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Sample records for social link prediction

  1. Structural link prediction based on ant colony approach in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkat, Ehsan; Rahgozar, Maseud; Asadpour, Masoud

    2015-02-01

    As the size and number of online social networks are increasing day by day, social network analysis has become a popular issue in many branches of science. The link prediction is one of the key rolling issues in the analysis of social network's evolution. As the size of social networks is increasing, the necessity for scalable link prediction algorithms is being felt more. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new unsupervised structural link prediction algorithm based on the ant colony approach. Recently, ant colony approach has been used for solving some graph problems. Different kinds of networks are used for testing the proposed approach. In some networks, the proposed scalable algorithm has the best result in comparison to other structural unsupervised link prediction algorithms. In order to evaluate the algorithm results, methods like the top- n precision, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Precision-Recall curves are carried out on real-world networks.

  2. Time Score: A New Feature for Link Prediction in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munasinghe, Lankeshwara; Ichise, Ryutaro

    Link prediction in social networks, such as friendship networks and coauthorship networks, has recently attracted a great deal of attention. There have been numerous attempts to address the problem of link prediction through diverse approaches. In the present paper, we focus on the temporal behavior of the link strength, particularly the relationship between the time stamps of interactions or links and the temporal behavior of link strength and how link strength affects future link evolution. Most previous studies have not sufficiently discussed either the impact of time stamps of the interactions or time stamps of the links on link evolution. The gap between the current time and the time stamps of the interactions or links is also important to link evolution. In the present paper, we introduce a new time-aware feature, referred to as time score, that captures the important aspects of time stamps of interactions and the temporality of the link strengths. We also analyze the effectiveness of time score with different parameter settings for different network data sets. The results of the analysis revealed that the time score was sensitive to different networks and different time measures. We applied time score to two social network data sets, namely, Facebook friendship network data set and a coauthorship network data set. The results revealed a significant improvement in predicting future links.

  3. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network’s probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26961965

  4. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network’s probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms.

  5. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network's probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26961965

  6. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-03-10

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network's probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms.

  7. Improving personalized link prediction by hybrid diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by traditional link prediction and to solve the problem of recommending friends in social networks, we introduce the personalized link prediction in this paper, in which each individual will get equal number of diversiform predictions. While the performances of many classical algorithms are not satisfactory under this framework, thus new algorithms are in urgent need. Motivated by previous researches in other fields, we generalize heat conduction process to the framework of personalized link prediction and find that this method outperforms many classical similarity-based algorithms, especially in the performance of diversity. In addition, we demonstrate that adding one ground node that is supposed to connect all the nodes in the system will greatly benefit the performance of heat conduction. Finally, better hybrid algorithms composed of local random walk and heat conduction have been proposed. Numerical results show that the hybrid algorithms can outperform other algorithms simultaneously in all four adopted metrics: AUC, precision, recall and hamming distance. In a word, this work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of physical processes in personalized link prediction.

  8. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  9. Exploiting Information Diffusion Feature for Link Prediction in Sina Weibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Yongchao; Xu, Zhiming; Chu, Dianhui; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of online social networks (e.g., Twitter and Facebook) has promoted research related to social networks in which link prediction is a key problem. Although numerous attempts have been made for link prediction based on network structure, node attribute and so on, few of the current studies have considered the impact of information diffusion on link creation and prediction. This paper mainly addresses Sina Weibo, which is the largest microblog platform with Chinese characteristics, and proposes the hypothesis that information diffusion influences link creation and verifies the hypothesis based on real data analysis. We also detect an important feature from the information diffusion process, which is used to promote link prediction performance. Finally, the experimental results on Sina Weibo dataset have demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods.

  10. Link prediction with node clustering coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.

  11. Prediction of missing links and reconstruction of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    Predicting missing links in complex networks is of great significance from both theoretical and practical point of view, which not only helps us understand the evolution of real systems but also relates to many applications in social, biological and online systems. In this paper, we study the features of different simple link prediction methods, revealing that they may lead to the distortion of networks’ structural and dynamical properties. Moreover, we find that high prediction accuracy is not definitely corresponding to a high performance in preserving the network properties when using link prediction methods to reconstruct networks. Our work highlights the importance of considering the feedback effect of the link prediction methods on network properties when designing the algorithms.

  12. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  13. Link prediction in complex networks: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-03-01

    Link prediction in complex networks has attracted increasing attention from both physical and computer science communities. The algorithms can be used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. This article summaries recent progress about link prediction algorithms, emphasizing on the contributions from physical perspectives and approaches, such as the random-walk-based methods and the maximum likelihood methods. We also introduce three typical applications: reconstruction of networks, evaluation of network evolving mechanism and classification of partially labeled networks. Finally, we introduce some applications and outline future challenges of link prediction algorithms.

  14. Link prediction on evolving graphs using matrix and tensor factorizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-06-01

    The data in many disciplines such as social networks, web analysis, etc. is link-based, and the link structure can be exploited for many different data mining tasks. In this paper, we consider the problem of temporal link prediction: Given link data for time periods 1 through T, can we predict the links in time period T + 1? Specifically, we look at bipartite graphs changing over time and consider matrix- and tensor-based methods for predicting links. We present a weight-based method for collapsing multi-year data into a single matrix. We show how the well-known Katz method for link prediction can be extended to bipartite graphs and, moreover, approximated in a scalable way using a truncated singular value decomposition. Using a CANDECOMP/PARAFAC tensor decomposition of the data, we illustrate the usefulness of exploiting the natural three-dimensional structure of temporal link data. Through several numerical experiments, we demonstrate that both matrix- and tensor-based techniques are effective for temporal link prediction despite the inherent difficulty of the problem.

  15. Toward link predictability of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The organization of real networks usually embodies both regularities and irregularities, and, in principle, the former can be modeled. The extent to which the formation of a network can be explained coincides with our ability to predict missing links. To understand network organization, we should be able to estimate link predictability. We assume that the regularity of a network is reflected in the consistency of structural features before and after a random removal of a small set of links. Based on the perturbation of the adjacency matrix, we propose a universal structural consistency index that is free of prior knowledge of network organization. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that (i) structural consistency is a good estimation of link predictability and (ii) a derivative algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art link prediction methods in both accuracy and robustness. This analysis has further applications in evaluating link prediction algorithms and monitoring sudden changes in evolving network mechanisms. It will provide unique fundamental insights into the above-mentioned academic research fields, and will foster the development of advanced information filtering technologies of interest to information technology practitioners. PMID:25659742

  16. Toward link predictability of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-02-24

    The organization of real networks usually embodies both regularities and irregularities, and, in principle, the former can be modeled. The extent to which the formation of a network can be explained coincides with our ability to predict missing links. To understand network organization, we should be able to estimate link predictability. We assume that the regularity of a network is reflected in the consistency of structural features before and after a random removal of a small set of links. Based on the perturbation of the adjacency matrix, we propose a universal structural consistency index that is free of prior knowledge of network organization. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that (i) structural consistency is a good estimation of link predictability and (ii) a derivative algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art link prediction methods in both accuracy and robustness. This analysis has further applications in evaluating link prediction algorithms and monitoring sudden changes in evolving network mechanisms. It will provide unique fundamental insights into the above-mentioned academic research fields, and will foster the development of advanced information filtering technologies of interest to information technology practitioners.

