence in the safety of beef products remained high. Consumers actually increased their consumption of beef slightly after the news of an increased risk from mad cow disease, which has been interpreted as public support for beef farmers and confidence in government regulators. The Canadian public showed a markedly different reaction to the news of domestic BSE than the furious and panicked responses observed in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan. Using the social amplification of risk framework, we show that, while other countries displayed social amplification of risk, Canada experienced a social attenuation of risk. The attenuated reaction in Canada toward mad cow disease and increased human health risks from variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was due to the social context at the time when BSE was discovered domestically. Mortality, morbidity, and psychosocial impacts resulting from other major events such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus (WNV), and the U.S.-Iraq war made the theoretical risks of BSE and vCJD a lower priority, reducing its concern as a risk issue.

  1. Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children

    PubMed Central

    Mtaya, Matilda; Astrom, Anne N; Brudvik, Pongsri

    2008-01-01

    Background studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was investigated. Orthodontic treatment need was estimated using an integrated socio-dental approach. Method One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr) attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite) to 22.5% (midline shift) with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position) to 20% (pain). The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5) and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6) and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3) and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7). The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%. Conclusion Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho social impacts and

  2. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different nature need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in Meteorological Services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created under the frame of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. The rainfall intensity in conjunction with the population density has demonstrated to be one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for differently populated areas. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests have been carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index has been suggested, based on return periods given by Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves.

  3. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different natures need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in meteorological services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created within the framework of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. Understanding TeV-band The rainfall intensity, in conjunction with the population density, has established itself as one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for areas of varying populations. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure modifications. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests were carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index was suggested based on return periods given by intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves.

  4. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  5. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success. PMID:26919157

  6. Investigation of the Impact of Extracting and Exchanging Health Information by Using Internet and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pistolis, John; Zimeras, Stelios; Chardalias, Kostas; Roupa, Zoe; Fildisis, George; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Social networks (1) have been embedded in our daily life for a long time. They constitute a powerful tool used nowadays for both searching and exchanging information on different issues by using Internet searching engines (Google, Bing, etc.) and Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter etc.). In this paper, are presented the results of a research based on the frequency and the type of the usage of the Internet and the Social Networks by the general public and the health professionals. Objectives: The objectives of the research were focused on the investigation of the frequency of seeking and meticulously searching for health information in the social media by both individuals and health practitioners. The exchanging of information is a procedure that involves the issues of reliability and quality of information. Methods: In this research, by using advanced statistical techniques an effort is made to investigate the participant’s profile in using social networks for searching and exchanging information on health issues. Results: Based on the answers 93 % of the people, use the Internet to find information on health-subjects. Considering principal component analysis, the most important health subjects were nutrition (0.719 %), respiratory issues (0.79 %), cardiological issues (0.777%), psychological issues (0.667%) and total (73.8%). Conclusions: The research results, based on different statistical techniques revealed that the 61.2% of the males and 56.4% of the females intended to use the social networks for searching medical information. Based on the principal components analysis, the most important sources that the participants mentioned, were the use of the Internet and social networks for exchanging information on health issues. These sources proved to be of paramount importance to the participants of the study. The same holds for nursing, medical and administrative staff in hospitals. PMID:27482135

  7. Impact of social support on cognitive symptom burden in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Jana H; Rubenstein, Sarah L; Sota, Teresa L; Rueda, Sergio; Fenta, Haile; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2010-07-01

    As many as 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS report cognitive difficulties, which can be associated with objective neuropsychological impairments and depression. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between higher social support and lower rates of depression. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the role social support may play in attenuating the effects of both neuropsychological status and depression on cognitive difficulties. A total of 357 participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, questionnaires about cognitive difficulties and depression, and an interview that included an assessment of perceived level of social support. A multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher levels of cognitive symptom burden were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05) while lower levels of cognitive symptom burden were significantly associated with greater social support (P<0.01) and higher level of education (P<0.05). There was a significant interaction between neuropsychological status and depression (P<0.001); the presence of neuropsychological impairment with depression was associated with higher levels of cognitive symptom burden. There was also a significant interaction between social support and depression (P<0.05). Interestingly, social support was also associated with a lower cognitive symptom burden for non-depressed individuals living with HIV/AIDS. These findings have important clinical implications for promoting psychological well-being in persons living with HIV/AIDS. To improve quality of life, it is important to screen for and identify individuals with HIV/AIDS who may be depressed and to intervene appropriately. Further research should examine the potential role of social support interventions in modifying the effects of both depression and neuropsychological status on cognitive symptom burden.

