Science.gov

Sample records for social investment uere

  1. How to invest in social capital.

    PubMed

    Prusak, L; Cohen, D

    2001-06-01

    Business runs better when people within a company have close ties and trust one another. But the relationships that make organizations work effectively are under assault for several reasons. Building such "social capital" is difficult in volatile times. Disruptive technologies spawn new markets daily, and organizations respond with constantly changing structures. The problem is worsened by the virtuality of many of today's workplaces, with employees working off-site or on their own. What's more, few managers know how to invest in such social capital. The authors describe how managers can help their organizations thrive by making effective investments in social capital. For instance, companies that value social capital demonstrate a commitment to retention as a way of limiting workplace volatility. The authors cite SAS's extensive efforts to signal to employees that it sees them as human beings, not just workers. Managers can build trust by showing trust themselves, as well as by rewarding trust and sending clear signals to employees. They can foster cooperation by giving employees a common sense of purpose through good strategic communication and inspirational leadership. Johnson & Johnson's well-known credo, which says the company's first responsibility is to the people who use its products, has helped the company in time of adversity, as in 1982 when cyanide in Tylenol capsules killed seven people. Other methods of fostering cooperation include rewarding the behavior with cash and establishing rules that get people into the habit of cooperating. Social capital, once a given in organizations, is now rare and endangered. By investing in it, companies will be better positioned to seize the opportunities in today's volatile, virtual business environment.

  2. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  3. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nathan W; Roberts, Brent W; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work-the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one's job-and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits-especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan.

  4. Social Investment after Neoliberalism: Policy Paradigms and Political Platforms.

    PubMed

    Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the 'social investment state' refocuses attention on the productive function of social policy eclipsed for some time by the emphasis on its social protection or compensation roles. Here we distinguish between different social investment strategies, the Nordic 'heavy' and the Liberal 'light', with particular reference to the inclusive growth approach adopted in Australia. In 2007, social democrats in Australia returned to government with a clear mandate to reject the labour market deregulation and other neoliberal policies of its predecessor, and to tackle entrenched social and economic disadvantage in Australian society. For the last five years, social investment and inclusive growth has been at the centre of the Australian social policy agenda. Against this background, the article examines and critically assesses the (re)turn to 'social investment' thinking in Australia during Labor's term in office (2007-13). Analysis focuses not just on what was actually achieved, but also on the constraining role of prevailing economic and political circumstances and on the processes that were used to drive social investment reform. In many ways, the article goes some way to exposing ongoing tensions surrounding the distinctiveness of 'social investment' strategies pursued by leftist parties within the (neo)liberal state.

  5. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  6. Learning from Experience: A Guide to Social Impact Bond Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The social sector's hottest "impact investing" product--the social impact bond (SIB)--has generated a range of reactions, from excitement to angst. An SIB uses private funds to pay for a social, educational, or health program, and the government repays investors (plus a return) only if the program achieves prespecified results. The…

  7. 77 FR 18277 - Domini Social Investment Trust and Domini Social Investments LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... applicable law), to delegate portfolio management responsibilities of all or a portion of the assets of the...- 6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of Investment Company Regulation). SUPPLEMENTARY..., a Massachusetts business trust, is registered under the Act as an open-end management...

  8. The Social Investment of Private Pension Plan Assets: May It Be Done Lawfully Under ERISA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanoff, Ian D.

    1980-01-01

    Pension plan officials may invest on the basis of perceived social benefits provided they have examined a broad range of investments and have found selections having those socially desirable features among a broad class of otherwise suitable and equally desirable investment opportunities meeting the economic objectives of the plan. (Author/IRT)

  9. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending.

  10. Distributed cognition and social brains: reductions in mushroom body investment accompanied the origins of sociality in wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Bulova, Susan J; DeLeon, Sara; Khodak, Paulina; Miller, Skye; Sulger, Elisabeth

    2015-07-07

    The social brain hypothesis assumes the evolution of social behaviour changes animals' ecological environments, and predicts evolutionary shifts in social structure will be associated with changes in brain investment. Most social brain models to date assume social behaviour imposes additional cognitive challenges to animals, favouring the evolution of increased brain investment. Here, we present a modification of social brain models, which we term the distributed cognition hypothesis. Distributed cognition models assume group members can rely on social communication instead of individual cognition; these models predict reduced brain investment in social species. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain investment among 29 species of wasps (Vespidae family), including solitary species and social species with a wide range of social attributes (i.e. differences in colony size, mode of colony founding and degree of queen/worker caste differentiation). We compared species means of relative size of mushroom body (MB) calyces and the antennal to optic lobe ratio, as measures of brain investment in central processing and peripheral sensory processing, respectively. In support of distributed cognition predictions, and in contrast to patterns seen among vertebrates, MB investment decreased from solitary to social species. Among social species, differences in colony founding, colony size and caste differentiation were not associated with brain investment differences. Peripheral lobe investment did not covary with social structure. These patterns suggest the strongest changes in brain investment--a reduction in central processing brain regions--accompanied the evolutionary origins of eusociality in Vespidae.

  11. Social Return On Investment (SROI): Problems, solutions … and is SROI a good investment?

    PubMed

    Yates, Brian T; Marra, Mita

    2016-12-08

    The conclusion of this special issue on Social Return On Investment (SROI) begins with a summary of both advantages and problems of SROI, many of which were identified in preceding articles. We also offer potential solutions for some of these problems that can be derived from standard evaluation practices and that are becoming expected in SROIs that follow guidances from international SROI networks. A remaining concern about SROI is that we do not yet know if SROI itself adds sufficient benefit to programs to justify its cost. Two frameworks for this proposed metaevaluation of SROI are suggested, the first comparing benefits to costs summatively (the resource→outcome model). The second framework evaluates costs and benefits according to how much they contribute to or are caused by the different activities of SROI. This resource→activity→outcome model could enable outcomes of SROI to be maximized within resource constraints (such as budget and time limits) on SROI. Alternatively, information from this model could help minimize the costs of achieving a specific level of return on investment from conducting SROI. Possible problems with this metaevaluation of SROI are discussed.

  12. Distributed cognition and social brains: reductions in mushroom body investment accompanied the origins of sociality in wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Sean; Bulova, Susan J.; DeLeon, Sara; Khodak, Paulina; Miller, Skye; Sulger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis assumes the evolution of social behaviour changes animals' ecological environments, and predicts evolutionary shifts in social structure will be associated with changes in brain investment. Most social brain models to date assume social behaviour imposes additional cognitive challenges to animals, favouring the evolution of increased brain investment. Here, we present a modification of social brain models, which we term the distributed cognition hypothesis. Distributed cognition models assume group members can rely on social communication instead of individual cognition; these models predict reduced brain investment in social species. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain investment among 29 species of wasps (Vespidae family), including solitary species and social species with a wide range of social attributes (i.e. differences in colony size, mode of colony founding and degree of queen/worker caste differentiation). We compared species means of relative size of mushroom body (MB) calyces and the antennal to optic lobe ratio, as measures of brain investment in central processing and peripheral sensory processing, respectively. In support of distributed cognition predictions, and in contrast to patterns seen among vertebrates, MB investment decreased from solitary to social species. Among social species, differences in colony founding, colony size and caste differentiation were not associated with brain investment differences. Peripheral lobe investment did not covary with social structure. These patterns suggest the strongest changes in brain investment—a reduction in central processing brain regions—accompanied the evolutionary origins of eusociality in Vespidae. PMID:26085587

  13. Marginalised social groups in contemporary weee management within social enterprises investments: A study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaoikonomou, K; Kipouros, S; Kungolos, A; Somakos, L; Aravossis, K; Antonopoulos, I; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-05-01

    This paper deals with the creation of appropriate conditions aimed at developing social services for reuse and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), by the inclusion of handicapped and Roma people in the workforce. Application areas for the project are the Hellenic (Greek) regions of Thessaly and North Aegean, where these groups suffer from professional and social exclusion. The efforts to reduce unemployment in the two aforementioned groups, together with the efforts to implement related Greek and European legislation for sustainable WEEE management, are examined here. Furthermore, networking and cooperation at local, regional and central levels between small enterprises, entrepreneurships and local authorities are examined, so that these social enterprises and their corresponding investments may support the development of the Greek alternative WEEE recycling system.

  14. Marginalised social groups in contemporary weee management within social enterprises investments: A study in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Papaoikonomou, K. Kipouros, S.; Kungolos, A.; Somakos, L.; Aravossis, K.; Antonopoulos, I.; Karagiannidis, A.

    2009-05-15

    This paper deals with the creation of appropriate conditions aimed at developing social services for reuse and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), by the inclusion of handicapped and Roma people in the workforce. Application areas for the project are the Hellenic (Greek) regions of Thessaly and North Aegean, where these groups suffer from professional and social exclusion. The efforts to reduce unemployment in the two aforementioned groups, together with the efforts to implement related Greek and European legislation for sustainable WEEE management, are examined here. Furthermore, networking and cooperation at local, regional and central levels between small enterprises, entrepreneurships and local authorities are examined, so that these social enterprises and their corresponding investments may support the development of the Greek alternative WEEE recycling system.

  15. Comparative analysis of constraints and caste differences in brain investment among social paper wasps

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie; Molina, Yamile

    2011-01-01

    We compared species mean data on the size of functionally distinct brain regions to test the relative rates at which investment in higher-order cognitive processing (mushroom body calyces) versus peripheral sensory processing (optic and antennal lobes) increased with increasing brain size. Subjects were eusocial paper wasps from queen and worker castes of 10 species from different genera. Relative investment in central processing tissue increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripheral structure investment, demonstrating that tissue devoted to higher-order cognitive processing is more constrained by brain size. This pattern held for raw data and for phylogenetically independent contrasts. These findings suggest that there is a minimum necessary investment in peripheral sensory processing brain tissue, with little to gain from additional investment. In contrast, increased brain size provides opportunities to invest in additional higher-order cognitive processing tissue. Reproductive castes differed within species in brain tissue investment, with higher central-to-peripheral brain tissue ratios in queens than in workers. Coupled with previous findings that paper wasp queen, but not worker, brain architecture corresponds to ecological and social variation, queen brain evolution appears to be most strongly shaped by cognitive demands, such as social interactions. These evolutionary patterns of neural investment echo findings in other animal lineages and have important implications, given that a greater investment in higher-order processing has been shown to increase the prevalence of complex and flexible behaviors across the animal kingdom. PMID:21482775

  16. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  17. Reentry Planning for Mentally Disordered Inmates: A Social Investment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Bjerklie, J. R.; Maschi, Tina

    2005-01-01

    Correctional facilities are under increasing pressure to respond to the treatment needs of mentally disordered offenders during their incarceration and to arrange for treatment post release through reentry planning. This paper constructs cost estimates for three different reentry investments using data on the population (n = 2715) of male mentally…

  18. Measuring Social Return on Investment for Community Schools: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Laura; Hayes, Cheryl D.; Silloway, Torey

    2013-01-01

    Social return on investment (SROI) analysis offers a practical new approach for measuring and communicating the value of outcomes achieved by programs that provide social, health, and educational services to children and their families. This guide highlights the key steps in conducting SROI research, issues in data-gathering and analysis, as well…

  19. Measuring Social Return on Investment for Community Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Laura; Hayes, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Social return on investment (SROI) offers a new strategy to measure and communicate the value of outcomes achieved by programs that provide social, health, and education services to children and their families. It can be a powerful tool for demonstrating the monetary value of programs and services and for communicating that value in a way that can…

  20. Social investment and personality: a meta-analysis of the relationship of personality traits to investment in work, family, religion, and volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W

    2007-02-01

    Investing in normative, age-graded social roles has broad implications for both the individual and society. The current meta-analysis examines the way in which personality traits relate to four such investments -- work, family, religion, and volunteerism. The present study uses meta-analytic techniques (K = 94) to identify the cross-sectional patterns of relationships between social investment in these four roles and the personality trait domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. Results show that the extent of investment in social roles across these domains is positively related to agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and low psychoticism. These findings are more robust when individuals are psychologically committed to rather than simply demographically associated with the investment role.

  1. Multilateral development banks and socially responsible investments--the case of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lal, Pranay

    2012-12-01

    Globally, tobacco kills more people than HIV-related conditions or AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. In 1991, The World Bank, the world's largest lender, pledged that it would no longer support tobacco-related projects. It was expected that other financial investors would follow, but most did not respond to this call. As a result, several financial institutions continue to invest in tobacco and fuel an epidemic to an unprecedented scale. Using tobacco as a case in point, this review highlights the continuing investments among financial institutions which do not conform to 'socially responsible investments' and calls for monitoring and reporting such unethical practices. The paper also underscores the need to harmonise the numerous criteria, principles and voluntary codes that govern socially responsible investing and ensure that financial institutions comply with them.

  2. Universities as Intermediaries: Impact Investing and Social Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekula, Rebecca; Shah, Archana; Jhamb, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan universities are well poised in communities to be intermediaries among various actors involved in social innovation. Pace University established one of the first institutes on social entrepreneurship. Its unique position at the university level allows programming to transcend certain institutional challenges. The emerging field of…

  3. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-09-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed.

  4. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed. PMID:25039999

  5. Childhood as Social Investment, Rights and the Valuing of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of and close interplay between global discourses on children, notions of (a good) childhood at the national and local levels and childhoods as these are lived and experienced in particular social contexts. Two increasingly powerful global images of children are explored: Children as individual subjects with rights…

  6. Measuring Social Returns to Higher Education Investments in Hong Kong: Production Function Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voon, Jan P.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a growth model involving an aggregate production function to measure social benefits from human capital improvements due to investments in Hong Kong higher education. Returns calculated using the production-function approach are significantly higher than those derived from the wage-increment method. Returns declined during the past 10 years.…

  7. Quality Preschool Programs: A Long-Term Social Investment. Occasional Paper Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, David P.

