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Sample records for social link prediction

  1. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%. PMID:28386441

  2. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  3. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  4. Time Score: A New Feature for Link Prediction in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munasinghe, Lankeshwara; Ichise, Ryutaro

    Link prediction in social networks, such as friendship networks and coauthorship networks, has recently attracted a great deal of attention. There have been numerous attempts to address the problem of link prediction through diverse approaches. In the present paper, we focus on the temporal behavior of the link strength, particularly the relationship between the time stamps of interactions or links and the temporal behavior of link strength and how link strength affects future link evolution. Most previous studies have not sufficiently discussed either the impact of time stamps of the interactions or time stamps of the links on link evolution. The gap between the current time and the time stamps of the interactions or links is also important to link evolution. In the present paper, we introduce a new time-aware feature, referred to as time score, that captures the important aspects of time stamps of interactions and the temporality of the link strengths. We also analyze the effectiveness of time score with different parameter settings for different network data sets. The results of the analysis revealed that the time score was sensitive to different networks and different time measures. We applied time score to two social network data sets, namely, Facebook friendship network data set and a coauthorship network data set. The results revealed a significant improvement in predicting future links.

  5. Link prediction measures considering different neighbors’ effects and application in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng; Wu, Chong; Li, Yongli

    Link prediction measures have been attracted particular attention in the field of mathematical physics. In this paper, we consider the different effects of neighbors in link prediction and focus on four different situations: only consider the individual’s own effects; consider the effects of individual, neighbors and neighbors’ neighbors; consider the effects of individual, neighbors, neighbors’ neighbors, neighbors’ neighbors’ neighbors and neighbors’ neighbors’ neighbors’ neighbors; consider the whole network participants’ effects. Then, according to the four situations, we present our link prediction models which also take the effects of social characteristics into consideration. An artificial network is adopted to illustrate the parameter estimation based on logistic regression. Furthermore, we compare our methods with the some other link prediction methods (LPMs) to examine the validity of our proposed model in online social networks. The results show the superior of our proposed link prediction methods compared with others. In the application part, our models are applied to study the social network evolution and used to recommend friends and cooperators in social networks.

  6. Link direction for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-03-01

    Almost all previous studies on link prediction have focused on using the properties of the network to predict the existence of links between pairs of nodes. Unfortunately, previous methods rarely consider the role of link direction for link prediction. In fact, many real-world complex networks are directed and ignoring the link direction will mean overlooking important information. In this study, we propose a phase-dynamic algorithm of the directed network nodes to analyse the role of link directions and demonstrate that the bi-directional links and the one-directional links have different roles in link prediction and network structure formation. From this, we propose new directional prediction methods and use six real networks to test our algorithms. In real networks, we find that compared to a pair of nodes which are connected by a one-directional link, a pair of nodes which are connected by a bi-directional link always have higher probabilities to connect to the common neighbours with only bi-directional links (or conversely by one-directional links). We suggest that, in the real networks, the bi-directional links will generally be more informative for link prediction and network structure formation. In addition, we propose a new directional randomized algorithm to demonstrate that the direction of the links plays a significant role in link prediction and network structure formation.

  7. Link prediction via matrix completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Ratha; Hao, Dong; Pan, Liming; Cheng, Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Inspired by the practical importance of social networks, economic networks, biological networks and so on, studies on large and complex networks have attracted a surge of attention in the recent years. Link prediction is a fundamental issue to understand the mechanisms by which new links are added to the networks. We introduce the method of robust principal component analysis (robust PCA) into link prediction, and estimate the missing entries of the adjacency matrix. On the one hand, our algorithm is based on the sparse and low-rank property of the matrix, while, on the other hand, it also performs very well when the network is dense. This is because a relatively dense real network is also sparse in comparison to the complete graph. According to extensive experiments on real networks from disparate fields, when the target network is connected and sufficiently dense, whether it is weighted or unweighted, our method is demonstrated to be very effective and with prediction accuracy being considerably improved compared to many state-of-the-art algorithms.

  8. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network’s probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26961965

  9. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-03-10

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network's probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms.

  10. Improving personalized link prediction by hybrid diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by traditional link prediction and to solve the problem of recommending friends in social networks, we introduce the personalized link prediction in this paper, in which each individual will get equal number of diversiform predictions. While the performances of many classical algorithms are not satisfactory under this framework, thus new algorithms are in urgent need. Motivated by previous researches in other fields, we generalize heat conduction process to the framework of personalized link prediction and find that this method outperforms many classical similarity-based algorithms, especially in the performance of diversity. In addition, we demonstrate that adding one ground node that is supposed to connect all the nodes in the system will greatly benefit the performance of heat conduction. Finally, better hybrid algorithms composed of local random walk and heat conduction have been proposed. Numerical results show that the hybrid algorithms can outperform other algorithms simultaneously in all four adopted metrics: AUC, precision, recall and hamming distance. In a word, this work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of physical processes in personalized link prediction.

  11. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  12. Exploiting Information Diffusion Feature for Link Prediction in Sina Weibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Yongchao; Xu, Zhiming; Chu, Dianhui; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of online social networks (e.g., Twitter and Facebook) has promoted research related to social networks in which link prediction is a key problem. Although numerous attempts have been made for link prediction based on network structure, node attribute and so on, few of the current studies have considered the impact of information diffusion on link creation and prediction. This paper mainly addresses Sina Weibo, which is the largest microblog platform with Chinese characteristics, and proposes the hypothesis that information diffusion influences link creation and verifies the hypothesis based on real data analysis. We also detect an important feature from the information diffusion process, which is used to promote link prediction performance. Finally, the experimental results on Sina Weibo dataset have demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods.

  13. Predicting link directions using local directed path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Chengli; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Shengjun; Yi, Dongyun

    2015-02-01

    Link prediction in directed network is attracting growing interest among many network scientists. Compared with predicting the existence of a link, determining its direction is more complicated. In this paper, we propose an efficient solution named Local Directed Path to predict link direction. By adding an extra ground node to the network, we solve the information loss problem in sparse network, which makes our method effective and robust. As a quasi-local method, our method can deal with large-scale networks in a reasonable time. Empirical analysis on real networks shows that our method can correctly predict link directions, which outperforms some local and global methods.

  14. Link prediction based on local community properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Ling, Fei; Cheng, Zhi; Weng, Guo-Qing; Huang, Yu-Jiao

    2016-09-01

    The link prediction algorithm is one of the key technologies to reveal the inherent rule of network evolution. This paper proposes a novel link prediction algorithm based on the properties of the local community, which is composed of the common neighbor nodes of any two nodes in the network and the links between these nodes. By referring to the node degree and the condition of assortativity or disassortativity in a network, we comprehensively consider the effect of the shortest path and edge clustering coefficient within the local community on node similarity. We numerically show the proposed method provide good link prediction results.

  15. Prediction of missing links and reconstruction of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    Predicting missing links in complex networks is of great significance from both theoretical and practical point of view, which not only helps us understand the evolution of real systems but also relates to many applications in social, biological and online systems. In this paper, we study the features of different simple link prediction methods, revealing that they may lead to the distortion of networks’ structural and dynamical properties. Moreover, we find that high prediction accuracy is not definitely corresponding to a high performance in preserving the network properties when using link prediction methods to reconstruct networks. Our work highlights the importance of considering the feedback effect of the link prediction methods on network properties when designing the algorithms.

  16. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  17. Toward link predictability of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The organization of real networks usually embodies both regularities and irregularities, and, in principle, the former can be modeled. The extent to which the formation of a network can be explained coincides with our ability to predict missing links. To understand network organization, we should be able to estimate link predictability. We assume that the regularity of a network is reflected in the consistency of structural features before and after a random removal of a small set of links. Based on the perturbation of the adjacency matrix, we propose a universal structural consistency index that is free of prior knowledge of network organization. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that (i) structural consistency is a good estimation of link predictability and (ii) a derivative algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art link prediction methods in both accuracy and robustness. This analysis has further applications in evaluating link prediction algorithms and monitoring sudden changes in evolving network mechanisms. It will provide unique fundamental insights into the above-mentioned academic research fields, and will foster the development of advanced information filtering technologies of interest to information technology practitioners. PMID:25659742

  18. Toward link predictability of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-02-24

    The organization of real networks usually embodies both regularities and irregularities, and, in principle, the former can be modeled. The extent to which the formation of a network can be explained coincides with our ability to predict missing links. To understand network organization, we should be able to estimate link predictability. We assume that the regularity of a network is reflected in the consistency of structural features before and after a random removal of a small set of links. Based on the perturbation of the adjacency matrix, we propose a universal structural consistency index that is free of prior knowledge of network organization. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that (i) structural consistency is a good estimation of link predictability and (ii) a derivative algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art link prediction methods in both accuracy and robustness. This analysis has further applications in evaluating link prediction algorithms and monitoring sudden changes in evolving network mechanisms. It will provide unique fundamental insights into the above-mentioned academic research fields, and will foster the development of advanced information filtering technologies of interest to information technology practitioners.

  19. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  20. Influence of Reciprocal Links in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  1. Influence of reciprocal links in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks.

  2. An efficient link prediction index for complex military organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Changjun; Liu, Zhong; Lu, Xin; Xiu, Baoxin; Chen, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Quality of information is crucial for decision-makers to judge the battlefield situations and design the best operation plans, however, real intelligence data are often incomplete and noisy, where missing links prediction methods and spurious links identification algorithms can be applied, if modeling the complex military organization as the complex network where nodes represent functional units and edges denote communication links. Traditional link prediction methods usually work well on homogeneous networks, but few for the heterogeneous ones. And the military network is a typical heterogeneous network, where there are different types of nodes and edges. In this paper, we proposed a combined link prediction index considering both the nodes' types effects and nodes' structural similarities, and demonstrated that it is remarkably superior to all the 25 existing similarity-based methods both in predicting missing links and identifying spurious links in a real military network data; we also investigated the algorithms' robustness under noisy environment, and found the mistaken information is more misleading than incomplete information in military areas, which is different from that in recommendation systems, and our method maintained the best performance under the condition of small noise. Since the real military network intelligence must be carefully checked at first due to its significance, and link prediction methods are just adopted to purify the network with the left latent noise, the method proposed here is applicable in real situations. In the end, as the FINC-E model, here used to describe the complex military organizations, is also suitable to many other social organizations, such as criminal networks, business organizations, etc., thus our method has its prospects in these areas for many tasks, like detecting the underground relationships between terrorists, predicting the potential business markets for decision-makers, and so on.

  3. Effectiveness of Link Prediction for Face-to-Face Behavioral Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1) that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30–0.45 and a recall of 0.10–0.20, (2) that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3) that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4) that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks. PMID:24339956

  4. Drug Response Prediction as a Link Prediction Problem

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Zachary; Coşkun, Mustafa; Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Drug response prediction is a well-studied problem in which the molecular profile of a given sample is used to predict the effect of a given drug on that sample. Effective solutions to this problem hold the key for precision medicine. In cancer research, genomic data from cell lines are often utilized as features to develop machine learning models predictive of drug response. Molecular networks provide a functional context for the integration of genomic features, thereby resulting in robust and reproducible predictive models. However, inclusion of network data increases dimensionality and poses additional challenges for common machine learning tasks. To overcome these challenges, we here formulate drug response prediction as a link prediction problem. For this purpose, we represent drug response data for a large cohort of cell lines as a heterogeneous network. Using this network, we compute “network profiles” for cell lines and drugs. We then use the associations between these profiles to predict links between drugs and cell lines. Through leave-one-out cross validation and cross-classification on independent datasets, we show that this approach leads to accurate and reproducible classification of sensitive and resistant cell line-drug pairs, with 85% accuracy. We also examine the biological relevance of the network profiles. PMID:28067293

  5. Link prediction based on temporal similarity metrics using continuous action set learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Link prediction is a social network research area that tries to predict future links using network structure. The main approaches in this area are based on predicting future links using network structure at a specific period, without considering the links behavior through different periods. For example, a common traditional approach in link prediction calculates a chosen similarity metric for each non-connected link and outputs the links with higher similarity scores as the prediction result. In this paper, we propose a new link prediction method based on temporal similarity metrics and Continuous Action set Learning Automata (CALA). The proposed method takes advantage of using different similarity metrics as well as different time periods. In the proposed algorithm, we try to model the link prediction problem as a noisy optimization problem and use a team of CALAs to solve the noisy optimization problem. CALA is a reinforcement based optimization tool which tries to learn the optimal behavior from the environment feedbacks. To determine the importance of different periods and similarity metrics on the prediction result, we define a coefficient for each of different periods and similarity metrics and use a CALA for each coefficient. Each CALA tries to learn the true value of the corresponding coefficient. Final link prediction is obtained from a combination of different similarity metrics in different times based on the obtained coefficients. The link prediction results reported here show satisfactory of the proposed method for some social network data sets.

  6. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness.

  7. Genetic variants linked to education predict longevity.

    PubMed

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Joshi, Peter K; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Okbay, Aysu; Fischer, Krista; Adams, Mark J; Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Nagy, Reka; Amador, Carmen; Läll, Kristi; Metspalu, Andres; Liewald, David C; Campbell, Archie; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Porteous, David J; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J

    2016-11-22

    Educational attainment is associated with many health outcomes, including longevity. It is also known to be substantially heritable. Here, we used data from three large genetic epidemiology cohort studies (Generation Scotland, n = ∼17,000; UK Biobank, n = ∼115,000; and the Estonian Biobank, n = ∼6,000) to test whether education-linked genetic variants can predict lifespan length. We did so by using cohort members' polygenic profile score for education to predict their parents' longevity. Across the three cohorts, meta-analysis showed that a 1 SD higher polygenic education score was associated with ∼2.7% lower mortality risk for both mothers (total ndeaths = 79,702) and ∼2.4% lower risk for fathers (total ndeaths = 97,630). On average, the parents of offspring in the upper third of the polygenic score distribution lived 0.55 y longer compared with those of offspring in the lower third. Overall, these results indicate that the genetic contributions to educational attainment are useful in the prediction of human longevity.

  8. Genetic variants linked to education predict longevity

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Joshi, Peter K.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Fischer, Krista; Adams, Mark J.; Hill, W. David; Davies, Gail; Nagy, Reka; Amador, Carmen; Läll, Kristi; Metspalu, Andres; Liewald, David C.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Porteous, David J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational attainment is associated with many health outcomes, including longevity. It is also known to be substantially heritable. Here, we used data from three large genetic epidemiology cohort studies (Generation Scotland, n = ∼17,000; UK Biobank, n = ∼115,000; and the Estonian Biobank, n = ∼6,000) to test whether education-linked genetic variants can predict lifespan length. We did so by using cohort members’ polygenic profile score for education to predict their parents’ longevity. Across the three cohorts, meta-analysis showed that a 1 SD higher polygenic education score was associated with ∼2.7% lower mortality risk for both mothers (total ndeaths = 79,702) and ∼2.4% lower risk for fathers (total ndeaths = 97,630). On average, the parents of offspring in the upper third of the polygenic score distribution lived 0.55 y longer compared with those of offspring in the lower third. Overall, these results indicate that the genetic contributions to educational attainment are useful in the prediction of human longevity. PMID:27799538

  9. Gender Differences in Predicting Loneliness from Social Network Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Levin, Ira

    Recent research suggesting a link between loneliness and social networks and a difference between males and females in both the quantity and quality of relationships support the view that loneliness can be predicted by gender from social network variables. In one study, two samples were used to explore gender differences. Sample 1, 97 males and 82…

  10. Predicting missing links via structural similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Guo-Dong; Fan, Chang-Jun; Yu, Lian-Fei; Xiu, Bao-Xin; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Predicting missing links in networks plays a significant role in modern science. On the basis of structural similarity, our paper proposes a new node-similarity-based measure called biased resource allocation (BRA), which is motivated by the resource allocation (RA) measure. Comparisons between BRA and nine well-known node-similarity-based measures on five real networks indicate that BRA performs no worse than RA, which was the best node-similarity-based index in previous researches. Afterwards, based on localPath (LP) and Katz measure, we propose another two improved measures, named Im-LocalPath and Im-Katz respectively. Numerical results show that the prediction accuracy of both Im-LP and Im-Katz measure improve compared with the original LP and Katz measure. Finally, a new path-similarity-based measure and its improved measure, called LYU and Im-LYU measure, are proposed and especially, Im-LYU measure is shown to perform more remarkably than other mentioned measures.

  11. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  12. Utility-Based Link Recommendation in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhepeng

    2013-01-01

    Link recommendation, which suggests links to connect currently unlinked users, is a key functionality offered by major online social networking platforms. Salient examples of link recommendation include "people you may know"' on Facebook and "who to follow" on Twitter. A social networking platform has two types of stakeholder:…

  13. Predicting top-L missing links with node and link clustering information in large-scale networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wan, Huaiyu; Jamil, Waleed

    2016-08-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems, such as social, biological, and technological systems. The prediction of missing links in incomplete complex networks aims to estimate the likelihood of the existence of a link between a pair of nodes. Various topological features of networks have been applied to develop link prediction methods. However, the exploration of features of links is still limited. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of node and link clustering information in predicting top -L missing links. In the existing literature, link prediction algorithms have only been tested on small-scale and middle-scale networks. The network scale factor has not attracted the same level of attention. In our experiments, we test the proposed method on three groups of networks. For small-scale networks, since the structures are not very complex, advanced methods cannot perform significantly better than classical methods. For middle-scale networks, the proposed index, combining both node and link clustering information, starts to demonstrate its advantages. In many networks, combining both node and link clustering information can improve the link prediction accuracy a great deal. Large-scale networks with more than 100 000 links have rarely been tested previously. Our experiments on three large-scale networks show that local clustering information based methods outperform other methods, and link clustering information can further improve the accuracy of node clustering information based methods, in particular for networks with a broad distribution of the link clustering coefficient.

  14. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making.

  15. The missing link: leadership, identity, and the social brain.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Mark

    2012-05-01

    How the cohesion of a social network is being maintained in spite of having different layers of social interaction is an important question. I argue that the evolution of both (political) hierarchy and social identity play a crucial role in scaling up and bonding social networks. Together they are missing links in the social brain hypothesis, and further research is needed to understand the functions of leadership and social identity.

  16. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the “noisy” environment. PMID:26733156

  17. The role of prediction in social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elliot C; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the "predictive brain" are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a "social predictive brain" are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating social

  18. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elliot C.; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the “predictive brain” are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a “social predictive brain” are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating

  19. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  20. Preschoolers Use Social Allegiances to Predict Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalik, Lisa; Rhodes, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Developing mechanisms for predicting human action is a critical task of early conceptual development. Three studies examined whether 4-year-old children (N = 149) use social allegiances to predict behavior, by testing whether they expect the experiences of social partners to influence individual action. After being exposed to a conflict between…

  1. Social goals, aggression, peer preference, and popularity: longitudinal links during middle school.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic (status, power) goals predicted increased relational aggression and communal (closeness) goals predicted decreased physical aggression. Popularity predicted increases and preference predicted decreases in both forms of aggression. Goals moderated longitudinal links between aggression and popularity: Aggression predicted increases in popularity and vice versa for youth with higher agentic goals, and popularity predicted increases in physical aggression for youth with higher agentic and lower communal goals. Implications for research on social goals, aggression, and popularity are discussed.

  2. Predicted Social Drinking and the Need for Social Approval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jennifer L.; McAndrew, Francis T.

    Research has indicated that alcohol consumption is strongly affected by situational factors, especially social factors. To explore the relevance to drinking of the need for social approval in social situations, 36 male college students were asked to predict how much they would drink in several situations varying in how certain they were of their…

  3. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  4. Predicting brain network changes in Alzheimer's disease with link prediction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sulaimany, Sadegh; Khansari, Mohammad; Zarrineh, Peyman; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2017-03-28

    Link prediction is a promising research area for modeling various types of networks and has mainly focused on predicting missing links. Link prediction methods may be valuable for describing brain connectivity, as it changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we analyzed 3-tesla whole-brain diffusion-weighted images from 202 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) - 50 healthy controls, 72 with earlyMCI (eMCI) and 38 with lateMCI (lMCI) and 42 AD patients. We introduce a novel approach for Mixed Link Prediction (MLP) to test and define the percent of predictability of each heightened stage of dementia from its previous, less impaired stage, in the simplest case. Using well-known link prediction algorithms as the core of MLP, we propose a new approach that predicts stages of cognitive impairment by simultaneously adding and removing links in the brain networks of elderly individuals. We found that the optimal algorithm, called "Adamic and Adar", had the best fit and most accurately predicted the stages of AD from their previous stage. When compared to the other link prediction algorithms, that mainly only predict the added links, our proposed approach can more inclusively simulate the brain changes during disease by both adding and removing links of the network. Our results are also in line with computational neuroimaging and clinical findings and can be improved for better results.

  5. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  6. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  7. IDPredictor: predict database links in biomedical database.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Hendrik; Lange, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe; Schreiber, Falk

    2012-06-26

    Knowledge found in biomedical databases, in particular in Web information systems, is a major bioinformatics resource. In general, this biological knowledge is worldwide represented in a network of databases. These data is spread among thousands of databases, which overlap in content, but differ substantially with respect to content detail, interface, formats and data structure. To support a functional annotation of lab data, such as protein sequences, metabolites or DNA sequences as well as a semi-automated data exploration in information retrieval environments, an integrated view to databases is essential. Search engines have the potential of assisting in data retrieval from these structured sources, but fall short of providing a comprehensive knowledge except out of the interlinked databases. A prerequisite of supporting the concept of an integrated data view is to acquire insights into cross-references among database entities. This issue is being hampered by the fact, that only a fraction of all possible cross-references are explicitely tagged in the particular biomedical informations systems. In this work, we investigate to what extend an automated construction of an integrated data network is possible. We propose a method that predicts and extracts cross-references from multiple life science databases and possible referenced data targets. We study the retrieval quality of our method and report on first, promising results. The method is implemented as the tool IDPredictor, which is published under the DOI 10.5447/IPK/2012/4 and is freely available using the URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5447/IPK/2012/4.

  8. Dysregulated fear predicts social wariness and social anxiety symptoms during kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Buss, Kristin A; Davis, Elizabeth L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Brooker, Rebecca J; Beekman, Charles; Early, Martha C

    2013-01-01

    Fearful temperament is associated with risk for the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood; however, not all fearful children become anxious. Identifying maladaptive trajectories is thus important for clarifying which fearful children are at risk. In an unselected sample of 111 two-year-olds (55% male, 95% Caucasian), Buss ( 2011 ) identified a pattern of fearful behavior, dysregulated fear, characterized by high fear in low threat situations. This pattern of behavior predicted parent- and teacher-reported withdrawn/anxious behaviors in preschool and at kindergarten entry. The current study extended original findings and examined whether dysregulated fear predicted observed social wariness with adults and peers, and social anxiety symptoms at age 6. We also examined prosocial adjustment during kindergarten as a moderator of the link between dysregulated fear and social wariness. Consistent with predictions, children with greater dysregulated fear at age 2 were more socially wary of adults and unfamiliar peers in the laboratory, were reported as having more social anxiety symptoms, and were nearly 4 times more likely to manifest social anxiety symptoms than other children with elevated wariness in kindergarten. Results demonstrated stability in the dysregulated fear profile and increased risk for social anxiety symptom development. Dysregulated fear predicted more social wariness with unfamiliar peers only when children became less prosocial during kindergarten. Findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the dysregulated fear construct for specifying maladaptive trajectories of risk for anxiety disorder development.

  9. Prediction of Links and Weights in Networks by Reliable Routes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Lili; Yang, Jian; Fang, Haiyang; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Min; Holme, Petter; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Link prediction aims to uncover missing links or predict the emergence of future relationships from the current network structure. Plenty of algorithms have been developed for link prediction in unweighted networks, but only a few have been extended to weighted networks. In this paper, we present what we call a “reliable-route method” to extend unweighted local similarity indices to weighted ones. Using these indices, we can predict both the existence of links and their weights. Experiments on various real-world networks suggest that our reliable-route weighted resource-allocation index performs noticeably better than others with respect to weight prediction. For existence prediction it is either the highest or very close to the highest. Further analysis shows a strong positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and prediction accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to the prediction of missing protein-protein interactions and their confidence scores from known PPI networks. Once again, our reliable-route method shows the highest accuracy. PMID:26198206

  10. Entropy-based link prediction in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Ramiz Sharafat, Rajput; Li, Lunbo; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Information entropy has been proved to be an effective tool to quantify the structural importance of complex networks. In the previous work (Xu et al, 2016 \\cite{xu2016}), we measure the contribution of a path in link prediction with information entropy. In this paper, we further quantify the contribution of a path with both path entropy and path weight, and propose a weighted prediction index based on the contributions of paths, namely Weighted Path Entropy (WPE), to improve the prediction accuracy in weighted networks. Empirical experiments on six weighted real-world networks show that WPE achieves higher prediction accuracy than three typical weighted indices.

  11. Similarity indices based on link weight assignment for link prediction of unweighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxin; Ji, Xinsheng; Liu, Caixia; Bai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Many link prediction methods have been proposed for predicting the likelihood that a link exists between two nodes in complex networks. Among these methods, similarity indices are receiving close attention. Most similarity-based methods assume that the contribution of links with different topological structures is the same in the similarity calculations. This paper proposes a local weighted method, which weights the strength of connection between each pair of nodes. Based on the local weighted method, six local weighted similarity indices extended from unweighted similarity indices (including Common Neighbor (CN), Adamic-Adar (AA), Resource Allocation (RA), Salton, Jaccard and Local Path (LP) index) are proposed. Empirical study has shown that the local weighted method can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of these unweighted similarity indices and that in sparse and weakly clustered networks, the indices perform even better.

  12. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  13. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  14. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Lei, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  15. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  16. Predicting the Social Commitments of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Ellen; O'Ryan, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the nature of social beliefs and commitments during the college years in relation to developmental orientations as measured by the Dakota Inventory of Student Orientations. Results support Creative-Reflective scale scores as predictive of commitment to the more humanitarian issues such as race and women's rights, whereas…

  17. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug-target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  18. Introduction: Links between Social Interaction and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charlie; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The term executive function is used increasingly within developmental psychology and is often taken to refer to unfolding brain processes. We trace the origins of research on executive function to show that the link with social interaction has a long history. We suggest that a recent frenzy of research exploring methods for studying individual…

  19. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  20. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  1. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Ann C; Baril, Megan E; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization.