  17. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  18. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Linked to Social Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lenkov, Kapa; Lee, Mi H.; Lenkov, Olga D.; Swafford, Andrew; Fernald, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Social status hierarchies are ubiquitous in vertebrate social systems, including humans. It is well known that social rank can influence quality of life dramatically among members of social groups. For example, high-ranking individuals have greater access to resources, including food and mating prerogatives that, in turn, have a positive impact on their reproductive success and health. In contrast low ranking individuals typically have limited reproductive success and may experience lasting social and physiological costs. Ultimately, social rank and behavior are regulated by changes in gene expression. However, little is known about mechanisms that transduce social cues into transcriptional changes. Since social behavior is a dynamic process, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism such as DNA methylation might play a role these changes. To test this hypothesis, we used an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in which social rank dictates reproductive access. We show that manipulating global DNA methylation state strongly biases the outcomes of social encounters. Injecting DNA methylating and de-methylating agents in low status animals competing for status, we found that animals with chemically increased methylation states were statistically highly likely to ascend in rank. In contrast, those with inhibited methylation processes and thus lower methylation levels were statistically highly unlikely to ascend in rank. This suggests that among its many roles, DNA methylation may be linked to social status and more generally to social behavior. PMID:26717574

  19. Link prediction based on path entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, first we study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. After that, we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream of link predictors.

  20. Link prediction based on temporal similarity metrics using continuous action set learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Link prediction is a social network research area that tries to predict future links using network structure. The main approaches in this area are based on predicting future links using network structure at a specific period, without considering the links behavior through different periods. For example, a common traditional approach in link prediction calculates a chosen similarity metric for each non-connected link and outputs the links with higher similarity scores as the prediction result. In this paper, we propose a new link prediction method based on temporal similarity metrics and Continuous Action set Learning Automata (CALA). The proposed method takes advantage of using different similarity metrics as well as different time periods. In the proposed algorithm, we try to model the link prediction problem as a noisy optimization problem and use a team of CALAs to solve the noisy optimization problem. CALA is a reinforcement based optimization tool which tries to learn the optimal behavior from the environment feedbacks. To determine the importance of different periods and similarity metrics on the prediction result, we define a coefficient for each of different periods and similarity metrics and use a CALA for each coefficient. Each CALA tries to learn the true value of the corresponding coefficient. Final link prediction is obtained from a combination of different similarity metrics in different times based on the obtained coefficients. The link prediction results reported here show satisfactory of the proposed method for some social network data sets.

  1. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. PMID:23041193

  2. Mixed-Method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Consuelo M; Bendixen, Roxanna M; Mann, William C; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network (SN), which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of SNs to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, aged 11 to 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism, and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least I measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within SNs. Findings contribute to understanding the ways SNs are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of SN factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes.

  3. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  4. Predicting top-L missing links with node and link clustering information in large-scale networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wan, Huaiyu; Jamil, Waleed

    2016-08-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems, such as social, biological, and technological systems. The prediction of missing links in incomplete complex networks aims to estimate the likelihood of the existence of a link between a pair of nodes. Various topological features of networks have been applied to develop link prediction methods. However, the exploration of features of links is still limited. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of node and link clustering information in predicting top -L missing links. In the existing literature, link prediction algorithms have only been tested on small-scale and middle-scale networks. The network scale factor has not attracted the same level of attention. In our experiments, we test the proposed method on three groups of networks. For small-scale networks, since the structures are not very complex, advanced methods cannot perform significantly better than classical methods. For middle-scale networks, the proposed index, combining both node and link clustering information, starts to demonstrate its advantages. In many networks, combining both node and link clustering information can improve the link prediction accuracy a great deal. Large-scale networks with more than 100 000 links have rarely been tested previously. Our experiments on three large-scale networks show that local clustering information based methods outperform other methods, and link clustering information can further improve the accuracy of node clustering information based methods, in particular for networks with a broad distribution of the link clustering coefficient.

  5. Utility-Based Link Recommendation in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhepeng

    2013-01-01

    Link recommendation, which suggests links to connect currently unlinked users, is a key functionality offered by major online social networking platforms. Salient examples of link recommendation include "people you may know"' on Facebook and "who to follow" on Twitter. A social networking platform has two types of stakeholder:…

  6. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making. PMID:26041918

  7. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making.

  8. Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the “noisy” environment. PMID:26733156

  9. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elliot C.; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the “predictive brain” are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a “social predictive brain” are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating

  10. Social goals, aggression, peer preference, and popularity: longitudinal links during middle school.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic (status, power) goals predicted increased relational aggression and communal (closeness) goals predicted decreased physical aggression. Popularity predicted increases and preference predicted decreases in both forms of aggression. Goals moderated longitudinal links between aggression and popularity: Aggression predicted increases in popularity and vice versa for youth with higher agentic goals, and popularity predicted increases in physical aggression for youth with higher agentic and lower communal goals. Implications for research on social goals, aggression, and popularity are discussed.

  11. Link Prediction in Complex Networks: A Mutual Information Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Zhu, Boyao

    2014-01-01

    Topological properties of networks are widely applied to study the link-prediction problem recently. Common Neighbors, for example, is a natural yet efficient framework. Many variants of Common Neighbors have been thus proposed to further boost the discriminative resolution of candidate links. In this paper, we reexamine the role of network topology in predicting missing links from the perspective of information theory, and present a practical approach based on the mutual information of network structures. It not only can improve the prediction accuracy substantially, but also experiences reasonable computing complexity. PMID:25207920

  12. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  13. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks.

  14. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  15. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  16. Prediction of Links and Weights in Networks by Reliable Routes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Lili; Yang, Jian; Fang, Haiyang; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Min; Holme, Petter; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Link prediction aims to uncover missing links or predict the emergence of future relationships from the current network structure. Plenty of algorithms have been developed for link prediction in unweighted networks, but only a few have been extended to weighted networks. In this paper, we present what we call a “reliable-route method” to extend unweighted local similarity indices to weighted ones. Using these indices, we can predict both the existence of links and their weights. Experiments on various real-world networks suggest that our reliable-route weighted resource-allocation index performs noticeably better than others with respect to weight prediction. For existence prediction it is either the highest or very close to the highest. Further analysis shows a strong positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and prediction accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to the prediction of missing protein-protein interactions and their confidence scores from known PPI networks. Once again, our reliable-route method shows the highest accuracy. PMID:26198206

  17. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  18. Dysregulated Fear Predicts Social Wariness and Social Anxiety Symptoms during Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Beekman, Charles; Early, Martha C.