    This report analyzes the long-term benefits, to children and society, of high-quality early childhood education. Specifically, it explores the contribution which these programs can make as a long-term social investment and as a means of ameliorating the effects of poverty. Evidence for the outcomes of such programs comes from a long-term study of…

  8. Scaling up Corporate Social Investments in Education: Five Strategies That Work. Global Views. Policy Paper 2012-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Fleet, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    Scaling up good corporate social investment practices in developing countries is crucial to realizing the "Education for All" and "Millennium Development Goals". Yet very few corporate social investments have the right mix of vision, financing, cross-sector engagement and leadership to come to scale. Globally, 67 million…

  9. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-07-14

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments.

  10. Optimal investment for enhancing social concern about biodiversity conservation: a dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung Hun; Iwasa, Yoh

    2012-11-01

    To maintain biodiversity conservation areas, we need to invest in activities, such as monitoring the condition of the ecosystem, preventing illegal exploitation, and removing harmful alien species. These require a constant supply of resources, the level of which is determined by the concern of the society about biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we study the optimal fraction of the resources to invest in activities for enhancing the social concern y(t) by environmental education, museum displays, publications, and media exposure. We search for the strategy that maximizes the time-integral of the quality of the conservation area x(t) with temporal discounting. Analyses based on dynamic programming and Pontryagin's maximum principle show that the optimal control consists of two phases: (1) in the first phase, the social concern level approaches to the final optimal value y(∗), (2) in the second phase, resources are allocated to both activities, and the social concern level is kept constant y(t) = y(∗). If the social concern starts from a low initial level, the optimal path includes a period in which the quality of the conservation area declines temporarily, because all the resources are invested to enhance the social concern. When the support rate increases with the quality of the conservation area itself x(t) as well as with the level of social concern y(t), both variables may increase simultaneously in the second phase. We discuss the implication of the results to good management of biodiversity conservation areas.

  11. Analysis and models of bilateral investment treaties using a social networks approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saban, Daniela; Bonomo, Flavia; Stier-Moses, Nicolás E.

    2010-09-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are agreements between two countries for the reciprocal encouragement, promotion and protection of investments in each other’s territories by companies based in either country. Germany and Pakistan signed the first BIT in 1959 and since then, BITs are one of the most popular and widespread form of international agreement. In this work we study the proliferation of BITs using a social networks approach. We propose a network growth model that dynamically replicates the empirical topological characteristics of the BIT network.

  12. Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimit, P. H. T.; Monteiro, L. H. A.; Omar, N.

    2014-03-01

    Assume that the households of a country are socially classified according to the monthly total income, and that they can be part of a lower, a middle or an upper class. By using multi-agent systems, here we model and simulate the economic evolution of households which earn a wage, pay taxes and invest in education. The return of the education investment is monthly added to the salary of the family, and it is function of the corresponding grand total put in education along the time. When a family is unemployed, we consider that it receives cash due to a social program made by the government. The time evolution of the percentages of households belonging to each class is investigated by varying the government investment in such a program of cash transfer and the proportion of employed households in the population. We show that the government should invest in the unemployed lower class if it intends a growth of the middle class. We also propose and analyze a mean-field approximation written in terms of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we verify that our model fits real data from Brazil, in the period between 2003 (when the cash transfer program Bolsa Família was launched) and 2011.

  13. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  14. Using of CBA Method for Evaluation of the Investments in the Link with Social Responsible Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvová, Ľubica; Vaňová, Jaromíra

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.

  15. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles.

  16. The U.S. Public's Investment in Medical Research: An Evolving Social Contract.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Stephen J; Dev, Anurupa; Bonham, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Medical researchers and their institutions are operating under extraordinary financial stress. More than a decade after completion of the 5-year doubling of the National Institutes of Health budget, the medical research community must confront a significant loss in National Institutes of Health purchasing power and downward pressures in federal discretionary spending. In part, this trend results from a federal budget stalemate over the growth in entitlement programs, particularly spending on medical care. This article considers the changing nature of the federal investment in medical research and the potential for medical researchers and institutions conducting the full spectrum of research to improve health system performance and health equity. In our view, continued federal investments reflect an evolving social contract for research serving the public good; the term contract is used metaphorically to represent a figurative, implicit agreement between the scientific community and the public's representatives in government. Under this conceptual contract, the American people--who are ultimately the funders of research, research training and infrastructure--expect outcomes that lead to better health, security or other benefits. The evolving contract includes expectations for more accountability, transparency, sharing of results and resources, and better integration of research systems and cultures that used to take pride in boundaries and distinctions. We outline here some of the major movements of organizations realigning to social support, which are increasingly essential to sustain public investment in medical research.

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Investment into Offspring Number, Size, and Condition in a Social Insect

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Bill D.; Chong, Cody D.; Wilder, Shawn M.; Eubanks, Micky D.; Holway, David A.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Resource availability can determine an organism’s investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta) to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation. PMID:26196147

  18. Developing and Implementing a Social Media Program While Optimizing Return on Investment--An MBA Program Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfoil, David M.; Aukers, Steven M.; Jobs, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, Web 2.0 has brought a wealth of opportunities for improving marketing effectiveness; social media platforms, in particular, have proven to be exceptional tools for realizing growth potential. The big question for businesses used to be how to measure and report financial return on investment (ROI) for social media ad spend to…

  19. Understanding Medicaid Managed Care Investments in Members' Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laura; Ackerman, Sara; Wing, Holly; Manchanda, Rishi

    2017-01-18

    Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities. Semistructured qualitative key informant interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 26 Medicaid Managed Care corporate executives. Data were analyzed with an iterative coding, thematic development and interpretation process. MMCO leaders' interests and activities around interventions to address SDH are described, as well as their perceptions of existing and potential incentives and barriers to expanding these interventions. Despite significant experimentation and programmatic diversity of interventions addressing social determinants, MMCO leaders struggle with clinical integration, financing, and evaluation efforts that could promote sustainability. Though their efforts are nascent, MMCO leaders are investing in tackling social determinants to improve health and to decrease health care spending in managed care settings that serve low-income populations. Results highlight both opportunities and concerns about sustaining and scaling clinical interventions addressing SDH.

  20. Deepening the Institutionalization of Service-Learning: The Added Value of Assessing the Social Return of Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen; Hatcher, Julie; Cecil, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to institutionalize service-learning are well documented (Furco 1996; Holland, 2000). Using Kecskes (2009) Community-Engaged Department Rubric we evaluated service-learning institutionalization within a school at a metropolitan campus. As a result, we propose adding an additional dimension, social return on investment. This added…

  1. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  2. Vocational Rehabilitation Partnerships: Optimizing the Social Value Return on Investment of Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Olszowy, Lorraine Florence

    2011-01-01

    This applied research project was developed to examine the social value return of investment (SV-ROI) of a community rehabilitation provider (CRP) in order to identify services that may optimize employment outcomes, better understand the associated factors affecting the employment outcomes and retention, and explore how vocational rehabilitation…

  3. Social return of R&D investments in manufacturing sector: Some insights from an exploratory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, J.; Ferreira, P.; Araújo, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the literature on how to measure the social impact of Research and Development (R&D) investment projects. For that purpose, an exploratory case study was undertaken to assess the importance that companies give to the social return of R&D investments and to identify the criteria and indicators more relevant for this evaluation process. The research undertaken is based on interviews conducted as part of a case study methodology involving a maritime-sector private company and the Technological Center of the Sea in Vigo. The results indicate that the criteria chosen as being the most important for the evaluation of social return of R&D were the number of jobs created at the company, the environmental impact and the working conditions. Also, in the case of Support Programs for R&D applications funding the research results indicate that the evaluation process presently followed does not properly address the socio-economic factors.

  4. Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Ana Maria Vanclay, Frank

    2009-02-15

    Mining companies are faced with growing societal demands that a sufficient portion of the benefits from mining should flow to local communities to ensure they are adequately compensated for the negative social impacts they experience. This paper considers how a more equitable benefit distribution system can be achieved through voluntary initiatives, recognising companies as potential agents for social development through the provision of improved services and infrastructure, capacity-building, employment and local economic development initiatives. Social Development Needs Analysis is introduced as an enhancement to participatory Social Impact Assessment methods to give practical guidance to site managers in evaluating community investment alternatives. Social Development Needs Analysis aims to identify the priority social issues that need to be addressed in order for a company to contribute to a net positive impact in the community while building assets for the business.

  5. Using cost-benefit analysis and social return on investment to evaluate the impact of social enterprise: Promises, implementation, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Joseph J

    2016-11-21

    Since the early 2000's there has been growing interest in using the Social Return on Investment (SROI) as a measure for assessing the performance of social enterprises. By analogy with its business counterpart, the Return on Investment (ROI), the SROI is a metric that compares the monetized social costs of a program with the monetized social benefits of achieving an outcome (or set of outcomes). For example, calculating the SROI of a nonprofit half-way house for drug addicts might involve estimating the reduced social costs attributable to successful rehabilitation of addicts, and comparing this to the social costs of operating the half-way house. Alternatively, the total return of a for-profit social enterprise providing affordable housing might consist both of the traditional private return on investment along with the economic value of meeting the housing needs of lower income households. Early descriptions of the methodology for calculating the SROI suggest that the approach initially evolved from standard methodologies found in the business finance literature for evaluating investments, with the important twist that nonprofit sector returns/payoffs are defined in broader social terms (Thornley, Anderson, & Dixon, 2016). Yet, someone who is familiar with the economic literature on cost benefit analysis (CBA) as it is applied to the evaluation of public programs cannot help but be struck by the similarity between the outcomes that CBA is intended to measure, and those that are the object of efforts to calculate the SROI. One implication is that the literature on the theory and practice of cost benefit analysis offers useful lessons about how to measure the social return on investment, as well as about potential caveats and limitations that need to be confronted when attempting to undertake an analysis of the SROI. The paper discusses the potential uses and limitations of CBA and SROI as tools that governments, private donor/investors, and foundations can use to

  6. Body-image evaluation and body-image investment among adolescents: a test of sociocultural and social comparison theories.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Todd G; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion models) were measured. Results provided minimal support for sociocultural theory, but fairly strong support for social comparison theory. Specifically, the extent to which males engaged in universalistic social comparison predicted appearance self-esteem, number of diets to gain weight, use of pathogenic weight control practices, and use of steroids to increase muscle mass. For females, universalistic social comparison predicted appearance self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, number of diets to lose weight, and use of pathogenic weight control practices. The possibility that the null effects for sociocultural theory were an artifact of dummy coding for missing data or theoretical interdependence were explored, but did not appear to be valid. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are outlined.

  7. Training Is an Investment with Return in Temporary Workers: A Social Exchange Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Sobral, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a social exchange relationship between temporary workers and organizations is possible. The authors aim to consider whether, when training is perceived by an employee as an organizational practice that promotes his or her employability, this entails a social exchange relationship.…

  8. Prepare to Engage: Building Relationships through Social Media Is a Smart Investment for Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doak, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The people an educational institution is trying to reach--prospective and current students, alumni and parents, to name a few--are no longer passive recipients of press releases and newsletters. They are on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, and any other social media platform that comes to mind. What can sometimes get lost amid the constant…

  9. Social Enterprise and the Measurement of Social Value: Methodological Issues with the Calculation and Application of the Social Return on Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick W.; Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the methodological challenge of quantifying the social value generated through social enterprise activity. It argues that in the context of increasing enthusiasm for social enterprise as a mechanism for delivering social services and for tackling social exclusion, it is increasingly necessary to be able to value social…

  10. Company, country, connections: counterfactual origins increase organizational commitment, patriotism, and social investment.

    PubMed

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; King, Brayden G

    2010-10-01

    Four studies examined the relationship between counterfactual origins--thoughts about how the beginning of organizations, countries, and social connections might have turned out differently--and increased feelings of commitment to those institutions and connections. Study 1 found that counterfactually reflecting on the origins of one's country increases patriotism. Study 2 extended this finding to organizational commitment and examined the mediating role of poignancy. Study 3 found that counterfactual reflection boosts organizational commitment even beyond the effects of other commitment-enhancing appeals and that perceptions of fate mediate the positive effect of counterfactual origins on commitment. Finally, Study 4 temporally separated the counterfactual manipulation from a behavioral measure of commitment and found that counterfactual reflection predicted whether participants e-mailed social contacts 2 weeks later. The robust relationship between counterfactual origins and commitment was found across a wide range of companies and countries, with undergraduates and M.B.A. students, and for attitudes and behaviors.

  11. Social and Spill-Over Benefits as Motivating Factors to Investment in Formal Education in Africa: A Reflection around Ghanaian, Kenyan and Rwandan Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampofo, S. Y.; Bizimana, B.; Ndayambaje, I.; Karongo, V.; Lawrence, K. Lyn; Orodho, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social and spill-over benefits as motivating factors to investment in formal education in selected countries in Africa. The paper had three objectives, namely) to profile the key statistics of formal schooling; ii) examine the formal education and iii) link national goals of education with expectations in Ghana, Kenya and…

  12. Investment Avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  13. Home Visitation and Young Children: An Approach Worth Investing In? Social Policy Report. Volume XXIII, Number IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astuto, Jennifer; Allen, LaRue

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 million children from birth through age six in the US live in low-income families. Although large investments in early childhood intervention programs are evident, is the field fully exploiting its potential to address the diverse needs of children and families? One means of addressing this question is to focus on the efficacy of…

  14. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  15. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  16. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  17. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  18. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  19. From SRI to ESG: The Changing World of Responsible Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Lauren; Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Thoughtful investment professionals continue to debate whether a portfolio's long-term performance can be enhanced by including environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in the security selection process, but responsible investing is more than a passing trend. The terms socially-responsible investing, mission-related investing,…

  20. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  1. Class Habitus: Middle-Class Chinese Immigrant Parents' Investment in Their Newcomer Adolescents' L2 Acquisition and Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Xia

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic case study explores how two middle-class Chinese immigrant parents in a southeastern U.S. city facilitate their newcomer adolescents' second language acquisition and social integration. Data show that parents' inadequate English proficiency may not be a fixed constraining factor; their class habitus and cultural capital may…

  2. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  3. Our Investment in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Examines the role of public schools in promoting social and economic progress and discusses the future costs of inadequate investments in public education. Research shows that education reduces racial and ethnic prejudice and that literacy increases worker productivity. Inadequate education is directly related to increased unemployment, welfare…

  4. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  5. Investment in Green Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  6. Specialized Investment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Robert S.