  2. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization. PMID:21709729

  3. Mutual information model for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Shakibian, Hadi; Moghadam Charkari, Nasrollah

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a number of meta-path based similarity indices like PathSim, HeteSim, and random walk have been proposed for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks. However, these indices suffer from two major drawbacks. Firstly, they are primarily dependent on the connectivity degrees of node pairs without considering the further information provided by the given meta-path. Secondly, most of them are required to use a single and usually symmetric meta-path in advance. Hence, employing a set of different meta-paths is not straightforward. To tackle with these problems, we propose a mutual information model for link prediction in heterogeneous complex networks. The proposed model, called as Meta-path based Mutual Information Index (MMI), introduces meta-path based link entropy to estimate the link likelihood and could be carried on a set of available meta-paths. This estimation measures the amount of information through the paths instead of measuring the amount of connectivity between the node pairs. The experimental results on a Bibliography network show that the MMI obtains high prediction accuracy compared with other popular similarity indices. PMID:28344326

  4. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders.

  5. Link prediction based on local information considering preferential attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shan

    2016-02-01

    Link prediction in complex networks has attracted much attention in many fields. In this paper, a common neighbors plus preferential attachment index is presented to estimate the likelihood of the existence of a link between two nodes based on local information of the nearest neighbors. Numerical experiments on six real networks demonstrated the high effectiveness and efficiency of the new index compared with five well-known and widely accepted indices: the common neighbors, resource allocation index, preferential attachment index, local path index and Katz index. The new index provides competitively accurate prediction with local path index and Katz index while has less computational complexity and is more accurate than the other two indices.

  6. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live.

  7. The Power of Implicit Social Relation in Rating Prediction of Social Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reafee, Waleed; Salim, Naomie; Khan, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy. PMID:27152663

  8. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers' SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in…

  9. Predictability of Extreme Events in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, José M.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-01-01

    It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these extreme events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most extreme events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138

  10. Prediction of fading phenomena in land-satellite communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaunstein, N.; Cohen, Y.; Hayakawa, M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of prediction of probability of successful radio communication of any mobile or stationary subscriber located in areas of service such as complex urban environments characterized by nonline-of-sight propagation conditions, which limit GPS, Low Earth Orbit, and Medium Earth Orbit services in land-satellite communications. It presents a self-consistent physical-statistical approach for predicting fading phenomena usually occurring in land-satellite communication links caused by influence of the terrain features on radio signal propagation from the ground-based to the satellite antenna. This approach combines (1) the statistical description of the buildings array located on the rough terrain and the buildings' overlay profile, based on special probabilistic distributions of built-up terrain parameters, and (2) the theoretical description of propagation phenomena, taking into account multiple scattering, reflection, and diffraction mechanisms. A new technique is proposed for predicting the probability of fading phenomena occurring in land-satellite links using the so-called stochastic multiparametric model. Results of theoretical predictions are compared with those obtained from the "pure statistical" Lutz model and physical-statistical Saunders-Evans model, and then with experimental data obtained for different European cities. Obtained results show that the proposed stochastic approach can be used as a good predictor of fading phenomena in land-satellite communication links for different satellite constellation scenarios and elevations of satellites during their movement surrounding the Earth, with respect to the ground-based antenna for different land environments: rural, mixed residential, suburban, and urban.

  11. Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berlusconi, Giulia; Calderoni, Francesco; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco; Piccardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of link prediction has recently received increasing attention from scholars in network science. In social network analysis, one of its aims is to recover missing links, namely connections among actors which are likely to exist but have not been reported because data are incomplete or subject to various types of uncertainty. In the field of criminal investigations, problems of incomplete information are encountered almost by definition, given the obvious anti-detection strategies set up by criminals and the limited investigative resources. In this paper, we work on a specific dataset obtained from a real investigation, and we propose a strategy to identify missing links in a criminal network on the basis of the topological analysis of the links classified as marginal, i.e. removed during the investigation procedure. The main assumption is that missing links should have opposite features with respect to marginal ones. Measures of node similarity turn out to provide the best characterization in this sense. The inspection of the judicial source documents confirms that the predicted links, in most instances, do relate actors with large likelihood of co-participation in illicit activities. PMID:27104948

  12. Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlusconi, Giulia; Calderoni, Francesco; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco; Piccardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of link prediction has recently received increasing attention from scholars in network science. In social network analysis, one of its aims is to recover missing links, namely connections among actors which are likely to exist but have not been reported because data are incomplete or subject to various types of uncertainty. In the field of criminal investigations, problems of incomplete information are encountered almost by definition, given the obvious anti-detection strategies set up by criminals and the limited investigative resources. In this paper, we work on a specific dataset obtained from a real investigation, and we propose a strategy to identify missing links in a criminal network on the basis of the topological analysis of the links classified as marginal, i.e. removed during the investigation procedure. The main assumption is that missing links should have opposite features with respect to marginal ones. Measures of node similarity turn out to provide the best characterization in this sense. The inspection of the judicial source documents confirms that the predicted links, in most instances, do relate actors with large likelihood of co-participation in illicit activities.

  13. Link-Prediction Enhanced Consensus Clustering for Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Matthew; Adar, Eytan; Cafarella, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many real networks that are collected or inferred from data are incomplete due to missing edges. Missing edges can be inherent to the dataset (Facebook friend links will never be complete) or the result of sampling (one may only have access to a portion of the data). The consequence is that downstream analyses that "consume" the network will often yield less accurate results than if the edges were complete. Community detection algorithms, in particular, often suffer when critical intra-community edges are missing. We propose a novel consensus clustering algorithm to enhance community detection on incomplete networks. Our framework utilizes existing community detection algorithms that process networks imputed by our link prediction based sampling algorithm and merges their multiple partitions into a final consensus output. On average our method boosts performance of existing algorithms by 7% on artificial data and 17% on ego networks collected from Facebook.

  14. Ethical and social aspects of risk predictions.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews past, present and future social and ethical considerations of screening carriers of autosomal disorders and other heterozygotes. A body of ethical and social guidance has evolved in the 1970's and 1980's for screening. The values of voluntaristic participation and informed consent are high. The goal of programs should be to provide couples, families, and individuals with knowledge respecting their reproductive choices. The dangers are coercive strategies, stigmatization, and careless communication of risk information. It is assumed that the number of autosomal carrier states that are screenable will undoubtedly increase as will states of heterozygosity that cause susceptibility to common diseases. Before the end of the century, something approaching a "biopsy of the human genome" will be a practical reality. To balance the potential for harmful psychological and social effects of so much new genetic knowledge, new efforts must be made to find treatments for progeny affected by recessive disorders. Maternal and paternal screening, prenatal diagnosis and treatment will be increasingly linked in the future. This paper will report on a case of fetal therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a paradigm for the future. The argument will be made that society ought to put a higher priority on prenatal care and prevention of disorders of prematurity than genetic disorders with a low frequency, lest genetic screening be distorted by unfounded concern about eugenics.

  15. Design and Implementation of Davis Social Links OSN Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thomas; Chan, Kelcey; Ye, Shaozhi; Bhattacharyya, Prantik; Garg, Ankush; Lu, Xiaoming; Wu, S. Felix

    Social network popularity continues to rise as they broaden out to more users. Hidden away within these social networks is a valuable set of data that outlines everyone’s relationships. Networks have created APIs such as the Facebook Development Platform and OpenSocial that allow developers to create applications that can leverage user information. However, at the current stage, the social network support for these new applications is fairly limited in its functionality. Most, if not all, of the existing internet applications such as email, BitTorrent, and Skype cannot benefit from the valuable social network among their own users. In this paper, we present an architecture that couples two different communication layers together: the end2end communication layer and the social context layer, under the Davis Social Links (DSL) project. Our proposed architecture attempts to preserve the original application semantics (i.e., we can use Thunderbird or Outlook, unmodified, to read our SMTP emails) and provides the communicating parties (email sender and receivers) a social context for control and management. For instance, the receiver can set trust policy rules based on the social context between the pair, to determine how a particular email in question should be prioritized for delivery to the SMTP layer. Furthermore, as our architecture includes two coupling layers, it is then possible, as an option, to shift some of the services from the original applications into the social context layer. In the context of email, for example, our architecture allows users to choose operations, such as reply, reply-all, and forward, to be realized in either the application layer or the social network layer. And, the realization of these operations under the social network layer offers powerful features unavailable in the original applications. To validate our coupling architecture, we have implemented a DSL kernel prototype as a Facebook application called CyrusDSL (currently about

  16. CD-Based Indices for Link Prediction in Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hongjue; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Lots of similarity-based algorithms have been designed to deal with the problem of link prediction in the past decade. In order to improve prediction accuracy, a novel cosine similarity index CD based on distance between nodes and cosine value between vectors is proposed in this paper. Firstly, node coordinate matrix can be obtained by node distances which are different from distance matrix and row vectors of the matrix are regarded as coordinates of nodes. Then, cosine value between node coordinates is used as their similarity index. A local community density index LD is also proposed. Then, a series of CD-based indices include CD-LD-k, CD*LD-k, CD-k and CDI are presented and applied in ten real networks. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of CD-based indices. The effects of network clustering coefficient and assortative coefficient on prediction accuracy of indices are analyzed. CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k can improve prediction accuracy without considering the assortative coefficient of network is negative or positive. According to analysis of relative precision of each method on each network, CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k indices have excellent average performance and robustness. CD and CD-k indices perform better on positive assortative networks than on negative assortative networks. For negative assortative networks, we improve and refine CD index, referred as CDI index, combining the advantages of CD index and evolutionary mechanism of the network model BA. Experimental results reveal that CDI index can increase prediction accuracy of CD on negative assortative networks. PMID:26752405

  17. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  18. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  19. Hyperscanning: simultaneous fMRI during linked social interactions.

    PubMed

    Montague, P Read; Berns, Gregory S; Cohen, Jonathan D; McClure, Samuel M; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Dhamala, Mukesh; Wiest, Michael C; Karpov, Igor; King, Richard D; Apple, Nathan; Fisher, Ronald E

    2002-08-01

    "Plain question and plain answer make the shortest road out of most perplexities." Mark Twain-Life on the Mississippi. A new methodology for the measurement of the neural substrates of human social interaction is described. This technology, termed "Hyperscan," embodies both the hardware and the software necessary to link magnetic resonance scanners through the internet. Hyperscanning allows for the performance of human behavioral experiments in which participants can interact with each other while functional MRI is acquired in synchrony with the behavioral interactions. Data are presented from a simple game of deception between pairs of subjects. Because people may interact both asymmetrically and asynchronously, both the design and the analysis must accommodate this added complexity. Several potential approaches are described.

  20. Siderophore production and biofilm formation as linked social traits.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Buckling, Angus

    2009-05-01

    The virulence of pathogenic microbes can depend on individual cells cooperating in the concerted production of molecules that facilitate host colonization or exploitation. However, cooperating groups can be exploited by social defectors or 'cheats'. Understanding the ecology and evolution of cooperation is therefore relevant to clinical microbiology. We studied two genetically linked cooperative traits involved in host exploitation by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clones that defected from cooperative production of iron-scavenging siderophores were deficient in biofilm formation. The presence of such clones in mixed biofilms with a wild-type clone led to reduced biofilm mass. The fitness advantage of siderophore-deficient mutants in the presence of wild-type bacteria was no greater in biofilm than in planktonic culture, suggesting that these mutants did not gain an additional advantage by exploiting wild-type biofilm polymer. Reduced biofilm formation therefore represents a pleiotropic cost of defection from siderophore production.

  1. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  2. Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-15

    reporting in fast-paced social media such as Twitter, but these reports are rarely linked to quantiable network behavior. A data set of network-based...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks 5a...Random sample of 30 (D, E) pairs yielding 21 unique entities (E) Linking Social Media Reports to Network Indicators of DoS Attacks Evan Wright

  3. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Atwill, Edward R; Isbell, Lynne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. Using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, Escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (Giraffe camelopardalis). Individuals were considered to be a part of the same transmission chain and were interlinked in the transmission network if they shared genetic subtypes of E. coli. By using microbial genetics to quantify who transmits to whom independently from the behavioural data on who is in contact with whom, we were able to directly investigate how the structure of contact networks influences the structure of the transmission network. To distinguish between the effects of social and environmental contact on transmission dynamics, the transmission network was compared with two separate contact networks defined from the behavioural data: a social network based on association patterns, and a spatial network based on patterns of home-range overlap among individuals. We found that links in the transmission network were more likely to occur between individuals that were strongly linked in the social network. Furthermore, individuals that had more numerous connections or that occupied 'bottleneck' positions in the social network tended to occupy similar positions in the transmission network. No similar correlations were observed between the spatial and transmission networks. This indicates that an individual's social network position is predictive of transmission network position, which has implications for identifying individuals that function as super-spreaders or transmission bottlenecks in the population. These results emphasize the importance of association patterns in

  4. Social Factors That Predict Fear of Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…

  5. Disrupted prediction errors index social deficits in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Apps, Matthew A J; Bolis, Dimitris; Lehner, Rea; Gallagher, Louise; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Social deficits are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder; however, the perturbed neural mechanisms underpinning these deficits remain unclear. It has been suggested that social prediction errors-coding discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcome of another's decisions-might play a crucial role in processing social information. While the gyral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex signalled social prediction errors in typically developing individuals, this crucial social signal was altered in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Importantly, the degree to which social prediction error signalling was aberrant correlated with diagnostic measures of social deficits. Effective connectivity analyses further revealed that, in typically developing individuals but not in autism spectrum disorder, the magnitude of social prediction errors was driven by input from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These data provide a novel insight into the neural substrates underlying autism spectrum disorder social symptom severity, and further research into the gyral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex could provide more targeted therapies to help ameliorate social deficits in autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Disrupted prediction errors index social deficits in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Bolis, Dimitris; Lehner, Rea; Gallagher, Louise; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Social deficits are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder; however, the perturbed neural mechanisms underpinning these deficits remain unclear. It has been suggested that social prediction errors—coding discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcome of another’s decisions—might play a crucial role in processing social information. While the gyral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex signalled social prediction errors in typically developing individuals, this crucial social signal was altered in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Importantly, the degree to which social prediction error signalling was aberrant correlated with diagnostic measures of social deficits. Effective connectivity analyses further revealed that, in typically developing individuals but not in autism spectrum disorder, the magnitude of social prediction errors was driven by input from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These data provide a novel insight into the neural substrates underlying autism spectrum disorder social symptom severity, and further research into the gyral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex could provide more targeted therapies to help ameliorate social deficits in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:28031223

  7. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  8. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  9. Pain tolerance predicts human social network size

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katerina V.-A.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal social network size exhibits considerable variation in the human population and is associated with both physical and mental health status. Much of this inter-individual variation in human sociality remains unexplained from a biological perspective. According to the brain opioid theory of social attachment, binding of the neuropeptide β-endorphin to μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is a key neurochemical mechanism involved in social bonding, particularly amongst primates. We hypothesise that a positive association exists between activity of the μ-opioid system and the number of social relationships that an individual maintains. Given the powerful analgesic properties of β-endorphin, we tested this hypothesis using pain tolerance as an assay for activation of the endogenous μ-opioid system. We show that a simple measure of pain tolerance correlates with social network size in humans. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that μ-opioid receptor signalling has been elaborated beyond its basic function of pain modulation to play an important role in managing our social encounters. The neuroplasticity of the μ-opioid system is of future research interest, especially with respect to psychiatric disorders associated with symptoms of social withdrawal and anhedonia, both of which are strongly modulated by endogenous opioids. PMID:27121297

  10. Early adolescent depressive symptoms: prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.

  11. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-07-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction.

  12. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-07-21

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction.

  13. Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Naomi I; Taylor, Shelley E; Gable, Shelly L; Hilmert, Clayton J; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2007-05-01

    It is well established that a lack of social support constitutes a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, comparable to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure. Although it has been hypothesized that social support may benefit health by reducing physiological reactivity to stressors, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Moreover, to date, no studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate experiences of social support into the health outcomes that follow. To investigate these processes, thirty participants completed three tasks in which daily social support, neurocognitive reactivity to a social stressor, and neuroendocrine responses to a social stressor were assessed. Individuals who interacted regularly with supportive individuals across a 10-day period showed diminished cortisol reactivity to a social stressor. Moreover, greater social support and diminished cortisol responses were associated with diminished activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and Brodmann's area (BA) 8, regions previously associated with the distress of social separation. Lastly, individual differences in dACC and BA 8 reactivity mediated the relationship between high daily social support and low cortisol reactivity, such that supported individuals showed reduced neurocognitive reactivity to social stressors, which in turn was associated with reduced neuroendocrine stress responses. This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of the social support-health relationship and provides evidence that social support may ultimately benefit health by diminishing neural and physiological reactivity to social stressors.

  14. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  15. Mechanisms linking the social environment to health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...

  16. Antiretroviral drug diversion links social vulnerability to poor medication adherence in substance abusing populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L

    2015-05-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization for vulnerable populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25 % of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations.

  17. Antiretroviral Drug Diversion Links Social Vulnerability to Poor Medication Adherence in Substance Abusing Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization for Vulnerable Populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n=503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25% of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations. PMID:25893656

  18. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  19. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N. A.; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods. PMID:26075404

  20. Predicting Drop-Out from Social Behaviour of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Jaroslav; Bydzovska, Hana; Geryk, Jan; Obsivac, Tomas; Popelinsky, Lubomir

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on predicting drop-outs and school failures when student data has been enriched with data derived from students social behaviour. These data describe social dependencies gathered from e-mail and discussion board conversations, among other sources. We describe an extraction of new features from both student data and behaviour…

  1. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  2. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  3. Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Freeberg, Todd M.; Kullberg, Cecilia; Lucas, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication—the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid—Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour. PMID:22641826

  4. Personality and prosocial behavior: linking basic traits and social value orientations.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality--though supported entirely by hypothetical behavior as criterion, so far. Thus, in 2 studies and a reanalysis, we investigated "actual behavior" in the form of individually and socially consequential distribution decisions. As expected, HEXACO Honesty-Humility consistently predicted prosocial behavior, including a theory-consistent pattern on the facet level. Importantly, this pattern might explain why five-factor Agreeableness has only sometimes been found to account for prosocial behavior. Indeed, further results indicate that five-factor Agreeableness comprises some aspects that are predictive of prosocial behavior--aspects well covered by HEXACO Honesty-Humility--but also others that play no role for this criterion. As such, the links between five-factor Agreeableness and prosocial behavior are well-covered by HEXACO Honesty-Humility, but not vice versa. Taken together, these findings hint that especially HEXACO Honesty-Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior--thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior.

  5. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-16

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations-a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living.

  6. Trust from the past: Bayesian Personalized Ranking based Link Prediction in Knowledge Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Baichuan; Choudhury, Sutanay; Al-Hasan, Mohammad; Ning, Xia; Agarwal, Khushbu; Purohit, Sumit; Pesantez, Paola

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the confidence for a link is a critical task for Knowledge Graph construction. Link prediction, or predicting the likelihood of a link in a knowledge graph based on prior state is a key research direction within this area. We propose a Latent Feature Embedding based link recommendation model for prediction task and utilize Bayesian Personalized Ranking based optimization technique for learning models for each predicate. Experimental results on large-scale knowledge bases such as YAGO2 show that our approach achieves substantially higher performance than several state-of-art approaches. Furthermore, we also study the performance of the link prediction algorithm in terms of topological properties of the Knowledge Graph and present a linear regression model to reason about its expected level of accuracy.

  7. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  8. Language, Minority Education and Gender: Linking Social Justice and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    Injustices in language policy and practice in education are examined, focusing on three groups that appear to be most affected by unfair language policies in education; women and girls; minority social groups; and minority cultural groups, distinguished from minority social groups in that the former usually possess or identify with a language that…

  9. Link prediction based on hyperbolic mapping with community structure for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Link prediction is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link prediction methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link Prediction with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic mapping. Different from the existing link prediction methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to map networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally predicts missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in predicting missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link prediction methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.

  10. A class-based link prediction using Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andalib, Azam; Babamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-08-01

    One of the important tasks in relational data analysis is link prediction which has been successfully applied on many applications such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, etc. The link prediction is defined as predicting the existence or absence of edges between nodes of a network. In this paper, we propose a novel method for link prediction based on Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (DDCRP) model which enables us to utilize the information of the topological structure of the network such as shortest path and connectivity of the nodes. We also propose a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for computing the posterior distribution of the hidden variables based on the training data. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show the superiority of the proposed method over other probabilistic models for link prediction problem.

  11. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention.

  12. The role of attitudes toward White privilege and religious beliefs in predicting social justice interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nathan R; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Suffrin, Rachael L

    2014-03-01

    The current study examines links among attitudes toward White privilege, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment for White Christian students. Two distinct patterns of results emerged from a path analysis of 500 White Christian students. First, a willingness to confront White privilege was positively associated with the sanctification of social justice (i.e., attributing spiritual significance to working for social justice) and both were positively associated with social justice interest and commitment. Second, awareness of White privilege was negatively associated with religious conservatism, and religious conservatism was negatively associated with social justice interest. These patterns show that White privilege attitudes directly (i.e., willingness to confront White privilege) and indirectly (i.e., awareness of White privilege through religious conservatism) predicted social justice interest and commitment. Moreover, religious beliefs demonstrated opposite patterns of association with social justice interest and commitment such that the sanctification of social justice positively predicted social justice interest and commitment whereas religious conservatism negatively predicted social justice interest. Overall, findings demonstrate direct and indirect links between White privilege attitudes, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment. Limitations and implications for future community psychology research and collaboration also are discussed.

  13. Predictive Non-Equilibrium Social Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    structural balance theory ( SBT ) may be useful for edge-sign prediction. Briefly, SBT posits that if w∈V forms a triad with edge (u,v), then the sign of (u...my friend is my friend”, “the friend of my enemy is my enemy”, and so on (Heider 1946). Thus SBT suggests that knowledge of the signs of the edges...directly motivated by SBT . For example, if (u,v) belongs to many triads with one positive and one negative edge, it may be likely that the sign of (u

  14. A perturbation-based framework for link prediction via non-negative matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjun; Cai, Fei; Jiao, Pengfei; Pan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many link prediction methods have been developed to infer unobserved links or predict latent links based on the observed network structure. However, due to network noises and irregular links in real network, the performances of existed methods are usually limited. Considering random noises and irregular links, we propose a perturbation-based framework based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization to predict missing links. We first automatically determine the suitable number of latent features, which is inner rank in NMF, by Colibri method. Then, we perturb training set of a network by perturbation sets many times and get a series of perturbed networks. Finally, the common basis matrix and coefficients matrix of these perturbed networks are obtained via NMF and form similarity matrix of the network for link prediction. Experimental results on fifteen real networks show that the proposed framework has competitive performances compared with state-of-the-art link prediction methods. Correlations between the performances of different methods and the statistics of networks show that those methods with good precisions have similar consistence. PMID:27976672

  15. A perturbation-based framework for link prediction via non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Cai, Fei; Jiao, Pengfei; Pan, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Many link prediction methods have been developed to infer unobserved links or predict latent links based on the observed network structure. However, due to network noises and irregular links in real network, the performances of existed methods are usually limited. Considering random noises and irregular links, we propose a perturbation-based framework based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization to predict missing links. We first automatically determine the suitable number of latent features, which is inner rank in NMF, by Colibri method. Then, we perturb training set of a network by perturbation sets many times and get a series of perturbed networks. Finally, the common basis matrix and coefficients matrix of these perturbed networks are obtained via NMF and form similarity matrix of the network for link prediction. Experimental results on fifteen real networks show that the proposed framework has competitive performances compared with state-of-the-art link prediction methods. Correlations between the performances of different methods and the statistics of networks show that those methods with good precisions have similar consistence.

  16. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  17. Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics.

  18. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal.

    PubMed

    Ebitz, R Becket; Platt, Michael L

    2015-02-04

    Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it's often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size-a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone-associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors, and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal.

  19. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal

    PubMed Central

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it’s often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show for the first time that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically-relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size—a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone—associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal. PMID:25654259

  20. Genetic influences can protect against unresponsive parenting in the prediction of child social competence.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this article, the possibility of a Gene x Environment (G × E) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children is evaluated. Using a longitudinal, multimethod data set from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), a significant interaction was found between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting.

  1. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming–online gambling link

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun S.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person’s personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12–14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks. PMID:28092197

  2. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming-online gambling link.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Wohl, Michael J A; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person's personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12-14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks.

  3. Social Goals, Aggression, Peer Preference, and Popularity: Longitudinal Links during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic…

  4. Predicting Comorbid Conditions and Trajectories using Social Health Records.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James

    2016-05-05

    Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.

  5. What measure of interpersonal dependency predicts changes in social support?

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan

    2008-01-01

    One of the most intriguing characteristics of interpersonal dependency is its ability to predict elevated levels of social support. Yet studies of interpersonal dependency use various measures to assess this effect. In this study, I compared 3 commonly used measures of interpersonal dependency in terms of their prediction of social support: Hirschfield's Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977), the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), and the Dependency subscale of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). A total of 152 undergraduates were administered these measures as well as measures of depressive symptoms and social support a week prior to their first exam period and a week after this period (interval time = 8 weeks). DEQ-dependency predicted an increase in social support, whereas PSI-Dependency and IDI predicted a decrease in social support over time. DEQ-dependency appears to capture better than the other 2 measures the dialectic tension between risk and resilience in interpersonal dependency.

  6. OXTR polymorphism predicts social relationships through its effects on social temperament.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Wright, Aidan G C; Troxel, Wendy M; Ferrell, Robert E; Flory, Janine D; Manuck, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Humans have a fundamental need for strong interpersonal bonds, yet individuals differ appreciably in their degree of social integration. That these differences are also substantially heritable has spurred interest in biological mechanisms underlying the quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships. We propose that polymorphic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) associates with complex social behaviors and social network composition through intermediate effects on negative affectivity and the psychological processing of socially relevant information. We tested a hypothesized social cascade from the molecular level (OXTR variation) to the social environment, through negative affectivity and inhibited sociality, in a sample of 1295 men and women of European American (N = 1081) and African American (N = 214) ancestry. Compared to European Americans having any T allele of rs1042778, individuals homozygous for the alternate G allele reported significantly lower levels of negative affectivity and inhibited sociality, which in turn predicted significantly higher levels of social support and a larger/more diverse social network. Moreover, the effect of rs1042778 variation on social support was fully accounted for by associated differences in negative affectivity and inhibited sociality. Results replicated in the African American sample. Findings suggest that OXTR variation modulates levels of social support via proximal impacts on individual temperament.

  7. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  8. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission.

  9. Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools.