    2013-01-01

    Fearful temperament is associated with risk for the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood; however, not all fearful children become anxious. Identifying maladaptive trajectories is thus important for clarifying which fearful children are at risk. In an unselected sample of 111 two-year-olds (55% male, 95% Caucasian), Buss (2011) identified a pattern of fearful behavior, dysregulated fear, characterized by high fear in low threat situations. This pattern of behavior predicted parent- and teacher-reported withdrawn/anxious behaviors in preschool and at kindergarten entry. The current study extended original findings and examined whether dysregulated fear predicted observed social wariness with adults and peers, and social anxiety symptoms at age 6. We also examined prosocial adjustment during kindergarten as a moderator of the link between dysregulated fear and social wariness. Consistent with predictions, children with greater dysregulated fear at age 2 were more socially wary of adults and unfamiliar peers in the laboratory, were reported as having more social anxiety symptoms, and were nearly four times more likely to manifest social anxiety symptoms than other children with elevated wariness in kindergarten. Results demonstrated stability in the dysregulated fear profile and increased risk for social anxiety symptom development. Dysregulated fear predicted more social wariness with unfamiliar peers only when children became less prosocial during kindergarten. Findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the dysregulated fear construct for specifying maladaptive trajectories of risk for anxiety disorder development. PMID:23458273

  19. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  20. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks.

  1. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug-target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  2. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  3. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  4. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  5. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  6. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  7. Introduction: Links between Social Interaction and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charlie; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The term executive function is used increasingly within developmental psychology and is often taken to refer to unfolding brain processes. We trace the origins of research on executive function to show that the link with social interaction has a long history. We suggest that a recent frenzy of research exploring methods for studying individual…

  8. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  9. Neural mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to social stress.

    PubMed

    Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-06-01

    Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. PMID:26979965

  10. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  11. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders.

  12. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  13. Neural responses to exclusion predict susceptibility to social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Cascio, Christopher N.; O’Donnell, Matthew Brook; Carp, Joshua; Tinney, Francis J.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Social influence is prominent across the lifespan, but sensitivity to influence is especially high during adolescence, and is often associated with increased risk taking. Such risk taking can have dire consequences. For example, in American teens, traffic-related crashes are leading causes of non-fatal injury and death. Neural measures may be especially useful in understanding the basic mechanisms of adolescents’ vulnerability to peer influence. Methods We examined neural responses to social exclusion as potential predictors of risk taking in the presence of peers in recently-licensed adolescent drivers. Risk taking was assessed in a driving simulator session occurring approximately one week after the neuroimaging session. Results Increased activity in neural systems associated with the distress of social exclusion and mentalizing during an exclusion episode predicted increased risk taking in the presence of a peer (controlling for solo risk behavior) during a driving simulator session outside of the neuroimaging lab one week later. These neural measures predicted risky driving behavior above and beyond self-reports of susceptibility to peer pressure and distress during exclusion. Conclusions These results speak to the neural bases of social influence and risk taking; contribute to our understanding of social and emotional function in the adolescent brain; and link neural activity in specific, hypothesized, regions to risk-relevant outcomes beyond the neuroimaging lab. Results of this investigation are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying risk taking in adolescents and the public health implications for adolescent driving. PMID:24759437

  14. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data.

    PubMed

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-07-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums.

  15. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data

    PubMed Central

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of personal information from multiple sources, such as data brokers or profiles on social networking sites. Our results highlight the unexpected privacy consequences of the complex interactions among multiple data sources in modern information economies and quantify privacy risks associated with information revelation in public forums. PMID:19581585

  16. Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlusconi, Giulia; Calderoni, Francesco; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco; Piccardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of link prediction has recently received increasing attention from scholars in network science. In social network analysis, one of its aims is to recover missing links, namely connections among actors which are likely to exist but have not been reported because data are incomplete or subject to various types of uncertainty. In the field of criminal investigations, problems of incomplete information are encountered almost by definition, given the obvious anti-detection strategies set up by criminals and the limited investigative resources. In this paper, we work on a specific dataset obtained from a real investigation, and we propose a strategy to identify missing links in a criminal network on the basis of the topological analysis of the links classified as marginal, i.e. removed during the investigation procedure. The main assumption is that missing links should have opposite features with respect to marginal ones. Measures of node similarity turn out to provide the best characterization in this sense. The inspection of the judicial source documents confirms that the predicted links, in most instances, do relate actors with large likelihood of co-participation in illicit activities.

  17. Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berlusconi, Giulia; Calderoni, Francesco; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco; Piccardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of link prediction has recently received increasing attention from scholars in network science. In social network analysis, one of its aims is to recover missing links, namely connections among actors which are likely to exist but have not been reported because data are incomplete or subject to various types of uncertainty. In the field of criminal investigations, problems of incomplete information are encountered almost by definition, given the obvious anti-detection strategies set up by criminals and the limited investigative resources. In this paper, we work on a specific dataset obtained from a real investigation, and we propose a strategy to identify missing links in a criminal network on the basis of the topological analysis of the links classified as marginal, i.e. removed during the investigation procedure. The main assumption is that missing links should have opposite features with respect to marginal ones. Measures of node similarity turn out to provide the best characterization in this sense. The inspection of the judicial source documents confirms that the predicted links, in most instances, do relate actors with large likelihood of co-participation in illicit activities. PMID:27104948

  18. Link Prediction in Criminal Networks: A Tool for Criminal Intelligence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlusconi, Giulia; Calderoni, Francesco; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco; Piccardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of link prediction has recently received increasing attention from scholars in network science. In social network analysis, one of its aims is to recover missing links, namely connections among actors which are likely to exist but have not been reported because data are incomplete or subject to various types of uncertainty. In the field of criminal investigations, problems of incomplete information are encountered almost by definition, given the obvious anti-detection strategies set up by criminals and the limited investigative resources. In this paper, we work on a specific dataset obtained from a real investigation, and we propose a strategy to identify missing links in a criminal network on the basis of the topological analysis of the links classified as marginal, i.e. removed during the investigation procedure. The main assumption is that missing links should have opposite features with respect to marginal ones. Measures of node similarity turn out to provide the best characterization in this sense. The inspection of the judicial source documents confirms that the predicted links, in most instances, do relate actors with large likelihood of co-participation in illicit activities. PMID:27104948

  19. The Power of Implicit Social Relation in Rating Prediction of Social Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reafee, Waleed; Salim, Naomie; Khan, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy. PMID:27152663

  20. The Power of Implicit Social Relation in Rating Prediction of Social Recommender Systems.

    PubMed

    Reafee, Waleed; Salim, Naomie; Khan, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy. PMID:27152663

  1. Link-Prediction Enhanced Consensus Clustering for Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Matthew; Adar, Eytan; Cafarella, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many real networks that are collected or inferred from data are incomplete due to missing edges. Missing edges can be inherent to the dataset (Facebook friend links will never be complete) or the result of sampling (one may only have access to a portion of the data). The consequence is that downstream analyses that “consume” the network will often yield less accurate results than if the edges were complete. Community detection algorithms, in particular, often suffer when critical intra-community edges are missing. We propose a novel consensus clustering algorithm to enhance community detection on incomplete networks. Our framework utilizes existing community detection algorithms that process networks imputed by our link prediction based sampling algorithm and merges their multiple partitions into a final consensus output. On average our method boosts performance of existing algorithms by 7% on artificial data and 17% on ego networks collected from Facebook. PMID:27203750