    1970-01-01

    The informational needs of the investing public should be met by the public library. Suggestions for specialized investment information services with broad appeal, technical charts, and advisory services which public libraries might consider purchasing. (JS)

  7. Family and Social Risk, and Parental Investments during the Early Childhood Years as Predictors of Low-Income Children's School Readiness Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Benner, Aprile D.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Howes, Carollee

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project (N = 1851), the current study examined relations among cumulative family and social risk, assessed during infancy and the preschool years, and children's prekindergarten achievement, self-regulatory skills, and problematic social behavior, testing if these…

  8. Caring relationships: an investment in health?

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Although the US has created the most expensive, technologically advanced medical system in the world, health outcomes are not commensurate with investment. The author argues that providers and policy makers have neglected the effect of human relationships on health, citing research showing that better relationships lead to better health. The author concludes with recommendations for improving public health by supporting society's investments in social capital. Images p145-a p149-a PMID:10968746

  9. Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C

    2000-01-01

    In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on the physical and social well-being of children are reviewed in light of the social and ecological factors that are associated with paternal investment in other species. On the basis of this review, discussion of the evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment is provided.

  10. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  11. Young People in Transition--The Local Investment. A Handbook Concerning the Social and Vocational Integration of Young People: Local and Regional Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jeremy; McLeish, Henry

    Written for practitioners rather than policymakers, this document is intended for those who seek to relate educational and training opportunities to local and individual needs; use fresh approaches to integrated services for young people trapped by unemployment, social and economic change, and poor living conditions; and achieve high quality…

  12. Investment in preventing and preparing for biological emergencies and disasters: social and economic costs of disasters versus costs of surveillance and response preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rushton, J; Upton, M

    2006-04-01

    Biological emergencies such as the appearance of an exotic transboundary or emerging disease can become disasters. The question that faces Veterinary Services in developing countries is how to balance resources dedicated to active insurance measures, such as border control, surveillance, working with the governments of developing countries, and investing in improving veterinary knowledge and tools, with passive measures, such as contingency funds and vaccine banks. There is strong evidence that the animal health situation in developed countries has improved and is relatively stable. In addition, through trade with other countries, developing countries are becoming part of the international animal health system, the status of which is improving, though with occasional setbacks. However, despite these improvements, the risk of a possible biological disaster still remains, and has increased in recent times because of the threat of bioterrorism. This paper suggests that a model that combines decision tree analysis with epidemiology is required to identify critical points in food chains that should be strengthened to reduce the risk of emergencies and prevent emergencies from becoming disasters.

  13. Investment in Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  14. Investing in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Investing in Innovation" provides a snapshot of trends in the states and identifies a wide range of strategies now employed. California's big investments, such as $3 billion for stem cell research, have already grabbed national headlines. But states like Arizona, Indiana and North Dakota, which haven't historically been big research and…

  15. Beginning Together: Reforming Schools by Investing in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…

  16. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  17. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  18. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    2015 Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Modeling Sustainment ... Sustainment Investment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015

  19. Foundations Invest In Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Sessions, Kathryn; Fortunato, Karla; Johnson, Philip R S; Panek, Amy

    2016-11-01

    Nearly one in four deaths globally are due to environmental hazards such as air and water pollution, according to the World Health Organization. However, knowledge about how the environment affects health and health equity outcomes has not been well integrated into decisions that shape the conditions in which people live, work, and play. To address this challenge, US foundations have invested millions of dollars to make it easier to incorporate environmental health information into decisions ranging from family purchases and governmental policy making to business, medical, and other professional practices. This article summarizes grant making aimed at improving environmental conditions to improve health and health equity outcomes. We provide examples of environmental health grants that focus on tools that the public, policy makers, and professionals can use in making decisions. We found that the investment in and attention to environmental factors, including in work addressing social determinants of health, have been insufficient to realize the potential for reducing negative environmental impacts on health and health disparities. We argue that the grant making highlighted here has increased knowledge that could enable more widespread consideration of environmental health in many decisions, with positive effects on health and health equity.

  20. Watering the investment tree

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    Recycling investment forums have started to catch hold across the US as a means of educating investors about the benefits of recycling businesses, while helping those businesses obtain the startup of expansion funding they need. Recycling investment forums are designed to bring together recycling business entrepreneurs with investors, financiers, and economic development officials for their mutual benefit. But will investors shell out the money, and will investment forums be successful in increasing opportunities for recycling businesses? All small, start-up business need funding to be successful. A great idea or innovative program can wither on the vine if it does not get the financial support it needs to grow. Recycling businesses are no exception, and many also face additional challenges beyond those faced by the average small business. Recycling businesses are newer and have no proven track record of success, and many investors are wary of taking a chance on an unknown entity.

  1. Comparing project investments

    SciTech Connect

    Wirasinghe, E.

    1988-06-01

    HPI managers are often faced with the nightmare of deciding on which projects to invest their limited capital. There usually are more potential projects than money available for investment. A typical strategy is in two parts: select a method to rank the projects; consider corporate policy to make a choice. This discussion highlights various ways to rank projects. After a discussion of some ranking methods, three cases are presented where it appears the wrong project was selected - either because of incorrect advice or because data were intentionally manipulated.

  2. Grandparental investment: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Hertwig, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    What motivates grandparents to their altruism? We review answers from evolutionary theory, sociology, and economics. Sometimes in direct conflict with each other, these accounts of grandparental investment exist side-by-side, with little or no theoretical integration. They all account for some of the data, and none account for all of it. We call for a more comprehensive theoretical framework of grandparental investment that addresses its proximate and ultimate causes, and its variability due to lineage, values, norms, institutions (e.g., inheritance laws), and social welfare regimes. This framework needs to take into account that the demographic shift to low fecundity and mortality in economically developed countries has profoundly altered basic parameters of grandparental investment. We then turn to the possible impact of grandparental acts of altruism, and examine whether benefits of grandparental care in industrialized societies may manifest in terms of less tangible dimensions, such as the grandchildren's cognitive and verbal ability, mental health, and well-being. Although grandparents in industrialized societies continue to invest substantial amounts of time and money in their grandchildren, we find a paucity of studies investigating the influence that this investment has on grandchildren in low-risk family contexts. Under circumstances of duress - for example, teenage pregnancy or maternal depression - there is converging evidence that grandparents can provide support that helps to safeguard their children and grandchildren against adverse risks. We conclude by discussing the role that grandparents could play in what has been referred to as Europe's demographic suicide.

  3. Gaining an Investment Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, William T.

    2000-01-01

    Recommendations for investing college/university endowment funds focus on identifying structural and skill-based competitive advantages. These include the long institutional time horizon and the ability to endure short-term volatility. Implications for endowment management are applied to selecting an endowment manager and asset allocation. (DB)

  4. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  5. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  6. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  7. Designing a successful investment program.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, J P

    1997-02-01

    Healthcare organizations have various asset pool funds that can be invested to increase nonoperating revenues. In order to maximize the long-term success of investment efforts, healthcare organizations need to develop comprehensive investment management programs. Such programs identify the assets that can be invested, establish the level of risk each asset type can be exposed to, and match long-term and short-term investment opportunities to the appropriate asset pool. Programs can be managed internally or outsourced to investment management firms with objectives and procedures that are compatible with those of the healthcare organizations' investment policies and guidelines. These policies and guidelines must address asset allocation. Oversight committees must be established to monitor investment performance and reallocate assets, as needed, to take advantage of market movements.

  8. Investing in Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Investing in Software Sustainment Robert Ferguson, Software Engineering...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investing in Software Sustainment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In many government weapon systems, sustaining software depends heavily on organic engineering efforts. This is different

  9. Investment under Uncertainty with Manager-Shareholder Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Nishihara, Michi

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines investment timing by the manager in a decentralized firm in the presence of asymmetric information. In particular, we extend the agency problem in a real options model to incorporate an audit technology which allows the owner, at a cost, to verify private information. The implied investment triggers include those in three related papers: standard full information model (e.g., McDonald and Siegel, 1986); Grenadier and Wang (2005); Shibata (2009). An increase in the penalty for the manager's false report always reduces inefficiency in the investment triggers, while it does not necessarily reduce inefficiency in the total social welfare. Most importantly, however, the full information investment triggers and total social welfare can be approximated arbitrarily closely by making the penalty sufficiently large.

  10. Systems science: a good investment for the public's health.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Patricia L; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    This supplement of Health Education & Behavior showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. These investments have included funding opportunity announcements, training programs, developing resources for researchers, cross-disciplinary fertilization, and publication. While much progress has been made, continuing investment is needed in the future to ensure the viability and sustainability of this young but increasingly important field.

  11. Investing in Justice: Ethics, Evidence, and the Eradication Investment Cases for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Maria W.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people’s experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  12. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.

  13. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments. (a... exceed five (5) percent of the investment company's total portfolio. (e) Other investments approved...

  14. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  15. The Good Investment.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-01-24

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  16. Investments in random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús Emeterio; Cantero-Álvarez, Rubén; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Schweitzer, Frank

    2008-03-01

    We present analytical investigations of a multiplicative stochastic process that models a simple investor dynamics in a random environment. The dynamics of the investor's budget, x(t) , depends on the stochasticity of the return on investment, r(t) , for which different model assumptions are discussed. The fat-tail distribution of the budget is investigated and compared with theoretical predictions. We are mainly interested in the most probable value xmp of the budget that reaches a constant value over time. Based on an analytical investigation of the dynamics, we are able to predict xmpstat . We find a scaling law that relates the most probable value to the characteristic parameters describing the stochastic process. Our analytical results are confirmed by stochastic computer simulations that show a very good agreement with the predictions.

  17. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  18. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  19. Investing in Financial Planning Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKimm, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 34 sources of information on various aspects of financial planning for libraries interested in building a core collection. Highlights include general advice, insurance guidelines, buying and selling homes, investment guides, women's special needs, retirement planning, periodicals, and investment newsletters.…

  20. In Defense of Parental Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    Defends attachment theory and its relation to parental investment. Misunderstandings of the rationale for Parental Investment in the Child Questionnaire (PIC) and the measurement of attitudes in Sharon Hays's article are discussed. Parental and cultural issues are discussed with particular attention to data on fathers and applicability across…

  1. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks...

  2. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  3. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is...

  4. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  5. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is...

  6. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  7. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  8. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  9. 12 CFR 195.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 195.23 Section 195.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 195.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  10. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks...

  11. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  12. 20 CFR 410.585 - Conservation and investment of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conservation and investment of payments. 410.585 Section 410.585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.585 Conservation...

  13. 20 CFR 410.585 - Conservation and investment of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and investment of payments. 410.585 Section 410.585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.585 Conservation...

  14. Why Families Invest in Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.

    In this document, differences in what students expect to earn and what the census data indicates is eventually being earned at each age is considered. The difference between private returns and social rates of return is defined and reported by occupational field. Finally, the primary emphasis on why students and their families invest in graduate…

  15. Investing in Early Childhood Education: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. S.; Nores, M.

    2012-01-01

    The last several decades have seen growing global interest in the potential for public investments in early childhood care and education (ECCE) to improve the development of young children, especially those from socially disadvantaged groups. This interest is based on evidence of the importance of environmental influences on early cognitive and…

  16. 20 CFR 404.2045 - Conservation and investment of benefit payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and investment of benefit payments. 404.2045 Section 404.2045 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2045 Conservation and investment...

  17. Recent Research on the Economics of Attending College: Returns on Investment and Responsiveness to Price.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines recent research on private returns to investment in baccalaureate and sub-baccalaureate postsecondary education, social returns to investment in higher education, and student responsiveness to tuition and financial aid. Focus is on implications for policy and practice in areas such as enrollment management, role of colleges in relation to…

  18. Documenting investment policy boosts safety, returns.

    PubMed

    Kovener, R R

    1992-02-01

    The process and responsibility for a healthcare organization's investment decisions should be clearly documented in an investment policy. Any investment policy should contain at least seven elements: how investments relate to the organization's mission; responsibilities of involved parties; long- and short-term objectives; desired balance between return and risk; proportions of a portfolio held in stocks, bonds, and other investments; disposition of donated assets; desired investment reports; and the process for keeping the policy current.

  19. [Efficiency assessment of investment in workers' health--economic issues].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela; Dawydzik, Lech T

    2002-01-01

    The economic analysis of efficiency of investment in health care and health at large by means of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness techniques is the subject of implementation work in a number of countries. Poland's integration with the countries of the European Union justifies the need to understand and to use economic analyses. Unfortunately, these activities encounter many methodological and executive barriers. The investments in workers' health are not only investments in health care and the improvement of working conditions, but also in compensations, including financial ones, resulting from adverse effects of factors influencing the health of working population. The financial reporting system that exists in Poland does not ensure the possibility of full presentation of the aggregated data on the financing of activities for workers' health and diminishing of the adverse effects of factors present in the work environment. The information on the outcome of the investments in workers' health come from different sources, which means that it applies to different groups subjected to the analysis. The problem lies not only in the assessment of profitability of health investments but also in the social problem of the division of the resultant costs and benefits among various branches of the national economy. Therefore, the analyses involving mutual relations between individual sectors that invest in workers' health and those that bear consequences is essential in the terms of economic analyses. The authors present the determinants of economic evaluation in regard to health of working population in Poland.