  10. Individual differences in response of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex predict daily social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Robert S.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to accurately infer the thoughts and intentions of other people is critical for effective social interaction, and neural activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) has long been linked with the extent to which people engage in mental state attribution. In this study, we combined functional neuroimaging and experience sampling methodologies to test the predictive value of this neural response for daily social behaviors. We found that individuals who displayed greater activity in dmPFC when viewing social scenes spent more time around other people on a daily basis. These findings suggest a specific role for the neural mechanisms that support the capacity to mentalize in guiding individuals toward situations containing valuable social outcomes. PMID:26206505

  11. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  12. Precision and negative predictive value of links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of translational science is to shorten the time from discovery to clinical use. Clinical trial registries were established to increase transparency in completed and ongoing clinical trials, and they support linking trials with resulting publications. We set out to investigate precision and negative predictive value (NPV) of links between ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov) and PubMed. CT.gov has been established to increase transparency in clinical trials and the link to PubMed is crucial for supporting a number of important functions, including ascertaining publication bias. We drew a random sample of trials downloaded from CT.gov and performed manual review of retrieved publications. We characterize two types of links between trials and publications (NCT-link originating from MEDLINE and PMID-link originating from CT.gov).The link precision is different based on type (NCT-link: 100%; PMID-link: 63% to 96%). In trials with no linked publication, we were able to find publications 44% of the time (NPV=56%) by searching PubMed. This low NPV shows that there are potentially numerous publications that should have been formally linked with the trials. Our results indicate that existing trial registry and publisher policies may not be fully enforced. We suggest some automated methods for improving link quality.

  13. Social Networks: A Link between Psychiatric Epidemiology and Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Robert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines the concept of social network as a mediating construct linking psychiatric epidemiology and community mental health. Presents a selective review of studies investigating the structural and interactional features of the social networks of psychiatrically impaired persons. Implications of results are discussed. (Author)

  14. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  15. Depression and Social Anxiety in Children: Differential Links with Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…

  16. What Have We Learned about the Social Context-Student Engagement Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique

    2011-01-01

    The author explores how each author contributes to our understanding of the social context--self-regulation link. She also describes how the articles collectively enhance our insights into the social embeddedness of regulation strategies in the classroom and lists some of the challenges that remain.

  17. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  18. The Predictive Analysis of Adjustment Difficulties from Loneliness, Social Support, and Social Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duru, Erdinc

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine direct and indirect effects of social support, social connectedness, and loneliness in predicting adjustment difficulties. The sample of the study was 404 university students (212 females and 192 males) studying in different departments of the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University. The ages of the…

  19. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  20. Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children's achievement.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.

  1. Leveraging Social Links for Trust and Privacy in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Molva, Refik; Strufe, Thorsten

    Existing on-line social networks (OSN) such as Facebook suffer from several weaknesses regarding privacy and security due to their inherent handling of personal data. As pointed out in [4], a preliminary analysis of existing OSNs shows that they are subject to a number of vulnerabilities, ranging from cloning legitimate users to sybil attacks through privacy violations. Starting from these OSN vulnerabilities as the first step of a broader research activity, we came up with a new approach that is very promising in re-visiting security and privacy problems in distributed systems and networks. We suggest a solution that both aims at avoiding any centralized control and leverages on the real life trust between users, that is part of the social network application itself. An anonymization technique based on multi-hop routing among trusted nodes guarantees privacy in data access and, generally speaking, in all the OSN operations.

  2. The conceptual link between social desirability and cultural normativity.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, Philippe; Saucier, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Psychologists have a recurrent concern that socially desirable responding (SDR) is a form of response distortion that compromises the validity of self-report measures, especially in high-stakes situations where participants are motivated to make a good impression. Psychologists have used various strategies to minimise SDR or its impact, for example, forced choice responding, ipsatization, and direct measures of social desirability. However, empirical evidence suggests that SDR is a robust phenomenon existing in many cultures and a substantive variable with meaningful associations with other psychological variables and outcomes. Here, we review evidence of the occurrence of SDR across cultures and tie SDR to the study of cultural normativity and cultural consonance in anthropology. We suggest that cultural normativity is an important component of SDR, which may partly explain the adaptiveness of SDR and its association with positive outcomes.

  3. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  4. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized. PMID:26960247

  5. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-10

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the "comic effect" of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  6. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction. PMID:27439697

  7. Dynamic Socialized Gaussian Process Models for Human Behavior Prediction in a Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yelong; Phan, NhatHai; Xiao, Xiao; Jin, Ruoming; Sun, Junfeng; Piniewski, Brigitte; Kil, David; Dou, Dejing

    2016-11-01

    Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence. The SGP model naturally incorporates personal behavior factor and social correlation factor (i.e., the homophily principle: Friends tend to perform similar behaviors) into a unified model. And it models the social influence factor (i.e., an individual's behavior can be affected by his/her friends) implicitly in dynamic social correlation schemes. The detailed experimental evaluation has shown the SGP model achieves better prediction accuracy compared with most of baseline methods. However, a Socialized Random Forest model may perform better at the beginning compared with the SGP model. One of the main reasons is the dynamic social correlation function is purely based on the users' sequential behaviors without considering other physical activity-related features. To address this issue, we further propose a novel "multi-feature SGP model" (mfSGP) which improves the SGP model by using multiple physical activity-related features in the dynamic social correlation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that the mfSGP model clearly outperforms all other models in terms of prediction accuracy and running time.

  8. Predicting missing links in complex networks based on common neighbors and distance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The algorithms based on common neighbors metric to predict missing links in complex networks are very popular, but most of these algorithms do not account for missing links between nodes with no common neighbors. It is not accurate enough to reconstruct networks by using these methods in some cases especially when between nodes have less common neighbors. We proposed in this paper a new algorithm based on common neighbors and distance to improve accuracy of link prediction. Our proposed algorithm makes remarkable effect in predicting the missing links between nodes with no common neighbors and performs better than most existing currently used methods for a variety of real-world networks without increasing complexity. PMID:27905526

  9. Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-03-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and nonfriends' behaviors and (b) children's social reticence were examined. The sample comprised 466 twin children (i.e., the target children), each of whom was assessed in kindergarten together with a same-sex friend and two nonfriend classmates of either sex. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children with a genetic disposition for social reticence showed more reticent behavior in the competitive situation and were more likely to affiliate with reticent friends (i.e., rGE). Moreover, a higher level of children's reticent behavior was predicted by their friends' higher social reticence (particularly for girls) and their friends' higher social dominance, independently of children's genetic disposition. Children's social reticence was also predicted by their nonfriends' behaviors. Specifically, children were less reticent when male nonfriends showed high levels of social reticence in the competitive situation, and this was particularly true for children with a genetic disposition for social reticence (i.e., GxE). Moreover, children genetically vulnerable for social reticence seemed to foster dominant behavior in their female nonfriend peers (i.e., rGE). In turn, male nonfriends seemed to be more dominant as soon as the target children were reticent, even if the target children did not have a stable genetic disposition for this behavior.

  10. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  11. Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dahlbom, S Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  12. Boldness Predicts Social Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbom, S. Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance. PMID:21858168

  13. Virality prediction and community structure in social networks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  14. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  15. Trait aggressiveness does not predict social dominance of rats in the Visible Burrow System.

    PubMed

    Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M; de Boer, Sietse F

    2017-01-06

    Hierarchical social status greatly influences health and well-being in mammals, including humans. The social rank of an individual is established during competitive encounters with conspecifics. Intuitively, therefore, social dominance and aggressiveness may seem intimately linked. Yet, whether an aggressive personality trait may predispose individuals to a particular rank in a social colony setting remains largely unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that high trait aggressiveness in Wildtype Groningen (WTG) rats, as assessed in a classic resident-intruder offensive aggression paradigm predicts social dominance in a mixed-sex colony housing using the Visible Burrow System (VBS). We also hypothesized that hierarchical steepness, as reflected in the number and intensity of the social conflicts, positively correlates with the average level of trait aggressiveness of the male subjects in the VBS. Clear and stable hierarchical ranking was formed within a few days in VBS colonies as indicated and reflected by a rapid loss of body weight in subordinates which stabilized after 2-3days. Social conflicts, that occurred mainly during these first few days, also resulted in bite wounds in predominantly subordinate males. Data clearly showed that trait aggressiveness does not predict dominance status. The most aggressive male in a mixed sex group of conspecifics living in a closed VBS environment does not always become the dominant male. In addition, data did not convincingly indicate that in colonies with only highly aggressive males, agonistic interactions were more intense. Number of bite wounds and body weight loss did not positively correlate with trait-aggressiveness of subordinates. In this study, rats from this wild-derived rat strain behave differently from Long-Evans laboratory rats that have been studied up till now in many experiments using the VBS. Strain dependent differences in the capacity to display appropriate social behavior fitting an adaptive strategy to

  16. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  17. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  18. PREDICTING INDIVIDUAL WELL-BEING THROUGH THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-01-01

    We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being.

  19. Effects of active links on epidemic transmission over social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guanghu; Chen, Guanrong; Fu, Xinchu

    2017-02-01

    A new epidemic model with two infection periods is developed to account for the human behavior in social network, where newly infected individuals gradually restrict most of future contacts or are quarantined, causing infectivity change from a degree-dependent form to a constant. The corresponding dynamics are formulated by a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) via mean-field approximation. The effects of diverse infectivity on the epidemic dynamics ​are examined, with a behavioral interpretation of the basic reproduction number. Results show that such simple adaptive reactions largely determine the impact of network structure on epidemics. Particularly, a theorem proposed by Lajmanovich and Yorke in 1976 is generalized, so that it can be applied for the analysis of the epidemic models with multi-compartments especially network-coupled ODE systems.

  20. Demystifying internalization and socialization: linking conceptions of how development happens to organismic-developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Raeff, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development.

  1. Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families.

    PubMed

    Royle, Nick J; Pike, Thomas W; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-12-22

    Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively.

  2. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations—a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05224.001 PMID:25774601

  3. Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families

    PubMed Central

    Royle, Nick J.; Pike, Thomas W.; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively. PMID:23097505

  4. Social Influences on Executive Functions Development in Children and Adolescents: Steps Toward a Social Neuroscience of Predictive Adaptive Responses.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the findings and implications of four empirical papers that establish a reciprocal, longitudinal link between the social environment and executive functions from childhood to adolescence. Two future directions are suggested by this work. The first is a call for measurement research to clarify the nomological network of various measurements of self-regulation and executive functions across a variety of methods and procedures. The second new direction is to broaden the analysis of executive function to include a wider array of predictive adaptive responses to various environmental conditions, including those where youth are chronically marginalized or otherwise stressed. Findings from these studies suggest that the executive functions within the brain guide adaptation in both deviant as well as competent responses to the social environment. Understanding various forms of adaptation will enhance the potential for prevention as well as avoid iatrogenic intervention strategies with misinformed targets.

  5. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  6. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, R.J.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  7. Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Daw, Tim M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Wilson, Shaun K; Hughes, Terence P

    2009-02-10

    The ecosystem goods and services provided by coral reefs are critical to the social and economic welfare of hundreds of millions of people, overwhelmingly in developing countries [1]. Widespread reef degradation is severely eroding these goods and services, but the socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use coral reefs are poorly understood [2]. We examine relationships between human population density, a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development, reef complexity, and the condition of coral reef fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean. In fished sites, fish biomass was negatively related to human population density, but it was best explained by reef complexity and a U-shaped relationship with socioeconomic development. The biomass of reef fishes was four times lower at locations with intermediate levels of economic development than at locations with both low and high development. In contrast, average biomass inside fishery closures was three times higher than in fished sites and was not associated with socioeconomic development. Sustaining coral reef fisheries requires an integrated approach that uses tools such as protected areas to quickly build reef resources while also building capacities and capital in societies over longer time frames to address the complex underlying causes of reef degradation.

  8. The Ecology of Social Learning in Animals and its Link with Intelligence.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel; Graber, Sereina; Schuppli, Caroline; Burkart, Judith

    2017-01-09

    Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species. Direct tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis require good estimates of the amount and kind of social learning taking place in nature in a broad variety of species. These estimates are lacking so far. Here, we start the process of developing a functional classification of social learning, in the form of the social learning spectrum, which should help to predict the mechanisms of social learning involved. Once validated, the categories can be used to estimate the cognitive demands of social learning in the wild.

  9. Link prediction in a MeSH co-occurrence network: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kastrin, Andrej; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Hristovski, Dimitar

    2014-01-01

    Literature-based discovery (LBD) refers to automatic discovery of implicit relations from the scientific literature. Co-occurrence associations between biomedical concepts are commonly used in LBD. These co-occurrences can be represented as a network that consists of a set of nodes representing concepts and a set of edges representing their relationships (or links). In this paper we propose and evaluate a methodology for link prediction of implicit connections in a network of co-occurring Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®). The proposed approach is complementary to, and may augment, existing LBD methods. Link prediction was performed using Jaccard and Adamic-Adar similarity measures. The preliminary results showed high prediction performance, with area under the ROC curve of 0.78 and 0.82 for the two similarity measures, respectively.

  10. Change in BMI Accurately Predicted by Social Exposure to Acquaintances

    PubMed Central

    Oloritun, Rahman O.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex (Sandy); Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001) of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends. PMID

  11. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  12. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  13. Feature and motion-based gaze cuing is linked with reduced social competence

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Dana A.; Ristic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following is a fundamental ability that plays an important role in human social function. However, the link between these two processes remains elusive. On the one hand, typically developing persons show robust gaze following in laboratory cuing tasks. On the other hand, investigations with individuals with autism suggest that reduced social competence in this population may partly reflect an atypical access to social information through attending to perceptual changes that normally accompany gaze shifts, like luminance or motion transients. Here we investigated if gaze cuing in typically developing individuals was modulated by similar task-irrelevant perceptual changes. In Experiment 1, a social gaze cue was presented with or without a luminance change. In Experiment 2, a social gaze cue was presented together with a motion cue. Both experiments indicated reduced magnitudes of gaze cuing in persons with low social competence on trials containing an irrelevant perceptual change. This suggests that similarly to individuals with autism, typically developing persons with low social competence also utilize idiosyncratic perceptual changes in the environment to access social content, revealing strong links between basic gaze following abilities and a range of social competence within typical individuals. PMID:28281642

  14. Feature and motion-based gaze cuing is linked with reduced social competence.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Dana A; Ristic, Jelena

    2017-03-10

    Gaze following is a fundamental ability that plays an important role in human social function. However, the link between these two processes remains elusive. On the one hand, typically developing persons show robust gaze following in laboratory cuing tasks. On the other hand, investigations with individuals with autism suggest that reduced social competence in this population may partly reflect an atypical access to social information through attending to perceptual changes that normally accompany gaze shifts, like luminance or motion transients. Here we investigated if gaze cuing in typically developing individuals was modulated by similar task-irrelevant perceptual changes. In Experiment 1, a social gaze cue was presented with or without a luminance change. In Experiment 2, a social gaze cue was presented together with a motion cue. Both experiments indicated reduced magnitudes of gaze cuing in persons with low social competence on trials containing an irrelevant perceptual change. This suggests that similarly to individuals with autism, typically developing persons with low social competence also utilize idiosyncratic perceptual changes in the environment to access social content, revealing strong links between basic gaze following abilities and a range of social competence within typical individuals.

  15. DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene predicts neural response to ambiguous social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Allison; Connelly, Jessica J.; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a variety of social perceptual and affiliative processes. Individual variability in social information processing likely has a strong heritable component, and as such, many investigations have established an association between common genetic variants of OXTR and variability in the social phenotype. However, to date, these investigations have primarily focused only on changes in the sequence of DNA without considering the role of epigenetic factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism by which cells control transcription through modification of chromatin structure. DNA methylation of OXTR decreases expression of the gene and high levels of methylation have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This link between epigenetic variability and social phenotype allows for the possibility that social processes are under epigenetic control. We hypothesized that the level of DNA methylation of OXTR would predict individual variability in social perception. Using the brain's sensitivity to displays of animacy as a neural endophenotype of social perception, we found significant associations between the degree of OXTR methylation and brain activity evoked by the perception of animacy. Our results suggest that consideration of DNA methylation may substantially improve our ability to explain individual differences in imaging genetic association studies. PMID:23087634

  16. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  17. Social carry-over effects underpin trans-seasonally linked structure in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Firth, Josh A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2016-11-01

    Spatial structure underpins numerous population processes by determining the environment individuals' experience and which other individuals they encounter. Yet, how the social landscape influences individuals' spatial decisions remains largely unexplored. Wild great tits (Parus major) form freely moving winter flocks, but choose a single location to establish a breeding territory over the spring. We demonstrate that individuals' winter social associations carry-over into their subsequent spatial decisions, as individuals breed nearer to those they were most associated with during winter. Further, they also form territory boundaries with their closest winter associates, irrespective of breeding distance. These findings were consistent across years, and among all demographic classes, suggesting that such social carry-over effects may be general. Thus, prior social structure can shape the spatial proximity, and fine-scale arrangement, of breeding individuals. In this way, social networks can influence a wide range of processes linked to individuals' breeding locations, including other social interactions themselves.

  18. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  19. Social/Ethical Issues in Predictive Insider Threat Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Zabriskie, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Combining traditionally monitored cybersecurity data with other kinds of organizational data is one option for inferring the motivations of individuals, which may in turn allow early prediction and mitigation of insider threats. While unproven, some researchers believe that this combination of data may yield better results than either cybersecurity or organizational data would in isolation. However, this nontraditional approach creates a potential conflict between goals, such as conflicts between organizational security improvements and individual privacy considerations. There are many facets to debate. Should warning signs of a potential malicious insider be addressed before a malicious event has occurred to prevent harm to the organization and discourage the insider from violating the organization’s rules? Would intervention violate employee trust or legal guidelines? What about the possibilities of misuse? Predictive approaches cannot be validated a priori; false accusations can affect the career of the accused; and collection/monitoring of certain types of data may affect employee morale. In this chapter, we explore some of the social and ethical issues stemming from predictive insider threat monitoring and discuss ways that a predictive modeling approach brings to the forefront social and ethical issues that should be considered and resolved by stakeholders and communities of interest.

  20. Predicting fate from early connectivity in a social network.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David B

    2007-06-26

    In the long-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis), a long-lived tropical bird, early connectivity within a social network predicts male success an average of 4.8 years later. Long-tailed manakins have an unusual lek mating system in which pairs of unrelated males, at the top of complex overlapping teams of as many as 15 males, cooperate for obligate dual-male song and dance courtship displays. For as long as 8 years before forming stable "alpha-beta" partnerships, males interact with many other males in complex, temporally dynamic social networks. "Information centrality" is a network connectivity metric that accounts for indirect as well as shortest (geodesic) paths among interactors. The odds that males would rise socially rose by a factor of five for each one-unit increase in their early information centrality. Connectivity of males destined to rise did not change over time but increased in males that failed to rise socially. The results suggest that network connectivity is important for young males (ages 1-6) but less so for older males of high status (ages 10-15) and that it is difficult to explain present success without reference to social history.

  1. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions.

  2. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  3. Childhood Social Anxiety and Social Support-Seeking: Distinctive Links with Perceived Support from Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…

  4. Participatory research with youth: idealising safe social spaces or building transformative links in difficult environments?

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health.

  5. Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations.

  6. Linking Teacher Socialization Research with a PETE Program: Insights from Beginning and Experienced Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Ann; Hartley, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which beginning and experienced teachers differed in their perceptions of shaping school forces and their being shaped by school forces. The findings allow the authors to examine the link between teacher socialization research and practice in a physical education teacher education (PETE)…

  7. Linking Academic Social Environments, Ego-Identity Formation, Ego Virtues, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that…

  8. Web-Based Knowledge Exchange through Social Links in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipowski, Tomasz; Kazienko, Przemyslaw; Brodka, Piotr; Kajdanowicz, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge exchange between employees is an essential feature of recent commercial organisations on the competitive market. Based on the data gathered by various information technology (IT) systems, social links can be extracted and exploited in knowledge exchange systems of a new kind. Users of such a system ask their queries and the system…

  9. Trait and Social Influences in the Links among Adolescent Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages…

  10. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  11. The Link between Emotion Regulation, Social Functioning, and Depression in Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Stockmann, Lex; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Symptoms of depression are common in children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but information about underlying developmental factors is limited. Depression is often linked to aspects of emotional functioning such as coping strategies, but in children with ASD difficulties with social interactions are also a likely…

  12. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.

    2013-03-01

    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  13. Performance prediction of a synchronization link for distributed aerospace wireless systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin; Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link.

  14. Performance Prediction of a Synchronization Link for Distributed Aerospace Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link. PMID:23970828

  15. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved.

  16. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  17. Variation in the X-Linked EFHC2 Gene Is Associated with Social Cognitive Abilities in Males

    PubMed Central

    Startin, Carla M.; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males. PMID:26107779

  18. Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene is associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

    PubMed

    Startin, Carla M; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

  19. Conceptual disorganization weakens links in cognitive pathways: Disentangling neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Luther, Lauren; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down. To accomplish these aims, comprehensive assessments of conceptual disorganization, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition were administered to 67 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We found that conceptual disorganization significantly moderated the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition, with links between cognitive processes weakening when conceptual disorganization is present even at minimal levels of severity. There was no evidence that conceptual disorganization-or any other specific disorganized symptom-drove the limiting relationship of neurocognition on social cognition. Based on our findings, conceptual disorganization appears to be a critical piece of the puzzle when disentangling the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition. Roles of specific disorganized symptoms in the neurocognition - social cognition relationship were less clear. Findings from this study suggest that disorganized symptoms are an important treatment consideration when aiming to improve cognitive impairments.

  20. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  1. Major histocompatibility complex linked databases and prediction tools for designing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satarudra Prakash; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

    2016-03-01

    Presently, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is receiving considerable interest owing to its remarkable role in antigen presentation and vaccine design. The specific databases and prediction approaches related to MHC sequences, structures and binding/nonbinding peptides have been aggressively developed in the past two decades with their own benchmarks and standards. Before using these databases and prediction tools, it is important to analyze why and how the tools are constructed along with their strengths and limitations. The current review presents insights into web-based immunological bioinformatics resources that include searchable databases of MHC sequences, epitopes and prediction tools that are linked to MHC based vaccine design, including population coverage analysis. In T cell epitope forecasts, MHC class I binding predictions are very accurate for most of the identified MHC alleles. However, these predictions could be further improved by integrating proteasome cleavage (in conjugation with transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) binding) prediction, as well as T cell receptor binding prediction. On the other hand, MHC class II restricted epitope predictions display relatively low accuracy compared to MHC class I. To date, pan-specific tools have been developed, which not only deliver significantly improved predictions in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of the coverage of MHC alleles and supertypes. In addition, structural modeling and simulation systems for peptide-MHC complexes enable the molecular-level investigation of immune processes. Finally, epitope prediction tools, and their assessments and guidelines, have been presented to immunologist for the design of novel vaccine and diagnostics.

  2. Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.

  3. Predicting Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior in Kindergarten: Examining the Buffering Role of Early Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Krill, Sarah C.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested an ecological model predicting children’s behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Method Study participants were 1161 socio-demographically diverse mother-child pairs who participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of two years old at Time 1 and three years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached Kindergarten and were six years old on average. Results Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by sub-optimal parenting behavior, predicts children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later sub-optimal parenting behaviors and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Conclusions Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and children’s withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention. PMID:24697587

  4. Predicting anxious response to a social challenge: the predictive utility of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale in a college population.

    PubMed

    Gore, K L; Carter, M M; Parker, S

    2002-06-01

    Trait anxiety is believed to be a hierarchical construct composed of several lower-order factors (Adv. Behav. Res. Therapy, 15 (1993) 147; J. Anxiety Disorders, 9 (1995) 163). Assessment devices such as the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale (SIAS and SPS; Behav. Res. Therapy, 36 (4) (1998) 455), and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Behav. Res. Therapy, 24 (1986) 1) are good measures of the presumably separate lower-order factors. This study compared the effectiveness of the SIAS, SPS, ASI-physical scale and STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press (1970)) as predictors of anxious response to a social challenge (asking an aloof confederate out on a date). Consistent with the hierarchical model of anxiety, the measures of trait anxiety were moderately correlated with each other and each was a significant predictor of anxious response. The specific measures of trait social anxiety were slightly better predictors of anxious response to the social challenge than was either the ASI-physical scale or the STAI-T. The results provide evidence of the predictive validity of these social trait measures and some support for their specificity in the prediction of anxious response to a social challenge.

  5. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Syvertsen, Amy K; Greenberg, Mark T

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization - collective efficacy and social trust - with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency.

  6. Avoidant decision-making in social anxiety disorder: A laboratory task linked to in vivo anxiety and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Pittig, Andre; Alpers, Georg W; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies on reward-based decision-making in the presence of anxiety-related stimuli demonstrated that approach-avoidance conflicts can be assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, the clinical relevance of these decision conflicts has not been demonstrated. To this end, the present study investigated avoidant decisions in treatment-seeking individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a gambling task, advantageous choices to maximize gains were associated with task-irrelevant angry faces and disadvantageous choices with happy faces. The clinical relevance of avoidant decisions for in vivo anxiety in a social stress situation (public speaking) were examined (n = 44). In a subsample (n = 20), the predictive value for a reduction of avoidance following behavioral therapy was also evaluated. Results indicated a close link between more frequent avoidant decisions and elevated in vivo anxiety. Moreover, individuals who showed a deficit in the goal-directed adjustment of their decisions also showed higher and sustained distress during the social stressor and reported less decrease of avoidance following treatment. The findings highlight the importance of an avoidant decision-making style for the experience of acute distress and the maintenance of avoidance in SAD. Assessing avoidant decision-making may help to predict the response to behavioral treatments.

  7. Trait and social influences in the links among adolescent attachment, depressive symptoms, and coping.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lisa J; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages 14-18; N = 150) completed questionnaires to assess their attachment security, depressive symptoms, and coping strategies with different attachment figures. Measures were completed three times, based on experiences with a maternal figure, paternal figure, and closest peer. Generalizability analyses were used to separate each construct into trait and social influence components. Next, multivariate g correlations were computed to examine the correlations among the constructs for the trait component as well as the social component. Correlation magnitudes differed depending on whether the trait or social influence components were examined.

  8. The degree-related clustering coefficient and its application to link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Zhao, Chengli; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-07-01

    Link prediction plays a significant role in explaining the evolution of networks. However it is still a challenging problem that has been addressed only with topological information in recent years. Based on the belief that network nodes with a great number of common neighbors are more likely to be connected, many similarity indices have achieved considerable accuracy and efficiency. Motivated by the natural assumption that the effect of missing links on the estimation of a node's clustering ability could be related to node degree, in this paper, we propose a degree-related clustering coefficient index to quantify the clustering ability of nodes. Unlike the classical clustering coefficient, our new coefficient is highly robust when the observed bias of links is considered. Furthermore, we propose a degree-related clustering ability path (DCP) index, which applies the proposed coefficient to the link prediction problem. Experiments on 12 real-world networks show that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust compared with four common-neighbor-based similarity indices (Common Neighbors(CN), Adamic-Adar(AA), Resource Allocation(RA), and Preferential Attachment(PA)), and the recently introduced clustering ability (CA) index.