  2. Predictability of Extreme Events in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, José M.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-01-01

    It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these extreme events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most extreme events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138

  3. Predictability of extreme events in social media.

    PubMed

    Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-01-01

    It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these extreme events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most extreme events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138

  4. Predictive testing for Huntington's disease with linked DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Brock, D J; Mennie, M; Curtis, A; Millan, F A; Barron, L; Raeburn, J A; Dinwoodie, D; Holloway, S; Crosbie, A; Wright, A

    1989-08-26

    Availability of new DNA markers, more tightly linked to the Huntington's disease (HD) locus than the original G8 (D4S10) probes, has improved predictive accuracy for both presymptomatic and prenatal exclusion testing. 50 predictive tests were carried out on high-risk individuals. 6 of these were on first-trimester chorionic villus biopsy specimens; in 2 cases the HD gene was not transmitted to the fetus while in 4 cases no exclusion could be made. The remaining 44 tests were on adults with either 25 or 50% risk of manifesting the disease; 19 had a greatly increased risk and 25 a substantially decreased risk of HD. Family structures in Scotland are suitable for testing about 75% of potentially affected individuals, and the new generation of DNA markers makes virtually all families fully informative.

  5. Design and Implementation of Davis Social Links OSN Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thomas; Chan, Kelcey; Ye, Shaozhi; Bhattacharyya, Prantik; Garg, Ankush; Lu, Xiaoming; Wu, S. Felix

    Social network popularity continues to rise as they broaden out to more users. Hidden away within these social networks is a valuable set of data that outlines everyone’s relationships. Networks have created APIs such as the Facebook Development Platform and OpenSocial that allow developers to create applications that can leverage user information. However, at the current stage, the social network support for these new applications is fairly limited in its functionality. Most, if not all, of the existing internet applications such as email, BitTorrent, and Skype cannot benefit from the valuable social network among their own users. In this paper, we present an architecture that couples two different communication layers together: the end2end communication layer and the social context layer, under the Davis Social Links (DSL) project. Our proposed architecture attempts to preserve the original application semantics (i.e., we can use Thunderbird or Outlook, unmodified, to read our SMTP emails) and provides the communicating parties (email sender and receivers) a social context for control and management. For instance, the receiver can set trust policy rules based on the social context between the pair, to determine how a particular email in question should be prioritized for delivery to the SMTP layer. Furthermore, as our architecture includes two coupling layers, it is then possible, as an option, to shift some of the services from the original applications into the social context layer. In the context of email, for example, our architecture allows users to choose operations, such as reply, reply-all, and forward, to be realized in either the application layer or the social network layer. And, the realization of these operations under the social network layer offers powerful features unavailable in the original applications. To validate our coupling architecture, we have implemented a DSL kernel prototype as a Facebook application called CyrusDSL (currently about

  6. CD-Based Indices for Link Prediction in Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hongjue; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Lots of similarity-based algorithms have been designed to deal with the problem of link prediction in the past decade. In order to improve prediction accuracy, a novel cosine similarity index CD based on distance between nodes and cosine value between vectors is proposed in this paper. Firstly, node coordinate matrix can be obtained by node distances which are different from distance matrix and row vectors of the matrix are regarded as coordinates of nodes. Then, cosine value between node coordinates is used as their similarity index. A local community density index LD is also proposed. Then, a series of CD-based indices include CD-LD-k, CD*LD-k, CD-k and CDI are presented and applied in ten real networks. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of CD-based indices. The effects of network clustering coefficient and assortative coefficient on prediction accuracy of indices are analyzed. CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k can improve prediction accuracy without considering the assortative coefficient of network is negative or positive. According to analysis of relative precision of each method on each network, CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k indices have excellent average performance and robustness. CD and CD-k indices perform better on positive assortative networks than on negative assortative networks. For negative assortative networks, we improve and refine CD index, referred as CDI index, combining the advantages of CD index and evolutionary mechanism of the network model BA. Experimental results reveal that CDI index can increase prediction accuracy of CD on negative assortative networks. PMID:26752405

  7. CD-Based Indices for Link Prediction in Complex Network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hongjue; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Lots of similarity-based algorithms have been designed to deal with the problem of link prediction in the past decade. In order to improve prediction accuracy, a novel cosine similarity index CD based on distance between nodes and cosine value between vectors is proposed in this paper. Firstly, node coordinate matrix can be obtained by node distances which are different from distance matrix and row vectors of the matrix are regarded as coordinates of nodes. Then, cosine value between node coordinates is used as their similarity index. A local community density index LD is also proposed. Then, a series of CD-based indices include CD-LD-k, CD*LD-k, CD-k and CDI are presented and applied in ten real networks. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of CD-based indices. The effects of network clustering coefficient and assortative coefficient on prediction accuracy of indices are analyzed. CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k can improve prediction accuracy without considering the assortative coefficient of network is negative or positive. According to analysis of relative precision of each method on each network, CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k indices have excellent average performance and robustness. CD and CD-k indices perform better on positive assortative networks than on negative assortative networks. For negative assortative networks, we improve and refine CD index, referred as CDI index, combining the advantages of CD index and evolutionary mechanism of the network model BA. Experimental results reveal that CDI index can increase prediction accuracy of CD on negative assortative networks.

  8. CD-Based Indices for Link Prediction in Complex Network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hongjue; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Lots of similarity-based algorithms have been designed to deal with the problem of link prediction in the past decade. In order to improve prediction accuracy, a novel cosine similarity index CD based on distance between nodes and cosine value between vectors is proposed in this paper. Firstly, node coordinate matrix can be obtained by node distances which are different from distance matrix and row vectors of the matrix are regarded as coordinates of nodes. Then, cosine value between node coordinates is used as their similarity index. A local community density index LD is also proposed. Then, a series of CD-based indices include CD-LD-k, CD*LD-k, CD-k and CDI are presented and applied in ten real networks. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of CD-based indices. The effects of network clustering coefficient and assortative coefficient on prediction accuracy of indices are analyzed. CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k can improve prediction accuracy without considering the assortative coefficient of network is negative or positive. According to analysis of relative precision of each method on each network, CD-LD-k and CD*LD-k indices have excellent average performance and robustness. CD and CD-k indices perform better on positive assortative networks than on negative assortative networks. For negative assortative networks, we improve and refine CD index, referred as CDI index, combining the advantages of CD index and evolutionary mechanism of the network model BA. Experimental results reveal that CDI index can increase prediction accuracy of CD on negative assortative networks. PMID:26752405