  20. Investment strategies and hidden variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; Serva, M.

    2006-06-01

    The present study shows how the information on `hidden' market variables effects optimal investment strategies. We take the point of view of two investors, one who has access to the hidden variables and one who only knows the quotes of a given asset. Following Kelly's theory on investment strategies, the Shannon information and the doubling investment rate are quantified for both investors. Thanks to his privileged knowledge, the first investor can follow a better investment strategy. Nevertheless, the second investor can extract some of the hidden information looking at the past history of the asset variable. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of his strategy, this investor will have computational difficulties when he tries to apply it. He will than follow a simplified strategy, based only on the average sign of the last l quotes of the asset. This results have been tested with some Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. 42 CFR 411.362 - Additional requirements concerning physician ownership and investment in hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an exception is granted by the Secretary pursuant to section 1877(i)(3) of the Social Security Act... public Web site for the hospital and in any public advertising that the hospital is owned or invested...

  2. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund....

  3. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that...

  4. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8 Nonconforming investments. (a) A national bank's investment in securities that no longer conform to this...

  5. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  6. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund....

  7. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes. Each Farm Credit bank is allowed to hold eligible investments, listed under § 615.5140, in an amount not...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  10. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness... zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1)...

  11. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized investments. 956.2 Section 956.2... ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.2 Authorized investments. In addition to assets... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent...

  12. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and...

  13. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other investments. 256.124... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or current value of investments, whichever is less, in securities, club memberships, associations,...

  14. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other investments. 256.124... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or current value of investments, whichever is less, in securities, club memberships, associations,...

  15. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness... zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1)...

  16. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall...

  17. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8 Nonconforming investments. (a) A national bank's investment in securities that no longer conform to this...

  18. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8 Nonconforming investments. (a) A national bank's investment in securities that no longer conform to this...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... investment activities. Your board must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  20. The Investment Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The investment committee of the college or university governing board is charged with determining, overseeing, and assessing the policies and processes by which institutional funds are invested. The committee has fiduciary duty to ensure that the terms of investment of donors' gifts are met and to maximize investment returns within an appropriate…

  1. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  2. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  3. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  4. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  5. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and...

  6. Investment policy, guidelines help providers control risk.

    PubMed

    Seidner, A G

    1989-03-01

    Because the financial markets are volatile, every healthcare organization should establish its own investment policy and guidelines. An investment policy reflects the views of a hospital's board of trustees, and helps the trustees avoid conflict of interest situations. Investment guidelines spell out management's approach to three critical investing components: safety of principal, liquidity, and yield.

  7. Children Base Their Investment on Calculated Pay-Off

    PubMed Central

    Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the rise of economic abilities during development we studied children aged between 3 and 10 in an exchange situation requiring them to calculate their investment based on different offers. One experimenter gave back a reward twice the amount given by the children, and a second always gave back the same quantity regardless of the amount received. To maximize pay-offs children had to invest a maximal amount with the first, and a minimal amount with the second. About one third of the 5-year-olds and most 7- and 10-year-olds were able to adjust their investment according to the partner, while all 3-year-olds failed. Such performances should be related to the rise of cognitive and social skills after 4 years. PMID:22413006

  8. The primary parental investment in children in the contemporary USA is education : Testing the Trivers-Willard hypothesis of parental investment.

    PubMed

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L; Martin, David O

    2014-06-01

    This paper tests the Trivers-Willard hypothesis that high-status individuals will invest more in sons and low-status individuals will invest more in daughters using data from the 2000 to 2010 General Social Survey and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We argue that the primary investment U.S. parents make in their children is in their children's education, and this investment is facilitated by a diverse market of educational choices at every educational level. We examine two measures of this investment: children's years of education and the highest degree attained. Results show that sons of high-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than daughters, whereas daughters of low-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than sons. Further analyses of possible mechanisms for these findings yield null results. We also find that males are more likely to have high-status fathers than females.

  9. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of...

  10. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of...

  11. Sizing Up Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    Most people are aware of the increasing importance of social media to institutional advancement, and many colleges and universities have started investing resources in these media. The next step is to measure the impact of social media on the institution and evaluate the success of one's efforts. Every advancement leader should understand how…

  12. Foreign direct investment, development, and overshoot.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Overshoot of the earth's carrying capacity is an acute concern for sustainability initiatives that seek to equalize access to the natural resources that are requisite to meet the basic needs of humanity. Demands on nature that exceed ecological capacities compromise critical ecosystem functions that provision the inputs necessary for life. This paper draws on concepts and analytical frameworks from the natural, physical, and social sciences to assess the drivers of sustainability at the global and national level. Integrative theoretical predictions are tested in a structural equation model that advances empirical research on overshoot and outflows of foreign investments that is relatively lacking in the literature. Findings highlight the differential impacts of key aspects of economic globalization on both development and overshoot across nations.

  13. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  14. Multinational Investment: Opportunity and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains nine articles focusing on the internationalization of the world's economy and business and how employment security and employment and training programs can be involved. The opening article, "Foreign Investment Euphoria Hides Community Upheaval" (W. Scott Boyd), provides an overview of the volume…

  15. Investing in the Central Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis Anne

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking against similar districts, ideally higher-performing ones, can be a valuable tool for determining the appropriate level of central-office investment. Unfortunately, reliable benchmarks on district spending in teaching and learning support are not readily available. This should not preclude districts from using this valuable method to…

  16. Afresh look at capital investments.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alexis; Lawrence, Jennifer; Shiple, David

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals should focus on optimizing performance in five primary areas of capital investment: facilities, IT, physician networks, service lines, and clinical equipment/technology. Hospitals require a broad evaluation framework to help identify the key issues and concerns associated with each area. Discipline is critical to this process, so that every area receives its due consideration.

  17. Manpower Targets and Educational Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzen, Jo M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the use of quadratic programming to calculate the optimal distribution of educational investments required to closely approach manpower targets when financial resources are insufficient to meet manpower targets completely. Demonstrates use of the quadratic programming approach by applying it to the training of supervisory technicians in…

  18. Investment Clubs Teach Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted by "Money" Magazine in August 2006 found that students are not as financially literate as they ought to be. Teachers are now being challenged to find alternative strategies to educate students in the ways of personal finance. One component of personal finance that is particularly challenging is investments. In this article, the…

  19. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    PubMed

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  20. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  1. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as long as the prospectus of the company or fund restricts the investment portfolio to investments... assessment of the market value of the securities under § 703.13(c)(1) using an independent qualified...

  2. [Sensitivity analysis in health investment projects].

    PubMed

    Arroyave-Loaiza, G; Isaza-Nieto, P; Jarillo-Soto, E C

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the concepts and methodologies frequently used in sensitivity analyses in the evaluation of investment programs. In addition, a concrete example is presented: a hospital investment in which four indicators were used to design different scenarios and their impact on investment costs. This paper emphasizes the importance of this type of analysis in the field of management of health services, and more specifically in the formulation of investment programs.

  3. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations*

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2012-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility. PMID:23243469

  4. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2010-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility.

  5. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  6. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal credit union may purchase a European financial options contract or a series of European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  7. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... years. (g) European financial options contract. A Federal credit union may purchase a European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  8. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... years. (g) European financial options contract. A Federal credit union may purchase a European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  9. 31 CFR 586.312 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 586.312 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.312 New investment. The term new investment means... to, or a loan or other extension of credit to, a public or private undertaking, entity, or...

  10. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995,...

  12. 76 FR 28504 - Lending and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness...

  13. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated...

  14. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.3 Investment policies. A Federal credit union's board of directors must...

  15. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated...

  16. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550... investments for safety and soundness purposes are found at 12 CFR 560 and 562.1, 563.41, 563.170, and...

  17. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207 Section... Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to May 7, 1995, any new investment by a United...

  18. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... activities. Your board of directors must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  20. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a long-term rating no lower than A−or its equivalent and outstanding debt with a short-term rating... of its assets measured at the time of investment or adjustment. A Federal credit union's aggregate... percent of its assets measured at the time of investment or adjustment. (c) Registered investment...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... activities. Your board of directors must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  2. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  3. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... activities. Your board of directors must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  5. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  6. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit... considered under the lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c)...

  7. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  8. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  9. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  10. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  11. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  12. Nation Assistance, Charity or Investment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 SBOOD ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I WTC PÜXI.TTT VR USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Nation Assistance, Charity or Investment? by Cortez... collapse . Many investors are seeing this as an opportunity to get in while the market is under valued and make huge profits in a short period of

  13. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments...

  14. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments...

  15. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives. 2550.404c-5 Section 2550.404c-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives. (a) In general. (1)...

  16. 78 FR 46805 - Certain Transfers of Property to Regulated Investment Companies [RICs] and Real Estate Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... to a Regulated Investment Company (RIC) or a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). These regulations... 851(a). (iv) REIT. The term REIT means a real estate investment trust within the meaning of...

  17. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk...

  18. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk...

  19. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk...

  20. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  1. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  2. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  3. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  4. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  5. Social Enterprises and Social Sector Workforces: Workforce Initiatives Discussion Paper #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that investing in social sector supply, service, and value chains has exponentially stronger development impact than investments in other sectors. There are often severely lacking social services such as child care, elder care, health care delivery, prescription drug distribution, home schooling, and private sector…

  6. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  7. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    PubMed

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas.

  8. Our Children: Parental Decisions - How Much to Invest in Your Offspring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenk, Mary K.

    Reproduction is the most fundamental of evolutionary behaviors, yet human parents face especially complex tradeoffs when deciding how many children to have and how much to invest in each of them. This chapter reviews parental investment theory, including both the key concepts and some important questions to which they have been applied in humans. Written primarily from the perspective of human behavioral ecology, this chapter also discusses how evolutionary social scientists have approached cross-cultural variation in parenting behavior. The chapter begins with an overview of life history theory and the concept of reproductive tradeoffs, focusing especially on the tradeoffs between current vs. future reproduction and quantity vs. quality of offspring. Discussing the critical question of who invests in offspring, I next compare motivations for investment between mothers and fathers, and explore the roles of many types of kin in investment, while considering whether humans can be viewed as cooperative breeders. I then explore the role of parent-offspring conflict and sibling conflict in parental investment and inheritance systems, followed by an exploration of sex biases in investment, including the Trivers-Willard effect local resource competition, and local resource enhancement. In conclusion, I argue that parental investment has been one of the most active areas of enquiry among evolutionary researchers over the last twenty years, and is likely to remain one of the mainstays of the field during the coming decades.

  9. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  10. Global Governmental Investment in Nanotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnologies seem to have huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, information and communication infrastructures, and the production of stronger, lighter and perfect nanomaterials. This potential attracts global investment from governments and private sectors in nanotechnologies with the hopes that R&D and commercial applications of nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoparticles and nanodrugs will provide new impetus, after the ebb-tides of biotechnology and dotcom, to turn faltering economies around. The global governmental funding has been actively promoting industrial and academic cooperation to realize big prosperity from the nanotechnologies. This article summarizes historic trends and status of global governmental supports for nanotechnologies. PMID:19865495

  11. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  12. Investment management. 8 steps to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Angelo A

    2003-06-01

    Today's troubling economic times call for financial managers to take a back-to-basics approach to investment management. Goals and investment practices should be reexamined to determine if they continue to meet the organization's needs. The policy asset allocation and portfolio should reflect the appropriate weight and mix to serve the organization's present and long-term goals. Consultants, investment managers, and custodians should be evaluated carefully to support cost-efficient, effective service.

  13. Statistical properties of world investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-06-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation on the world investment networks constructed from the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS) data of the International Monetary Fund, ranging from 2001 to 2006. The distributions of degrees and node strengths are scale-free. The weight distributions can be well modeled by the Weibull distribution. The maximum flow spanning trees of the world investment networks possess two universal allometric scaling relations, independent of time and the investment type. The topological scaling exponent is 1.17±0.02 and the flow scaling exponent is 1.03±0.01.

  14. Thermal behaviour of casting investment during setting.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the thermal reactions of silica-sol liquids for mixing investment powders using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and also the setting behaviour of the mixed powders using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The silica-sol liquids showed the appearance of vapourization (around 100 degrees C as a peak temperature) and combustion (200-300 degrees C) in DTA measurement. Mixed silica-sol investment exhibited the setting behaviour with an exotherm in the DSC measurement representing that greater peak time, setting time and heat in mixed investment than with gypsum-bonded investment.

  15. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States, the host country must maintain the highest sovereign rating for political and economic stability by an NRSRO. (c) Marketable securities. All eligible investments, except money...

  16. \\t Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) for the Management of Information Technology Investments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) is the Information Technology (IT) governance and management methodology in use at EPA for selecting, controlling and evaluating the performance of EPA IT investments throughout the full lifecycle.

  17. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts. 1.58-6 Section 1.58-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies;...

  18. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section in connection with the management of a qualified default... as investment management fees, distribution and/or service fees, “12b-1” fees, or legal, accounting... to management by the investment management service to the extent the investment management...

  19. 17 CFR 210.12-15 - Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form.... Column A Type of investment Column B Cost 1 Column C Value Column D Amount at which shown in the...