  9. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR.

  10. Exploring the Link between Genetic Relatedness r and Social Contact Structure k in Animal Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Traulsen, Arne; James, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of how cooperation can arise in a population of selfish individuals has been greatly advanced by theory. More than one approach has been used to explore the effect of population structure. Inclusive fitness theory uses genetic relatedness r to express the role of population structure. Evolutionary graph theory models the evolution of cooperation on network structures and focuses on the number of interacting partners k as a quantity of interest. Here we use empirical data from a hierarchically structured animal contact network to examine the interplay between independent, measurable proxies for these key parameters. We find strong inverse correlations between estimates of r and k over three levels of social organization, suggesting that genetic relatedness and social contact structure capture similar structural information in a real population.

  11. Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record-Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Regueiro MD, Krasinskas AM, Saul M, Sapienza D, Binion DG, Hartman D. Mucosal IgG4 Cell Infiltration in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is Linked to Disease ...Record-Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael A. Dunn, MD CONTRACTING...Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record-Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH11-2

  12. Using of CBA Method for Evaluation of the Investments in the Link with Social Responsible Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvová, Ľubica; Vaňová, Jaromíra

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.

  13. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  14. Exploring context and content links in social media: a latent space method.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guo-Jun; Aggarwal, Charu; Tian, Qi; Ji, Heng; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Social media networks contain both content and context-specific information. Most existing methods work with either of the two for the purpose of multimedia mining and retrieval. In reality, both content and context information are rich sources of information for mining, and the full power of mining and processing algorithms can be realized only with the use of a combination of the two. This paper proposes a new algorithm which mines both context and content links in social media networks to discover the underlying latent semantic space. This mapping of the multimedia objects into latent feature vectors enables the use of any off-the-shelf multimedia retrieval algorithms. Compared to the state-of-the-art latent methods in multimedia analysis, this algorithm effectively solves the problem of sparse context links by mining the geometric structure underlying the content links between multimedia objects. Specifically for multimedia annotation, we show that an effective algorithm can be developed to directly construct annotation models by simultaneously leveraging both context and content information based on latent structure between correlated semantic concepts. We conduct experiments on the Flickr data set, which contains user tags linked with images. We illustrate the advantages of our approach over the state-of-the-art multimedia retrieval techniques.

  15. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  16. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Statistical prediction of the atmospheric behavior for free space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, Lukas; Vitasek, Jan; Vanderka, Ales; Latal, Jan; Perecar, Frantisek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The atmosphere is unstable and unpredictable environment, where are continual changes of the air refractive index. These changes cause fluctuation of optical power at the receiver site. The prediction of behavior of the atmosphere and effect of this behavior on the FSO link is very complicated or even impossible. Aim of this article is focused on statistical analysis of measured level signal RSSI of the FSO link and atmospheric properties measured by hydro-meteorological station. For measured data the statistical analysis tools were used. Next part of article is focused on determination of the linear regression model to calculate level of RSSI depending on the atmospheric properties. Two empirical equations are result for day and night time. These equations describe behavior of signal RSSI in 30 days interval. Finally, comparison of the obtained mathematical model with real measured data of RSSI was introduced for one week before and one week after the analyzed time interval.

  18. What Factors Predict Who Will Have a Strong Social Network Following a Stroke?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcott, Sarah; Marshall, Jane; Hilari, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measures of social networks assess the number and nature of a person's social contacts, and strongly predict health outcomes. We explored how social networks change following a stroke and analyzed concurrent and baseline predictors of social networks 6 months poststroke. Method: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational study.…

  19. Predictive decision making driven by multiple time-linked reward representations in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Marco K.; Kolling, Nils; Akaishi, Rei; Chau, Bolton K. H.; Brown, Joshua W.; Nelissen, Natalie; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2016-01-01

    In many natural environments the value of a choice gradually gets better or worse as circumstances change. Discerning such trends makes predicting future choice values possible. We show that humans track such trends by comparing estimates of recent and past reward rates, which they are able to hold simultaneously in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Comparison of recent and past reward rates with positive and negative decision weights is reflected by opposing dACC signals indexing these quantities. The relative strengths of time-linked reward representations in dACC predict whether subjects persist in their current behaviour or switch to an alternative. Computationally, trend-guided choice can be modelled by using a reinforcement-learning mechanism that computes a longer-term estimate (or expectation) of prediction errors. Using such a model, we find a relative predominance of expected prediction errors in dACC, instantaneous prediction errors in the ventral striatum and choice signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. PMID:27477632

  20. Perceived social support moderates the link between attachment anxiety and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne

    2014-01-01

    Two literatures have explored some of the effects intimate relationships can have on physical and mental health outcomes. Research investigating health through the lens of attachment theory has demonstrated that more anxiously attached individuals in particular consistently report poorer health. Separate research on perceived social support (e.g., partner or spousal support) suggests that higher support has salutary influences on various health outcomes. Little to no research, however, has explored the interaction of attachment anxiety and perceived social support on health outcomes. The present study examined the attachment-health link and the moderating role of perceived social support in a community sample of married couples. Results revealed that more anxious persons reported poorer overall physical and mental health, more bodily pain, more medical symptoms, and impaired daily functioning, even after controlling for age, relationship length, neuroticism, and marital quality. Additionally, perceived social support interacted with attachment anxiety to influence health; more anxious individuals' health was poorer even when perceived social support was high, whereas less anxious individuals' health benefited from high support. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings and the importance of considering attachment anxiety in future studies of poor health in adulthood are discussed.

  1. Global sensitivity analysis, probabilistic calibration, and predictive assessment for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon model

    DOE PAGES

    Safta, C.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Sargsyan, Khachik; ...

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification (UQ) study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) study indicates the parameters and parameter couplings that are important at different times of the year for quantities of interest (QoIs) obtained with the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model. We then employ a Bayesian approach and a statistical model error term to calibrate the parameters of DALEC using net ecosystem exchange (NEE) observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are employedmore » in the second part of the paper to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.« less

  2. Global sensitivity analysis, probabilistic calibration, and predictive assessment for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon model

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, C.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Williams, M.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification (UQ) study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) study indicates the parameters and parameter couplings that are important at different times of the year for quantities of interest (QoIs) obtained with the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model. We then employ a Bayesian approach and a statistical model error term to calibrate the parameters of DALEC using net ecosystem exchange (NEE) observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are employed in the second part of the paper to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.

  3. Predicting aggression in adolescence: The interrelation between (a lack of) empathy and social goals.

    PubMed

    van Hazebroek, Babette C M; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A

    2017-04-01

    In an attempt to explain the inconsistent findings and overall weak relation between empathy and aggression, we focused on the role of emotional empathy (emotions of concern, compassion or sympathy toward a (potential) victim), agentic goals (the desire to be dominant during social interaction with peers) and their interplay (mediation or moderation) in the prediction of proactive aggression (learned instrumental behavior) in adolescence. Data were collected from 550 young Dutch adolescents, who filled out multiple questionnaires. Findings showed that the link between a lack of empathic concern and proactive aggression is partly mediated and moderated by agentic goals. The moderation analyses showed that the predictive value of a lack of empathic concern with regard to proactive aggression was greater when adolescents reported a stronger desire to be dominant in social situations with peers. In addition, the findings supported the assumption that the relation between empathic concern and reactive aggression (a hostile and angry response to perceived provocation) is not mediated or moderated by agentic goals. Findings were discussed in terms of their implications for future research. Aggr. Behav. 43:204-214, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Socially organized sentiments: Exploring the link between religious density and protest mobilization, 1960-1995.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Woo; McCarthy, John D

    2016-11-01

    Extensive research has shown individual religiosity to have an impact upon U.S. protest participation. But very little work has examined the role of religious density in a community on the likelihood of protest mobilization. Our research links the religious density across 62 counties in New York State to various protest mobilization issues during the period of 1960-1995. In this research, we develop a theory of socially organized sentiments to examine religious influences on overall protest event mobilizations in local communities, a specific example of a more general theory that can link community structure to multiple forms of civic engagement. The impact of various religious traditions is assessed by using measures for the density of religious population per congregation of three religious traditions-Mainline Protestantism, Evangelical Protestantism and Catholicism. The analysis also assesses the likelihood of mobilization concerning four specific issues-African-American civil rights, gender, anti-nuclear/peace, and anti-poverty movements.

  5. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  6. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    PubMed

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce.

  7. Predicted Molecular Effects of Sequence Variants Link to System Level of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana; Rost, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Developments in experimental and computational biology are advancing our understanding of how protein sequence variation impacts molecular protein function. However, the leap from the micro level of molecular function to the macro level of the whole organism, e.g. disease, remains barred. Here, we present new results emphasizing earlier work that suggested some links from molecular function to disease. We focused on non-synonymous single nucleotide variants, also referred to as single amino acid variants (SAVs). Building upon OMIA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals), we introduced a curated set of 117 disease-causing SAVs in animals. Methods optimized to capture effects upon molecular function often correctly predict human (OMIM) and animal (OMIA) Mendelian disease-causing variants. We also predicted effects of human disease-causing variants in the mouse model, i.e. we put OMIM SAVs into mouse orthologs. Overall, fewer variants were predicted with effect in the model organism than in the original organism. Our results, along with other recent studies, demonstrate that predictions of molecular effects capture some important aspects of disease. Thus, in silico methods focusing on the micro level of molecular function can help to understand the macro system level of disease. PMID:27536940

  8. Telecare and Social Link Solution for Ambient Assisted Living Using a Robot Companion with Visiophony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varène, Thibaut; Hillereau, Paul; Simonnet, Thierry

    An increasing number of people are in need of help at home (elderly, isolated and/or disabled persons; people with mild cognitive impairment). Several solutions can be considered to maintain a social link while providing tele-care to these people. Many proposals suggest the use of a robot acting as a companion. In this paper we will look at an environment constrained solution, its drawbacks (such as latency) and its advantages (flexibility, integration…). A key design choice is to control the robot using a unified Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) solution, while addressing bandwidth limitations, providing good communication quality and reducing transmission latency

  9. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  10. Link functions in multi-locus genetic models: implications for testing, prediction, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David

    2012-05-01

    "Complex" diseases are, by definition, influenced by multiple causes, both genetic and environmental, and statistical work on the joint action of multiple risk factors has, for more than 40 years, been dominated by the generalized linear model (GLM). In genetics, models for dichotomous traits have traditionally been approached via the model of an underlying, normally distributed, liability. This corresponds to the GLM with binomial errors and a probit link function. Elsewhere in epidemiology, however, the logistic regression model, a GLM with logit link function, has been the tool of choice, largely because of its convenient properties in case-control studies. The choice of link function has usually been dictated by mathematical convenience, but it has some important implications in (a) the choice of association test statistic in the presence of existing strong risk factors, (b) the ability to predict disease from genotype given its heritability, and (c) the definition, and interpretation of epistasis (or epistacy). These issues are reviewed, and a new association test proposed.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of highly cross-linked polymer networks: prediction of thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenogina, Natalia; Tsige, Mesfin; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila; Patnaik, Soumya

    2012-02-01

    We use all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to predict the mechanical and thermal properties of thermosetting polymers. Atomistic simulation is a promising tool which can provide detailed structure-property relationships of densely cross-linked polymer networks. In this work we study the thermo-mechanical properties of thermosetting polymers based on amine curing agents and epoxy resins and have focused on the DGEBA/DETDA epoxy system. At first we describe the modeling approach to construction of realistic all-atom models of densely cross-linked polymer matrices. Subsequently, a series of atomistic simulations was carried out to examine the simulation cell size effect as well as the role of cross-linking density and chain length of the resin strands on thermo-mechanical properties at different temperatures. Two different methods were used to deform the polymer networks. Both static and dynamic approaches to calculating the mechanical properties were considered and the thermo-mechanical properties obtained from our simulations were found in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  12. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  13. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  14. Librarians as Advocates of Social Media for Researchers: A Social Media Project Initiated by Linköping University Library, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Sassa; Svenningsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at Linköping University help researchers keep abreast of developments in their fields and to increase the visibility of their work. Strategic, professional use of social media ought to be an essential part of a researcher's communication strategy. This article investigates the level of awareness of the professional use of social media…

  15. Using LinkedIn in the Marketing Classroom: Exploratory Insights and Recommendations for Teaching Social Media/Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Denny E.; McCorkle, Yuhua Li

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of social networking and media comes their consideration for use in the marketing classroom. Social networking skills are becoming essential for personal branding (e.g., networking, self-marketing) and corporate/product branding (e.g., marketing communication). This paper addresses the use of LinkedIn (i.e., an online…

  16. Managing Threat: Do Social-Cognitive Processes Mediate the Link between Peer Victimization and Adjustment Problems in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2007-01-01

    Peer victimization has been linked concurrently and over time with multiple adjustment problems. However, the reasons for this multi-finality in victimization are not well understood. The current study examines social-cognitive processes (hostile attributions, social perspective awareness, and interpersonal skills) as mediators of the relations…

  17. Links between Social and Linguistic Processing of Speech in Preschool Children with Autism: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Dawson, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Data on typically developing children suggest a link between social interaction and language learning, a finding of interest both to theories of language and theories of autism. In this study, we examined social and linguistic processing of speech in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing chronologically…

  18. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  19. Core dimensions of personality broadly account for the link from perceived social support to symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2014-08-01

    Specific personality traits and poor social support are risk factors for anxiety and depression. Little work, however, has considered the effects of social support and personality on these aspects of psychopathology simultaneously. We examined whether perceived social support mediates the effects of core personality domains on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Measures of personality (based on the Five-Factor Model [FFM]), perceived social support, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were collected in a large Dutch adult population-based sample (n = 555), and, except for depression symptoms, in an independent U.S. adult population-based sample (n = 511). Path modeling was used to test the effects of FFM traits on symptoms of depression and anxiety, with and without the mediation of perceived social support. Social support showed no link to symptoms of anxiety and only modest links to symptoms of depression when controlling for the FFM traits. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with Extraversion also showing links to symptoms of depression. Social support has limited influence on symptoms of depression, and no effects on anxiety, over and above the effects of personality. Links between social support and anxiety/depression may largely reflect influences of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

  20. Executive Function as a Mediator in the Link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…

  1. Are emotion and mind understanding differently linked to young children's social adjustment? Relationships between behavioral consequences of emotions, false belief, and SCBE.

    PubMed

    Deneault, Joane; Ricard, Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    According to empirical findings, emotional knowledge and false belief understanding seem to be differently linked to social adjustment. However, whereas false belief is assessed through the capacity to identify its behavioral consequences, emotion tasks usually rely on the comprehension of facial expressions and of the situational causes of emotions. The authors examined if the documented relationship between social adjustment and emotion knowledge in children extends to the understanding of behavioral consequences of emotions. Eighty French-speaking preschoolers undertook false belief and consequence-of-emotion tasks. Their social adjustment was measured by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation. Children's language ability, their parent's level of education, and the familial socioeconomic score were taken into account. Results showed that children's social adjustment was significantly predicted by their knowledge of emotion, but not by their understanding of false belief. The findings confirm the special status of emotion among mental states for social adaptation and specify which dimensions of adaptation to peers and adults are predicted by the child's emotion understanding. They also suggest that the distinction between mind and emotion understanding may be conceptual rather than methodological.

  2. Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…

  3. Social Emotional Learning and Educational Stress: A Predictive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…

  4. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many breast cancer outreach programs assume that dissemination of information through social networks and provision of social support will promote screening. The authors prospectively examined the relationship between social network characteristics and adherence to screening guidelines. Method: Employed women age 40 years and older…

  5. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and math – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market. PMID:26977112

  6. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647

  7. Psychological pathways linking social support to health outcomes: a visit with the "ghosts" of research past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Bert N; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s-2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes.

  8. Perceived morningness-eveningness predicts academic adjustment and substance use across university, but social jetlag is not to blame.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Munroe, Melanie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-01-01

    academic adjustment and substance use, indicating that social jetlag did not explain the link between perceived morningness-eveningness and negative psychosocial adjustment. An important finding was the significant predictive effect of higher substance use on social jetlag over time. Results of the present study highlight the importance of employing a longitudinal framework within which to specifically determine the direction of effects among the study variables in order to validate proposed theoretical models that aim to guide our understanding of how perceived morningness-eveningness, social jetlag, academic adjustment and substance use relate to each other.

  9. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predict impaired social functioning in subjects at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ali; Jahshan, Carol; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of social functioning deficits were assessed in 22 individuals "at risk" for psychosis. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predicted social functioning at follow-up. Early intervention efforts that focus on social and cognitive skills are indicated in this vulnerable population.

  10. Link prediction in complex networks based on an information allocation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Panpan; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Licheng

    2017-03-01

    An important issue in link prediction of complex networks is to make full use of different kinds of available information simultaneously. To tackle this issue, recently, an information-theoretic model has been proposed and a novel Neighbor Set Information Index (NSI) has been designed. Motivated by this work, we proposed a more general information-theoretic model by further distinguishing the contributions from different variables of the available features. Then, by introducing the resource allocation process into the model, we designed a new index based on neighbor sets with a virtual information allocation process: Neighbor Set Information Allocation Index(NSIA). Experimental studies on real world networks from disparate fields indicate that NSIA performs well compared with NSI as well as other typical proximity indices.

  11. Array Simulations Platform (ASP) predicts NASA Data Link Module (NDLM) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Allen David

    1993-01-01

    Through a variety of imbedded theoretical and actual antenna patterns, the array simulation platform (ASP) enhanced analysis of the array antenna pattern effects for the KTx (Ku-Band Transmit) service of the NDLM (NASA Data Link Module). The ASP utilizes internally stored models of the NDLM antennas and can develop the overall pattern of antenna arrays through common array calculation techniques. ASP expertly assisted in the diagnosing of element phase shifter errors during KTx testing and was able to accurately predict the overall array pattern from combinations of the four internally held element patterns. This paper provides an overview of the use of the ASP software in the solving of array mis-phasing problems.

  12. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  13. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  14. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  15. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402

  16. Neonatal imitation and early social experience predict gaze following abilities in infant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Miller, Grace M; Ferrari, Pier F; Suomi, Stephen J; Paukner, Annika

    2016-02-01

    Individuals vary in their social skills and motivation, the causes of which remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether an individual's propensity to interact with others measured within days after birth, and differences in infants' early social environment, may predict a later social skill. Specifically, we tested whether neonatal imitation--newborns' capacity to match modelled actions--and social experience in the first months of life predict gaze following (directing attention to locations where others look), in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 119). Facial gesture imitation in the first week of life predicted gaze following at 7 months of age. Imitators were better at gaze following than non-imitators, suggesting neonatal imitation may be an early marker predicting socio-cognitive functioning. In addition, infants with rich social environments outperformed infants with less socialization, suggesting early social experiences also support the development of infants' gaze following competence. The present study offers compelling evidence that an individual difference present from birth predicts a functional social cognitive skill in later infancy. In addition, this foundational skill--gaze following--is plastic, and can be improved through social interactions, providing infants with a strong foundation for later social interaction and learning.

  17. Role of Social Performance in Predicting Learning Problems: Prediction of Risk Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Prette, Almir Del; De Oliveira, Lael Almeida; Gresham, Frank M.; Vance, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are specific behaviors that individuals exhibit in order to successfully complete social tasks whereas social competence represents judgments by significant others that these social tasks have been successfully accomplished. The present investigation identified the best sociobehavioral predictors obtained from different raters…

  18. Genetic links, family ties, and social bonds: rights and responsibilities in the face of genetic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, R

    1998-02-01

    Currently, some of the most significant moral issues involving genetic links relate to genetic knowledge. In this paper, instead of looking at the frequently addressed issues of responsibilities professionals or institutions have to individuals, I take up the question of what responsibilities individuals have to one another with respect to genetic knowledge. I address the questions of whether individuals have a moral right to pursue their own goals without contributing to society's knowledge of population genetics, without adding to their family's knowledge of its genetic history, and without discovering genetic information about themselves and their offspring. These questions lead to an examination of the presumed right to genetic ignorance and an exploration of a variety of social bonds. Analyzing cases in light of these considerations leads to a surprising conclusion about a widely accepted precept of genetic counseling, to some ethical insights into typical problems, and to some further unanswered questions about personal responsibility in the face of genetic knowledge.

  19. Prediction and validation of gene-disease associations using methods inspired by social network analyses.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, U Martin; Natarajan, Nagarajan; Tewari, Ambuj; Woods, John O; Dhillon, Inderjit S; Marcotte, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    Correctly identifying associations of genes with diseases has long been a goal in biology. With the emergence of large-scale gene-phenotype association datasets in biology, we can leverage statistical and machine learning methods to help us achieve this goal. In this paper, we present two methods for predicting gene-disease associations based on functional gene associations and gene-phenotype associations in model organisms. The first method, the Katz measure, is motivated from its success in social network link prediction, and is very closely related to some of the recent methods proposed for gene-disease association inference. The second method, called Catapult (Combining dATa Across species using Positive-Unlabeled Learning Techniques), is a supervised machine learning method that uses a biased support vector machine where the features are derived from walks in a heterogeneous gene-trait network. We study the performance of the proposed methods and related state-of-the-art methods using two different evaluation strategies, on two distinct data sets, namely OMIM phenotypes and drug-target interactions. Finally, by measuring the performance of the methods using two different evaluation strategies, we show that even though both methods perform very well, the Katz measure is better at identifying associations between traits and poorly studied genes, whereas Catapult is better suited to correctly identifying gene-trait associations overall [corrected].

  20. Attention/processing speed prospectively predicts social impairment 18 years later in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive deficits contribute to psychosocial impairment among individuals with mood disorders. However, studies examining whether cognition prospectively predicts psychosocial outcome are few, have used short follow-up periods, and have not demonstrated incremental validity (i.e., that cognition predicts future functioning even when controlling for baseline functioning). In a sample of 51 individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder, we investigated whether attention/processing speed (APS) performance predicted social functioning 18 years later. Baseline APS predicted 18-year social functioning even after controlling for baseline social functioning and depressive symptoms, demonstrating incremental validity. Individuals with high baseline APS had stable social functioning over 18 years, whereas functioning deteriorated among those with low APS. This finding helps clarify the temporal order of cognitive and psychosocial deficits associated with mood disorders and suggests the clinical utility of cognitive measures in identifying those at risk of deterioration in social functioning.

  1. Genotyping Oral Commensal Bacteria to Predict Social Contact and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Amelia D.; Riley, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Social network structure is a fundamental determinant of human health, from infectious to chronic diseases. However, quantitative and unbiased approaches to measuring social network structure are lacking. We hypothesized that genetic relatedness of oral commensal bacteria could be used to infer social contact between humans, just as genetic relatedness of pathogens can be used to determine transmission chains of pathogens. We used a traditional, questionnaire survey-based method to characterize the contact network of the School of Public Health at a large research university. We then collected saliva from a subset of individuals to analyze their oral microflora using a modified deep sequencing multilocus sequence typing (MLST) procedure. We examined micro-evolutionary changes in the S. viridans group to uncover transmission patterns reflecting social network structure. We amplified seven housekeeping gene loci from the Streptococcus viridans group, a group of ubiquitous commensal bacteria, and sequenced the PCR products using next-generation sequencing. By comparing the generated S. viridans reads between pairs of individuals, we reconstructed the social network of the sampled individuals and compared it to the network derived from the questionnaire survey-based method. The genetic relatedness significantly (p-value < 0.001) correlated with social distance in the questionnaire-based network, and the reconstructed network closely matched the network derived from the questionnaire survey-based method. Oral commensal bacterial are thus likely transmitted through routine physical contact or shared environment. Their genetic relatedness can be used to represent a combination of social contact and shared physical space, therefore reconstructing networks of contact. This study provides the first step in developing a method to measure direct social contact based on commensal organism genotyping, potentially capable of unmasking hidden social networks that contribute to

  2. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles

  3. Performances and reliability predictions of optical data transmission links using a system simulator for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechou, L.; Deshayes, Y.; Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.; Guerin, A.; Tronche, C.

    Space missions for Earth Observation are called upon to carry a growing number of instruments in their payload, whose performances are increasing. Future space systems are therefore intended to generate huge amounts of data and a key challenge in coming years will therefore lie in the ability to transmit that significant quantity of data to ground. Thus very high data rate Payload Telemetry (PLTM) systems will be required to face the demand of the future Earth Exploration Satellite Systems and reliability is one of the major concern of such systems. An attractive approach associated with the concept of predictive modeling consists in analyzing the impact of components malfunctioning on the optical link performances taking into account the network requirements and experimental degradation laws. Reliability estimation is traditionally based on life-testing and a basic approach is to use Telcordia requirements (468GR) for optical telecommunication applications. However, due to the various interactions between components, operating lifetime of a system cannot be taken as the lifetime of the less reliable component. In this paper, an original methodology is proposed to estimate reliability of an optical communication system by using a dedicated system simulator for predictive modeling and design for reliability. At first, we present frameworks of point-to-point optical communication systems for space applications where high data rate (or frequency bandwidth), lower cost or mass saving are needed. Optoelectronics devices used in these systems can be similar to those found in terrestrial optical network. Particularly we report simulation results of transmission performances after introduction of DFB Laser diode parameters variations versus time extrapolated from accelerated tests based on terrestrial or submarine telecommunications qualification standards. Simulations are performed to investigate and predict the consequence of degradations of the Laser diode (acting as a

  4. Predicting symptoms of depression from social anhedonia and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Brennan D; Nevels, Robert M; Moore, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    The literature examining social anhedonia, emotion regulation, and symptoms of depression in psychiatric inpatients has been limited. However, some studies have shown that difficulties in emotion regulation and social anhedonia were independently associated with depression. The current study attempted to examine the effects of these two potential predictors of unipolar depressed mood. Fifty-nine (73% female) psychiatric inpatients were given the measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social anhedonia. Results showed that difficulties in emotion regulation, specifically dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and emotional clarity, served as significant predictors of depressive symptoms above and beyond contributions from social anhedonia. These results highlight the importance of attending to emotion regulation in the study and treatment of depression in inpatient samples.

  5. Predicting Adolescents' Bullying Participation from Developmental Trajectories of Social Status and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  6. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  7. Differential evolution based prediction of rain attenuation over a LOS terrestrial link situated in the southern United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develi, Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The principal objective of a rain attenuation prediction method is to achieve acceptable estimates of the attenuation incurred on the signal due to rain. In this paper, a differential evolution (DE) based model for predicting rain attenuation in a terrestrial point-to-point line of sight (LOS) link at 97 GHz is proposed using previously available experimental data obtained in the southern United Kingdom. Rainfall rate and percentage of time are used as input data in the proposed prediction model. Excellent agreement between the experimental data and the model output indicates that the presented DE based method may efficiently be used for accurate prediction of the rain attenuation levels.