  9. Predicting the social consequences of orphanhood in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines and questions the predictions found in the academic and policy literature of social breakdown in southern Africa in the wake of anticipated high rates of orphanhood caused by the AIDS epidemic. Analysis of the logic underlying these predictions reveals four causal relationships necessary to fulfil such dramatic and apocalyptic predictions: High AIDS mortality rates will produce high numbers of orphans. These orphans will become children who do not live in appropriate social environments to equip them for adult citizenship. Poor socialisation will mean that children orphaned by AIDS will not live within society's moral codes (becoming, for example, street children or juvenile delinquents). Large numbers of such 'asocial' or 'antisocial' children will precipitate a breakdown in the social fabric. Evidence for each of these steps in the argument is scrutinised using available data from southern Africa and other regions that have moved further through the epidemic's cycle. The paper finds strong evidence for the first step, although variable definitions of 'orphan' make it difficult to draw accurate comparisons over time and space. Evidence for the second step is found to be mixed in terms of outcomes of AIDS orphanhood for child well-being. Moreover the argument takes little account of the social and economic environments onto which AIDS is mapped, including the economic fragility of households and pervading socio-cultural patterns of child-rearing. Data to substantiate the third step are anecdotal at best and no research is able to demonstrate a link between the long term effects of AIDS orphanhood and rising rates of juvenile delinquency. Arguments made towards the fourth step are shown to be based heavily on notions of the 'correct' social and physical environments for children and on unsubstantiated fears of alternatives to these. There is no evidence from countries where numbers of AIDS orphans are already high to suggest that their presence

  10. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2016-03-25

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N-person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  11. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  12. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  13. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  14. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress.

    PubMed

    Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-01

    Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. PMID:27157031

  15. Social Factors That Predict Fear of Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…

  16. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Atwill, Edward R; Isbell, Lynne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. Using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, Escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (Giraffe camelopardalis). Individuals were considered to be a part of the same transmission chain and were interlinked in the transmission network if they shared genetic subtypes of E. coli. By using microbial genetics to quantify who transmits to whom independently from the behavioural data on who is in contact with whom, we were able to directly investigate how the structure of contact networks influences the structure of the transmission network. To distinguish between the effects of social and environmental contact on transmission dynamics, the transmission network was compared with two separate contact networks defined from the behavioural data: a social network based on association patterns, and a spatial network based on patterns of home-range overlap among individuals. We found that links in the transmission network were more likely to occur between individuals that were strongly linked in the social network. Furthermore, individuals that had more numerous connections or that occupied 'bottleneck' positions in the social network tended to occupy similar positions in the transmission network. No similar correlations were observed between the spatial and transmission networks. This indicates that an individual's social network position is predictive of transmission network position, which has implications for identifying individuals that function as super-spreaders or transmission bottlenecks in the population. These results emphasize the importance of association patterns in

  17. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-07-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction.

  18. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  19. Pain tolerance predicts human social network size

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katerina V.-A.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal social network size exhibits considerable variation in the human population and is associated with both physical and mental health status. Much of this inter-individual variation in human sociality remains unexplained from a biological perspective. According to the brain opioid theory of social attachment, binding of the neuropeptide β-endorphin to μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is a key neurochemical mechanism involved in social bonding, particularly amongst primates. We hypothesise that a positive association exists between activity of the μ-opioid system and the number of social relationships that an individual maintains. Given the powerful analgesic properties of β-endorphin, we tested this hypothesis using pain tolerance as an assay for activation of the endogenous μ-opioid system. We show that a simple measure of pain tolerance correlates with social network size in humans. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that μ-opioid receptor signalling has been elaborated beyond its basic function of pain modulation to play an important role in managing our social encounters. The neuroplasticity of the μ-opioid system is of future research interest, especially with respect to psychiatric disorders associated with symptoms of social withdrawal and anhedonia, both of which are strongly modulated by endogenous opioids. PMID:27121297

  20. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  1. Developmental stress predicts social network position.

    PubMed

    Boogert, Neeltje J; Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-10-01

    The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon reaching nutritional independence, we released chicks and their families into two free-flying rooms, where we measured daily social networks over five weeks using passive integrated transponder tags. Developmental stress had a significant effect on social behaviour: despite having similar foraging patterns, CORT chicks had weaker associations to their parents than control chicks. Instead, CORT chicks foraged with a greater number of flock mates and were less choosy with whom they foraged, resulting in more central network positions. These findings highlight the importance of taking developmental history into account to understand the drivers of social organization in gregarious species. PMID:25354917

  2. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  3. Mechanisms linking the social environment to health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...

  4. Antiretroviral Drug Diversion Links Social Vulnerability to Poor Medication Adherence in Substance Abusing Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization for Vulnerable Populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n=503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25% of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations. PMID:25893656

  5. Antiretroviral drug diversion links social vulnerability to poor medication adherence in substance abusing populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L

    2015-05-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization for vulnerable populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25 % of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations.

  6. Predicting Drop-Out from Social Behaviour of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Jaroslav; Bydzovska, Hana; Geryk, Jan; Obsivac, Tomas; Popelinsky, Lubomir

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on predicting drop-outs and school failures when student data has been enriched with data derived from students social behaviour. These data describe social dependencies gathered from e-mail and discussion board conversations, among other sources. We describe an extraction of new features from both student data and behaviour…

  7. Link prediction based on hyperbolic mapping with community structure for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Link prediction is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link prediction methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link Prediction with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic mapping. Different from the existing link prediction methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to map networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally predicts missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in predicting missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link prediction methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.

  8. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  9. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  10. A class-based link prediction using Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andalib, Azam; Babamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-08-01

    One of the important tasks in relational data analysis is link prediction which has been successfully applied on many applications such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, etc. The link prediction is defined as predicting the existence or absence of edges between nodes of a network. In this paper, we propose a novel method for link prediction based on Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (DDCRP) model which enables us to utilize the information of the topological structure of the network such as shortest path and connectivity of the nodes. We also propose a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for computing the posterior distribution of the hidden variables based on the training data. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show the superiority of the proposed method over other probabilistic models for link prediction problem.

  11. Social Complexity Predicts Transitive Reasoning in Prosimian Primates.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Evan L; Merritt, Dustin J; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2008-08-01

    Transitive Inference is a form of deductive reasoning that has been suggested as one cognitive mechanism by which animals could learn the many relationships within their group's dominance hierarchy. This process thus bears relevance to the social intelligence hypothesis which posits evolutionary links between various forms of social and nonsocial cognition. Recent evidence corroborates the link between social complexity and transitive inference and indicates that highly social animals may show superior transitive reasoning even in nonsocial contexts. We examined the relationship between social complexity and transitive inference in two species of prosimians, a group of primates that diverged from the common ancestor of monkeys, apes, and humans over 50 million years ago. In Experiment 1, highly social ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, outperformed the less social mongoose lemurs, Eulemur mongoz, in tests of transitive inference and showed more robust representations of the underlying ordinal relationships between the stimuli. In Experiment 2, after training under a correction procedure that emphasized the underlying linear dimension of the series, both species showed similar transitive inference. This finding suggests that the two lemur species differ not in their fundamental ability to make transitive inferences, but rather in their predisposition to mentally organize information along a common underlying dimension. Together, these results support the hypothesis that social complexity is an important selective pressure for the evolution of cognitive abilities relevant to transitive reasoning. PMID:19649139

  12. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-16

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations-a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living.