  20. 77 FR 22516 - Certain Transfers of Property to Regulated Investment Companies [RICs] and Real Estate Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice... transfers of property from a C corporation to a Regulated Investment Company (RIC) or a Real Estate... may not be circumvented * * * through the use of a regulated investment company, a real...

  1. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate... their shareholders and real estate investment trusts (as defined in section 856) and their shareholders... real estate investment trust, accelerated depreciation on section 1250 property (sections 57(a)(2)...

  2. 75 FR 63110 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Administrator for Investment, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street, SW., Washington, DC 20416... to Carol Fendler, Investment Division, 409 Third Street, SW., Washington, DC 20416. Highlight the... investment in a small business under the same terms and conditions, which include the acquisition by...

  3. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regulated investment companies; real estate... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real... of the items of tax preference of regulated investment companies (as defined in section 851)...

  4. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulated investment companies; real estate... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real... of the items of tax preference of regulated investment companies (as defined in section 851)...

  5. 77 FR 20292 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... investments would be in the same 2:1 ratio). * * * * * (g) Public notice. Before granting an exemption under... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AF56 Small Business Investment Companies--Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  6. Public Libraries--A Wise Investment: A Return on Investment Study of Colorado Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Nicolle; Lietzau, Zeth; Lance, Keith Curry; Rybin, Amanda; Molliconi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries deliver many benefits to their patrons, but understanding these benefits in terms of dollars-and-cents is difficult. In an effort to quantify the return on investment to taxpayers for monies invested in public libraries, the Library Research Service (LRS) initiated the study, "Public Libraries -- A Wise Investment: A Return…

  7. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...This document contains final regulations under section 1411 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). These regulations provide guidance on the general application of the Net Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income...

  8. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  9. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment... reliability of risk management systems and must take into consideration the interest rate risk...

  10. Enterprise Return on a Training Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucouliagos, Chris; Sgro, Pasquale

    The return on investment (ROI) obtained by enterprises that invest in training was examined through case studies of seven Australian work organizations. The case study organizations included a government-owned transportation company, a privately owned company, a major nongovernmental charitable organization, a publicly listed corporation, and two…

  11. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... terms are defined in 12 U.S.C. 2907(b)) will be considered as a qualified investment. (e) Performance... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... broader statewide or regional area that includes the bank's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion....

  12. Endowment Investing: Time for a Sustainability Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Managers of university endowment funds are paying closer attention to investing in "green" industries, commonly bundled under the umbrella "cleantech." Cleantech offers the possibility of buying in while prices are low "and" making a "green" investment play, but it also harbors the risks inherent in any emerging industry. Cleantech has varying…

  13. 12 CFR 652.10 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment management. 652.10 Section 652.10... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS § 652.10 Investment management. (a) Responsibilities of the board of... activities. Your board must also ensure that management complies with these policies and that...

  14. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  15. Financial and Investment Sources on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discusses print and World Wide Web resources on personal finance, investments, and other business information and provides an annotated bibliography of investment and the stock market sites: meta sites, stock quotes, market news, data and analysis, brokerage firms, and sites for beginning investors. Includes addresses. (PEN)

  16. Reporting on Investments of Endowment Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Much has been said and written about the need for measuring accurately and improving the investment performance of college and university endowment funds, but little has been written about how colleges and universities should report on the status and performance of the investments of endowment funds. When guidelines for reporting are adopted, a…

  17. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Farm Credit bank is allowed to hold eligible investments, listed under § 615.5140, in an amount not...

  18. 75 FR 18407 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... CFR Chapter II RIN 1855-AA06 Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA...: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Final priorities, requirements..., definitions, and selection criteria (Final Rule) for the Investing in Innovation Fund. This document makes...

  19. Financing Higher Education: The Public Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    The relationship between public investment in higher education and a strong regional economy is examined in eight chapters, with a focus on New England. In "Underfunding and Overtaxing in New England," Melvin H. Bernstein considers the business climate and excessive tax burdens in New England. "Higher Education: Investment or…

  20. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks... extent of that authority. Those with authority must be qualified by education or experience to assess the... requirement of this part; and (k) How the Federal credit union will conduct investment trading activities,...

  1. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks... extent of that authority. Those with authority must be qualified by education or experience to assess the... requirement of this part; and (k) How the Federal credit union will conduct investment trading activities,...

  2. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Obligations of the United States; (b) Deposits in banks or trust companies; (c) Obligations, participations or... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent such... determined are permissible investments for fiduciary or trust funds under the laws of the state in which...

  3. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    PubMed

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  4. 12 CFR 9.18 - Collective investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use a fair value determined in good faith. (B) Short-term investment funds. A bank may value a fund's... applicable law, a national bank may invest assets that it holds as fiduciary in the following collective investment funds: 1 1 In determining whether investing fiduciary assets in a collective investment fund...

  5. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32... Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A federal savings association (“you”) may make pass-through investments. A pass-through investment...

  6. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  7. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  8. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  9. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  10. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  11. Realizing Youth Justice: Advancing Education and Employment through Public Policy and Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha

    2016-01-01

    Youth of color are full of promise; they are courageous, intelligent, creative, curious, bold, and resilient. An investment strategy placing them at the center and addressing the structural barriers that keep them locked out of social, emotional, and economic prosperity because of their race/ethnicity, gender, and/or zip code is both fiscally…

  12. Application of Investment Theory to Predicting Maintenance of the Intent to Stay among Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Chloe Y. H.; Okun, Morris A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that constructs from different disciplines should be incorporated into Tinto's (1993) sociological model of the determinants of departure from college (Ackerman & Schibrowsky, 2007). We tested the hypothesis that variables derived from Rusbult's (1983) social-psychological investment theory contribute, above and…

  13. The Impact of the Workforce Investment Act Training Program on Unemployment in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormen, Francis T.

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a major social problem in a small East Coast county, with lack of work experience and few marketable skills serving as the contributing factors. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) training program is a federal program implemented by the states to improve the occupational skills and the employability of the workforce. Scholars have…

  14. Investing in Youth: Tunisia. "Strengthening the Employability of Youth during the Transition to a Green Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  15. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  16. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental…

  17. Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment: a synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Geoff A; Royle, Nick J; Hartley, Ian R

    2002-01-01

    We outline and develop current theory on how inherent genetic conflicts of interest between the various family members can affect the flow of parental investment from parents to offspring, and discuss the problems for empirical testing that this generates. The parental investment pattern realized in nature reflects the simultaneous resolution of all the conflicts between the family players. This depends on the genetic mechanism, the mating system and reproductive constraints, on whether extra demand by progeny affects current or future sibs, and particularly on the behavioural mechanisms underlying demand (begging or solicitation) and supply (provision of parental investment by parents). The direction of deviation from the optimal parental investment for the parent(s) depends on the slope of what we term the 'effect of supply on demand', the mechanism that determines how changes in food supply affect begging levels. If increasing food increases begging (positive slope), less parental investment is supplied than the parental optimum and if increasing food decreases begging (negative slope), more parental investment is supplied. The magnitude of deviation depends on both the 'effect of supply on demand' and on the 'effect of demand on supply' (the mechanism determining how changes in begging affect food supply, which always has a positive slope). We conclude that it will often be impossible to deduce the extent of underlying conflict by establishing the amount of parental investment given relative to the ideal optimum for the parent. Some possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:11958698

  18. Ecosystem services in urban water investment.

    PubMed

    Kandulu, John M; Connor, Jeffery D; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, water agencies and utilities have an obligation to consider the broad environmental impacts associated with investments. To aid in understanding water cycle interdependencies when making urban water supply investment decisions, an ecosystem services typology was augmented with the concept of integrated water resources management. This framework is applied to stormwater harvesting in a case study catchment in Adelaide, South Australia. Results show that this methodological framework can effectively facilitate systematic consideration and quantitative assessment of broad environmental impacts of water supply investments. Five ecosystem service impacts were quantified including provision of 1) urban recreational amenity, 2) regulation of coastal water quality, 3) salinity, 4) greenhouse gas emissions, and 5) support of estuarine habitats. This study shows that ignoring broad environmental impacts can underestimate ecosystem service benefits of water supply investments by a value of up to A$1.36/kL, or three times the cost of operating and maintenance of stormwater harvesting. Rigorous assessment of the public welfare impacts of water infrastructure investments is required to guide long-term optimal water supply investment decisions. Numerous challenges remain in the quantification of broad environmental impacts of a water supply investment including a lack of peer-reviewed studies of environmental impacts, aggregation of incommensurable impacts, potential for double-counting errors, uncertainties in available impact estimates, and how to determine the most suitable quantification technique.

  19. From fatalism to resilience: reducing disaster impacts through systematic investments.

    PubMed

    Hill, Harvey; Wiener, John; Warner, Koko

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a method for reducing the economic risks associated with predictable natural hazards by enhancing the resilience of national infrastructure systems. The three-step generalised framework is described along with examples. Step one establishes economic baseline growth without the disaster impact. Step two characterises economic growth constrained by a disaster. Step three assesses the economy's resilience to the disaster event when it is buffered by alternative resiliency investments. The successful outcome of step three is a disaster-resistant core of infrastructure systems and social capacity more able to maintain the national economy and development post disaster. In addition, the paper considers ways to achieve this goal in data-limited environments. The method provides a methodology to address this challenge via the integration of physical and social data of different spatial scales into macroeconomic models. This supports the disaster risk reduction objectives of governments, donor agencies, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.

  20. Avoiding the Orange County Syndrome: Investment Guidelines Are Crucial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A sound investment policy for colleges and universities should address these factors: spending rate, return requirements, time horizon for evaluating fund performance, risk tolerance, asset allocation, delegation of responsibility, investment monitoring, and procedure for amending an investment plan. (MSE)

  1. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  2. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  3. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  4. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direct investments, SDIs, term investments, or other investment programs. (c) Withdrawals. The amount of... balance limit. (3) SDIs. SDIs are credited to the SDI account balance and are not considered in...

  5. Escaping the tragedy of the commons via directed investments.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Jeromos; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2011-10-21

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in the world surrounding us, from bacteria to Human interactions. In Humans, cooperation is often associated with various group decisions, resulting from their complex web of interrelated interests, associations or preferences. The existence of such social structures not only opens the opportunity of having diverse behaviors depending on the individuals' social position, but also for a dynamical allocation of contributions depending on the returns obtained from each group. Here, we address these issues by studying the evolution of cooperation under Public Goods Games in the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory where cooperative players are able to distribute their donations to their liking. As a result, cooperation is greatly enhanced when the community structure is described by homogeneous graphs, as cooperators become able to support cooperative groups and retaliate against those with poor achievements by withdrawing donations from them. Whenever the underlying network becomes complex enough to add diversity to the distribution of group sizes, directed investments do not optimize the emergence of cooperation, but they do enhance its robustness against the invasion of a minority of free-riders. We define a robustness index and show that directed investments expand the robustness of cooperation by about 50%.

  6. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  7. Direct Foreign Investment in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    Notes introductory undergraduate economics textbooks have no formal analysis of the rationale for direct foreign investment by multinational firms. Examines this area in an attempt to develop more content information for undergraduate courses. (RKM)

  8. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  9. Optimal security investments and extreme risk.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Hamid; Agiwal, Swati

    2012-08-01

    In the aftermath of 9/11, concern over security increased dramatically in both the public and the private sector. Yet, no clear algorithm exists to inform firms on the amount and the timing of security investments to mitigate the impact of catastrophic risks. The goal of this article is to devise an optimum investment strategy for firms to mitigate exposure to catastrophic risks, focusing on how much to invest and when to invest. The latter question addresses the issue of whether postponing a risk mitigating decision is an optimal strategy or not. Accordingly, we develop and estimate both a one-period model and a multiperiod model within the framework of extreme value theory (EVT). We calibrate these models using probability measures for catastrophic terrorism risks associated with attacks on the food sector. We then compare our findings with the purchase of catastrophic risk insurance.

  10. 76 FR 27959 - Investment Adviser Performance Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... primarily used for macroeconomic analysis and forecasting). See also Federal Reserve Board, Monetary Policy... Director, at 202-551-6792, Office of Regulatory Policy, Division of Investment Management, Securities...

  11. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  13. Energy conservation economics by investment equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Investment Equivalents of Energy Savings is a quick and easy technique for companies to assess investment options. Energy conservation proposals must produce an acceptable return before a company will allocate capital. The author describes how the technique operates and how it produces results which allow design engineers, supervisors, and others to choose between alternatives. A hypothetical case provides figures to illustrate how the system develops evaluation criteria and ranks possible solutions. 2 tables.

  14. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges in Evidence-Based Social Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Metz, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Despite a robust body of evidence of effectiveness of social programs, few evidence-based programs have been scaled for population-level improvement in social problems. Since 2010 the federal government has invested in evidence-based social policy by supporting a number of new evidence-based programs and grant initiatives. These initiatives…

  16. Social Workers in Child Welfare: Ready for Duty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Tracy; Clark, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    This article responds to "Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?" by Dr. Robin E. Perry. The article articulates National Association of Social Workers' support for a professional social work labor force to serve children and their families and for continued federal investment in the training of these workers.…

  17. 26 CFR 1.936-10 - Qualified investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(8) of this section, a loan qualifies as an investment in active....263-1T(c)(4)(i). (D) An amount not in excess of 5 percent of the sum of the investment in active... investments described in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) in the case of an investment in active business assets, or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.936-10 - Qualified investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(8) of this section, a loan qualifies as an investment in active....263-1T(c)(4)(i). (D) An amount not in excess of 5 percent of the sum of the investment in active... investments described in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) in the case of an investment in active business assets, or...

  19. 26 CFR 1.936-10 - Qualified investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(8) of this section, a loan qualifies as an investment in active....263-1T(c)(4)(i). (D) An amount not in excess of 5 percent of the sum of the investment in active... investments described in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) in the case of an investment in active business assets, or...