  8. Predicting post-event processing in social anxiety disorder following two prototypical social situations: state variables and dispositional determinants.

    PubMed

    Kiko, Sonja; Stevens, Stephan; Mall, Anna Katharina; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin; Hermann, Christiane

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated self-reported state (anxiety, physical symptoms, cognitions, internally focused attention, safety behaviors, social performance) and trait (social anxiety, depressive symptoms, dysfunctional self-consciousness) predictors of post-event processing (PEP) subsequent to two social situations (interaction, speech) in participants with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls (HC). The speech triggered significantly more intense PEP, especially in SAD. Regardless of the type of social situation, PEP was best predicted by situational anxiety and dysfunctional cognitions among the state variables. If only trait variables were considered, PEP following both situations was accounted for by trait social anxiety. In addition, dysfunctional self-consciousness contributed to PEP-speech. If state and trait variables were jointly considered, for both situations, situational anxiety and dysfunctional cognitions were confirmed as the most powerful PEP predictors above and beyond trait social anxiety (interaction) and dysfunctional self-consciousness (speech). Hence, PEP as assessed on the day after a social situation seems to be mainly determined by state variables. Trait social anxiety and dysfunctional self-consciousness also significantly contribute to PEP depending on the type of social situation. The present findings support dysfunctional cognitions as a core cognitive mechanism for the maintenance of SAD. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  9. Links between local language competence and peer relations among Swiss and immigrant children: the mediating role of social behavior.

    PubMed

    von Grünigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Françoise D

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports on 541 (286 boys and 255 girls) immigrant and Swiss native 5-to-6 year-old kindergarteners. Results showed the immigrant children were less fluent in the local language compared to native Swiss classmates. Moreover, results from structural equation models, with bootstrap tests of indirect effects, indicated that social behaviors mediated the link between LLC and the quality of children's peer relationships. Implications of these findings for school professionals are discussed, such as the need to help immigrant children make a smoother transition to their host communities by providing additional language and social supports while children acculturate and acclimate to their new surroundings and peer group.

  10. Individual personalities predict social behaviour in wild networks of great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Aplin, L M; Farine, D R; Morand-Ferron, J; Cole, E F; Cockburn, A; Sheldon, B C

    2013-11-01

    Social environments have an important effect on a range of ecological processes, and form a crucial component of selection. However, little is known of the link between personality, social behaviour and population structure. We combine a well-understood personality trait with large-scale social networks in wild songbirds, and show that personality underpins multiple aspects of social organisation. First, we demonstrate a relationship between network centrality and personality with 'proactive' (fast-exploring) individuals associating weakly with greater numbers of conspecifics and moving between flocks. Second, temporal stability of associations relates to personality: 'reactive' (slow-exploring) birds form synergistically stable relationships. Finally, we show that personality influences social structure, with males non-randomly distributed across groups. These results provide strong evidence that songbirds follow alternative social strategies related to personality. This has implications not only for the causes of social network structure but also for the strength and direction of selection on personality in natural populations.

  11. The genetic basis of individual differences in reward processing and the link to addictive behavior and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Yacubian, J; Büchel, C

    2009-11-24

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission is widely recognized to be critical to the neurobiology of reward, motivation and addiction. Interestingly, social interactions and related behavior also activate the same neuronal system. Consequently, genetic variations of dopamine neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. This review focuses on advances made to date in an effort to link genetic individual variations and reward processing as a possible basis for addictive behaviors.

  12. [Links and effects of globalization on social and economic organization and malaria prevalence in the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Nelson, Caro Méndez

    2007-01-01

    As a result of Guatemala's growing involvement in international markets and policies favoring industrial and export-oriented efforts, the population has experienced substantial changes in its economic and social organization, with consequences for the health and well-being of marginal groups. The article discusses various links between global processes, national policies and priorities, social and economic strategies, and malaria prevalence, with the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala as the case study carried out between 2001 and 2003.

  13. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. PMID:24410843

  14. Unsupervised Group Discovery and LInk Prediction in Relational Datasets: a nonparametric Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsourelakis, P

    2007-05-03

    Clustering represents one of the most common statistical procedures and a standard tool for pattern discovery and dimension reduction. Most often the objects to be clustered are described by a set of measurements or observables e.g. the coordinates of the vectors, the attributes of people. In a lot of cases however the available observations appear in the form of links or connections (e.g. communication or transaction networks). This data contains valuable information that can in general be exploited in order to discover groups and better understand the structure of the dataset. Since in most real-world datasets, several of these links are missing, it is also useful to develop procedures that can predict those unobserved connections. In this report we address the problem of unsupervised group discovery in relational datasets. A fundamental issue in all clustering problems is that the actual number of clusters is unknown a priori. In most cases this is addressed by running the model several times assuming a different number of clusters each time and selecting the value that provides the best fit based on some criterion (ie Bayes factor in the case of Bayesian techniques). It is easily understood that it would be preferable to develop techniques that are able to number of clusters is essentially learned from that data along with the rest of model parameters. For that purpose, we adopt a nonparametric Bayesian framework which provides a very flexible modeling environment in which the size of the model i.e. the number of clusters, can adapt to the available data and readily accommodate outliers. The latter is particularly important since several groups of interest might consist of a small number of members and would most likely be smeared out by traditional modeling techniques. Finally, the proposed framework combines all the advantages of standard Bayesian techniques such as integration of prior knowledge in a principled manner, seamless accommodation of missing data

  15. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832

  16. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality.

    PubMed

    Simola, Daniel F; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg; Waterhouse, Robert M; Helmkampf, Martin; Roux, Julien; Nygaard, Sanne; Glastad, Karl M; Hagen, Darren E; Viljakainen, Lumi; Reese, Justin T; Hunt, Brendan G; Graur, Dan; Elhaik, Eran; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J; Cash, Elizabeth; Privman, Eyal; Childers, Christopher P; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Currie, Cameron R; Elsik, Christine G; Suen, Garret; Goodisman, Michael A D; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jürgen; Rawls, Alan; Reinberg, Danny; Smith, Chris D; Smith, Chris R; Tsutsui, Neil; Wurm, Yannick; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Berger, Shelley L; Gadau, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ∼4000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved among all seven ants. Many gene families have been expanded in ants, notably those involved in chemical communication (e.g., desaturases and odorant receptors). Alignment of the ant genomes revealed reduced purifying selection compared with Drosophila without significantly reduced synteny. Correspondingly, ant genomes exhibit dramatic divergence of noncoding regulatory elements; however, extant conserved regions are enriched for novel noncoding RNAs and transcription factor-binding sites. Comparison of orthologous gene promoters between eusocial and solitary species revealed significant regulatory evolution in both cis (e.g., Creb) and trans (e.g., fork head) for nearly 2000 genes, many of which exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results emphasize that genomic changes can occur remarkably fast in ants, because two recently diverged leaf-cutter ant species exhibit faster accumulation of species-specific genes and greater divergence in regulatory elements compared with other ants or Drosophila. Thus, while the "socio-genomes" of ants and the honeybee are broadly characterized by a pervasive pattern of divergence in gene composition and regulation, they preserve lineage-specific regulatory features linked to eusociality. We propose that changes in gene regulation played a key role in the origins of insect eusociality, whereas changes in gene composition were more relevant for lineage-specific eusocial adaptations.

  17. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans.

  18. Linking social change and developmental change: shifting pathways of human development.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Patricia M

    2009-03-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and low-technology environments to urban residence, formal schooling, commerce, and high-technology environments. The former ecology is summarized by the German term Gemeinschaft ("community") and the latter by the German term Gesellschaft ("society"; Tönnies, 1887/1957). A review of empirical research demonstrates that, through adaptive processes, movement of any ecological variable in a Gesellschaft direction shifts cultural values in an individualistic direction and developmental pathways toward more independent social behavior and more abstract cognition--to give a few examples of the myriad behaviors that respond to these sociodemographic changes. In contrast, the (much less frequent) movement of any ecological variable in a Gemeinschaft direction is predicted to move cultural values and developmental pathways in the opposite direction. In conclusion, sociocultural environments are not static either in the developed or the developing world and therefore must be treated dynamically in developmental research.

  19. The predictive nature of individual differences in early associative learning and emerging social behavior.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Levitt, Pat; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-01-01

    Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5, 9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive abilities. These results underscore the importance of early contingency learning and suggest the presence of a basic mechanism underlying the ontogeny of social behaviors.

  20. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  1. Social Indicators Predicting Postsecondary Success. Publication #2014-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Princiotta, Daniel; Lippman, Laura; Ryberg, Renee; Schmitz, Hannah; Murphey, David; Cooper, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Only about 59 percent of full-time, first-time students at four-year institutions complete such a degree within six years at the same school. Completion rates are even lower for those starting part-time, or at less than four-year schools (and planning to transfer). Which social indicators--such as student engagement, enrollment status, and family…

  2. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  3. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    PubMed

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  4. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  5. Prediction of treatment outcome in social phobia: a cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Scholing, A; Emmelkamp, P M

    1999-07-01

    This study was a replication of a study on the prediction of treatment outcome in social phobic patients [Chambless, D. L., Tran, G. Q. Glass, C.R. (1997). Predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11 221-240]. Results at the posttest and the 18-months follow-up were analyzed for DSM-III-R social phobic patients, with either a generalized social phobia (n = 50) or a nongeneralized fear, i.e. fear of blushing, trembling or sweating in social situations (n = 26). Predictors were pretreatment depression, personality disorder traits, clinician rated severity of impairment and frequency of negative self-statements during social interactions. The criterium variable was (the residual gain score of) self-reported avoidance of social situations. In line with Chambless et al., pretreatment depression showed some predictive value, but smaller and only at the posttest. Change in the frequency of negative self-statements paralleled, but did not predict, change in social phobia symptoms. In contrast with Chambless et al., clinician rated severity was (slightly) predictive for treatment outcome, whereas avoidant personality traits had reverse correlations with outcome in both subgroups. The results are discussed and directions for further research are given.

  6. Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nicole; Schultz, Johannes; Milne, Elizabeth; Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Münchau, Alexander; Siegel, Markus; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two…

  7. Pathways to School Readiness: Executive Functioning Predicts Academic and Social-Emotional Aspects of School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Trisha D.; Hund, Alycia M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Roman, Zachary J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study specified the extent to which hot and cool aspects of executive functioning predicted academic and social-emotional indicators of school readiness. It was unique in focusing on positive aspects of social-emotional readiness, rather than problem behaviors. One hundred four 3-5-year-old children completed tasks measuring executive…

  8. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…

  9. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  10. Ontology-based Deep Learning for Human Behavior Prediction with Explanations in Health Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Phan, Nhathai; Dou, Dejing; Wang, Hao; Kil, David; Piniewski, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Human behavior modeling is a key component in application domains such as healthcare and social behavior research. In addition to accurate prediction, having the capacity to understand the roles of human behavior determinants and to provide explanations for the predicted behaviors is also important. Having this capacity increases trust in the systems and the likelihood that the systems actually will be adopted, thus driving engagement and loyalty. However, most prediction models do not provide explanations for the behaviors they predict. In this paper, we study the research problem, human behavior prediction with explanations, for healthcare intervention systems in health social networks. We propose an ontology-based deep learning model (ORBM(+)) for human behavior prediction over undirected and nodes-attributed graphs. We first propose a bottom-up algorithm to learn the user representation from health ontologies. Then the user representation is utilized to incorporate self-motivation, social influences, and environmental events together in a human behavior prediction model, which extends a well-known deep learning method, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine. ORBM(+) not only predicts human behaviors accurately, but also, it generates explanations for each predicted behavior. Experiments conducted on both real and synthetic health social networks have shown the tremendous effectiveness of our approach compared with conventional methods.

  11. Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record-Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0133 TITLE: Framework for Smart Electronic Health...NUMBER Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record-Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases 5b. GRANT NUMBER...an intelligent workspace , by displaying annotation forms and de-identified reports with the same view, automatic report queuing and providing easy

  12. Necessary, but not sufficient: links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia are moderated by disorganized symptoms.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  13. Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

  14. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  15. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  16. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  17. An interpersonal circumplex model of children's social goals: links with peer-reported behavior and sociometric status.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Grönroos, Matti; Salmivalli, Christina

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to develop an assessment model for children's social goals. The aims were (a) to fit children's social goals to a circumplex model and to examine links between goals and peer-reported social behaviors (aggression, withdrawal, and prosocial behavior) in a sample of 276 participants (134 girls, 11- to 12-year-olds) and (b) to replicate these findings and examine whether social behavior mediates the relationship between goals and sociometric status in an independent cross-validation sample of 310 participants (143 girls, 11- to 13-year-olds). Results showed a satisfactory fit to the circumplex model and adequate psychometric properties of the goal scales of the new measure, the Interpersonal Goals Inventory for Children. Other findings included significant and meaningful relations between goals and peer-reported behavior. Social behavior mediated the relations between goals and sociometric status.

  18. Social dominance orientation predicts drive for muscularity among British men.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Neofytou, Rudolfos-Valentino; Jablonska, Joanna; Thirlwell, Holly; Taylor, Donna; McCreary, Donald R

    2013-09-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that men's drive for muscularity would be associated with their valuation of domination, power, status, and aggression over others. A community sample of 359 men from London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, trait aggression, and need for power, as well as their demographic details. Bivariate correlations showed that greater drive for muscularity was significantly correlated with most of the measures and their subscales. However, in a multiple regression analysis, the only significant predictor of drive for muscularity was support for group-based dominance hierarchies (Adj. R(2)=.17). These results suggest that men's drive for muscularity is associated with a socio-political ideology that favours social dominance.

  19. Myopic social prediction and the solo comparison effect.

    PubMed

    Moore, Don A; Kim, Tai Gyu

    2003-12-01

    Four experiments explored the psychological processes by which people make comparative social judgments. Each participant chose how much money to wager on beating an opponent on either a difficult or a simple trivia quiz. Quiz difficulty did not influence the average person's probability of winning, yet participants bet more on a simple quiz than on a difficult quiz in the first 3 experiments. The results suggest that this effect results from a tendency to attend more closely to a focal actor than to others. Experiment 4 directly manipulated focusing; when participants were led to focus on the opponent instead of themselves, the effect was reversed. The discussion relates the results to other literatures including overly optimistic self-evaluation, false consensus, overconfidence, and social comparison.

  20. Linking Big and Small Data Across the Social, Engineering, and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Levy, M. A.; Downs, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development cut across the social, health, ecological, engineering, and Earth sciences, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and across the spectrum from basic to applied research and decision making. The rapidly increasing availability of data and information in digital form from a variety of data repositories, networks, and other sources provides new opportunities to link and integrate both traditional data holdings as well as emerging "big data" resources in ways that enable interdisciplinary research and facilitate the use of objective scientific data and information in society. Taking advantage of these opportunities not only requires improved technical and scientific data interoperability across disciplines, scales, and data types, but also concerted efforts to bridge gaps and barriers between key communities, institutions, and networks. Given the long time perspectives required in planning sustainable approaches to development, it is also imperative to address user requirements for long-term data continuity and stewardship by trustworthy repositories. We report here on lessons learned by CIESIN working on a range of sustainable development issues to integrate data across multiple repositories and networks. This includes CIESIN's roles in developing policy-relevant climate and environmental indicators, soil data for African agriculture, and exposure and risk measures for hazards, disease, and conflict, as well as CIESIN's participation in a range of national and international initiatives related both to sustainable development and to open data access, interoperability, and stewardship.

  1. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-01

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ18O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ18O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  2. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-13

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ(18)O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ(18)O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  3. Mixed Methodology to Predict Social Meaning for Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    demographics of those gang-hosting areas. Such demographics vary widely. We identified gang culture differences that corresponded with defined...be applied to code-switched African language social media data in Zulu and Swahili to support the Army’s needs and to understand how identity in...20 implicit tracking of language use and demographic associations between physical and virtual cultures . Tuning techniques for Army-relevant

  4. Learning to Predict Social Influence in Complex Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-29

    properties of the basic model, including how the degree distribution and the network size affect the mean time to reach consensus , have been extensively...including how the degree distribution and the network size af- fect the mean time to reach consensus [10, 12]. Several variants of the voter model are also...social network, given the network topology and the observed time -sequence data. The model allows time -delay in information diffusion under the

  5. Neighborhood linking social capital as a predictor of psychiatric medication prescription in the elderly: a Swedish national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Kawakami, Naomi; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the association between neighborhood linking social capital and psychiatric medication in the elderly. The present study analyzes whether there is an association between linking social capital (a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions) and prescription of antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants, or anti-dementia drugs. Design, Setting, Participants and Measurements The entire Swedish population aged 65+, a total of 1,292,816 individuals, were followed from 1 July 2005 until first prescription of psychiatric medication, death, emigration, or the end of the study on 31 December 2010. Small geographic units were used to define neighborhoods. The definition of linking social capital was based on mean voting participation in each neighborhood unit, categorized in three groups. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance in three different models. Results There was an inverse association between the level of linking social capital and prescription of psychiatric medications (except for anti-dementia drugs). The associations decreased, but remained significant, after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, and education level (except for antidepressants). The OR for prescription of antipsychotics in the crude model was 1.65 (95% CI 1.53–1.78) and decreased, but remained significant (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.17–1.35), after adjustment for the individual-level sociodemographic variables. Conclusions Decision-makers should take into account the potentially negative effect of linking social capital on psychiatric disorders when planning sites of primary care centers and psychiatric clinics, as well as other kinds of community support for elderly patients with such disorders. PMID:24831853

  6. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. For Tests That Are Predictively Powerful and without Social Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    In Philip Pullman's dark matter sci-fi trilogy, there is a golden compass that in the hands of the right person is predictively powerful; the same was supposed to be true of the SAT/ACT--the statistically indistinguishable standardized tests for college admissions. They were intended to be reliable mechanisms for identifying future trajectories,…

  8. Predicting Social Competence: The Validity of the PIPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ralph R.; Boulter, Linda K.

    The validity of the interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) skills model of children's adjustment was investigated (1) by determining whether ICPS skills demonstrated during preschool predicted teacher ratings of adjustment in school during the next two years and (2) by assessing the objectivity of teacher ratings of adjustment through the…

  9. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  10. An Integrated Children Disease Prediction Tool within a Special Social Network.

    PubMed

    Apostolova Trpkovska, Marika; Yildirim Yayilgan, Sule; Besimi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a social network with an integrated children disease prediction system developed by the use of the specially designed Children General Disease Ontology (CGDO). This ontology consists of children diseases and their relationship with symptoms and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL rules) that are specially designed for predicting diseases. The prediction process starts by filling data about the appeared signs and symptoms by the user which are after that mapped with the CGDO ontology. Once the data are mapped, the prediction results are presented. The phase of prediction executes the rules which extract the predicted disease details based on the SWRL rule specified. The motivation behind the development of this system is to spread knowledge about the children diseases and their symptoms in a very simple way using the specialized social networking website www.emama.mk.

  11. Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.

  12. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Myroniuk, Tyler W; Anglewicz, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health and/or vice versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined. Little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2,328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15 to 80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians.

  13. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi*

    PubMed Central

    Myroniuk, Tyler W.; Anglewicz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health or vice-versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined and little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15–80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age, and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. PMID:26646745

  14. Seeing ghosts: negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Jessica M; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, and of a neutral object, were followed by nonverbal social feedback (i.e., facial crowds with equal numbers of negative, positive, and neutral faces). Afterward, women estimated the percentage of negative, positive, and neutral social feedback that followed their own body, the control woman's body, and the neutral object. The findings provided evidence for a covariation bias: negative body evaluation predicted higher estimates of negative social feedback for women's own body, but not for the other stimuli. Additionally, the covariation bias was not explained by differences in how women interpreted the social feedback (the facial stimuli). Clinical implications of the covariation bias to body image are discussed.

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood. PMID:26267439

  16. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  17. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  18. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  19. Social Calls Predict Foraging Success in Big Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Animals foraging in the dark are simultaneously engaged in prey pursuit, collision avoidance and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient, non-visual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics [e.g., 1]. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls [e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5]. Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract [e.g., 6] or repel conspecifics [7] and could denote territoriality or food-claiming. Here, we provide evidence that a social call emitted only by male bats, exclusively in a foraging context [5], the “frequency-modulated bout” (FMB), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment, while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, inter-bat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat’s distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  20. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  1. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed.

  2. Family and peer social support and their links to psychological distress among hurricane-exposed minority youth.

    PubMed

    Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F

    2014-07-01

    Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.

  3. Caring for the Unseen: Using Linking Social Capital to Improve Healthcare Access to Irregular Migrants in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To describe a novel strategy using linking social capital to provide healthcare access to irregular migrants with low literacy, low numeracy, and limited cultural assimilation in a European metropolitan area. Organizing Construct Public data show numerous shortcomings in meeting the healthcare needs of refugees and irregular migrants surging into Europe. Many irregular migrants living in European communities are unable to access information, care, or services due to lack of social capital. An overview of the problem and traditional charity strategies, including their barriers, are briefly described. A novel strategy using linking social capital to improve healthcare access of irregular migrants is explored and described. Information regarding the impact of this approach on the target population is provided. The discussion of nursing's role in employing linking social capital to care for the vulnerable is presented. Conclusions Immigration and refugee data show that issues related to migration will continue. The novel strategy presented can be implemented by nurses with limited financial and physical resources in small community settings frequented by irregular migrants to improve health care. Clinical Relevance The health and well‐being of irregular migrants has an impact on community health. Nurses must be aware of and consider implementing novel strategies to ensure that all community members’ healthcare needs, which are a basic human right, are addressed. PMID:27355488

  4. On the Prediction of Flickr Image Popularity by Analyzing Heterogeneous Social Sensory Data

    PubMed Central

    Aloufi, Samah; Zhu, Shiai; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the popularity of social media has shattered the gap between the physical and virtual worlds. The content generated by people or social sensors on social media provides information about users and their living surroundings, which allows us to access a user’s preferences, opinions, and interactions. This provides an opportunity for us to understand human behavior and enhance the services provided for both the real and virtual worlds. In this paper, we will focus on the popularity prediction of social images on Flickr, a popular social photo-sharing site, and promote the research on utilizing social sensory data in the context of assisting people to improve their life on the Web. Social data are different from the data collected from physical sensors; in the fact that they exhibit special characteristics that pose new challenges. In addition to their huge quantity, social data are noisy, unstructured, and heterogeneous. Moreover, they involve human semantics and contextual data that require analysis and interpretation based on human behavior. Accordingly, we address the problem of popularity prediction for an image by exploiting three main factors that are important for making an image popular. In particular, we investigate the impact of the image’s visual content, where the semantic and sentiment information extracted from the image show an impact on its popularity, as well as the textual information associated with the image, which has a fundamental role in boosting the visibility of the image in the keyword search results. Additionally, we explore social context, such as an image owner’s popularity and how it positively influences the image popularity. With a comprehensive study on the effect of the three aspects, we further propose to jointly consider the heterogeneous social sensory data. Experimental results obtained from real-world data demonstrate that the three factors utilized complement each other in obtaining promising results in the

  5. On the Prediction of Flickr Image Popularity by Analyzing Heterogeneous Social Sensory Data.

    PubMed

    Aloufi, Samah; Zhu, Shiai; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2017-03-19

    The increase in the popularity of social media has shattered the gap between the physical and virtual worlds. The content generated by people or social sensors on social media provides information about users and their living surroundings, which allows us to access a user's preferences, opinions, and interactions. This provides an opportunity for us to understand human behavior and enhance the services provided for both the real and virtual worlds. In this paper, we will focus on the popularity prediction of social images on Flickr, a popular social photo-sharing site, and promote the research on utilizing social sensory data in the context of assisting people to improve their life on the Web. Social data are different from the data collected from physical sensors; in the fact that they exhibit special characteristics that pose new challenges. In addition to their huge quantity, social data are noisy, unstructured, and heterogeneous. Moreover, they involve human semantics and contextual data that require analysis and interpretation based on human behavior. Accordingly, we address the problem of popularity prediction for an image by exploiting three main factors that are important for making an image popular. In particular, we investigate the impact of the image's visual content, where the semantic and sentiment information extracted from the image show an impact on its popularity, as well as the textual information associated with the image, which has a fundamental role in boosting the visibility of the image in the keyword search results. Additionally, we explore social context, such as an image owner's popularity and how it positively influences the image popularity. With a comprehensive study on the effect of the three aspects, we further propose to jointly consider the heterogeneous social sensory data. Experimental results obtained from real-world data demonstrate that the three factors utilized complement each other in obtaining promising results in the

  6. Linking Social--Environmental Risk Factors with Aggression in Suburban Adolescents: The Role of Social--Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…

  7. Generating Predictive Movie Recommendations from Trust in Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    predictive recommendations about movies . MovieLens [5], Recommendz [6], and Film -Conseil [7] are just a few of the websites that implement recommender...have to be significant. We could say Alice trusts Bob regarding movies if she chooses to watch a film (commits to an action) that Bob recommends...this context: "...if the person were to have rented a movie to watch, how likely it is that you would want to see that film ." In the FilmTrust

  8. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  9. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  10. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sandra; Quétier, Fabien; Cáceres, Daniel M; Trainor, Sarah F; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-18

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change.

  11. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Cáceres, Daniel M.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-01

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change. PMID:21220325

  12. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  13. Self-reported racism and social support predict blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the effects of perceived racism and social support (quantity and quality) on blood pressure reactivity. In a college sample of 64 Blacks (M age = 22.69 years, SD =6.60), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed before and during a standardized serial subtraction task. Perceptions of racism and the quantity and quality of social support were measured by self-report. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived racism and social support (neither quantity nor quality) were not independent predictors of SBP or DBP changes (ps >.05). These analyses did indicate that perceived racism interacted with the quantity of social support (p <.002, partial R2 =.175) and with the quality of social support (p <.0007, partial R2 =.195) to predict DBP changes. Perceived racism also interacted with the quantity of social support to predict changes in SBP (p <.02, partial R2 =.11). In general, whereas high social support was related to less marked blood pressure changes under conditions of low perceived racism, high social support was associated with exaggerated blood pressure changes under conditions of high perceived racism. These significant interaction effects persisted after statistically controlling for potential confounders. The findings highlight the importance of examining the joint contribution of real-world experiences and coping resources to blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

  14. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Saul J.; Eyre, Simon; Kimble, Catherine H.; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Hogg, Carolyn; Easteal, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species. PMID:27990255

  15. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations.

    PubMed

    Newman, Saul J; Eyre, Simon; Kimble, Catherine H; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Hogg, Carolyn; Easteal, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species.