  8. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Patients With and Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Impact on Treatment Outcome and Social Reintegration.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Karolin; Goergen, Helen; Müller, Horst; Thielen, Indra; Brillant, Corinne; Kreissl, Stefanie; Halbsguth, Teresa Veronika; Meissner, Julia; Greil, Richard; Moosmann, Peter; Shonukan, Oluwatoyin; Rueffer, Jens Ulrich; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Fuchs, Michael; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Borchmann, Peter

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Cancer-related fatigue occurs frequently in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and has a major impact on their quality of life. We hypothesized that severe fatigue (sFA) might have an impact on patients' treatment outcome and social reintegration. Methods Of 5,306 patients enrolled in the German Hodgkin Study Group's fifth generation of clinical trials in HL (HD13, HD14, and HD15; nonqualified and older [> 60 years] patients excluded), 4,529 provided data on health-related quality of life. We describe sFA (defined as a score ≥ 50 on the 0 to 100 scale from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30) before and up to 9 years after therapy and analyze its impact on treatment outcome and social reintegration. Results The proportion of patients reporting sFA was 37% at baseline and ranged from 20% to 24% during follow-up. Baseline sFA was associated with significantly impaired progression-free survival and a trend to impaired overall survival, which can be overcome in patients receiving highly effective HL therapies as applied in our fifth-generation trials. Our analysis revealed a significant negative association of sFA and employment in survivors: 5 years after therapy, 51% and 63% of female and male survivors, respectively, with sFA were working or in professional education, compared with 78% and 90% without sFA, respectively ( P < .001 adjusted for age, sex, stage, baseline employment status, and treatment outcome). sFA was also associated with financial problems and the number of visits to a general practitioner and medical specialists. Conclusion sFA is an important factor preventing survivors from social reintegration during follow-up. This observation underscores the need to address fatigue as a significant diagnosis when treating patients with and survivors of cancer.

  9. Impact on social inequalities of population strategies of prevention for folate intake in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Sumar, Nureen; McLaren, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    We reviewed the recent assertion that population strategies of prevention may inadvertently widen social inequalities in health. We used folate intake as a case example to examine what is known about the impact on inequalities of 2 population strategies: one agentic (public information campaign) and the other structural (mandatory fortification policy). We found some support for our hypothesis that the mandatory fortification policy was less likely than were the information campaigns to lead to worsening inequalities in health by socioeconomic status or race/ethnicity; however, conclusions were complicated by different outcome variables and different economic and political regimes in which interventions took place.

  10. Impact of social stress in addiction to psychostimulants: what we know from animal models.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of

  11. Social work faculty interest in aging: impact of education, knowledge, comfort, and experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Ihara, Emily; Chonody, Jill; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    As the need for gerontological social workers increases, it is important to assess faculty interest in strengthening and bolstering this area in the classroom and curriculum. This study sought to compare training and experience of social work faculty that identified aging as a teaching or research interest with faculty who did not, and to identify predictors of aging interest among faculty. A national sample of social work faculty members was recruited, and a total of 609 individuals participated in the study. The findings reveal that faculty with an interest in aging differed from nonaging faculty in the areas of knowledge of older adults, personal and paid experience, and graduate and continuing education. In addition, predictors of interest in aging included taking a graduate course, continuing education units, having paid and volunteer experience, level of knowledge of older adults, and comfort level of covering content on aging in the classroom. The connection between social work faculty and student interest in aging are discussed as implications for further social work research and education.