  20. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section...

  1. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment Assistance proposal... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Proposal and Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance proposal. (a) The EDA Investment...

  2. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  3. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of ineligible investments. 615.5143... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal of ineligible investments. You must dispose of an ineligible investment within 6 months unless we approve,...

  5. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign...

  6. 12 CFR 652.35 - Eligible non-program investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible non-program investments. 652.35... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.35 Eligible non-program investments. (a) You may hold only the types, quantities, and qualities of non-program investments listed...

  7. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a)...

  8. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign...

  9. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  10. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  11. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  12. 12 CFR 703.19 - Investment pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment pilot program. 703.19 Section 703.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.19 Investment pilot program. (a) Under the investment pilot program,...

  13. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  14. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment Assistance application... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance application. (a) The EDA Investment Assistance process begins...

  15. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into...

  16. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  17. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the...

  18. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into...

  19. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations...

  20. 12 CFR 703.19 - Investment pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment pilot program. 703.19 Section 703.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.19 Investment pilot program. (a) Under the investment pilot program,...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI)...

  2. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  3. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  4. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the...

  5. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by...

  6. 12 CFR 1805.401 - Forms of investment instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of investment instruments. 1805.401... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.401 Forms of investment instruments. (a) Equity. The Fund may make nonvoting equity investments in an Awardee,...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.400 - Investment instruments-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment instruments-general. 1805.400... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.400 Investment... investment instruments described in § 1805.401, and under such terms and conditions as described in...

  8. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  9. 12 CFR 560.121 - Investment in State housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.121 Investment in State housing corporations. (a) Any savings association to the extent it has legal authority to... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in State housing corporations....

  10. 12 CFR 652.10 - Investment management and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment management and requirements. 652.10... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.10 Investment management and... policies for managing your non-program investment activities. Your board must also ensure that...

  11. 48 CFR 2152.210-70 - Investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income. 2152.210... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.210-70 Investment income. As prescribed in 2110.7004(a), insert the following clause: Investment Income (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor must invest and reinvest...

  12. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-associate companies, investment advances to these companies, and any investments not accounted for elsewhere... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124,...

  13. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the role of direct foreign ownership of U.S. energy enterprises with respect to their energy operations, capital investments, and net foreign investment flows (including net loans). In addition, since energy investments are made in a global context, the report examines patterns of direct investment in foreign energy enterprises by U.S.-based companies.

  14. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  15. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to...

  16. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to...

  17. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  18. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  19. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to...

  20. 26 CFR 1.936-10 - Qualified investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) In general. (b) Qualified investments in Puerto Rico. (c) Qualified investment in certain Caribbean... investment in a qualified Caribbean Basin country. A qualified investment in a qualified Caribbean Basin... paragraph (c)(4) of this section) in a qualified Caribbean Basin country (described in paragraph...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to be made...

  3. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  5. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  6. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly...

  7. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan's investment portfolio with respect to which the fiduciary has investment duties; and (ii) Has... particular investment or investment course of action is reasonably designed, as part of the portfolio (or, where applicable, that portion of the plan portfolio with respect to which the fiduciary has...

  8. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this... Investment Trust Fund United States Treasury account for each participating jurisdiction. Each...

  9. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  10. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

  11. 76 FR 55237 - Use of Derivatives by Investment Companies Under the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Company Act of 1940 AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Concept release; request for... the use of derivatives by management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act..., the Commission is issuing this concept release and request for comments on a wide range of...

  12. 17 CFR 210.12-15 - Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties. 210.12-15 Section 210.12-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935,...

  13. Investing 101: How Your School District Can Turn Those Pennies into Dollars through Wise Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Districts should develop a conservative investment policy, give the finance director appropriate latitude, and avoid using local banks as investment brokers. They should secure adequate bank protection against things going wrong, use competitive bidding, expect interest rates to fluctuate, and accept risk the district can live with. (MLH)

  14. [Are investment activity and backlog in investments risks for university medicine in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Amann, I; Heyder, R; Strehl, R

    2009-08-01

    University medicine in Germany requires significantly higher funding and investment because its tasks not only include health care but also research and teaching. However, over recent decades less and less funding compared to the development of the turnover has been available. This trend is due to decreasing public funding. The diminishing funding has caused a major backlog of investment at German university hospitals. The first part of the article summarizes the investments policies at university hospitals and other hospitals. The second part describes the investment needs in university medicine and exposes risk factors for research, education and health care due to the process of investment planning and realization. Goal-oriented solutions are shown to facilitate investments. The third part discusses several risks caused by insufficient investments in university medicine. There are special risks for research, teaching, and the capacity for innovation in university medicine besides economical and medical risks. Some policies and financial strategies to overcome the backlog in investments are presented. After a summary, the article concludes with some practical examples of further measures to ensure sustainable funding.

  15. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Greischar, Megan A; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2016-02-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment.

  16. Evolution of international trade and investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhixin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an evolving two-layer international economy network (IEN) consisting of international trade network (ITN) and international investment network (IIN) as layers, is constructed to investigate the world economy from 2001 to 2010. First, the structure analysis shows that the average partner numbers for both trade and investment are increasing year by year, and the average volume has a significant decrease in 2008 for investment and 2009 for trade. The IIN has longer average path length and dramatically lower edge density compared with the ITN, yet its clustering coefficient is larger in all years. Then, the regional relativity indicates that the longer the distance between two countries, the smaller trade and investment volumes they carry in are general, and the impact of the geographical distance gradually reduces as time goes on. Furthermore, the countries and regions are ranked by Pagerank in ITN, IIN and IEN to illustrate the roles they played. And finally, community structures are detected to visualize the global economic landscape, with countries and regions in the same community ranked according to the total volume of trade or investment.

  17. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Greischar, Megan A.; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2016-01-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment. PMID:26890485

  18. A Framework for Valuing Investments in a Nurturing Society: Opportunities for Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-03-01

    Investing in strategies that aim to build a more nurturing society offers tremendous opportunities for the field of prevention science. Yet, scientists struggle to consistently take their research beyond effectiveness evaluations and actually value the impact of preventive strategies. Ultimately, it is clear that convincing policymakers to make meaningful investments in children and youth will require estimates of the fiscal impact of such strategies across public service systems. The framework offered here values such investments. First, we review current public spending on children and families. Then, we describe how to quantify and monetize the impact of preventive interventions. This includes a new measurement strategy for assessing multisystem service utilization and a price list for key service provision from public education, social services, criminal justice, health care and tax systems.

  19. Making Energy-Efficiency and Productivity Investments in Commercial Buildings: Choice of Investment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    This study examines the decision to invest in buildings and the types of investment decision rules that may be employed to inform the ''go--no go'' decision. There is a range of decision making tools available to help in investment choices, which range from simple rules of thumb such as payback periods, to life-cycle analysis, to decision theoretic approaches. Payback period analysis tends to point toward lower first costs, whereas life-cycle analysis tends to minimize uncertainties over future events that can affect profitability. We conclude that investment models that integrate uncertainty offer better explanations for the behavior that is observed, i.e., people tend to delay investments in technologies that life-cycle analysis finds cost-effective, and these models also lead to an alternative set of policies targeted at reducing of managing uncertainty.

  20. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  1. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2013-06-01

    Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  2. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  3. Investment and repayment in a trust game after ventromedial prefrontal damage.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Giovanna; Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Although trust and reciprocity are ubiquitous in social exchange, their neurobiological substrate remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)-a brain region critical for valuing social information-on individuals' decisions in a trust game and in a risk game. In the trust game, one player, the investor, is endowed with a sum of money, which she can keep or invest. The amount she decides to invest is tripled and sent to the other player, the trustee, who then decides what fraction to return to the investor. In separate runs, ten patients with focal bilateral damage to the vmPFC and control participants made decision while playing in the role of either investor or trustee with different anonymous counterparts in each run. A risk game was also included in which the investor faced exactly the same decisions as in the trust game, but a random device (i.e., a computer), not another player, determined the final payoffs. Results showed that vmPFC patients' investments were not modulated by the type of opponent player (e.g., human vs. computer) present in the environment. Thus, vmPFC patients showed comparable risk-taking preferences both in social (trust game) and nonsocial (risk game) contexts. In stark contrast, control participants were less willing to take risk and invest when they believed that they were interacting with people than a computer. Furthermore, when acted as trustee, vmPFC patients made lower back transfers toward investors, thereby showing less reciprocity behavior. Taken together, these results indicate that social valuation and emotion subserved by vmPFC have a critical role in trusting and reciprocity decisions. The present findings support the hypothesis that vmPFC damage may impair affective systems specifically designed for mediating social transaction with other individuals.

  4. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  5. The growing challenge of hospital investment.

    PubMed

    Sibbel, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare providers around the world are faced with challenges like limited financial scope, demographic changes, technical and medical progress, a rising transparency level and increasing patient claims which all lead to high pressure on healthcare markets. Reduced federal support intensifies this situation. But, financial capability and an adequate investment strategy are key success factors for hospitals in the future. Therefore, hospitals have to evaluate new ways of capital allocation. This article analyses five different opportunities for inpatient care facilities to meet their investment requirements and to underline their market position as a service enterprise.

  6. Investigating investment in biopharmaceutical R&D

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Percy H.; Berndt, Ernst R.; DiMasi, Joseph A.; Trusheim, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a reduction in projected financial returns associated with biopharmaceutical R&D, owing to decreased productivity, increases in costs and flattening revenue per new drug, prompting calls for dramatic revisions to R&D models. On the basis of previous financial modelling, the simplest hypothesis would be that new investment in such R&D should be minimal and focused on biologics in preference to small molecules, as the internal rate of return on investment for biologics projects has been reported to be higher. PMID:27616295

  7. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  8. Role of investment heterogeneity in the cooperation on spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter α. Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of α (increment of heterogeneous investment) is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas.

  9. Evolution, traits, and the stages of human courtship: qualifying the parental investment model.

    PubMed

    Kenrick, D T; Sadalla, E K; Groth, G; Trost, M R

    1990-03-01

    Individual differences are explicitly connected to social interaction in Darwin's notion of sexual selection. Traits that increase the probability of successful reproduction will tend to increase in frequency. This process operates partly through differential choice, by one sex, of certain traits in the other. According to the parental investment model, females frequently have more stringent criteria for the traits they will accept in a mate because they have a relatively larger investment in each offspring. Because human mating arrangements often involve a substantial commitment of resources by the male, it is necessary to invoke a distinction between the selectivity involved during casual mating opportunities and the selectivity exercised when choosing a long-term partner. Ninety-three undergraduate men and women rated their minimum criteria on 24 partner characteristics at four levels of commitment. In line with an unqualified parental investment model, females were more selective overall, particularly on status-linked variables. In line with a qualified parental investment model, males' trait preferences depended upon the anticipated investment in the relationship. Males had lower requirements for a sexual partner than did females, but were nearly as selective as females when considering requirements for a long-term partner.

  10. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health.

  11. The 'value case' for investment in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Marson, G K

    2001-12-01

    This paper introduces the problems facing occupational health departments in the current environment created by new legislation and changes in social attitudes. The problems of establishing the true costs and benefits of service provision are discussed. The paper also explains the employment of the 'value principle' in organizations and postulates its use in order to establish the appropriate position of occupational health in corporate thinking. A practical system is suggested, based on a four-step process of strategic planning, issues development, option establishment and plan implementation, which can be used to evaluate and justify investment in services. The problems of future risk are addressed. The paper concludes with the priority of establishing the strategic importance of occupational health services alongside other personnel issues and expresses the possibility of using the same principles outside the business world.

  12. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  13. Social theory and social class.

    PubMed

    Susser, I

    1997-01-01

    Concepts of class developed with the emergence of industrial society in the nineteenth century. For an understanding of current divisions, theories must reflect the advances of capitalism and the global economy that characterize the late twentieth century. In industrialized societies, reductions in the industrial workforce and the growth of finance, investment and real-estate industries worldwide have produced a new, largely female, service workforce. Large sectors of industry have departed in search of cheaper labour in poorer countries, which also have a rising number of women workers. In those areas, as a result, a new industrial workforce has emerged. Concomitantly, accumulation of land in less developed agricultural regions for production for the world market has led to an increase in mobile agricultural labour and a shift of landless labourers to the cities of less developed countries. In addition, both upward and downward mobility have occurred for individuals and groups in specific populations, as well as for particular diseases in developed and less developed countries. All these processes have precipitated fundamental changes in class, gender and family relationships and transformed the living conditions of populations in both developed and less developed societies. These changes have major implications for the patterns of health and disease in the world today. Objective measures of social change may be difficult to construct and use in epidemiological cancer research. Since questions of class and shifting social relations are directly implicated in the patterns of disease, they must be assessed in future research as accurately as possible.

  14. Relative benefits of potential autonomy technology investments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, W. P.; Elfes, A.; Hutsberger, T.; Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a framework that looks at both cost and risk early in the design process in order to determine the investment strategy in new technology development that will lead to the lowest risk mission possible which enables desired science return within a given budget.

  15. Enrollment Management as a Portfolio Investment Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an information technology model designed to enable the consideration of enrollment management decisions in a portfolio context. Annual enrollment management decisions represent an important investment in a college's reputation. While the short run imperative to fill each incoming class is important, the long run implications of each…

  16. Early Learning: Return on Investment. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers seek to determine if contemporary pre-K programs provide the strong return on investment found by researchers in the 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. Research then showed that these two programs created positive academic effects that accompanied their students as they…

  17. 76 FR 34969 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.411A (Scale-up grants... grant type--Scale-up, Validation, and Development--under the i3 program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... provide technical assistance to interested applicants for all three types of i3 grants...