  16. Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Lansford, Jennifer E; Agoston, Anna M; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, and DPA. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: Peer victimization predicted social alienation, which then predicted DPA. Early externalizing behavior set this path in motion and made an independent contribution to DPA. This research identifies an important pathway through which externalizing behavior and consequent peer victimization launch children onto a risky social trajectory.

  17. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  18. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  19. From link-prediction in brain connectomes and protein interactomes to the local-community-paradigm in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Ravasi, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Growth and remodelling impact the network topology of complex systems, yet a general theory explaining how new links arise between existing nodes has been lacking, and little is known about the topological properties that facilitate link-prediction. Here we investigate the extent to which the connectivity evolution of a network might be predicted by mere topological features. We show how a link/community-based strategy triggers substantial prediction improvements because it accounts for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems that use self-organisation as a major adaptation strategy. These systems seem designed for global delivery of information and processing via multiple local modules. Conversely, non-LCP networks have steady architectures formed by strong interactions, and seem designed for systems in which information/energy storage is crucial. PMID:23563395

  20. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  1. Health-related Support Groups on the Internet: Linking Empirical Findings to Social Support and Computer-mediated Communication Theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B

    2003-01-01

    This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.

  2. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  3. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social-developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette

    2013-12-01

    The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature.

  4. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  5. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment.

  6. Positive everyday experiences interact with social support to predict depression in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gray A; Arnett, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    Both social support and stress predict depression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Little work has been done on the relationship between positive life experiences and depression in this group. Ninety MS patients completed the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS), the Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI), and the Affective Reading Span Task (ARST). The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was also used. Separate regression analyses were conducted with the EDSS entered at step 1, ARST memory bias score at step 2, SSQ at step 3, either Hassles or Uplifts at step 4, and the interaction term at step 5 to predict depression. Uplifts interacted significantly with social support to predict depression, but hassles did not. After considering disability level, memory bias, and social support and uplifts main effects, the interaction of uplifts and social support accounted for nearly 5% independent variance in depression (p < .05). These results suggest that the absence of uplifts, combined with low levels of social support, is related to depression in MS patients. More generally, these data indicate that it is important to study the absence of positive experiences along with stress and negative experiences in this population.

  7. Defense of females, but not social status, predicts plasma androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; East, Marion L; Hofer, Heribert

    2003-01-01

    A positive correlation between male social status and testosterone levels is expected and often found in social species with high rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships among males are unstable. In contrast, in species with low rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships are stable, testosterone levels should not correlate with social status. The "challenge hypothesis" predicts that androgen levels should rise during periods of courtship or mate guarding. We addressed these questions in free-ranging spotted hyenas, a species with low rates and low intensities of aggression among males but where males spend extensive effort to court females. In males, we measured testosterone, its precursor androstenedione, and its metabolite 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. As predicted, testosterone levels were significantly higher and androstenedione levels tended to be higher in males that, at the time of sampling, defended a female, compared with males that did not defend a female. Also, as predicted, there was no correlation between social status and androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

  8. The missing link: district nurses as social connection for older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between social connection and health is widely recognised. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the impact of district nursing care on social connection for people with a chronic illness such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using a mixed-method approach, an exploration of the perceptions of older people living in the community with T2DM regarding their health and social connections was carried out. Findings revealed a strong relationship between the clients and the district nurse. The district nurse is an important aspect of clients' social connection. For some clients where their social connection is limited, the district nurse is a central element. When the district nurse is the major social connection, problems can arise for the client, especially when they are being discharged or changes are made to their care.

  9. Drug use Discrimination Predicts Formation of High-Risk Social Networks: Examining Social Pathways of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M

    2016-12-26

    Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.

  10. Perceived Social Competence, Negative Social Interactions, and Negative Cognitive Style Predict Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…

  11. Qualities of Peer Relations on Social Networking Websites: Predictions from Negative Mother-Teen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between characteristics of teenagers’ relationships with their mothers and their later socializing behavior and peer relationship quality online. At age 13, teenagers and their mothers participated in an interaction in which mothers’ and adolescents’ behavior undermining autonomy and relatedness was observed, and indicators of teens’ depressive symptoms and social anxiety were assessed. At age 20, youth self-reported on their online behaviors, youths’ social networking webpages were observationally coded to assess peer relationship quality online, and symptoms of depression and social anxiety were reassessed. Results suggested that problematic mother-teen relationships were predictive of youths’ later preference for online communication and greater likelihood of forming a friendship with someone met online, yet poorer quality in online relationships. Findings are discussed within a developmental framework suggesting the importance of considering youths’ family interactions during early adolescence as predictors of future online socializing behavior and online interactions with peers. PMID:21860584

  12. Predicting depression in mothers with and without HIV: the role of social support and family dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Stein, Judith A; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2012-11-01

    Many women with HIV are primary caregivers for their children. Social factors, including family dynamics, play a major role in women's depression. We hypothesized an impact of HIV seropositivity on greater depression mediated through poorer family functioning and social support. Participants include 332 Mothers Living with HIV (MLH) and 200 Neighborhood Control Mothers (NCM) recruited in Los Angeles County. The NCM were matched by neighborhood. All had children ages 6 through 20. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated HIV seropositivity was positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with positive social support and effective family functioning. In a predictive path model, the relationship between having HIV and depressed mood was mediated by social support and family functioning. Findings offer explanation for increased depression resulting from HIV and social and family dynamics, and suggest innovative interventions to abate psychosocial health problems and lower risk for depression among women with HIV.

  13. Familial Social Support Predicts a Reduced Cortisol Response to Stress in Sexual Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Charles L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. PMID:24972382

  14. Linking Predictive Models to Generic Planning Methods for Water Resource System Adaptation: Initial Application to The Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Matrosov, E.; Wade, S.; New, M. G.; Pinte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Adapting water resource systems to unknown future conditions will involve using trusted predictive models within planning methods. Planning methods include stochastic simulation and optimization, shared vision planning, robust-decision making, and others. The methods embed existing predictive models into the core of a planning process aiming to improve system design and/or operation. Planning methods that connect in a generic and modular way to predictive models will enable flexible and efficient deployment. This talk describes a generic open-source model platform that helps link models to planning methods. The link is made through standardized import/export functions or customized add-ins. The program allows to edit, organize, store, visualize and transfer model inputs and outputs. A computationally efficient water resource simulation model, IRAS, was connected to the platform using an add-in. A simple IRAS model of the Thames basin system was built with a weekly time step and 80 year time horizon and compared to a more detailed daily predictive model used by the UK’s Environment Agency. The Thames model is being connected to a scenario generator based on robust decision making. The scenarios will help identify robust system designs given multiple uncertain inputs (inflows, demands, energy prices).

  15. High self-control protects the link between social support and positivity ratio for Israeli students exposed to contextual risk.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie

    2015-08-01

    This study examined how Israeli students, despite exposure to contextual risk factors, may experience a high ratio of self-reported positive to negative emotions (i.e., positivity ratio). Self-control skills and perceived social support were tested as protective factors, where each was posited to moderate the relation between risk status and positivity ratio. The participants were 460 Israeli students (51% girls) in grades 8-10. Contrary to expectations, students attending a school with high contextual risks did not differ from students attending a school with low contextual risks in their scores on self-control skills, perceived social support, or positivity ratio. However, an exploratory follow-up moderation analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction, indicating that while low self-control skills eliminate the link between social support and positivity ratio for students attending the school defined as at-risk, high self-control protects this link. These results suggest that neither contextual risk in itself nor initial differences in self-control or social support account for differences in students' positivity ratio. Rather, it is the way these factors interact with each other that matters. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  16. Social Media - DoD’s Greatest Information Sharing Tool or Weakest Security Link?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    Social Media in the Department of Defense (DoD): review current policies, review current use of this medium by DoD, and analyze the impact of a new DoD Directive regarding use of Social Media on military networks. Social Media include many that are used primarily for distributing what is referred to as Strategic Communications (or Public Affairs Office/PAO) information - Facebook, Twitter, and various milblogs are examples. Other Social Media can be defined as Information Sharing portals ? Army Knowledge

  17. Linking the teaching of professionalism to the social contract: a call for cultural humility.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Steinert, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Professionalism, which is fundamental to medical practice, must be taught explicitly. It is the basis of medicine's relationship to society, which most observers call a "social contract." The social contract serves as the basis for society's expectations of medicine and medicine's of society. It therefore directly influences professionalism. The role of the healer is universal, but how professionalism is expressed will differ between countries and cultures due to differences in their social contracts. When professionalism is taught, it should be related to the different cultures and social contracts, respecting local customs and values.

  18. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  19. The role of socially prescribed perfectionism in the link between perceived racial discrimination and African American adolescents’ depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the social origins of perfectionism has focused on negative evaluative experiences in the family, with less attention to negative social evaluations in other contexts and situations relevant for African American adolescents. The experience of racial discrimination is common for African American youth, and may trigger maladaptive perfectionistic beliefs if the youth perceive that they do not meet others’ standards (socially prescribed perfectionism) or internalize discriminatory messages. Thus, the present study examined longitudinal associations among racial discrimination, socially prescribed perfectionism, and depressive symptoms among a community sample of urban and predominantly low income African American adolescents (n = 492; 46.7% female). In each of grades 7, 8 and 9, participants reported their experiences with racial discrimination, perfectionistic beliefs, and depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that experiences with racial discrimination in grade 7 were associated with socially prescribed perfectionism in grade 8 which, in turn, was linked with depressive symptoms in grade 9. Results suggest that prospective associations between the experience of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms are due, in part, to increased socially prescribed perfectionism. Implications for interventions targeting depression in African American are discussed. PMID:24150863

  20. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  1. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  2. A multi-label, semi-supervised classification approach applied to personality prediction in social media.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Carolina E S; de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2014-10-01

    Social media allow web users to create and share content pertaining to different subjects, exposing their activities, opinions, feelings and thoughts. In this context, online social media has attracted the interest of data scientists seeking to understand behaviours and trends, whilst collecting statistics for social sites. One potential application for these data is personality prediction, which aims to understand a user's behaviour within social media. Traditional personality prediction relies on users' profiles, their status updates, the messages they post, etc. Here, a personality prediction system for social media data is introduced that differs from most approaches in the literature, in that it works with groups of texts, instead of single texts, and does not take users' profiles into account. Also, the proposed approach extracts meta-attributes from texts and does not work directly with the content of the messages. The set of possible personality traits is taken from the Big Five model and allows the problem to be characterised as a multi-label classification task. The problem is then transformed into a set of five binary classification problems and solved by means of a semi-supervised learning approach, due to the difficulty in annotating the massive amounts of data generated in social media. In our implementation, the proposed system was trained with three well-known machine-learning algorithms, namely a Naïve Bayes classifier, a Support Vector Machine, and a Multilayer Perceptron neural network. The system was applied to predict the personality of Tweets taken from three datasets available in the literature, and resulted in an approximately 83% accurate prediction, with some of the personality traits presenting better individual classification rates than others.

  3. Making smart social judgments takes time: infants' recruitment of goal information when generating action predictions.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young infants perceive others' actions as structured by goals. One open question is whether the recruitment of this understanding when predicting others' actions imposes a cognitive challenge for young infants. The current study explored infants' ability to utilize their knowledge of others' goals to rapidly predict future behavior in complex social environments and distinguish goal-directed actions from other kinds of movements. Fifteen-month-olds (N = 40) viewed videos of an actor engaged in either a goal-directed (grasping) or an ambiguous (brushing the back of her hand) action on a Tobii eye-tracker. At test, critical elements of the scene were changed and infants' predictive fixations were examined to determine whether they relied on goal information to anticipate the actor's future behavior. Results revealed that infants reliably generated goal-based visual predictions for the grasping action, but not for the back-of-hand behavior. Moreover, response latencies were longer for goal-based predictions than for location-based predictions, suggesting that goal-based predictions are cognitively taxing. Analyses of areas of interest indicated that heightened attention to the overall scene, as opposed to specific patterns of attention, was the critical indicator of successful judgments regarding an actor's future goal-directed behavior. These findings shed light on the processes that support "smart" social behavior in infants, as it may be a challenge for young infants to use information about others' intentions to inform rapid predictions.

  4. Linking Law and Social Studies, Grades 9-12: An Interdisciplinary Approach with Social Studies, Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armancas-Fisher, Margaret; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers an interdisciplinary approach to law-related education (LRE) intended to assist teachers with introducing LRE into a variety of social studies courses. The guide begins with a definition of LRE, its objectives and methods, and its place in the general school curriculum. The introductory section includes a description…

  5. Self-rated social skills predict visual perception: impairments in object discrimination requiring transient attention associated with high autistic tendency.

    PubMed

    Laycock, Robin; Cross, Alana Jade; Dalle Nogare, Felicity; Crewther, Sheila Gillard

    2014-02-01

    Autism is usually defined by impairments in the social domain but has also been linked to deficient dorsal visual stream processing. However, inconsistent findings make the nature of this relationship unclear and thus, we examined the role of stimulus-driven transient attention, presumably activated by the dorsal stream in autistic tendency. Contrast thresholds for object discrimination were compared between groups with high and low self-rated autistic tendency utilizing the socially based Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Visual stimuli were presented with either abrupt or with ramped contrast onsets/offsets in order to manipulate the demands of transient attention. Larger impairments in performance of abrupt compared with ramped object presentation were established in the high AQ group. Furthermore, self-reported social skills predicted abrupt task performance, suggesting an important visual perception deficiency in autism-related traits. Autism spectrum disorder may be associated with reduced utilization of the dorsal stream to rapidly activate attention prior to ventral stream processing when stimuli are transient.

  6. Popularity, Social Acceptance, and Aggression in Adolescent Peer Groups: Links with Academic Performance and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …

  7. Modeling Contextual Effects in Developmental Research: Linking Theory and Method in the Study of Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    This special section was inspired by the recent increased interest and methodological advances in the assessment of context-specificity in child and adolescent social development. While the effects of groups, situations, and social relationships on cognitive, affective and behavioral development have long been acknowledged in theoretical…

  8. AIDS Epidemic Spurs Social Scientists to Examine Behavior Linked to Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic is spurring social scientists to try to understand the social and sexual forces that spread the sexually transmitted disease, to learn how to change the personal behavior that makes up those forces, and to improve and prolong the lives of those who have the disease. (MLW)

  9. Linking Prevention Science and Social and Emotional Learning: The Oregon Resiliency Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the Oregon Resiliency Project, an effort to enhance positive social-emotional development of children and youth through social and emotional learning (SEL). The project was launched in 2001 as a collaborative effort between faculty and graduate student researchers at the University of Oregon. The primary…

  10. Linking Transformative Learning and Social Justice through the Lens of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal perceived sustainable behaviors, attitudes, and feelings related to racism and social justice of the graduates of the Social Justice Training Institute. Methodology: A descriptive methodology approach was used to collect data. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 35 graduates of the…

  11. Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning…

  12. Social Justice: The Missing Link in School Administrators' Perspectives on Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Portelli, John P.; Rottmann, Cindy; Pashby, Karen; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Mujuwamariya, Donatille

    2012-01-01

    Critical scholars view schooling as one piece of a larger struggle for democracy and social justice. We investigated 41 school administrators' perceptions about the role and importance of equity, diversity and social justice in new teacher induction in the province of Ontario. Interviews reveal that principals were interested in shaping teacher…

  13. Spirit or Fleeting Apparition? Why Spirituality's Link with Social Support Might Be Incrementally Invalid.

    PubMed

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James Benjamin

    2013-12-03

    Previously published path models apparently confirm the belief-as-benefit perspective that spirituality boosts well-being via social support. The broad acceptance of such findings has motivated recommendations that clinical psychologists and psychiatrists routinely assess their patients' spiritual status. Skeptics retort that past findings are statistically confounded and that numinous beliefs and well-being are unrelated. A multivariate regression analysis testing whether spirituality explains variance in social support after personality traits are simultaneously included is reported. Although spirituality displays a significant positive correlation and partial correlation (after controlling for socio-demographics) with social support, regression analysis specifying agreeableness and conscientiousness-individual differences related to both spirituality and social support-as predictors renders spirituality nonsignificant. In summary, spirituality's correlation with social support appears spurious; demonstrating the hazards of relying on simple associations and highlighting the urgent need for researchers to utilize statistical methods capable of establishing cause and parsing effects across rival theoretical explanations.

  14. What are the links between maternal social status, hippocampal function, and HPA axis function in children?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long-term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children.

  15. Combined expression patterns of QTL-linked candidate genes best predict thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Norry, Fabian M; Larsen, Peter F; Liu, Yongjie; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-11-01

    Knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) is a thermal adaptation trait in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to test for possible associations between KRHT and the expression of candidate genes within quantitative trait loci (QTL) in eight recombinant inbred lines (RIL). hsp60 and hsc70-3 map within an X-linked QTL, while CG10383, catsup, ddc, trap1, and cyp6a13 are linked in a KRHT-QTL on chromosome 2. hsc70-3 expression increased by heat-hardening. Principal Components analysis revealed that catsup, ddc and trap1 were either co-expressed or combined in their expression levels. This composite expression variable (e-PC1) was positively associated to KRHT in non-hardened RIL. In heat-hardened flies, hsp60 was negatively related to hsc70-3 on e-PC2, with effects on KRHT. These results are consistent with the notion that QTL can be shaped by expression variation in combined candidate loci. We found composite variables of gene expression (e-PCs) that best correlated to KRHT. Network effects with other untested linked loci are apparent because, in spite of their associations with KRHT phenotypes, e-PCs were sometimes uncorrelated with their QTL genotype.

  16. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host’s degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden. PMID:26915589

  17. Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioural inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these…

  18. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  19. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  20. The Predictive Power of Socialization Variables for Thinking Styles among Adults in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang; Higgins, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the predictive power of socialization variables for thinking styles among adults in the workplace. One hundred and seventeen managerial personnel (aged between 18 and 55 years) in England responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to questions concerning…

  1. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-02-26

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host's degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden.

  2. Predicting Social Responsibility and Belonging in Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs with Underserved Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Byrd, Brigid; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated.…

  3. Linking traits to energetics and population dynamics to predict lizard ranges in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B

    2008-01-01

    I present a dynamic bioenergetic model that couples individual energetics and population dynamics to predict current lizard ranges and those following climate warming. The model predictions are uniquely based on first principles of morphology, life history, and thermal physiology. I apply the model to five populations of a widespread North American lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, to examine how geographic variation in traits and life histories influences ranges. This geographic variation reflects the potential for species to adapt to environmental change. I then consider the range dynamics of the closely related Sceloporus graciosus. Comparing predicted ranges and actual current ranges reveals how dispersal limitations, species interactions, and habitat requirements influence the occupied portions of thermally suitable ranges. The dynamic model predicts individualistic responses to a uniform 3 degrees C warming but a northward shift in the northern range boundary for all populations and species. In contrast to standard correlative climate envelope models, the extent of the predicted northward shift depends on organism traits and life histories. The results highlight the limitations of correlative models and the need for more dynamic models of species' ranges.

  4. Fast Prediction of HCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network Linked to a Fluid Mechanics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Chen, J; Babaimopoulos, A

    2006-08-29

    We have developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based combustion model and have integrated it into a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) to produce a new analysis tool (titled KIVA3V-ANN) that can yield accurate HCCI predictions at very low computational cost. The neural network predicts ignition delay as a function of operating parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and residual gas fraction). KIVA3V-ANN keeps track of the time history of the ignition delay during the engine cycle to evaluate the ignition integral and predict ignition for each computational cell. After a cell ignites, chemistry becomes active, and a two-step chemical kinetic mechanism predicts composition and heat generation in the ignited cells. KIVA3V-ANN has been validated by comparison with isooctane HCCI experiments in two different engines. The neural network provides reasonable predictions for HCCI combustion and emissions that, although typically not as good as obtained with the more physically representative multi-zone model, are obtained at a much reduced computational cost. KIVA3V-ANN can perform reasonably accurate HCCI calculations while requiring only 10% more computational effort than a motored KIVA3V run. It is therefore considered a valuable tool for evaluation of engine maps or other performance analysis tasks requiring multiple individual runs.

  5. Linking the NIH strategic plan to the research agenda for social workers in health and aging.

    PubMed

    Raveis, Victoria H; Gardner, Daniel S; Berkman, Barbara; Harootyan, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although social work has a long and distinctive tradition of practice-relevant research aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of older adults, the profession has been underrepresented among the ranks of academic researchers and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) scientific endeavors. In this article, the inherent capacities of social workers to generate and disseminate empirical health-related knowledge are discussed and recent developments in social work's geriatric research infrastructure are described. Emerging domains for advancing the profession's contribution to practice-relevant geriatric research on the federal level are identified and the next steps toward advancing the field's research agenda are posed.

  6. A socio-emotional approach to couple therapy: linking social context and couple interaction.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Huenergardt, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT), an approach designed to intervene in socio-cultural processes that limit couples' ability to develop mutually supportive relationships, especially within heterosexual relationships. SERT integrates recent advances in neurobiology and the social context of emotion with social constructionist assumptions regarding the fluid and contextual nature of gender, culture, personal identities, and relationship patterns. It advances social constructionist practice through in-session experiential work focused on 4 conditions foundational to mutual support--mutual influence, shared vulnerability, shared relationship responsibility, and mutual attunement. In contrast to couple therapy models that mask power issues, therapist neutrality is not considered possible or desirable. Instead, therapists position themselves to counteract social inequalities. The paper illustrates how empathic engagement of a socio-culturally attuned therapist sets the stage for new socio-cultural experience as it is embodied neurologically and physically in the relationship and discusses therapy as societal intervention.

  7. The Missing Link: Delayed Emotional Development Predicts Challenging Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behavior (CB). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the factors underlying CB in an adult, clinical ID sample (n = 203). Low levels of emotional development (ED), as measured by the "Scheme of Appraisal of ED," predicted overall CB, specifically…

  8. Identification with Multiple Groups in Multiethnic Middle Schools: What Predicts Social Ingroup Overlap?

    PubMed

    Knifsend, Casey A; Bell, Ariana N; Juvonen, Jaana

    2017-02-01

    Self-definition becomes a central task during early adolescence, as youth identify with multiple social groups. Focusing on ethnic identification and identification with other salient social ingroups (e.g., those based on extracurricular activities), we examined predictors of perceived ingroup membership overlap among ethnically diverse adolescents (n = 1264; M age = 12.51; 53 % female). Social ingroup overlap remained relatively stable, but decreased, across the seventh to eighth grade. The number of cross-ethnic classmates in seventh grade predicted lower overlap in the eighth grade, and cross-ethnic friendships by eighth grade mediated this association. Findings underscore the opportunities provided by multiethnic middle schools for youth to connect and befriend one another across ethnic lines, as well as to foster divergent social identities that are associated with positive intergroup attitudes.

  9. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  10. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-07-14

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments.

  11. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills. PMID:26348613

  12. Considerations of Elder Sibling Closeness in Predicting Younger Sibling Substance Use: Social Learning versus Social Bonding Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080

  13. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  14. Perceived social support predicts lower cardiovascular reactivity to stress in older adults.

    PubMed

    Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E

    2017-02-22

    The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (Mage=69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed.

  15. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success.

  16. Fast prediction of transient stability margin in systems with SVC control and HVDC link

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, S.K.; Cheung, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    Recent developments in transient stability margin (TSM) prediction using the energy-based direct method have included excitation controllers, power system stabilizers (PSSs) and/or static VAr compensators (SVCs). These devices can be represented in their detailed dynamic models to desired degrees of complexity while the proposed extended equal-area criterion can still be effectively applied. This paper describes further development of this technique to incorporate an HVDC transmission into the test network for TSM prediction. The method is examined with a practical 17-machine power network representing the South China/Hong Kong system. An SVC control scheme is also installed in a weak bus of the test network for transient stability improvement. The results obtained show that there is no sacrifice in accuracy, speed or reliability of the TSM method with SVC and HVDC realistically incorporated into the study.

  17. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.

  18. Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record- Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    etc, disease location descriptors, Lupus , Thyroid disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, history of Appendectomy, psoriasis. The Crohn’s work is also...of a patient’s clinical history . This information is usually not rich enough to develop predictive models. To construct a useful patient profile...collaboration to achieve this goal given their history of successful development of informatics applications and our clinical research in complex GI

  19. Framework for Smart Electronic Health Record- Linked Predictive Models to Optimize Care for Complex Digestive Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    patient’s clinical history . This information is usually not rich enough to develop predictive models. To construct a useful patient profile requires...in AP and CP. This served as useful validation of our data set before entering the Bayesian Network phase which began in the summer of 2013 Data...case of AP . Thus using the index hospitalization, which presumably is an easily searchable event in any EMR one could better characterize the cohort

  20. The missing link: Predicting connectomes from noisy and partially observed tract tracing data

    PubMed Central

    Hinne, Max; Meijers, Annet; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.; Mørup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the wiring map of the brain, known as the connectome, has increased greatly in the last decade, mostly due to technological advancements in neuroimaging techniques and improvements in computational tools to interpret the vast amount of available data. Despite this, with the exception of the C. elegans roundworm, no definitive connectome has been established for any species. In order to obtain this, tracer studies are particularly appealing, as these have proven highly reliable. The downside of tract tracing is that it is costly to perform, and can only be applied ex vivo. In this paper, we suggest that instead of probing all possible connections, hitherto unknown connections may be predicted from the data that is already available. Our approach uses a ‘latent space model’ that embeds the connectivity in an abstract physical space. Regions that are close in the latent space have a high chance of being connected, while regions far apart are most likely disconnected in the connectome. After learning the latent embedding from the connections that we did observe, the latent space allows us to predict connections that have not been probed previously. We apply the methodology to two connectivity data sets of the macaque, where we demonstrate that the latent space model is successful in predicting unobserved connectivity, outperforming two baselines and an alternative model in nearly all cases. Furthermore, we show how the latent spatial embedding may be used to integrate multimodal observations (i.e. anterograde and retrograde tracers) for the mouse neocortex. Finally, our probabilistic approach enables us to make explicit which connections are easy to predict and which prove difficult, allowing for informed follow-up studies. PMID:28141820

  1. Structure-based predictions broadly link transcription factor mutations to gene expression changes in cancers.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Justin; Bernard, Brady; Reynolds, Sheila; Plaisier, Christopher L; Shmulevich, Ilya; Baliga, Nitin S

    2014-12-01

    Thousands of unique mutations in transcription factors (TFs) arise in cancers, and the functional and biological roles of relatively few of these have been characterized. Here, we used structure-based methods developed specifically for DNA-binding proteins to systematically predict the consequences of mutations in several TFs that are frequently mutated in cancers. The explicit consideration of protein-DNA interactions was crucial to explain the roles and prevalence of mutations in TP53 and RUNX1 in cancers, and resulted in a higher specificity of detection for known p53-regulated genes among genetic associations between TP53 genotypes and genome-wide expression in The Cancer Genome Atlas, compared to existing methods of mutation assessment. Biophysical predictions also indicated that the relative prevalence of TP53 missense mutations in cancer is proportional to their thermodynamic impacts on protein stability and DNA binding, which is consistent with the selection for the loss of p53 transcriptional function in cancers. Structure and thermodynamics-based predictions of the impacts of missense mutations that focus on specific molecular functions may be increasingly useful for the precise and large-scale inference of aberrant molecular phenotypes in cancer and other complex diseases.