  12. Migration in the social stage of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae impacts competition

    PubMed Central

    Buttery, Neil; Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Powers, Michael; Thompson, Christopher R.L.; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction conditions can change the balance of cooperation and conflict in multicellular groups. After aggregating together, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum may migrate as a group (known as a slug) to a new location. We consider this migration stage as an arena for social competition and conflict because the cells in the slug may not be from a genetically homogeneous population. In this study, we examined the interplay of two seemingly diametric actions, the solitary action of kin recognition and the collective action of slug migration in D. discoideum, to more fully understand the effects of social competition on fitness over the entire lifecycle. We compare slugs composed of either genetically homogenous or heterogeneous cells that have migrated or remained stationary in the social stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. After migration of chimeric slugs, we found that facultative cheating is reduced, where facultative cheating is defined as greater contribution to spore relative to stalk than found for that clone in the clonal state. In addition our results support previous findings that competitive interactions in chimeras diminish slug migration distance. Furthermore, fruiting bodies have shorter stalks after migration, even accounting for cell numbers at that time. Taken together, these results show that migration can alleviate the conflict of interests in heterogeneous slugs. It aligns their interest in finding a more advantageous place for dispersal, where shorter stalks suffice, which leads to a decrease in cheating behavior. PMID:26528414

  13. Prosocial Bystander Behavior in Bullying Dynamics: Assessing the Impact of Social Capital.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    Individuals who observe a bullying event, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim, are referred to as bystanders. Prosocial bystanders are those individuals who actively intervene in bullying dynamics to support the victim and this prosocial behavior often ends the bullying. The current study examines how social capital in the form of social support, community engagement, mental health functioning, and positive school experiences and characteristics is associated with the likelihood of engaging in prosocial bystander behavior in a large sample (N = 5752; 51.03% female) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. It was hypothesized that social capital would be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in prosocial bystander behavior. Following multiple imputation, an ordered logistic regression with robust standard errors was run. The hypothesis was partially supported and results indicated that social capital in the form of friend and teacher support, ethnic identity, religious orientation, and future optimism were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in prosocial bystander behavior. Contrary to the hypothesis, a decreased rate of self-esteem was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in prosocial bystander behavior. The findings highlight the importance of positive social relationships and community engagement in increasing prosocial bystander behavior and ultimately decreasing school bullying. Implications were discussed.

  14. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    PubMed

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Holl, Stefan; Mehner, Wolfgang; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  15. Social construction of disability and its potential impacts to welfare practice in Vietnamese contexts.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kham V

    2014-01-01

    From the survey responses and the policy analysis, the initial findings on this paper present some aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on disability which are presented as following: Firstly, there is a significant changes in legal documents and social policies related to disability in Vietnam, especially from 2006, in terms of its name and contents for improving the life of PWD with inclusive approach, however the meaning of disability is not clear in policies. Secondly, the understanding on disability is mainly based on medical/individual model which focuses on the disability's causes in words of health or individual problem rather than viewing the social causes in aspects of the social barriers and restriction, in addition almost policies focus on the problems of PWD rather than the social aspects. Thirdly, social attitude toward disability and PWD seems to be very empathetic, however it is less regard to CWD's ability as well as there are more attitudes on charity giving and supporting than helping them to be independent in their life. Finally, in spite of positive knowledge and attitudes on disability, there is still limitation on practical activities towards CWD/PWD from society in daily life.

  16. A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Mico, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) seriously affects the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, but few studies on CP have considered its effects on the patient’s social and family environment. In this work, through a review of the literature, we assessed several aspects of how CP influences the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, as well as its repercussions in the workplace, and on the family and social environment. Finally, the consequences of pain on the health care system are discussed. On the basis of the results, we concluded that in addition to the serious consequences on the patient’s life, CP has a severe detrimental effect on their social and family environment, as well as on health care services. Thus, we want to emphasize on the need to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to treatment so as to obtain more comprehensive improvements for patients in familial and social contexts. Accordingly, it would be beneficial to promote more social- and family-oriented research initiatives. PMID:27418853

  17. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences. PMID:27708555

  18. Correlation research on psychological health impact on nursing students against stress, coping way and social support.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, p<0.01), while negative correlations related to positive coping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, p<0.05) and (2) stressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, P<0.01), and positive coping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, P<0.01), as well as negative coping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.

  19. The Management of Social and Economic Impacts Associated with the Construction of Large-Scale Projects: Experiences from the Western Coal Development Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Marjorie R.; Curry, Martha G.