  13. A Direct Link between Gaze Perception and Social Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Bartlett, Jessica; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada

    2011-01-01

    How information is exchanged between the cognitive mechanisms responsible for gaze perception and social attention is unclear. These systems could be independent; the "gaze cueing" effect could emerge from the activation of a general-purpose attentional mechanism that is ignorant of the social nature of the gaze cue. Alternatively, orienting to…

  14. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  15. Sociality is linked to rates of protein evolution in a highly social insect.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Brendan G; Wyder, Stefan; Elango, Navin; Werren, John H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Yi, Soojin V; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2010-03-01

    Eusocial insects exhibit unparalleled levels of cooperation and dominate terrestrial ecosystems. The success of eusocial insects stems from the presence of specialized castes that undertake distinct tasks. We investigated whether the evolutionary transition to societies with discrete castes was associated with changes in protein evolution. We predicted that proteins with caste-biased gene expression would evolve rapidly due to reduced antagonistic pleiotropy. We found that queen-biased proteins of the honeybee Apis mellifera did indeed evolve rapidly, as predicted. However, worker-biased proteins exhibited slower evolutionary rates than queen-biased or nonbiased proteins. We suggest that distinct selective pressures operating on caste-biased genes, rather than a general reduction in pleiotropy, explain the observed differences in evolutionary rates. Our study highlights, for the first time, the interaction between highly social behavior and dynamics of protein evolution.

  16. Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2012-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism. PMID:22419414

  17. Predictive genetic testing in urology: ethical and social issues.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-02-01

    In order to maximize the benefits of predictive genetic testing in urology, the potential ethical and social risks must be identified and minimized. Necessary steps include providing adequate information for patients and families; preparing them to receive test results; maintaining confidentiality to avoid social stigma and discrimination; preserving the principal of solidarity to provide assurances of medical care and social support for persons at risk of genetic illness; and avoiding inappropriate social pressure to prevent the birth of at-risk individuals. Health professionals must play a significant role in helping individuals, families, and society in general to make sound testing decisions and policy. PMID:14691643

  18. A Noise-Filtering Method for Link Prediction in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction plays an important role in both finding missing links in networked systems and complementing our understanding of the evolution of networks. Much attention from the network science community are paid to figure out how to efficiently predict the missing/future links based on the observed topology. Real-world information always contain noise, which is also the case in an observed network. This problem is rarely considered in existing methods. In this paper, we treat the existence of observed links as known information. By filtering out noises in this information, the underlying regularity of the connection information is retrieved and then used to predict missing or future links. Experiments on various empirical networks show that our method performs noticeably better than baseline algorithms. PMID:26788737

  19. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Atwill, Edward R; Isbell, Lynne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. Using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, Escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (Giraffe camelopardalis). Individuals were considered to be a part of the same transmission chain and were interlinked in the transmission network if they shared genetic subtypes of E. coli. By using microbial genetics to quantify who transmits to whom independently from the behavioural data on who is in contact with whom, we were able to directly investigate how the structure of contact networks influences the structure of the transmission network. To distinguish between the effects of social and environmental contact on transmission dynamics, the transmission network was compared with two separate contact networks defined from the behavioural data: a social network based on association patterns, and a spatial network based on patterns of home-range overlap among individuals. We found that links in the transmission network were more likely to occur between individuals that were strongly linked in the social network. Furthermore, individuals that had more numerous connections or that occupied 'bottleneck' positions in the social network tended to occupy similar positions in the transmission network. No similar correlations were observed between the spatial and transmission networks. This indicates that an individual's social network position is predictive of transmission network position, which has implications for identifying individuals that function as super-spreaders or transmission bottlenecks in the population. These results emphasize the importance of association patterns in

  20. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal

    PubMed Central

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it’s often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show for the first time that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically-relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size—a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone—associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal. PMID:25654259

  1. An information-theoretic model for link prediction in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Various structural features of networks have been applied to develop link prediction methods. However, because different features highlight different aspects of network structural properties, it is very difficult to benefit from all of the features that might be available. In this paper, we investigate the role of network topology in predicting missing links from the perspective of information theory. In this way, the contributions of different structural features to link prediction are measured in terms of their values of information. Then, an information-theoretic model is proposed that is applicable to multiple structural features. Furthermore, we design a novel link prediction index, called Neighbor Set Information (NSI), based on the information-theoretic model. According to our experimental results, the NSI index performs well in real-world networks, compared with other typical proximity indices. PMID:26335758

  2. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention.

  3. Predicting National Suicide Numbers with Social Media Data

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors – consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  4. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  5. The role of attitudes toward White privilege and religious beliefs in predicting social justice interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nathan R; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Suffrin, Rachael L

    2014-03-01

    The current study examines links among attitudes toward White privilege, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment for White Christian students. Two distinct patterns of results emerged from a path analysis of 500 White Christian students. First, a willingness to confront White privilege was positively associated with the sanctification of social justice (i.e., attributing spiritual significance to working for social justice) and both were positively associated with social justice interest and commitment. Second, awareness of White privilege was negatively associated with religious conservatism, and religious conservatism was negatively associated with social justice interest. These patterns show that White privilege attitudes directly (i.e., willingness to confront White privilege) and indirectly (i.e., awareness of White privilege through religious conservatism) predicted social justice interest and commitment. Moreover, religious beliefs demonstrated opposite patterns of association with social justice interest and commitment such that the sanctification of social justice positively predicted social justice interest and commitment whereas religious conservatism negatively predicted social justice interest. Overall, findings demonstrate direct and indirect links between White privilege attitudes, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment. Limitations and implications for future community psychology research and collaboration also are discussed.

  6. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  7. Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics. PMID:23034481

  8. Inflammation and Arterial Hypertension: From Pathophysiological Links to Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Panagiota; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, ample data have demonstrated the pivotal role of low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. It is well established that inflammatory activation, serving either as a substrate, in the chronic phase of atherosclerotic disease, or as a trigger, in the acute phase, increases cardiovascular events. Considering hypertension, the inflammatory process is implicated in its pathophysiology through a bidirectional relationship since arterial hypertension may enhance inflammation and vice versa. Inflammatory biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, have shown predictive value for both the incidence of hypertension and the clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. In the present review, data on the association between arterial hypertension and low-grade inflammation will be reported and potential pathophysiological pathways and clinical implications underlying this association will be discussed.

  9. Macaques can predict social outcomes from facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Whitehouse, Jamie; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread acceptance that facial expressions are useful in social interactions, but empirical demonstration of their adaptive function has remained elusive. Here, we investigated whether macaques can use the facial expressions of others to predict the future outcomes of social interaction. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra) were shown an approach between two unknown individuals on a touchscreen and were required to choose between one of two potential social outcomes. The facial expressions of the actors were manipulated in the last frame of the video. One subject reached the experimental stage and accurately predicted different social outcomes depending on which facial expressions the actors displayed. The bared-teeth display (homologue of the human smile) was most strongly associated with predicted friendly outcomes. Contrary to our predictions, screams and threat faces were not associated more with conflict outcomes. Overall, therefore, the presence of any facial expression (compared to neutral) caused the subject to choose friendly outcomes more than negative outcomes. Facial expression in general, therefore, indicated a reduced likelihood of social conflict. The findings dispute traditional theories that view expressions only as indicators of present emotion and instead suggest that expressions form part of complex social interactions where individuals think beyond the present.