  2. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market.

  3. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. PMID:25258563

  4. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.

  5. Predicting Academics via Behavior within an Elementary Sample: An Evaluation of the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…

  6. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly.

  7. Exploring the World of Sports. Linking Fiction to Nonfiction. Literature Bridges to Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Phyllis J.

    This book is designed to help elementary teachers plan an integrated unit of study involving sports. It links popular fiction titles on the topic of sports to related nonfiction titles that will fascinate young readers and build their knowledge across the curriculum. The book includes suggestions for individual, small group, and large group…

  8. Sound Links: Exploring the Social, Cultural and Educational Dynamics of Musical Communities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh

    2009-01-01

    "Sound Links" examines the dynamics of community music in Australia, and the models it represents for informal music learning and teaching. This involves researching a selection of vibrant musical communities across the country, exploring their potential for complementarity and synergy with music in schools. This article focuses on the…

  9. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  10. Time-of-day-dependent adaptation of the HPA axis to predictable social defeat stress.

    PubMed

    Koch, C E; Bartlang, M S; Kiehn, J T; Lucke, L; Naujokat, N; Helfrich-Förster, C; Reber, S O; Oster, H

    2016-12-01

    In modern societies, the risk of developing a whole array of affective and somatic disorders is associated with the prevalence of frequent psychosocial stress. Therefore, a better understanding of adaptive stress responses and their underlying molecular mechanisms is of high clinical interest. In response to an acute stressor, each organism can either show passive freezing or active fight-or-flight behaviour, with activation of sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis providing the necessary energy for the latter by releasing catecholamines and glucocorticoids (GC). Recent data suggest that stress responses are also regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. In consequence, the timing of stress may critically affect adaptive responses to and/or pathological effects of repetitive stressor exposure. In this article, we characterize the impact of predictable social defeat stress during daytime versus nighttime on bodyweight development and HPA axis activity in mice. While 19 days of social daytime stress led to a transient reduction in bodyweight without altering HPA axis activity at the predicted time of stressor exposure, more detrimental effects were seen in anticipation of nighttime stress. Repeated nighttime stressor exposure led to alterations in food metabolization and reduced HPA axis activity with lower circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and GC concentrations at the time of predicted stressor exposure. Our data reveal a circadian gating of stress adaptation to predictable social defeat stress at the level of the HPA axis with impact on metabolic homeostasis underpinning the importance of timing for the body's adaptability to repetitive stress.

  11. Promoting breastfeeding in Bolivia: do social networks add to the predictive value of traditional socioeconomic characteristics?

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Becker, Fannie; Valente, Thomas W

    2006-03-01

    This study tested whether the prediction of health-related knowledge (correct breastfeeding practices in this case) could be improved by including information about the composition of an individual's personal network above and beyond that predicted by his/her socioeconomic or demographic characteristics. Few studies have tested the predictive value of social networks, especially for population-based studies, despite an increased use of social networks in the past few years in several fields of health research, especially in research relating to prevention of HIV/AIDS and design of HIV/AIDS programmes. Promotion of breastfeeding practices that enhance child survival is important in Bolivia because of high infant morbidity and mortality in the country. Data on a cross-sectional urban probability sample of 2,354 women and men aged 15-49 years were collected from seven urban areas in Bolivia. Model building and the log likelihood ratio criteria were used for assessing the significance of variables in a logistic model. Results showed that the network variables added significantly (p < 0.05 for knowledge of breastfeeding only with no other liquids and for knowledge of breastfeeding only with no solids p < 0.01) to the predictive power of the socioeconomic variables. These results may also hold for other health research areas, increasingly using social network analysis, such as that of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Links Between Co-occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored the interrelationship between trajectories of co-occurring symptoms, and sought evidence for shared prenatal/perinatal risk factors. Method Study participants were 5,383 singletons of white ethnicity from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multiple measurements of hyperactive-inattentive traits (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and autistic social-communication impairment (Social Communication Disorder Checklist) were obtained between 4 and 17 years. Both traits and their trajectories were modeled in parallel using latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Trajectory membership was subsequently investigated with respect to prenatal/perinatal risk factors. Results LCGA analysis revealed two distinct social-communication trajectories (persistently impaired versus low-risk) and four hyperactive-inattentive trait trajectories (persistently impaired, intermediate, childhood-limited and low-risk). Autistic symptoms were more stable than those of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behaviors, which showed greater variability. Trajectories for both traits were strongly but not reciprocally interlinked, such that the majority of children with a persistent hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology also showed persistent social-communication deficits but not vice versa. Shared predictors, especially for trajectories of persistent impairment, were maternal smoking during the first trimester, which included familial effects, and a teenage pregnancy. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reveals that a complex relationship exists between social-communication and hyperactive-inattentive traits. Patterns

  13. Situations matter: teaching the Lewinian link between social psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Dana S

    2011-11-01

    A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.

  14. Aging- and task-related resilience decline is linked to food responsiveness in highly social honey bees.

    PubMed

    Speth, Martin T; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V; Münch, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Conventional invertebrate models of aging have provided striking examples for the influence of food- and nutrient-sensing on lifespan and stress resilience. On the other hand, studies in highly social insects, such as honey bees, have revealed how social context can shape very plastic life-history traits, for example flexible aging dynamics in the helper caste (workers). It is, however, not understood how food perception and stress resilience are connected in honey bee workers with different social task behaviors and aging dynamics. To explore this linkage, we tested if starvation resilience, which normally declines with age, depends on food responsiveness in honey bees. We studied two typically non-senesced groups of worker bees with different social task behaviors: mature nurses (caregivers) and mature foragers (food collectors). In addition, we included a group of old foragers for which functional senescence is well-established. Bees were individually scored for their food perception by measuring the gustatory response to different sucrose concentrations. Subsequently, individuals were tested for survival under starvation stress. We found that starvation stress resilience, but not gustatory responsiveness differed between workers with different social task behaviors (mature nurses vs. mature foragers). In addition starvation stress resilience differed between foragers with different aging progressions (mature foragers vs. old foragers). Control experiments confirmed that differences in starvation resilience between mature nurses and mature foragers were robust against changing experimental conditions, such as water provision and activity. For all worker groups we established that individuals with low gustatory responsiveness were more resilient to starvation stress. Finally, for the group of rapidly aging foragers we found that low food responsiveness was linked to a delayed age-related decline in starvation resilience. Our study highlights associations between

  15. Short-term prediction of rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links at EHF band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montera, L.; Mallet, C.; Barthès, L.; Golé, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper shows how nonlinear models originally developed in the finance field can be used to predict rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links operating at the Extremely High Frequencies band (EHF, 20 50 GHz). A common approach to solving this problem is to consider that the prediction error corresponds only to scintillations, whose variance is assumed to be constant. Nevertheless, this assumption does not seem to be realistic because of the heteroscedasticity of error time series: the variance of the prediction error is found to be time-varying and has to be modeled. Since rain attenuation time series behave similarly to certain stocks or foreign exchange rates, a switching ARIMA/GARCH model was implemented. The originality of this model is that not only the attenuation level, but also the error conditional distribution are predicted. It allows an accurate upper-bound of the future attenuation to be estimated in real time that minimizes the cost of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT) and therefore enables the communication system to reach a high percentage of availability. The performance of the switching ARIMA/GARCH model was estimated using a measurement database of the Olympus satellite 20/30 GHz beacons and this model is shown to outperform significantly other existing models. The model also includes frequency scaling from the downlink frequency to the uplink frequency. The attenuation effects (gases, clouds and rain) are first separated with a neural network and then scaled using specific scaling factors. As to the resulting uplink prediction error, the error contribution of the frequency scaling step is shown to be larger than that of the downlink prediction, indicating that further study should focus on improving the accuracy of the scaling factor.

  16. Repeated Social Stress Increases Reward Salience and Impairs Encoding of Prediction by Rat Locus Coeruleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chaijale, Nayla N; Snyder, Kevin; Arner, Jay; Curtis, Andre L; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress is implicated in psychopathology characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive responses to stress are regulated by the locus coeruleus–norepinephrine (LC–NE) system. As social stress is a prevalent human stressor, this study determined the impact of repeated social stress on the relationship between LC neuronal activity and behavior during the performance of cognitive tasks. Social stress-exposed rats performed better at intradimensional set shifting (IDS) and made fewer perseverative errors during reversal learning (REV). LC neurons of control rats were task responsive, being activated after the choice and before reward. Social stress shifted LC neuronal activity from being task responsive to being reward responsive during IDS and REV. LC neurons of stressed rats were activated by reward and tonically inhibited by reward omission with incorrect choices. In contrast, LC neurons of stress-naive rats were only tonically inhibited by reward omission. Reward-related LC activation in stressed rats was unrelated to predictability because it did not habituate as learning progressed. The findings suggest that social stress history increases reward salience and impairs processes that compute predictability for LC neurons. These effects of social stress on LC neuronal activity could facilitate learning as indicated by improved performance in stressed rats. However, the ability of social stress history to enhance responses to behavioral outcomes may have a role in the association between stress and addictive behaviors. In addition, magnified fluctuations in LC activity in response to opposing behavioral consequences may underlie volatile changes in emotional arousal that characterize post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25109891

  17. Reduced sensitivity to social priors during action prediction in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Farrer, Chlöé; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Jacquet, Pierre O; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to directly investigate whether difficulties in the appreciation of others' intentions can be accounted for by abnormal interaction between these two types of information: (i) the sensory evidence conveyed by movement kinematics, and (ii) the observer's expectations, acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we contrasted the ability to infer Non-Social and Social intentions in adults with and without ASD, using a series of tasks in which both sensory evidence and prior expectations were manipulated. The results showed that attenuated effect of prior expectations in ASD individuals does not result from a generalized impairment in mentalizing, but one confined to social intentions. Attenuated priors in the social domain predicted the severity of clinical symptoms in the area of social interaction. Importantly, however, we found that reduced priors in the social domain could be compensated by ASD through observational learning, i.e. through deriving statistical regularities from observed behaviours. This capacity to balance reduced social expectations by learning inversely correlated with the severity of repetitive and stereotyped behaviours. Collectively, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibit a disturbance in the inferential mechanism that integrates sensory evidence into prior beliefs to produce accurate inferences about other people's intentions.

  18. Repeated social stress increases reward salience and impairs encoding of prediction by rat locus coeruleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Chaijale, Nayla N; Snyder, Kevin; Arner, Jay; Curtis, Andre L; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress is implicated in psychopathology characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive responses to stress are regulated by the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. As social stress is a prevalent human stressor, this study determined the impact of repeated social stress on the relationship between LC neuronal activity and behavior during the performance of cognitive tasks. Social stress-exposed rats performed better at intradimensional set shifting (IDS) and made fewer perseverative errors during reversal learning (REV). LC neurons of control rats were task responsive, being activated after the choice and before reward. Social stress shifted LC neuronal activity from being task responsive to being reward responsive during IDS and REV. LC neurons of stressed rats were activated by reward and tonically inhibited by reward omission with incorrect choices. In contrast, LC neurons of stress-naive rats were only tonically inhibited by reward omission. Reward-related LC activation in stressed rats was unrelated to predictability because it did not habituate as learning progressed. The findings suggest that social stress history increases reward salience and impairs processes that compute predictability for LC neurons. These effects of social stress on LC neuronal activity could facilitate learning as indicated by improved performance in stressed rats. However, the ability of social stress history to enhance responses to behavioral outcomes may have a role in the association between stress and addictive behaviors. In addition, magnified fluctuations in LC activity in response to opposing behavioral consequences may underlie volatile changes in emotional arousal that characterize post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Subclinical delusional thinking predicts lateral temporal cortex responses during social reflection.

    PubMed

    Brent, Benjamin K; Coombs, Garth; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Moran, Joseph M; Holt, Daphne J

    2014-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between delusions in psychotic disorders and abnormalities of brain areas involved in social cognition, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex (LTC). General population studies have linked subclinical delusional thinking to impaired social cognition, raising the question of whether a specific pattern of brain activity during social perception is associated with delusional beliefs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subclinical delusional thinking is associated with changes in neural function, while subjects made judgments about themselves or others ['social reflection' (SR)]. Neural responses during SR and non-social tasks, as well as resting-state activity, were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22 healthy subjects. Delusional thinking was measured using the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Delusional thinking was negatively correlated with responses of the left LTC during SR (r = -0.61, P = 0.02, Bonferroni corrected), and connectivity between the left LTC and left ventral MPFC, and was positively correlated with connectivity between the left LTC and the right middle frontal and inferior temporal cortices. Thus, delusional thinking in the general population may be associated with reduced activity and aberrant functional connectivity of cortical areas involved in SR.

  20. Aerosol predictions and their links to weather forecasts through online interactive atmospheric modeling and data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide Peralta, Pablo Enrique

    Atmospheric particles represent a component of air pollution that has been identified as a major contributor to adverse health effects and mortality. Aerosols also interact with solar radiation and clouds perturbing the atmosphere and generating responses in a wide range of scales, such as changes to severe weather and climate. Thus, being able to accurately predict aerosols and its effects on atmospheric properties is of upmost importance. This thesis presents a collection of studies with the global objective to advance in science and operations the use of WRF-Chem, a regional model able to provide weather and atmospheric chemistry predictions and simultaneously representing aerosol effects on climate. Different strategies are used to obtain accurate predictions, including finding an adequate model configuration for each application (e.g., grid resolution, parameterizations choices, processes modeled), using accurate forcing elements (e.g., weather and chemical boundary conditions, emissions), and developing and applying data assimilation techniques for different observational sources. Several environments and scales are simulated, including complex terrain at a city scale, meso-scale over the southeast US for severe weather applications, and regional simulations over the three subtropical persistent stratocumulus decks (off shore California and southeast Pacific and Atlantic) and over North America. Model performance is evaluated against a large spectrum of observations, including field experiments and ground based and satellite measurements. Overall, very positive results were obtained with the WRF-Chem system once it had been configured properly and the inputs chosen. Also, data assimilation of aerosol and cloud satellite observations contributed to improve model performance even further. The model is proven to be an excellent tool for forecasting applications, both for local and long range transported pollution. Also, advances are made to better understand

  1. Dispositional Hope as a Moderator of the Link between Social Comparison with Friends and Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell-Havran, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the link between social comparison with friends and self-perceptions of academic competence during adolescence and how personality may play a role in this link. Participants were 193 eighth-grade students who attended a rural, mid-Atlantic middle school. We used difference scores to measure the extent to which students' nominated and…

  2. Career Guidance in Unstable Times: Linking Economic, Social and Individual Benefits. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that peaked in 2009 sent shockwaves that will be felt for years to come. It affected businesses, increased social risk for many and destabilised job and career prospects. Young people, particularly, have been badly affected. They are suffering the highest unemployment rates and their prospects have been damaged most. But,…

  3. Ice and Sand: Linking the Sandbox to Geographic Features in Elementary Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers are an excellent subject for elementary social studies classes. Their effects are easy for students to model with inexpensive teaching supplies, such as sand and ice. Students can conduct research nationally with virtual field trips or locally with real field trips. The models and research can be used as starting point for a discussion of…

  4. Parenting: linking impacts of interpartner conflict to preschool children's social behavior.

    PubMed

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H; McKelvey, Lorraine; Fussell, Jill J

    2009-10-01

    Family conflict is known to have detrimental impacts on the social development of young children. An important issue in counseling parents and the development of intervention for children is the extent to which other family environmental conditions are the path through which conflict impacts children's development. This study examined two maternal parenting behaviors (harsh discipline and warmth) that may alter the impact of interpartner conflict on child social development and behavior in a large (n = 440 girls, n = 451 boys) sample of ethnically diverse, low-income families of preschool children. Interpartner conflict was associated with poorer child social development and behavior problems. This study found that interpartner conflict increased harsh discipline, which resulted in poorer child social development. This study, however, found no evidence that interpartner conflict impacted child development through its impact on maternal warmth in that mothers experiencing conflict did not alter the level of warm parenting practices. These findings suggest that, when encountering families experiencing interpartner conflict, clinicians should not only direct families to interventions to lessen family conflict but also counsel them on the mechanism (harsh discipline) by which children are impacted by the conflict.

  5. Part 2 The Link between GIS and spatial analysis . GIS, spatial econometrics and social science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselin, Luc

    Some ideas are formulated on the challenges presented to GIS, spatial analysis and spatial econometrics that result from recent trends in social science research. These new developments are characterized by a focus on the geography of phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the need to extend concepts of space, to broaden the analytical toolbox and to develop software and advance education.

  6. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  7. Linking Social Work Students to the Wider World via an Asynchronous Learning Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarnoff, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Many course websites and much of the literature about them address the delivery of distance education. However, course websites are also useful for bringing the world to campus-based social work students, as well as for communicating between classes and making up for missed sessions. Course websites can incorporate synchronous or asynchronous…

  8. Links between Co-Occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…

  9. Intra- and Interracial Best Friendships during Middle School: Links to Social and Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Rebecca Kang; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined patterns of intra- and interracial best friendships during middle school and their associations with social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that intraracial friendships would be beneficial for racial or ethnic minority youth because such relationships provide protection and solidarity in a discriminatory society.…

  10. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status: Links with Problem Behaviors and Tests of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers' behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls' cliques were…

  11. Linking Schools and Social Services; The Case of Child Abuse Reporting. A RAND Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.

    Findings of a study on child abuse reporting practices are presented in this paper. A survey of 1,196 professionals (social workers, psychologists, and doctors) and 267 elementary and secondary principals yielded response rates of 59 and 69 percent, respectively. Findings indicate that although school district policy and resource limitations…

  12. Cognitive and social lifestyle: links with neuropathology and cognition in late life.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David A; Arnold, Steven E; Valenzuela, Michael J; Brayne, Carol; Schneider, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many studies report an association of cognitive and social experiential factors and related traits with dementia risk. Further, many clinical-pathologic studies find a poor correspondence between levels of neuropathology and the presence of dementia and level of cognitive impairment. The poor correspondence suggests that other factors contribute to the maintenance or loss of cognitive function, with factors associated with the maintenance of function referred to as neural or cognitive reserve. This has led investigators to examine the associations of cognitive and social experiential factors with neuropathology as a first step in disentangling the complex associations between these experiential risk factors, neuropathology, and cognitive impairment. Despite the consistent associations of a range of cognitive and social lifestyle factors with cognitive decline and dementia risk, the extant clinical-pathologic data find only a single factor from one cohort, linguistic ability, related to AD pathology. Other factors, including education, harm avoidance, and emotional neglect, are associated with cerebrovascular disease. Overall, the associations are weak. Some factors, such as education, social networks, and purpose in life, modify the relation of neuropathology to cognition. Finally, some factors such as cognitive activity appear to bypass known pathologies altogether suggesting a more direct association with biologic indices that promote person-specific differences in reserve and resilience. Future work will first need to replicate findings across more studies to ensure the veracity of the existing data. Second, effort is needed to identify the molecular substrates of neural reserve as potential mediators of the association of lifestyle factors with cognition.

  13. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  14. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  15. Lessons from Linking Community Education and Social-Work Philosophies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn M. Siemens

    2001-01-01

    Both community education and social work from a settlement house perspective focus on empowerment, problem solving, and increasing participation in lifelong learning. Both fields debate narrow versus broader methods. Collaborative university-community approaches show how their combined philosophies and practices offer reform possibilities. (SK)

  16. Developing Measures of Pathways that May Link Macro Social/Structural Changes with HIV Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Rossi, Diana; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Jones, Yolanda; Friedman, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    Macro-social/structural events ("big events") such as wars, disasters, and large-scale changes in policies can affect HIV transmission by making risk behaviors more or less likely or by changing risk contexts. The purpose of this study was to develop new measures to investigate hypothesized pathways between macro-social changes and HIV transmission. We developed novel scales and indexes focused on topics including norms about sex and drug injecting under different conditions, involvement with social groups, helping others, and experiencing denial of dignity. We collected data from 300 people who inject drugs in New York City during 2012-2013. Most investigational measures showed evidence of validity (Pearson correlations with criterion variables range = 0.12-0.71) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha range = 0.62-0.91). Research is needed in different contexts to evaluate whether these measures can be used to better understand HIV outbreaks and help improve social/structural HIV prevention intervention programs.

  17. Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs Linked to Social Anxiety in Stuttering: Development of a Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clare, Tamsen; Menzies, Ross G.; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Thompson, Robyn; Block, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Those who stutter have a proclivity to social anxiety. Yet, to date, there is no comprehensive measure of thoughts and beliefs about stuttering that represent the cognitions associated with that anxiety. Aims: The present paper describes the development of a measure to assess unhelpful thoughts and beliefs about stuttering. Methods &…

  18. Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Richard J., Ed.

    Two purposes of this compendium are: (1) to recommend to researchers and funders of research promising lines of inquiry and study suggested by recent, strong studies of the academic and social effects of learning in the arts; and (2) to provide designers of arts education curriculum and instruction with insights found in the research that suggest…

  19. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-06

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes.

  20. Pattern formation in a model for mountain pine beetle dispersal: linking model predictions to data.

    PubMed

    Strohm, S; Tyson, R C; Powell, J A

    2013-10-01

    Pattern formation occurs in a wide range of biological systems. This pattern formation can occur in mathematical models because of diffusion-driven instability or due to the interaction between reaction, diffusion, and chemotaxis. In this paper, we investigate the spatial pattern formation of attack clusters in a system for Mountain Pine Beetle. The pattern formation (aggregation) of the Mountain Pine Beetle in order to attack susceptible trees is crucial for their survival and reproduction. We use a reaction-diffusion equation with chemotaxis to model the interaction between Mountain Pine Beetle, Mountain Pine Beetle pheromones, and susceptible trees. Mathematical analysis is utilized to discover the spacing in-between beetle attacks on the susceptible landscape. The model predictions are verified by analysing aerial detection survey data of Mountain Pine Beetle Attack from the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. We find that the distance between Mountain Pine Beetle attack clusters predicted by our model closely corresponds to the observed attack data in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. These results clarify the spatial mechanisms controlling the transition from incipient to epidemic populations and may lead to control measures which protect forests from Mountain Pine Beetle outbreak.

  1. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-02-07

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters.

  2. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain.

  3. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  4. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613

  5. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  6. Think fast! The relationship between goal prediction speed and social competence in infants.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Skilled social interactions require knowledge about others' intentions and the ability to implement this knowledge in real-time to generate appropriate responses to one's partner. Young infants demonstrate an understanding of other people's intentions (e.g. Woodward, Sommerville, Gerson, Henderson & Buresh, 2009), yet it is not until the second year that infants seem to master the real-time implementation of their knowledge during social interactions (e.g. Warneken & Tomasello, 2007). The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others' intentions. Twenty- to 22-month-old infants (N = 23) viewed videos of goal-directed actions on a Tobii eye-tracker and then engaged in an interactive perspective-taking task. Infants who quickly and accurately anticipated another person's future behavior in the eye-tracking task were more successful at taking their partner's perspective in the social interaction. Success on the perspective-taking task was specifically related to the ability to correctly predict another person's intentions. These findings highlight the importance of not only being a 'smart' social partner but also a 'fast' social thinker.

  7. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

  8. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Lauretta M; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties.

  9. Linking linear programming and spatial simulation models to predict landscape effects of forest management alternatives.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Eric J; Roberts, L Jay; Leefers, Larry A

    2006-12-01

    Forest management planners require analytical tools to assess the effects of alternative strategies on the sometimes disparate benefits from forests such as timber production and wildlife habitat. We assessed the spatial patterns of alternative management strategies by linking two models that were developed for different purposes. We used a linear programming model (Spectrum) to optimize timber harvest schedules, then a simulation model (HARVEST) to project those schedules in a spatially explicit way and produce maps from which the spatial pattern of habitat could be calculated. We demonstrated the power of this approach by evaluating alternative plans developed for a national forest plan revision in Wisconsin, USA. The amount of forest interior habitat was inversely related to the amount of timber cut, and increased under the alternatives compared to the current plan. The amount of edge habitat was positively related to the amount of timber cut, and increased under all alternatives. The amount of mature northern hardwood interior and edge habitat increased for all alternatives, but mature pine habitat area varied. Mature age classes of all forest types increased, and young classes decreased under all alternatives. The average size of patches (defined by age class) generally decreased. These results are consistent with the design goals of each of the alternatives, but reveal that the spatial differences among the alternatives are modest. These complementary models are valuable for quantifying and comparing the spatial effects of alternative management strategies.

  10. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.

    PubMed

    Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  11. Social Competence and Parental Support as Mediators of the Link between Stress and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Measured metabolic control, adherence, life stress, social competence, and parental support in adolescents (N=104) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Found that stress was directly associated with metabolic control, independent of the link between adherence and metabolic control. Social competence buffered negative association between…

  12. Global climate changes recorded in coastal wetland sediments: Empirical observations linked to theoretical predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, Alexander S.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2010-07-01

    Whether coastal areas are experiencing, and responding to, an accelerated rate of global sea-level rise (GSLR) is critically important for the ˜2 billion people living near Earth's oceans. Accretion rates from a suite of physiographically diverse coastal wetlands surrounding Long Island, NY accelerated during the 20th century at 2.3 ± 0.2 × 10-2 mm yr-2, which is comparable to reported rates of GSLR acceleration and global temperature changes. Wetlands varied in tidal range, salinity and geomorphic setting, and were located in embayments with limited human impacts in a region with limited and constant rates of subsidence. From geochronologies with temporal resolutions of 2-5 yr, we constructed new composite histories of sediment accretion and mineral deposition. Wetland dynamics are consistent with predictions from sedimentology and a numerical model of ecogeomorphic response, suggesting that these systems, and likely others worldwide, are responding to accelerated GSLR and related climatic changes.

  13. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. The generalization of attachment representations to new social situations: predicting behavior during initial interactions with strangers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Brooke C; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-12-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents' initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N=135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in 2 social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of the results and contributions to the existing literature are discussed.