    Large-scale energy or resource development projects in rural areas cause environmental, social, and economic changes in the community. The negative aspects of these impacts can be mitigated and the positive aspects enhanced, through the use of effective impact management strategies by local and state governments (together and separately), the…

  20. Adolescent pregnancy outcome and the impact of social support--a pilot study from eastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Karina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies are still listed among the most important public health problems of the 21st century, although low maternal age may be a marker for social rather than biological or medical disadvantage. In the present study 51 pregnant Austrian girls ageing between 13 and 18 years (x = 16.3 yrs; +/- 1.3) who decided to give birth were enrolled. All girls were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire furthermore data from the mother-child pass port were included in the analysis. 28 girls gave birth shortly before the interview took place. Complications during pregnancy and birth were seldom and no adverse birth outcome was observed. The majority of participants received optimal medical treatment and sufficient social support from relatives and school but also from public and private institutions during pregancy. It can be concluded that social support and adequate medical treatment reduce the risk of teenage pregnancies markedly.

  1. Social work in oncology-managing vicarious trauma-the positive impact of professional supervision.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Lynette; Hocking, Alison; Hampson, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the experience and management of vicarious trauma in a team of social workers (N = 16) at a specialist cancer hospital in Melbourne. Respondents completed the Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale (TSIBS), the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL), and participated in four focus groups. The results from the TSIBS and the ProQol scales confirm that there is a stress associated with the social work role within a cancer service, as demonstrated by the high scores related to stress. However at the same time the results indicated a high level of satisfaction which acted as a mitigating factor. The study also highlighted the importance of supervision and management support. A model for clinical social work supervision is proposed to reduce the risks associated with vicarious trauma.

  2. [Social representation of pregnancy in adolescence: appraisal of dominant attitudes and others of negative impact].

    PubMed

    Dufort, Francine; Boucher, Kathleen; Guilbert, Edith; Saint-Laurent, Louise; Fortin-Pellerin, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gather information on the social representations of teenage pregnancy among adolescents, aged between 15 and 17. Eighteen focus groups were conducted among 150 boys and girls. The data were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results show that youths did not form homogeneous groups. The points of view expressed gave rise to 4 dimensions (emotive, reflexive, psychobiological, economic-social) and 4 positions (negative, positive, ambivalent and dynamic). From these dimensions and positions, 4 representations of teenage pregnancy were identified: pregnancy as a problem, pregnancy as a project, pregnancy as a source of tension, and pregnancy as a source of power. This study illustrates the importance of educative strategies such as going beyond alarmist preventive messages, opening dialogue with and between youngsters, and promoting social support and mutual aid.

  3. Exposure variability of fosfomycin administered to pigs in food or water: impact of social rank.

    PubMed

    Soraci, Alejandro L; Amanto, Fabián; Tapia, María O; de la Torre, Eulalia; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to document the effect of social ranking on the internal exposure of pigs to an antibiotic (fosfomycin) administered either in food or in drinking water. Signs of aggression were recorded at the feeder and drinker. The interindividual variability explained by the social rank was even greater when the test antibiotic was given in food despite the fact that the water consumption was less variable than the food intake. The range of plasma concentrations after administration of fosfomycin either in food or drinking water leads to a number of pigs in the treated group being exposed to rather low and highly variable concentrations of fosfomycin and not able to maintain adequate plasma concentrations above the typical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Social rank clearly influences the level of exposure of pigs to fosfomycin both in food and drinking. However, its administration in drinking water is likely to be the best option to optimize antibiotic efficacy.

  4. Ageism among social work faculty: impact of personal factors and other "isms".

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was (a) to determine the extent to which ageist attitudes are evident among social work faculty and how educational factors may contribute to ageism, (b) to determine if terror management theory (in terms of aging anxiety) offers a further explanation for ageist attitudes beyond known correlates, and (c) to understand how intersecting prejudices (attitudes toward women, gay men, and lesbians) may be associated with ageist attitudes. Results indicated a low bias toward older adults, with two variables, psychological anxiety about aging and paid experience with older adults, accounting for 29.7% of the variance. Further, no association was found between ageism and sexism and sexual prejudice in the multivariate analyses. These results indicate promising advances for terror management theory in explaining ageism. Social work faculty's low bias and perceived need for gerontological content in curricula is an encouraging finding for gerontological social work education.