  10. Macaques can predict social outcomes from facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Whitehouse, Jamie; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread acceptance that facial expressions are useful in social interactions, but empirical demonstration of their adaptive function has remained elusive. Here, we investigated whether macaques can use the facial expressions of others to predict the future outcomes of social interaction. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra) were shown an approach between two unknown individuals on a touchscreen and were required to choose between one of two potential social outcomes. The facial expressions of the actors were manipulated in the last frame of the video. One subject reached the experimental stage and accurately predicted different social outcomes depending on which facial expressions the actors displayed. The bared-teeth display (homologue of the human smile) was most strongly associated with predicted friendly outcomes. Contrary to our predictions, screams and threat faces were not associated more with conflict outcomes. Overall, therefore, the presence of any facial expression (compared to neutral) caused the subject to choose friendly outcomes more than negative outcomes. Facial expression in general, therefore, indicated a reduced likelihood of social conflict. The findings dispute traditional theories that view expressions only as indicators of present emotion and instead suggest that expressions form part of complex social interactions where individuals think beyond the present. PMID:27155662

  11. Sweet Success, Bitter Defeat: A Taste Phenotype Predicts Social Status in Selectively Bred Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, John M.; Dess, Nancy K.; Chapman, Clinton D.

    2012-01-01

    For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an “early surge” on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health. PMID:23056367

  12. Sweet success, bitter defeat: a taste phenotype predicts social status in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John M; Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D

    2012-01-01

    For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an "early surge" on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health.

  13. Sweet success, bitter defeat: a taste phenotype predicts social status in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John M; Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D

    2012-01-01

    For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an "early surge" on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health. PMID:23056367

  14. Precision and negative predictive value of links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of translational science is to shorten the time from discovery to clinical use. Clinical trial registries were established to increase transparency in completed and ongoing clinical trials, and they support linking trials with resulting publications. We set out to investigate precision and negative predictive value (NPV) of links between ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov) and PubMed. CT.gov has been established to increase transparency in clinical trials and the link to PubMed is crucial for supporting a number of important functions, including ascertaining publication bias. We drew a random sample of trials downloaded from CT.gov and performed manual review of retrieved publications. We characterize two types of links between trials and publications (NCT-link originating from MEDLINE and PMID-link originating from CT.gov).The link precision is different based on type (NCT-link: 100%; PMID-link: 63% to 96%). In trials with no linked publication, we were able to find publications 44% of the time (NPV=56%) by searching PubMed. This low NPV shows that there are potentially numerous publications that should have been formally linked with the trials. Our results indicate that existing trial registry and publisher policies may not be fully enforced. We suggest some automated methods for improving link quality.

  15. Structure of orbitofrontal cortex predicts social influence

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Bach, Dominik R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Some people conform more than others. Across different contexts, this tendency is a fairly stable trait [1]. This stability suggests that the tendency to conform might have an anatomical correlate [2]. Values that one associates with available options, from foods to political candidates, help to guide choices and behaviour. These values can often be updated by the expressed preferences of other people as much as by independent experience. In this correspondence, we report a linear relationship between grey matter volume (GM) in a region of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFCGM) and the tendency to shift reported desire for objects toward values expressed by other people. This effect was found in precisely the same region in each brain hemisphere. lOFCGM also predicted the functional hemodynamic response in the middle frontal gyrus to discovering that someone else's values contrast with one's own. These findings indicate that the tendency to conform one's values to those expressed by other people has an anatomical correlate in the human brain. PMID:22361146

  16. Genetic Influences Can Protect Against Unresponsive Parenting in the Prediction of Child Social Competence

    PubMed Central

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this paper, we evaluate the possibility of a gene-by-environment (GxE) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children. Using a longitudinal, multi-method dataset from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), we found a significant interaction between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting. PMID:25581124

  17. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  18. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the “comic effect” of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized. PMID:26960247

  19. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-03-10

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the "comic effect" of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized.

  20. Efficient network disintegration under incomplete information: the comic effect of link prediction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Suo-Yi; Wu, Jun; Lü, Linyuan; Li, Meng-Jun; Lu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The study of network disintegration has attracted much attention due to its wide applications, including suppressing the epidemic spreading, destabilizing terrorist network, preventing financial contagion, controlling the rumor diffusion and perturbing cancer networks. The crux of this matter is to find the critical nodes whose removal will lead to network collapse. This paper studies the disintegration of networks with incomplete link information. An effective method is proposed to find the critical nodes by the assistance of link prediction techniques. Extensive experiments in both synthetic and real networks suggest that, by using link prediction method to recover partial missing links in advance, the method can largely improve the network disintegration performance. Besides, to our surprise, we find that when the size of missing information is relatively small, our method even outperforms than the results based on complete information. We refer to this phenomenon as the "comic effect" of link prediction, which means that the network is reshaped through the addition of some links that identified by link prediction algorithms, and the reshaped network is like an exaggerated but characteristic comic of the original one, where the important parts are emphasized. PMID:26960247

  1. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction. PMID:27439697

  2. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction. PMID:27439697

  3. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission.

  4. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  5. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  6. Social Goals, Aggression, Peer Preference, and Popularity: Longitudinal Links during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic…

  7. Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools.

  8. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit. PMID:12289910

  9. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  10. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce teen…

  11. Depression and Social Anxiety in Children: Differential Links with Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…

  12. Leveraging Social Links for Trust and Privacy in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Molva, Refik; Strufe, Thorsten

    Existing on-line social networks (OSN) such as Facebook suffer from several weaknesses regarding privacy and security due to their inherent handling of personal data. As pointed out in [4], a preliminary analysis of existing OSNs shows that they are subject to a number of vulnerabilities, ranging from cloning legitimate users to sybil attacks through privacy violations. Starting from these OSN vulnerabilities as the first step of a broader research activity, we came up with a new approach that is very promising in re-visiting security and privacy problems in distributed systems and networks. We suggest a solution that both aims at avoiding any centralized control and leverages on the real life trust between users, that is part of the social network application itself. An anonymization technique based on multi-hop routing among trusted nodes guarantees privacy in data access and, generally speaking, in all the OSN operations.

  13. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is

  14. The Role of Social Competence in Predicting Gifted Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Konold, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how children's starting level and development of social competence (i.e., task orientation and peer sociability) during kindergarten and first grade predict gifted program enrollment by third grade, even after considering children's cognitive ability. A second purpose is to examine the extent to which the…

  15. Using Emotional and Social Factors To Predict Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Mary E.; Wilson, Gregory S.