  15. Cortisol in Neonatal Mother's Milk Predicts Later Infant Social and Cognitive Functioning in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Guitarra, Denisse; Slonecker, Emily; Suomi, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Hinde, Katie

    2017-03-29

    Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later. During this time period, sex-differentiated social behavior emerged. For female infants, milk cortisol concentrations predicted total frequency of play. Collectively, these findings support and extend the "lactational programming" hypothesis on the impact of maternal-origin hormones ingested via milk.

  16. Modeling evapotranspiration based on plant hydraulic theory can predict spatial variability across an elevation gradient and link to biogeochemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Frank, J.; Reed, D.; Whitehouse, F.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Massman, W. J.; Sperry, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    In woody plant systems transpiration is often the dominant component of total evapotranspiration, and so it is key to understanding water and energy cycles. Moreover, transpiration is tightly coupled to carbon and nutrient fluxes, and so it is also vital to understanding spatial variability of biogeochemical fluxes. However, the spatial variability of transpiration and its links to biogeochemical fluxes, within- and among-ecosystems, has been a challenge to constrain because of complex feedbacks between physical and biological controls. Plant hydraulics provides an emerging theory with the rigor needed to develop testable hypotheses and build useful models for scaling these coupled fluxes from individual plants to regional scales. This theory predicts that vegetative controls over water, energy, carbon, and nutrient fluxes can be determined from the limitation of plant water transport through the soil-xylem-stomata pathway. Limits to plant water transport can be predicted from measurable plant structure and function (e.g., vulnerability to cavitation). We present a next-generation coupled transpiration-biogeochemistry model based on this emerging theory. The model, TREEScav, is capable of predicting transpiration, along with carbon and nutrient flows, constrained by plant structure and function. The model incorporates tightly coupled mechanisms of the demand and supply of water through the soil-xylem-stomata system, with the feedbacks to photosynthesis and utilizable carbohydrates. The model is evaluated by testing it against transpiration and carbon flux data along an elevation gradient of woody plants comprising sagebrush steppe, mid-elevation lodgepole pine forests, and subalpine spruce/fir forests in the Rocky Mountains. The model accurately predicts transpiration and carbon fluxes as measured from gas exchange, sap flux, and eddy covariance towers. The results of this work demonstrate that credible spatial predictions of transpiration and related

  17. Virtual reality experiments linking social environment and psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Veling, Wim; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Dorrestijn, Emily; van der Gaag, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Initial studies with healthy subjects and individuals with high risk for psychosis have suggested that virtual reality (VR) environments may be used to investigate social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis. One small study reported that VR can safely be used in individuals with current persecutory delusions. The present pilot study investigated the feasibility and potential negative side effects of exposure to different virtual social risk environments in patients with first episode psychosis and in healthy controls. Seventeen patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) and 24 healthy control subjects (HC) participated in four virtual experiments during which they walked for 3.5-4 minutes in a virtual café, looking for avatars with digits on their clothing. The level of paranoid thoughts, as well as psychological, physiological, and behavioral correlates of paranoid thoughts, were measured in different virtual social risk environments, manipulating two factors: population density and ethnicity of avatars. FEP and HC frequently had paranoid thoughts about avatars. Paranoia in the real world correlated strongly with paranoid thoughts about avatars in virtual environments (Spearman's ρ=0.67 and 0.54 in FEP and HC respectively, p<0.01). FEP kept a smaller distance to avatars than HC. In FEP, but not in HC, galvanic skin response was significantly stronger in virtual environments with avatars of other ethnicity than in the own ethnicity condition. These results suggest that VR is an acceptable and sufficiently realistic method to use in patients with first episode psychosis. VR research may help to increase our understanding of the social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis and to develop new treatment applications.

  18. Defining the Social Phenotype in Williams Syndrome: A Model for Linking Gene, the Brain, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Bellugi, Ursula; Reilly, Judy; Mills, Debra L.; Galaburda, Albert; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Research into phenotype-genotype correlations in neurodevelopmental disorders has greatly elucidated the contribution of genetic and neurobiological factors to variations in typical and atypical development. Etiologically relatively homogeneous disorders, such as Williams syndrome (WS), provide unique opportunities for elucidating gene-brain-behavior relationships. WS is a neurogenetic disorder, caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. This results in a cascade of physical, cognitive-behavioral, affective, and neurobiological aberrations. WS is associated with a markedly uneven neurocognitive profile, and the mature state cognitive profile of WS is relatively well developed. Although anecdotally, individuals with WS have been frequently described as unusually friendly and sociable, personality remains a considerably less well-studied area. This paper investigates genetic influences, cognitive-behavioral characteristics, aberrations in brain structure and function, and environmental and biological variables that influence the social outcomes of individuals with WS. We bring together a series of findings across multiple levels of scientific enquiry to examine the social phenotype in WS, reflecting the journey from gene to the brain to behavior. Understanding the complex multilevel scientific perspective in WS has implications for understanding typical social development by identifying important developmental events and markers, as well as helping to define the boundaries of psychopathology. PMID:18211726

  19. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2015-01-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293

  20. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  1. United Kingdom windspeed: Measurement, climatology, predictability and link to tropical Atlantic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Steven Edward

    Windspeed impacts the business performance of many industries yet has received relatively little attention compared with other meteorological fields. The present study addresses this inconsistency. A UK seasonal windspeed climatology is de veloped using a new dataset of United Kingdom hourly windspeed measurements comprising 30 years of observations from 52 geographically dispersed sites. The data are shown to contain significant errors associated with non-ideal measurement conditions. A correction algorithm is described and on application the adjusted site-records exhibit improved homogeneity. Seasonal climatological windspeed char acteristics are modelled using the Weibull distribution: results indicate that central southern England can expect 1-6 near-gale events each winter, compared with 22-27 near-gale events in southwest England. Rare (strong) event return periods are modelled using Gumbell extreme-value theory. Seasonal predictability of winter storminess is investigated using an index defined by the 95th percentile of winter daily maximum windspeed (SI). The interannual variability of SI over Europe is dominated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, 34% Percentage Variance Ex plained (PVE)). Conversely, a secondary SI mode of variability (SI2, 19% PVE) is seen to have a significant impact over the UK. Multi-field correlation analysis is employed to assess potential SI2 predictability, with statistical forecast models built from the results: the models show mixed skill performance. Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) windspeed is shown to co-vary with winter NAO: surface tradewinds for Dec- Jan-Feb are 19% higher in strong-NAO composite years compared to weak-NAO composite years. In turn this impacts the subsequent distribution of Caribbean rainfall: wet-season precipitation is significantly reduced following a strong winter NAO. It is hypothesised that changes in the TNA trade winds create long lasting SST anomalies, which in turn feedback onto wet season

  2. Relational aggression in middle childhood predicting adolescent social-psychological adjustment: the role of friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.

  3. Environmental metabolomics links genotype to phenotype and predicts genotype abundance in wild plant populations.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Lake, Janice A

    2011-08-01

    'The Holy Grail' of plant ecology is to uncover rules that associate species and traits with environmental constraints, community composition and subsequent ecosystem functioning. These aims have been crystallized in recent years within the context of global climate change and environmental pollution, increasing the urgency of the need to predict how vegetation will respond across spatial scales. We investigated whether genetic diversity is associated with the way in which phenotypic plasticity within plant populations is realized and whether this is related to genotype abundance. We used environmental metabolomics to demonstrate biochemical variation between co-occurring genotypes of Carex caryophyllea L. A novel combined metabolomic/functional trait analysis was used to test the functionality of this variation in governing plasticity to variation in edaphic conditions, with particular reference to metabolic pathways that play important roles in growth-related traits. We show that genetic diversity within a wild C. caryophyllea population relates to differences in metabolic composition and functional traits in response to soil nutrient variation, influencing genotype abundance within a community. Our findings highlight the vital role genetic diversity plays within a population in facilitating plant phenotypic plasticity and the potential usefulness of environmental metabolomics to future ecological studies.

  4. Weak Links: Stabilizers of Complex Systems from Proteins to Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    Why do women stabilize our societies? Why can we enjoy and understand Shakespeare? Why are fruitflies uniform? Why do omnivorous eating habits aid our survival? Why is Mona Lisa's smile beautiful? -- Is there any answer to these questions? This book shows that the statement: "weak links stabilize complex systems" holds the answers to all of the surprising questions above. The author (recipientof several distinguished science communication prizes) uses weak (low affinity, low probability) interactions as a thread to introduce a vast varietyof networks from proteins to ecosystems.

  5. Psychological Pathways Linking Social Support to Health Outcomes: A Visit with the “Ghosts” of Research Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Bert N.; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s to 2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes. PMID:22326104

  6. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental–social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other. PMID:28018646

  7. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental-social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other.

  8. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.

  9. Translating the link between social identity and health behavior into effective health communication strategies: An experimental application using antismoking advertisements.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Social identity is a construct that has been linked to health behavior. Yet, limited research has attempted to translate this relationship into health communication strategies. The current study addresses this gap by examining the efficacy of social identity targeting (constructing ads so that they target a specific group with which an individual identifies) to increase anti-cigarette smoking beliefs among adolescents. Two hundred and fifty one adolescents aged 12-15, randomly selected from a nationally representative sample, completed an online survey. Participants indicated which of 11 peer groups (determined in pre-testing) they most identified with. Each participant was then randomly assigned to view an ad that either did or did not target that group. One week later participants reported level of agreement with two key antismoking beliefs presented in the ad. Multiple regression analyses indicated that if an individual identified with the group targeted by the ad, antismoking beliefs were more strongly endorsed. Based on these findings, we conclude that social identity targeting has the potential to increase the effectiveness of antismoking messages and should be considered when designing antismoking campaigns.

  10. The role of social attraction and its link with boldness in the collective movements of three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Jolle W; Fleetwood-Wilson, Adeline; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Stumpe, Martin C; Johnstone, Rufus A; Manica, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Social animals must time and coordinate their behaviour to ensure the benefits of grouping, resulting in collective movements and the potential emergence of leaders and followers. However, individuals often differ consistently from one another in how they cope with their environment, a phenomenon known as animal personality, which may affect how individuals use coordination rules and requiring them to compromise. Here we tracked the movements of pairs of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, separated by a transparent partition that allowed them to observe and interact with one another in a context containing cover. Individuals differed consistently in their tendency to approach their partner's compartment during collective movements. The strength of this social attraction was positively correlated with the behavioural coordination between members of a pair but was negatively correlated with an individual's tendency to lead. Social attraction may form part of a broader behavioural syndrome as it was predicted by the boldness of an individual, measured in isolation prior to the observation of pairs, and by the boldness of the partner. We found that bolder fish, and those paired with bolder partners, tended to approach their partner's compartment less closely. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern the dynamics and functioning of social groups and the emergence and maintenance of consistent behavioural differences.

  11. Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  12. Female dispersal, social organization, and infanticide in langurs: are they linked to human disturbance?

    PubMed

    Sterck, E H

    1998-01-01

    Female dispersal in gregarious animals can involve the desertion of a site, desertion of a social group, or both. Group desertion may be related to inbreeding avoidance. Group fidelity may result from cooperation among females in a group. Site fidelity will be more likely when food can be monopolized and when the population density is close to habitat saturation. The degree of habitat saturation was approximated with a measure of human disturbance. The influence of these various factors on the incidence of female dispersal was investigated for langur populations using data from the literature. The results suggest that female dispersal in langurs involved site desertion, not group desertion. The incidence of female dispersal may affect the social organization of langurs. I propose that when females do not disperse, male takeovers prevail, whereas in populations where female dispersal regularly occurs bisexual groups are disbanded or new groups are formed, a process I call female split-merger. Male takeover is thought to occur when site fidelity is high, female split-merger when site fidelity is low. These processes were indeed found to occur in these circumstances. The dispersal of females might prevent infanticide, whereas male takeover might promote it. Indeed, in studies with male takeover, more infants fell victim to infanticide than in studies with female split-merger. Therefore, female dispersal in langurs is an effective female counterstrategy to infanticide. The factor that had the most profound effect on female dispersal, social organization, and infanticide was habitat saturation. Habitat saturation was measured as the degree of human disturbance, and its influence on the behavior of langurs is probably of relatively recent date. This may lead to an evolutionary transient situation and may explain the discrepancy between current socioecological theories and the behavior of langurs in populations lacking female dispersal.

  13. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R

    2012-12-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent's drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment.

  14. Neural circuits underlying mother’s voice perception predict social communication abilities in children

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M.; Baker, Amanda E.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child’s life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother’s voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother’s voice or whether this brain activity is related to children’s social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother’s voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother’s voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  15. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  16. Efficient attentional selection predicts distractor devaluation: event-related potential evidence for a direct link between attention and emotion.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Monika; Goolsby, Brian A; Raymond, Jane E; Shapiro, Kimron L; Silvert, Laetitia; Nobre, Anna C; Fragopanagos, Nickolaos; Taylor, John G; Eimer, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Links between attention and emotion were investigated by obtaining electrophysiological measures of attentional selectivity together with behavioral measures of affective evaluation. Participants were asked to rate faces that had just been presented as targets or distractors in a visual search task. Distractors were rated as less trustworthy than targets. To study the association between the efficiency of selective attention during visual search and subsequent emotional responses, the N2pc component was quantified as a function of evaluative judgments. Evaluation of distractor faces (but not target faces) covaried with selective attention. On trials where distractors were later judged negatively, the N2pc emerged earlier, demonstrating that attention was strongly biased toward target events, and distractors were effectively inhibited. When previous distractors were judged positively, the N2pc was delayed, indicating unfocused attention to the target and less distractor suppression. Variations in attentional selectivity across trials can predict subsequent emotional responses, strongly suggesting that attention is closely associated with subsequent affective evaluation.

  17. The genetics of loneliness: linking evolutionary theory to genome-wide genetics, epigenetics, and social science.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Luc; van Roekel, Eeske; Verhagen, Maaike; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Maes, Marlies; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-03-01

    As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notion that these genes are related to loneliness is compatible with the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of loneliness. Research on gene-environment interactions indicates that social-environmental factors (e.g., low social support) may have a more pronounced effect and lead to higher levels of loneliness if individuals carry the sensitive variant of these candidate genes. Currently, there is no extant research on loneliness based on genome-wide association studies, gene-environment-interaction studies, or studies in epigenetics. Such studies would allow researchers to identify networks of genes that contribute to loneliness. The contribution of genetics to loneliness research will become stronger when genome-wide genetics and epigenetics are integrated and used along with well-established methods in psychology to analyze the complex process of gene-environment interplay.

  18. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    PubMed

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS.

  19. Direction of Biological Motion Affects Early Brain Activation: A Link with Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pegna, Alan John; Gehring, Elise; Meyer, Georg; Del Zotto, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    A number of EEG studies have investigated the time course of brain activation for biological movement over this last decade, however the temporal dynamics of processing are still debated. Moreover, the role of direction of movement has not received much attention even though it is an essential component allowing us to determine the intentions of the moving agent, and thus permitting the anticipation of potential social interactions. In this study, we examined event-related responses (ERPs) in 15 healthy human participants to light point walkers and their scrambled counterparts, whose movements occurred either in the radial or in the lateral plane. Compared to scrambled motion (SM), biological motion (BM) showed an enhanced negativity between 210 and 360ms. A source localization algorithm (sLORETA) revealed that this was due to an increase in superior and middle temporal lobe activity. Regarding direction, we found that radial BM produced an enhanced P1 compared to lateral BM, lateral SM and radial SM. This heightened P1 was due to an increase in activity in extrastriate regions, as well as in superior temporal, medial parietal and medial prefrontal areas. This network is known to be involved in decoding the underlying intentionality of the movement and in the attribution of mental states. The social meaning signaled by the direction of biological motion therefore appears to trigger an early response in brain activity. PMID:26121591

  20. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  1. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  2. Developing Intuitions about How Personal and Social Properties Are Linked to the Brain and the Body

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the development of intuitions about which properties are associated with the brain and which are associated with the body. A sample of 60 children aged 6, 8, and 10 years, as well a sample of 20 adults, were told about a brain transplant between two individuals and were asked about where certain properties resided after the transplant. Adults and older children construed the characteristics associated with fine-motor behaviour, culpability, social contract and best friendships as transferring with the brain. Characteristics associated with gross-motor behaviour, physical/biological properties, ownership and familial relationships were more likely to be seen as remaining with the body. Domain-based explanations for this pattern of results are discussed. PMID:22919284

  3. Cognitive mediators linking social support networks to colorectal cancer screening adherence.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keiko; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2006-10-01

    This paper argues that normative considerations are more important than attitudinal factors in engaging colorectal cancer screening, and tests a model explaining how unique cultural expressions of social networks influence screening adherence. Structural equation modeling was used to understand colorectal cancer screening in a population-based sample of 341 Japanese Americans aged 50 and over. The model accounted for 25% of the variance in screening adherence. Adherence was most strongly associated with family/friend subjective norms about colorectal cancer screening use. Emotional family support, but not the size of the networks, was indirectly related to adherence via increased family/friend subjective norms, while emotional friend support was directly related to adherence. While usual source of care was directly associated with adherence, better provider-patient communication was directly and indirectly associated with adherence via increased perceived benefits. The findings of this study support strengthening informal support networks to enhance adherence among Japanese Americans at risk.

  4. The Neurobiology and Psychiatric Perspective of Vaginismus: Linking the Pharmacological and Psycho-Social Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Zuri Shahidii; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Midin, Marhani; Baharuddin, Najwa

    2017-02-22

    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple bio-psycho-social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involvess an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience.

  5. The Predictive Value of the NEO-FFI Items: Parsing the Nature of Social Anhedonia Using the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale and the ACIPS

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Diane C.; Padrutt, Emily R.; Pflum, Madeline J.

    2017-01-01

    The goal was to examine the nature of social anhedonia using two validated measures and study their relationship to scores on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Nearly 1,900 college-aged participants completed the Chapman Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS), Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), and the NEO-FFI. Although both the RSAS and ACIPS were associated with the NEO-FFI domains of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, linear regression analyses revealed that the RSAS and ACIPS were differentially predicted by NEO-FFI item clusters. The RSAS scores were predicted by Sociability, Nonantagonistic Orientation, Positive Affect, and Activity item clusters. The ACIPS scores were predicted by Sociability, Prosocial Orientation, Activity, and Positive Affect item clusters in addition to gender. In summary, it appears that social anhedonia is multidimensional, associated with various personality domains encompassing social approach and withdrawal. PMID:28223956

  6. The Predictive Value of the NEO-FFI Items: Parsing the Nature of Social Anhedonia Using the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale and the ACIPS.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Diane C; Padrutt, Emily R; Pflum, Madeline J

    2017-01-01

    The goal was to examine the nature of social anhedonia using two validated measures and study their relationship to scores on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Nearly 1,900 college-aged participants completed the Chapman Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS), Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), and the NEO-FFI. Although both the RSAS and ACIPS were associated with the NEO-FFI domains of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, linear regression analyses revealed that the RSAS and ACIPS were differentially predicted by NEO-FFI item clusters. The RSAS scores were predicted by Sociability, Nonantagonistic Orientation, Positive Affect, and Activity item clusters. The ACIPS scores were predicted by Sociability, Prosocial Orientation, Activity, and Positive Affect item clusters in addition to gender. In summary, it appears that social anhedonia is multidimensional, associated with various personality domains encompassing social approach and withdrawal.

  7. Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

    1999-01-01

    Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

  8. The social and emotional context of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty: is there a link to adult interpersonal crimes?

    PubMed

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The link between early animal abuse and later violence toward humans may depend on how acts of animal cruelty are experienced by those whose behavior demonstrates this graduation. Unfortunately, the research investigating the social and emotional context for the youthful commission of animal cruelty as it escalates to adult interpersonal violence is relatively nonexistent. Using 112 cases from a larger sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the effects of age of onset and frequency of animal cruelty, the covertness of animal cruelty, the commission of animal cruelty within a group or in isolation, and empathy for the abused animals. Inmates who had covered up their childhood and adolescent animal cruelty were more likely to have been convicted of repeated acts of interpersonal violence, demonstrating that the role of empathy and individuals present during acts of animal cruelty were less important than concealing those acts.

  9. Mentalizing functions provide a conceptual link of brain function and social cognition in major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Knut

    2014-01-01

    The review presents a research perspective that defines mentalizing functions as a very promising topic to bridge psychopathology and neurobiological foundations of mental disorders. However, the high diversity of existing observations in mentalizing research calls for a structured assessment of functional mentalizing subdomains. A notable problem is the overlap of functional systems involved in mentalizing and emotion processing. A proposed solution is to conceptualize mentalizing functions due to their content (visuospatial vs. emotional) perspective and substrates (cognitive or explicit signals). This conceptual organization is mirrored in functional imaging experiments dissociating anteromedial and posterolateral brain regions, especially the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex in mentalizing emotions and the temporoparietal cortex in visuospatial perspective taking. The present state and perspectives of mentalizing research are demonstrated in two major fields of mental disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In depression the existent contradictory findings demand a control of cognitive impairments, which are frequently associated with depressive disorders. In schizophrenia there is already consistent evidence that defines mentalizing functions as promising endophenotype, which can possibly link psychopathology to its neurobiological foundations.

  10. Predicting Human Preferences Using the Block Structure of Complex Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, Roger; Llorente, Alejandro; Moro, Esteban; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    With ever-increasing available data, predicting individuals' preferences and helping them locate the most relevant information has become a pressing need. Understanding and predicting preferences is also important from a fundamental point of view, as part of what has been called a “new” computational social science. Here, we propose a novel approach based on stochastic block models, which have been developed by sociologists as plausible models of complex networks of social interactions. Our model is in the spirit of predicting individuals' preferences based on the preferences of others but, rather than fitting a particular model, we rely on a Bayesian approach that samples over the ensemble of all possible models. We show that our approach is considerably more accurate than leading recommender algorithms, with major relative improvements between 38% and 99% over industry-level algorithms. Besides, our approach sheds light on decision-making processes by identifying groups of individuals that have consistently similar preferences, and enabling the analysis of the characteristics of those groups. PMID:22984533

  11. Predicting human preferences using the block structure of complex social networks.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, Roger; Llorente, Alejandro; Moro, Esteban; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    With ever-increasing available data, predicting individuals' preferences and helping them locate the most relevant information has become a pressing need. Understanding and predicting preferences is also important from a fundamental point of view, as part of what has been called a "new" computational social science. Here, we propose a novel approach based on stochastic block models, which have been developed by sociologists as plausible models of complex networks of social interactions. Our model is in the spirit of predicting individuals' preferences based on the preferences of others but, rather than fitting a particular model, we rely on a Bayesian approach that samples over the ensemble of all possible models. We show that our approach is considerably more accurate than leading recommender algorithms, with major relative improvements between 38% and 99% over industry-level algorithms. Besides, our approach sheds light on decision-making processes by identifying groups of individuals that have consistently similar preferences, and enabling the analysis of the characteristics of those groups.

  12. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization.

  13. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  14. Posttraumatic stress predicting depression and social support among college students: Moderating effects of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Armstrong, Aisha P; Owens, Archandria C

    2015-05-01

    More than half of the students entering college report a history of potentially traumatic events; however, little is known about the relationship of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology to college students' mental health and access to social support or whether these relationships may show variations as a function of race and gender. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the relationships between PTSD symptoms and both depression and social support were moderated by gender and race. Data were collected from 631 African American (AA) and 299 European American (EA) freshmen students attending 2 universities in the Southeast. The majority of the students (74.3% of the AA and 68.2% of the EA sample) reported lifetime exposure to at least 1 traumatic event. PTSD symptomatology was significantly and positively associated with depression symptoms for all groups (i.e., AA and EA males and females); however, the relationship between these 2 variables was strongest for EA men. Similarly, the relationship between PTSD symptoms on the avoidance cluster and social support was stronger for EA males than other groups; avoidance symptoms did not significantly predict social support for AA men.

  15. A Social Exclusion Manipulation Interacts with Acquired Capability for Suicide to Predict Self-Aggressive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hames, Jennifer L; Rogers, Megan L; Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Teale, Nadia E; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-03-13

    The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that individuals who simultaneously experience high levels of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability for suicide are at high risk for a lethal or near-lethal suicide attempt. Although supported by self-report studies, no study has examined facets of the theory experimentally. The present study aimed to examine the belongingness and capability components of the theory by testing whether experimentally manipulated social exclusion interacts with self-reported acquired capability to predict higher self-administered shock levels on a self-aggression paradigm. A sample of 253 students completed self-report measures and were then randomly assigned to a social exclusion manipulation condition (future alone, future belonging, no feedback). Participants then participated in the self-aggression paradigm. The positive association between acquired capability and self-aggression was strongest among participants in the future alone social exclusion condition. In those assigned to the future belonging or no feedback conditions, the association between acquired capability and self-aggression was non-significant. These findings provide modest experimental support for the interpersonal theory of suicide and highlight a potential mechanism through which social exclusion may impact suicide risk. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Langer, Julia K; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-09-01

    Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N=108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted social anxiety symptoms at a 2-month follow-up, whereas self-reported teasing during high school and current relational victimization did not. This research suggests that reactions to peer victimization may be a worthwhile target for clinical interventions in young adults. Targeting how young adults react to stressful social interactions such as exclusion may help prevent the development of SAD. Future research should test if reactivity to exclusion plays a role in the relationship between other disorders (e.g., depression) and peer victimization.

  17. Early social experience predicts referential communicative adjustments in five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold; Toni, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A large body of work has focused on children's ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children's social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children's ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children's communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee ('audience design'). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children's beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior.

  18. Prediction errors to emotional expressions: the roles of the amygdala in social referencing.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Harma; Brislin, Sarah J; White, Stuart F; Blair, James R

    2015-04-01

    Social referencing paradigms in humans and observational learning paradigms in animals suggest that emotional expressions are important for communicating valence. It has been proposed that these expressions initiate stimulus-reinforcement learning. Relatively little is known about the role of emotional expressions in reinforcement learning, particularly in the context of social referencing. In this study, we examined object valence learning in the context of a social referencing paradigm. Participants viewed objects and faces that turned toward the objects and displayed a fearful, happy or neutral reaction to them, while judging the gender of these faces. Notably, amygdala activation was larger when the expressions following an object were less expected. Moreover, when asked, participants were both more likely to want to approach, and showed stronger amygdala responses to, objects associated with happy relative to objects associated with fearful expressions. This suggests that the amygdala plays two roles in social referencing: (i) initiating learning regarding the valence of an object as a function of prediction errors to expressions displayed toward this object and (ii) orchestrating an emotional response to the object when value judgments are being made regarding this object.

  19. Predicting Post Traumatic Growth Based upon Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Vaziri, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi-Zanjani, Nahid; Shamkoeyan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG. Methods The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG. Results Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively. Conclusion The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities. PMID:25250161

  20. Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz, Czesław

    2000-05-01

    Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.