  5. The impact of changes in couples' earnings on married women's Social Security benefits.

    PubMed

    Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Women's labor force participation and earnings dramatically increased after World War II. Those changes have important implications for women's Social Security benefits. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to examine Social Security benefits for current and future beneficiary wives. The projections show that fewer wives in more recent birth cohorts will be eligible for auxiliary benefits as spouses because their earnings are too high. If their husbands die, however, most wives will still be eligible for survivor benefits because, despite the increase in their earnings over time, they still typically have lower earnings than their husbands. Even so, the share of wives who would be ineligible for widow benefits is projected to double between cohorts.

  6. The impact of social roles on trait judgments: a critical reexamination.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Janine; Sczesny, Sabine; Eagly, Alice H

    2012-04-01

    Consistent with social role theory's assumption that the role behavior of men and women shapes gender stereotypes, earlier experiments have found that men's and women's occupancy of the same role eliminated gender-stereotypical judgments of greater agency and lower communion in men than women. The shifting standards model raises the question of whether a shift to within-sex standards in judgments of men and women in roles could have masked underlying gender stereotypes. To examine this possibility, two experiments obtained judgments of men and women using measures that do or do not restrain shifts to within-sex standards. This measure variation did not affect the social role pattern of smaller perceived sex differences in the presence of role information. These findings thus support the social role theory claim that designations of identical roles for subgroups of men and women eliminate or reduce perceived sex differences.

  7. Impact of heterogeneous activity and community structure on the evolutionary success of cooperators in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [L. Muchnik, S. Pei, L. C. Parra, S. D. S. Reis, J. S. Andrade Jr., S. Havlin, and H. A. Makse, Sci. Rep. 3, 1783 (2013), 10.1038/srep01783]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M. E. J. Newman, Nat. Phys. 8, 25 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2162]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from a social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak and strong selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their actual activities to play games with their immediate neighbors, we figure out that heterogeneous activity benefits the emergence of collective cooperation in a harsh environment (the action for cooperation is costly) under strong selection, whereas it impairs the formation of altruism under weak selection. Moreover, we find that the abundance of communities in the social network can evidently foster the formation of cooperation under strong selection, in contrast to the games evolving on randomized counterparts. Our results are therefore helpful for us to better understand the evolution of cooperation in real social systems.

  8. The Impact of the Natural, Social, Built, and Policy Environments on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of breast cancer in women is substantial and increasing. Efforts to address breast cancer have focused on primary prevention, reduction of modifiable risk factors, early detection, timely referral for appropriate treatment, and survivorship. Environmental and lifestyle factors that increase breast cancer risk include ionizing radiation, exogenous hormones, certain female reproductive factors, alcohol and other dietary factors, obesity, and physical inactivity. A variety of chemical exposures are purported to be associated with breast cancer. Methods In this article, we summarize the influence of the natural, social, built, and policy environments on breast cancer incidence and cancer recurrence in women based upon bibliographic searches and relevant search terms. Results Despite a lack of conclusive evidence from epidemiologic studies, exposures to chemicals with estrogenic or other properties relevant to sex steroid activity could influence breast cancer risk if the exposures occur at critical life stages or in combination with exposure to other similar chemicals. Results from several studies support an association between shift work and disruption of the circadian rhythm with breast cancer risk. The social environment likely influences breast cancer risk through several mechanisms including social norms pertaining to breast feeding, age at first live birth, parity, use of oral contraceptives and replacement estrogens, diet, and consumption of alcohol. Social norms also influence body weight, obesity, and physical activity, which have an effect on risk of breast cancer incidence and recurrence. Obesity, which is influenced by the social, built, and policy environments, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer and certain other cancer types. Conclusions The natural, social, built, and policy environments affect breast cancer incidence and survival. Effective health care policies can encourage the provision of

  9. The impact of neighborhood social and built environment factors across the cancer continuum: Current research, methodological considerations, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H M; Yen, Irene H; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A; Glaser, Sally L

    2015-07-15

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. The authors reviewed the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research by scanning the literature for research focused on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and their association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. The commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, the current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research also were addressed. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of the 34 reviewed articles published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of associations varied, in large part because of the variation in cancer sites and outcomes studied, but also likely because of differences in study populations, geographic regions, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measures and geographic scales. The authors recommend that future studies consider the life-course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers.