  18. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... conducted through the same legal entity as the telephone company operations, but do not involve the joint...

  19. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219...

  20. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219...

  1. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ensure that the level of economic distress of a Region, rather than a preference for a specific... population and the extent to which such outmigration is causing economic injury in the Region; and (4) Such... than one (1) maximum allowable Investment Rate based on the Region's levels of economic distress),...

  2. Linking Investment in Education to Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Brian H.

    The relationship between investment in education and economic growth in Alberta, Canada, is explored in this paper, which examines the value of education to the individual in terms of rate of employment and salary. Assuming earning differentials to be a measure of the contribution of education to economic growth, the lifetime earnings of high…

  3. An Organization's Economic Return on Training Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; Lyau, Nyan-Myau

    A study examined the relationship between investment in training and labor productivity in a sample of 237 large and medium-size Taiwanese firms producing auto parts. Of the 162 firms (68.4%) that returned usable questionnaires, 142 (59.9%) had training programs and 131 (55.3%) provided full cost data. The data were analyzed by multiple regression…

  4. Years and Intensity of Schooling Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arleen

    1976-01-01

    Calculates human capital earnings functions over 20 years for 822 men (the Terman sample) and argues that the percentage of gross earnings invested in education may fall below 100 percent well before school ends. (Available from the Secretary's Office, American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave., South, Nashville, Tennessee 37212) (Author/JG)

  5. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 77 FR 59144 - Investment and Deposit Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... incurred by financial institutions, including credit unions. Basis risk is the variability between two or.... TP26SE12.000 Allowing FCUs to hold TIPS in their investment portfolios adds no credit risk and allows them... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT...

  7. 78 FR 13212 - Investment and Deposit Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... rate. \\3\\ Basis risk is a common form of risk incurred by financial institutions, including credit... in their investment portfolios adds no credit risk and allows them the option of minimizing the need... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT...

  8. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... that includes the bank's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion. Activities considered under the lending or... minority depository institution or women's depository institution (as these terms are defined in 12...

  9. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... that includes the bank's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion. Activities considered under the lending or... minority depository institution or women's depository institution (as these terms are defined in 12...

  10. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...'s depository institution (as these terms are defined in 12 U.S.C. 2907(b)) will be considered as a... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... includes the savings association's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion. Activities considered under...

  11. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...'s depository institution (as these terms are defined in 12 U.S.C. 2907(b)) will be considered as a... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... includes the savings association's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion. Activities considered under...

  12. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... that includes the bank's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion. Activities considered under the lending or... minority depository institution or women's depository institution (as these terms are defined in 12...

  13. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    PubMed

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers.

  14. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standards. Except as the Board may otherwise determine, in order for an investor to make investments pursuant to the procedures set out in this section, the investor, the bank holding company, and the member... Capital Adequacy Guidelines; provided that, if the investor is an Edge or agreement corporation,...

  15. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standards. Except as the Board may otherwise determine, in order for an investor to make investments pursuant to the procedures set out in this section, the investor, the bank holding company, and the member... Capital Adequacy Guidelines; provided that, if the investor is an Edge or agreement corporation,...

  16. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  17. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  18. 31 CFR 542.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New investment. 542.311 Section 542.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  19. Gelcasting Alumina Cores for Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M A; Klug, F J

    2001-01-01

    General Electric currently uses silica investment casting cores for making superalloy turbine blades. The silica core technology does not provide the degree of dimensional control needed for advanced turbine system manufacture. The sum of the various process variables in silica core manufacturing produces cores that have more variability than is allowed for in advanced, power-generation gas turbine airfoils.

  20. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  1. Personal Military Investing: Ends-Means-Ways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-16

    SPECULATION - That money we put into the market that we expect to grow at a rate beyond that expected of an average market. For example, the purchase of stock ... options or shares of newly issued small companies are normally considered highly speculative. MUTUAL FUND - A company that makes investments usually

  2. Improving Schools: Investing in Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    Improving Schools--Investing in Our Future provides a foundation for improving student learning and performance, and improving aspects of schooling. Chapter (1) provides information about Alberta's well--established K-12 education system. Alberta's school-aged population is becoming more diverse with growing numbers of Aboriginal and immigrant…

  3. Internet Resources for Reference: Finance and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Brent Alan

    1997-01-01

    When called upon to aid in filtering through finance and investment information on the Internet, the business librarian is also faced with knowing what is available and how to find it. Web sites are identified that provide information about stocks and their exchanges, mutual funds, bonds, company annual reports, and taxes. (Author/AEF)

  4. Let's Spur Recovery by Investing in Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1990s, the Internet and digital technologies brought astonishing gains in worker productivity and national prosperity. Today, people can leverage that investment and buoy economic recovery by hiring people to move the collections of libraries and cultural-memory organizations--the raw material of the information age--to the Web. Investing…

  5. The Investment Case for Education and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Annababette; Bonnet, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Education is in crisis worldwide. Millions of children, especially the most marginalized, are excluded from school. Many millions more attend school, but they do not learn basic reading and math skills. In addition, international funding for education is on the decline. "The Investment Case for Education and Equity" explains the global…

  6. 75 FR 26742 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11451] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal... (Development grants). AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice...: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants_spoc/ . You can also find the list of SPOCs in the appendix to...

  7. Investing in Rare Books and Manuscripts

    PubMed Central

    Liebert, Herman W.

    1981-01-01

    The lecture treats the rapidly escalating values of rare books and manuscripts both as financial and as scholarly investments. The text suggests new areas for collecting which may be pursued in today's market with an eye to an increasing intellectual and monetary return. PMID:7324508

  8. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4290 RIN 0570-AA80 Rural Business Investment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  9. Return on Investment in Training: Research Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew, Ed.

    Following an introduction ("Return on Investment in Training" by Andrew Smith) that provides an overview and a synopsis of research findings, the following five chapters of this book present the results of five research projects funded by the National Research and Evaluation Committee in Australia in 1999-2000. The first four of these…

  10. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... for the participation in royalties, earnings, or profits in the economic development of...

  11. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... for the participation in royalties, earnings, or profits in the economic development of...

  12. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    SciTech Connect

    Farese, Philip; Gelman, Rachel; Hendron, Robert

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  13. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prior notice constitute the Board's approval under section 25A(8) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) for...) Composite rating. Except as the Board may otherwise determine, in order for an investor to make investments under the general consent or limited general consent procedures of paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  14. The Economics of an Investment in Kaizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuwan, Danupun

    2010-10-01

    Kaizen has been widely accepted as a continuous process improvement with the gradualist approach. This paper presents the research carried out to explore the pattern of an investment in Kaizen to enhance overall profit. System dynamics-based simulation has been employed with an optimization technique, a Steepest Ascent approach, to improve experimental variables e.g. the amount of spending on prevention and appraisal activities, the time and the amount to reduce the investment which results in maximum Net Present Value (NPV) of profit. The simulation model in this study is based on a Thai automobile manufacturer as a case study company. The result suggests that the investment in Kaizen should spend on activities to eliminate and detect all defects in the early phase and then reduce economically when the process is under controlled. It can be named as the `Hybrid quality improvement', which was proved in this study that it provides greater overall profit than the Stepwise Kaizen and the constant spending. This study also presents the behavior of quality costs and profit against time scale along the different patterns of the investment in Kaizen.

  15. The Appraisal of Investments in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Programme on Educational Building.

    This collection of papers covers, from a European perspective, the basic aspects of investments in physical educational facilities, as well as important issues in the economics of education. Four themes are covered. The first presents the art of the economic analysis of educational projects. The second focuses on the contribution of performance…

  16. Comparative dynamics in a health investment model.

    PubMed

    Eisenring, C

    1999-10-01

    The method of comparative dynamics fully exploits the inter-temporal structure of optimal control models. I derive comparative dynamic results in a simplified demand for health model. The effect of a change in the depreciation rate on the optimal paths for health capital and investment in health is studied by use of a phase diagram.

  17. Students Invest in the Stock Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, George O.

    1977-01-01

    How one teacher motivated students to learn about the stock market by allowing them to actually invest money. Class discussion covered inexpensive ways to buy stock, choosing securities, and buying and selling stock. Suggestions are offered for adapting this project for use at the secondary level. (TA)

  18. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.16 Prohibited investments. (a) Derivatives. A Federal credit union may not purchase or sell financial derivatives, such as futures, options, interest rate swaps, or forward rate swaps. This prohibition does not apply to: (1) Any derivatives permitted under §§ 701.21(i)...

  19. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit union may invest in and hold exchangeable collateralized mortgage obligations (exchangeable CMOs) representing beneficial ownership interests in one or more interest-only classes of a CMO (IO CMOs) or principal-only classes of a CMO (PO CMOs), but only if: (i) At the time of purchase, the ratio of the...

  20. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... credit union may invest in and hold exchangeable collateralized mortgage obligations (exchangeable CMOs) representing beneficial ownership interests in one or more interest-only classes of a CMO (IO CMOs) or principal-only classes of a CMO (PO CMOs), but only if: (i) At the time of purchase, the ratio of the...

  1. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  2. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  3. 75 FR 55372 - Tudor Employee Investment Fund LLC and Tudor Investment Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... the form of an affidavit or, for lawyers, a certificate of service. Hearing requests should state the... opportunities that are competitive with those at other investment management firms and to facilitate...

  4. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Recording Information Technology Investments and Issue a Policy Covering All Investments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0292, September 22, 2015. The EPA management of its $334 million in IT investments is noncompliant with its current policy. Thus, the EPA is at risk of not managing taxpayer dollars properly.

  5. Changing investment in activities and interests in elders' lives: theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2004-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity and gerotranscendence, newer theories with roots in the disengagement theory of aging, provided the theoretical framework for a new measure of perceived change in investment in a variety of pursuits. The 30-item Change in Activity and Interest Index (CAII) was given to a sample of 327 outpatients aged 65-94. Items with at least 30% decreased investment responses included Entertaining in my home, Concern with others' opinions, Shopping and buying things, and Attending social events with new people. Principal Components Analysis of the index with dichotomous recoding (less vs. more or same investment) resulted in four factors: Active Instrumental (AI), Social Intellectual (SI), Spiritual Concerns (SC), and Transcendence (TR). Support for socioemotional selectivity and gerotranscendence is evident in the reported increase of importance of SI pursuits, with concurrent decrease in importance of AI activities among these respondents. Zero-order correlations of component scores with study variables suggest that AI and SI are more clearly related to older age, functional impairment, and negative affect than are SC and TR. The CAII appears to tap several dimensions of change in interests; the index gives geriatric mental health practitioners and researchers a tool to measure an aspect of social development that has been neglected in gerontology.

  6. 12 CFR 9.18 - Collective investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... investments in the fund showing the cost and current market value of each investment, and a statement covering... violation of this part if, promptly after the discovery of the mistake, the bank takes whatever action...

  7. 12 CFR 652.35 - Eligible non-program investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.35 Eligible non-program... security of any one issuer do not exceed 5 percent of the investment company's total portfolio....

  8. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal of... investment portfolio must report at least quarterly to your board of directors about the status...

  9. Investing in European market real property through reits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuscin, A.

    2010-03-01

    For institutional and private investors, investing in real estate represents an attractive form of the consignment of their money. Real estate provides a regular source of income in the form of the rent from or interest on the credit provided. At the same time, real estate is a good investment instrument, because it provides diversified contributions and security against inflation for investors. In their efforts to diversify risk, investors are expressing growing interest in investing in the whole European Union. The success of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the U.S. also opened the door for investing in this market for small investors, which is the reason for the development of this type of investment company in the European arena. One problem concerning the development of European real estate investment funds is the unsolved issue of the harmonization of the legislation and regulatory safety measures, which would enable the creation of a common market for new investment products in Europe.

  10. Accelerating investments in power in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, Anton; Gratwick, Katharine; Morello, Elvira; Antmann, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    Private sector investments in African power generation play an increasingly important role in addressing the continent's electricity supply shortages. Our analysis of investment trends in sub-Saharan Africa reveals some key success factors.

  11. 12 CFR 704.10 - Investment action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... market pricing, cash flows, and risk; (3) How the investment fits into the credit union's asset and liability management strategy; (4) The impact that either holding or selling the investment will have on...

  12. Evolution of Gender Differences in Post-Secondary Human Capital Investments: College Majors. Working Paper #03-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Ahu; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the level of human capital investments has changed substantially for men and women. Changes in the intensive margin of college major selection have been also been substantial, as the number of graduates in humanities, social science, and teaching has declined, and the number in science, engineering, and business has…

  13. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  14. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK.

    PubMed

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions 'stack up', in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other 'best investments for health equity', Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the 'healthier, fairer society' referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for the nation.

  15. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK

    PubMed Central

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions ‘stack up’, in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other ‘best investments for health equity’, Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the ‘healthier, fairer society’ referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for

  16. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory: The Social Adequacy Subscales and Social Action. Report No. 177.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd; And Others

    This study provides evidence for the validity of the Social Adequacy subscales of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory: Social Commitment, Tolerance, and Openness to Change. A group of students who invested substantial time and energy in social action projects directed toward helping others was compared with a randomly chosen control group. The…

  17. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year’s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women–some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world–and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary–put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them. 1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights. 2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms. – Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination. – Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise. 3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making. 4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur. 5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people

  18. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  19. Investing in sustainability at Coral World

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.

    2000-08-01

    Now open and operational for several years, Coral World offers a unique environmental model for other tourism-related facilities throughout the Caribbean and beyond. The extensive energy conservation program has yielded a 40 to 50% reduction in energy use and costs. The facility's unique on-site storm water absorption system virtually eliminates silt runoff to the coastal waters. The innovative, highly cost-effective series of renewable energy installations include a photovoltaic-powered restaurant kitchen, solar hot water systems and one of the world's first hydroelectric systems that uses wastewater drainage for turbine source waters. The extensive marine environmental conservation program protects fragile local ecosystems while also protecting the owners' investment in tourism. By investing aggressively in sustainability, Coral World's owners are reaping the benefits not only in reduced operating costs and improved profitability, but also in increased visitor volume and satisfaction.

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  1. Investment policies of national oil companies

    SciTech Connect

    Megateli, A.

    1980-01-01

    The political developments in Iran, the spectacular oil spills in Compeche off the coast of Mexico, and the unexpected death of the president of Algeria are indicative of radical changes that are taking place in these countries. This book focuses on the investment policies of the national oil companies - SONATRACH in Algeria, NIOC in Iran, and PEMEX in Mexico - but it also reviews the overall economic goals and policies of these three countries. State oil companies experienced accelerated growth in spite of a lack of planning, but each continues to encounter various limitations in its dependence on strong government interference, conflicting institutional relationships, and conflicting investment theories. Several implications are developed for national oil companies and their respective governments from this study. Strong leadership that is in tune with political realities and national leadership is needed before a natural resource can become a source of prosperity for developing countries. 320 references, 27 figures, 77 tables.

  2. Maternal Education and Investments in Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Augustine, Jennifer M

    2016-02-01

    Maternal education differences in children's academic skills have been strongly linked to parental investment behaviors. This study extended this line of research to investigate whether these same maternal education patterns in parenting are observed among a set of parenting behaviors that are linked to young children's health. Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n = 5,000) and longitudinal models incorporating random effects, the authors found that higher levels of maternal education were associated with more advantageous health investment behaviors at each phase of early development (9 months, 2 years, 4 years, 5 years). Moreover, these disparities were typically largest at the developmental stage when it was potentially most sensitive for children's long-term health and development. These findings provide further evidence of a developmental gradient associated with mothers' education and new insight into the salience of mothers' education for the short- and long-term health and well-being of their children.

  3. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  4. Investing in science: securing future prosperity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    A meeting concerned with UK science and technology investment was held at Chatham House, London, in November 2010. The UK science and technology research budget has been preserved at a fixed cash level whereas other areas of government face significant reductions in their financial support. This is in marked contrast to some East Asian countries, such as China, where investment in science and technology is increasing. The UK needs to change many aspects of education at school level and beyond to preserve its status as a first rate scientific country. It also has to solve the long-term problem, with some notable exceptions, of being unable to translate basic research discoveries into manufactured products. This article discusses the impact of these issues along with some tentative suggestions on how to improve these, with particular reference to the radiological sciences. PMID:21511747

  5. 77 FR 69754 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... associated with investment in particular transmission projects that are not accounted for in the base ROE. In... the project for which an incentive ROE is being requested. 21. Investments in the following types of... industry trends and system investment needs, may warrant an incentive ROE based on the project's risks...

  6. 12 CFR 703.15 - Prohibited investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investment activities. 703.15 Section 703.15 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.15 Prohibited investment activities. Adjusted trading or short...

  7. 12 CFR 9.11 - Investment of fiduciary funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of fiduciary funds. 9.11 Section 9.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.11 Investment of fiduciary funds. A national bank shall invest funds of...

  8. 12 CFR 703.9 - Safekeeping of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safekeeping of investments. 703.9 Section 703.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.9 Safekeeping of investments. (a) A Federal credit union's...

  9. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  10. 49 CFR 80.11 - Investment-grade ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment-grade ratings. 80.11 Section 80.11... § 80.11 Investment-grade ratings. (a) At the time a project sponsor submits an application, the DOT... investment-grade rating. (b) The full funding of a secured (direct) loan, loan guarantee, or line of...

  11. 12 CFR 703.9 - Safekeeping of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safekeeping of investments. 703.9 Section 703.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.9 Safekeeping of investments. (a) A Federal credit union's...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the...

  13. 17 CFR 256.411.5 - Investment tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment tax credit. 256.411... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.411.5 Investment tax credit. (a) This account shall be debited with the amounts of investment tax credits related to service company...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  15. 12 CFR 9.11 - Investment of fiduciary funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment of fiduciary funds. 9.11 Section 9.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.11 Investment of fiduciary funds. A national bank shall invest funds of...

  16. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  17. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers'...

  18. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C..., App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A. Principal and Interest Variability An investment in securities with principal or interest determined...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the...

  1. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of...

  2. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties....

  3. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.72-6 - Investment in the contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment in the contract. 1.72-6 Section 1.72... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-6 Investment in the contract. (a) General rule. (1) For the purpose of computing the “investment in the contract”, it is...

  5. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers'...

  6. 12 CFR 703.15 - Prohibited investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited investment activities. 703.15 Section 703.15 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.15 Prohibited investment activities. Adjusted trading or short...

  7. 49 CFR 80.11 - Investment-grade ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment-grade ratings. 80.11 Section 80.11... § 80.11 Investment-grade ratings. (a) At the time a project sponsor submits an application, the DOT... investment-grade rating. (b) The full funding of a secured (direct) loan, loan guarantee, or line of...

  8. 24 CFR 954.500 - Repayment of investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repayment of investment. 954.500... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Program Administration § 954.500 Repayment of investment. (a) HOME funds will be made available pursuant to a HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. The agreement ensures...

  9. 24 CFR 92.501 - HOME Investment Partnership Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HOME Investment Partnership... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.501 HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. Allocated and reallocated funds will be made available pursuant to a...

  10. 77 FR 23429 - Examples of Program-Related Investments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 53 RIN 1545-BK76 Examples of Program-Related Investments AGENCY... contains proposed regulations that provide guidance to private foundations on program-related investments. These proposed regulations provide a series of new examples illustrating investments that qualify...

  11. 12 CFR 704.10 - Investment action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment action plan. 704.10 Section 704.10... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.10 Investment action plan. (a) Any corporate credit union in possession of an investment, including a derivative, that fails to meet a requirement of this part must, within 30...

  12. 17 CFR 256.411.5 - Investment tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment tax credit. 256.411... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.411.5 Investment tax credit. (a) This account shall be debited with the amounts of investment tax credits related to service company...

  13. 26 CFR 1.72-6 - Investment in the contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment in the contract. 1.72-6 Section 1.72... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-6 Investment in the contract. (a) General rule. (1) For the purpose of computing the “investment in the contract”, it is...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.235 - Types of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of investments. 1006.235... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.235 Types of investments... use NHHBG funds for affordable housing activities in the form of equity investments,...

  15. 46 CFR 287.8 - Investment of funds in securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...), or securities which are not legal for investment of trust funds. Whenever the Administration approves... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment of funds in securities. 287.8 Section 287.8... OPERATORS ESTABLISHMENT OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.8 Investment of funds in securities....

  16. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  17. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  18. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  20. 32 CFR 21.680 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 21.680 Section... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.680 Technology investment... of the nation's technology and industrial base. Technology investment agreements include one kind...

  1. 32 CFR 21.680 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 21.680 Section... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.680 Technology investment... of the nation's technology and industrial base. Technology investment agreements include one kind...

  2. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  3. 12 CFR 652.10 - Investment management and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... oversee investments. (3) Maintain records and management information systems that are appropriate for the... in all other investment-related functions. (3) Maintain records and management information systems... management systems. Your policies must identify the types and quantity of investments that you will hold...

  4. 12 CFR 211.8 - Investments and activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... attributable to activities not listed in § 211.10 of this part; and (3) Portfolio investments. Make portfolio... portfolio investments by the investor and its affiliates in an organization engaged in activities that are....9 percent of the organization's voting shares. (ii) Aggregate Investment Limit....

  5. 77 FR 21057 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... limiting the STIF's investments to shorter-term assets and generally requiring those assets to be held to... to invest the STIF's fiduciary assets in a diversified portfolio of short- term, high quality debt... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 9 RIN 1557-AD37 Short-Term Investment Funds...

  6. 12 CFR 225.125 - Investment adviser activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined in section 2(a)(20) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, to an investment company registered... Board's views with respect to some of these questions are set forth below. (b) It is clear from the... activities as an investment adviser. Consistently with the spirit and purpose of the Glass-Steagall Act,...

  7. 12 CFR 225.125 - Investment adviser activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defined in section 2(a)(20) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, to an investment company registered... Board's views with respect to some of these questions are set forth below. (b) It is clear from the... activities as an investment adviser. Consistently with the spirit and purpose of the Glass-Steagall Act,...

  8. 48 CFR 2152.210-70 - Investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment income. 2152... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.210-70 Investment income. As prescribed in 2110.7004(a), insert the following clause: Investment Income (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 1652.215-71 - Investment Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment Income. 1652... Clauses 1652.215-71 Investment Income. As prescribed in 1615.470-1, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis: Investment Income (JAN 1998) (a) The Carrier...

  10. 48 CFR 1652.215-71 - Investment Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment Income. 1652.215... 1652.215-71 Investment Income. As prescribed in 1615.470-1, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis: Investment Income (JAN 1998) (a) The Carrier shall...

  11. Juggling Act: Balancing Safety, Security, and Yield in School Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallack, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Although state laws governing school district investing are quite conservative, there have been some notable investment failures leading to the loss of public funds. School districts must beware three kinds of investment risks involving credit, market, and interest rates and consider safety, legality, liquidity, and cash-flow requirements. (MLH)

  12. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  13. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  14. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  15. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  16. 12 CFR 324.53 - Equity exposures to investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (3) If an equity exposure to an investment fund is part of a hedge pair and the FDIC-supervised... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity exposures to investment funds. 324.53... Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures § 324.53 Equity exposures to investment funds. (a)...

  17. 12 CFR 217.53 - Equity exposures to investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (3) If an equity exposure to an investment fund is part of a hedge pair and the Board-regulated... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity exposures to investment funds. 217.53... Assets for Equity Exposures § 217.53 Equity exposures to investment funds. (a) Available approaches....

  18. 12 CFR 3.53 - Equity exposures to investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... investment fund is part of a hedge pair and the national bank or Federal savings association does not use the... exposure to the investment fund. The risk-weighted asset amount of the effective portion of the hedge pair... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity exposures to investment funds....

  19. 12 CFR 324.154 - Equity exposures to investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (3) If an equity exposure to an investment fund is part of a hedge pair and the FDIC-supervised... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity exposures to investment funds. 324.154... exposures to investment funds. (a) Available approaches. (1) Unless the exposure meets the requirements...

  20. 12 CFR 217.154 - Equity exposures to investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure to an investment fund is part of a hedge pair and the Board-regulated institution does not use the... the investment fund. The risk-weighted asset amount of the effective portion of the hedge pair is... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity exposures to investment funds....

  1. 24 CFR 92.501 - HOME Investment Partnership Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false HOME Investment Partnership... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.501 HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. Allocated and reallocated funds will be made available pursuant to a...

  2. 24 CFR 92.501 - HOME Investment Partnership Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HOME Investment Partnership... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.501 HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. Allocated and reallocated funds will be made available pursuant to a...

  3. 24 CFR 92.501 - HOME Investment Partnership Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false HOME Investment Partnership... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.501 HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. Allocated and reallocated funds will be made available pursuant to a...

  4. 24 CFR 92.501 - HOME Investment Partnership Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HOME Investment Partnership... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.501 HOME Investment Partnership Agreement. Allocated and reallocated funds will be made available pursuant to a...

  5. Make Money with Money: Investing Student Funds for Greater Profit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daloyan, Gary

    1980-01-01

    Points out that many state laws allow the investment of student funds such as those for yearbooks and argues that the California code concerning such investments should be the law of the land. Points out how high school publications can earn a large sum of interest by investing properly. (TJ)

  6. 7 CFR 1710.406 - Eligible activities and investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GUARANTEES Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program § 1710.406 Eligible activities and investments. (a) General. Eligible program activities and investments: (1) Shall be designed to improve energy efficiency... activities and investments may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Energy efficiency...

  7. Waiting for the Return. Maximizing Investments in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Investments in technology and the number of workers using computers are growing quickly and at an increasing rate. From 1990-1995, investments in computers and related equipment tripled. Real (inflation-adjusted dollars) investments in computers and peripheral equipment increased from $200 million in 1973 to $91.6 billion in 1995. Increasing…

  8. 17 CFR 1.27 - Record of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.27 Record of investments. (a) Each futures commission merchant which invests customer funds, and each derivatives clearing organization which invests customer funds of its clearing members' customers or option customers, shall keep...

  9. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...) Describe the structure of the investment and the activity or activities conducted by the enterprise in... with a company engaged in insurance activities, the bank should describe the type of insurance...

  10. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...) Describe the structure of the investment and the activity or activities conducted by the enterprise in... with a company engaged in insurance activities, the bank should describe the type of insurance...

  11. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...) Describe the structure of the investment and the activity or activities conducted by the enterprise in... with a company engaged in insurance activities, the bank should describe the type of insurance...

  12. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...) Describe the structure of the investment and the activity or activities conducted by the enterprise in... with a company engaged in insurance activities, the bank should describe the type of insurance...

  13. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  14. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  15. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  17. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  18. Education's Role in Explaining Diabetic Heath Investment Differentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    1998-01-01

    Studies the relationship between education and certain diabetic health investment proxies, such as smoking propensities, blood sugar control, and diet. Increased education positively affects diabetic health investment even after controlling for IQ and available information. However, diabetics' health investments are less responsive to education…

  19. 17 CFR 1.25 - Investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.25 Investment of customer funds. (a) Permitted investments. (1) Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in...

  20. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...