  10. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  11. The Impact of Social Connectedness and Internalized Transphobic Stigma on Self-Esteem Among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ashley; Goodman, Revital

    2017-01-01

    The transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) community continues to represent a notably marginalized population exposed to pervasive discrimination, microaggressions, and victimization. Congruent with the minority stress model, TGNC individuals persistently experience barriers to wellbeing in contemporary society; however, research uncovering resilience-based pathways to health among this population is sparse. This study aimed to explore the impact and interaction between internalized transphobic stigma and a potential buffer against minority stress-social connectedness-on the self-esteem of TGNC identified adults. Data were collected from 65 TGNC identified adults during a national transgender conference. Multiple regression analysis reveals that self-esteem is negatively impacted by internalized transphobia and positively impacted by social connectedness. Social connectedness did not significantly moderate the relationship between internalized transphobia and self-esteem. Micro and macro interventions aimed at increasing social connectedness and decreasing internalized transphobic stigma may be paramount for enhancing resiliency and wellbeing in the TGNC community.

  12. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    PubMed

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  13. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    PubMed Central

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  14. Organizations and social worker wellbeing: the intra-organizational context of practice and its impact on a practitioner's subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Shier, Micheal L; Graham, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the varied factors that contribute to social worker subjective well-being (SWB) (the social science concept for happiness). Using qualitative methods of inquiry 19 social workers who reported having low to medium levels of workplace and profession satisfaction were interviewed to assess those factors within their lives that they perceived as impacting their well-being. One thematic category from the analysis was aspects of the intraorganizational context of workplaces that can impact social worker SWB. Respondents identified interpersonal workplace relationships, decision-making processes, management/supervisory dynamics, workload and workplace expectations, access to resources and infrastructure support, and inter-organizational relationships as key intra-organizational factors contributing to their overall wellbeing. In conclusion, these findings have practical application within organizations for structured policies and unstructured practices to improve social worker subjective well-being.

  15. Generating social impact scenarios: A key step in making technology assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. V.

    1975-01-01

    The MITRE methodological studies were conducted to define relevant questions in relation to the concept of total impact analysis and to provide a procedure for integrating diverse checklists of questions which trace the initial and secondary impacts of any major technological application or of society's attempts to respond to or redirect that application. Some of the results of that study are presented in tabular form.

  16. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  17. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  18. Examining the impact of sexism on evaluations of social scientific evidence in discrimination litigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Tidwell, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    The present 2 studies involved undergraduate participants and investigated whether various types of sexism and other correlated predictors, such as political conservatism and scientific discounting, can predict people's evaluations of social science research on sex stereotypes, sexism, and sex discrimination. In Study 1, participants high in hostile sexism, scientific discounting, and/or political conservatism were more critical of scientific studies that provided evidence for sexism than identical studies showing null results. Study 2 showed that participants high in modern sexism, hostile sexism, and political conservatism evaluated social scientific studies more negatively; in addition, assessments of social scientific evidence quality mediated the effect of modern sexism on admissibility ratings (b = -0.15, z = -4.16, p = .00). Overall, these results suggest that sexist beliefs can bias one's judgments of social scientific evidence. Future research should explore whether the same psychological processes operate for judges and jurors as they evaluate the admissibility of evidence and examine ways to attenuate the effect of sexism on evaluations.

  19. The Comparative Impacts of Social Justice Educational Methods on Political Participation, Civic Engagement, and Multicultural Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Amy; Austic, Elizabeth A.; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M.; Dirksen, Kaleigh E.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college students' commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education…

  20. Explaining Comfort with Homosexuality among Social Work Students: The Impact of Demographic, Contextual, and Attitudinal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Eric; Raiz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    While recent research explores the determinants of homophobia among college students, only a few studies look at the perceptions of homosexuals among social work students. Unfortunately these rare studies generally present a modest list of predictor variables or small sample sizes. To address this gap, this research explores the ways in which…