    2003-01-01

    College academic success and retention have traditionally been predicted using demographic and academic variables. This study moved beyond traditional predictors. A survey of 218 undergraduate students revealed that emotional and social factors (e.g., stress, frequency of alcohol consumption) related to GPA and emotional factors (e.g.,…

  16. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications. PMID:23982106

  17. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  18. Virality prediction and community structure in social networks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications. PMID:23982106

  19. Virality prediction and community structure in social networks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  20. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  1. Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-03-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and nonfriends' behaviors and (b) children's social reticence were examined. The sample comprised 466 twin children (i.e., the target children), each of whom was assessed in kindergarten together with a same-sex friend and two nonfriend classmates of either sex. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children with a genetic disposition for social reticence showed more reticent behavior in the competitive situation and were more likely to affiliate with reticent friends (i.e., rGE). Moreover, a higher level of children's reticent behavior was predicted by their friends' higher social reticence (particularly for girls) and their friends' higher social dominance, independently of children's genetic disposition. Children's social reticence was also predicted by their nonfriends' behaviors. Specifically, children were less reticent when male nonfriends showed high levels of social reticence in the competitive situation, and this was particularly true for children with a genetic disposition for social reticence (i.e., GxE). Moreover, children genetically vulnerable for social reticence seemed to foster dominant behavior in their female nonfriend peers (i.e., rGE). In turn, male nonfriends seemed to be more dominant as soon as the target children were reticent, even if the target children did not have a stable genetic disposition for this behavior.

  2. Positive affect predicts avoidance goals in social interaction anxiety: testing a hierarchical model of social goals.

    PubMed

    Trew, Jennifer L; Alden, Lynn E

    2012-01-01

    Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in the relationship between motivational tendencies and social goals. This model was refined in one undergraduate sample (N = 186) and cross-validated in a second sample (N = 195). The findings support hierarchical relationships between motivational tendencies, social interaction anxiety, affect, and social goals, with higher positive affect predicting fewer avoidance goals in both samples. Implications for the treatment of social interaction anxiety are discussed. PMID:22489603

  3. Optimizing cross-sectional prediction of social functioning in youth referred for neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Potthoff, Lauren M; Hunter, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 - 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or "odd" behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social functioning

  4. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  5. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  6. PREDICTING INDIVIDUAL WELL-BEING THROUGH THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-01-01

    We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being.

  7. PREDICTING INDIVIDUAL WELL-BEING THROUGH THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-01-01

    We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being. PMID:26776214

  8. Demystifying internalization and socialization: linking conceptions of how development happens to organismic-developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Raeff, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development.

  9. Demystifying internalization and socialization: linking conceptions of how development happens to organismic-developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Raeff, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development. PMID:24851344

  10. Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Barreiro, Luis B; Burns, Michael B; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Lynch, Josh; Grieneisen, Laura E; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Blekhman, Ran; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship, and shared environments. They therefore strongly implicate direct physical contact among social partners in the transmission of gut microbial species. We identified 51 socially structured taxa, which were significantly enriched for anaerobic and non-spore-forming lifestyles. Our results argue that social interactions are an important determinant of gut microbiome composition in natural animal populations—a relationship with important ramifications for understanding how social relationships influence health, as well as the evolution of group living. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05224.001 PMID:25774601

  11. Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families

    PubMed Central

    Royle, Nick J.; Pike, Thomas W.; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively. PMID:23097505

  12. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  13. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  14. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  15. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Robert J; Acevedo, Miguel A; Reichert, Brian E; Pias, Kyle E; Kitchens, Wiley M

    2011-11-29

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data. PMID:22084081

  16. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Robert J.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  17. Social Influences on Executive Functions Development in Children and Adolescents: Steps Toward a Social Neuroscience of Predictive Adaptive Responses.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the findings and implications of four empirical papers that establish a reciprocal, longitudinal link between the social environment and executive functions from childhood to adolescence. Two future directions are suggested by this work. The first is a call for measurement research to clarify the nomological network of various measurements of self-regulation and executive functions across a variety of methods and procedures. The second new direction is to broaden the analysis of executive function to include a wider array of predictive adaptive responses to various environmental conditions, including those where youth are chronically marginalized or otherwise stressed. Findings from these studies suggest that the executive functions within the brain guide adaptation in both deviant as well as competent responses to the social environment. Understanding various forms of adaptation will enhance the potential for prevention as well as avoid iatrogenic intervention strategies with misinformed targets. PMID:26729426

  18. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    PubMed

    Oloritun, Rahman O; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R(2). This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001) of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends.

  19. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  20. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  1. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  2. Use of social indices to predict reproductive success in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    We correlated temporal changes in social groupings of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding near Minnedosa, Manitoba, with an independent estimate of hen success during 1974-80. Roadside counts of pairs, lone males, and flocked males were made along transects at 5-day intervals, normalized to percentages to allow comparisons among years, and plotted to obtain measurements of selected areas between and under the curves. An estimate of hen success was regressed on these selected graph areas each year to derive a predictive equation. Graph areas (social indices) determined from temporal changes in the proportion of pairs, lone males, and flocked males correlated (ri?? = 0.69-0.93) with hen success. This technique avoids the need for pair counts, nest searches, and brood counts and provides managers with a useful index to evaluate local management practices and to predict yearly production in time for setting hunting regulations.

  3. Biomine: predicting links between biological entities using network models of heterogeneous databases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological databases contain large amounts of data concerning the functions and associations of genes and proteins. Integration of data from several such databases into a single repository can aid the discovery of previously unknown connections spanning multiple types of relationships and databases. Results Biomine is a system that integrates cross-references from several biological databases into a graph model with multiple types of edges, such as protein interactions, gene-disease associations and gene ontology annotations. Edges are weighted based on their type, reliability, and informativeness. We present Biomine and evaluate its performance in link prediction, where the goal is to predict pairs of nodes that will be connected in the future, based on current data. In particular, we formulate protein interaction prediction and disease gene prioritization tasks as instances of link prediction. The predictions are based on a proximity measure computed on the integrated graph. We consider and experiment with several such measures, and perform a parameter optimization procedure where different edge types are weighted to optimize link prediction accuracy. We also propose a novel method for disease-gene prioritization, defined as finding a subset of candidate genes that cluster together in the graph. We experimentally evaluate Biomine by predicting future annotations in the source databases and prioritizing lists of putative disease genes. Conclusions The experimental results show that Biomine has strong potential for predicting links when a set of selected candidate links is available. The predictions obtained using the entire Biomine dataset are shown to clearly outperform ones obtained using any single source of data alone, when different types of links are suitably weighted. In the gene prioritization task, an established reference set of disease-associated genes is useful, but the results show that under favorable conditions, Biomine can also perform

  4. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  5. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.

  6. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.

    2013-03-01

    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  7. Performance Prediction of a Synchronization Link for Distributed Aerospace Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link. PMID:23970828

  8. Performance prediction of a synchronization link for distributed aerospace wireless systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin; Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link.

  9. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  10. Social/Ethical Issues in Predictive Insider Threat Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Zabriskie, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Combining traditionally monitored cybersecurity data with other kinds of organizational data is one option for inferring the motivations of individuals, which may in turn allow early prediction and mitigation of insider threats. While unproven, some researchers believe that this combination of data may yield better results than either cybersecurity or organizational data would in isolation. However, this nontraditional approach creates a potential conflict between goals, such as conflicts between organizational security improvements and individual privacy considerations. There are many facets to debate. Should warning signs of a potential malicious insider be addressed before a malicious event has occurred to prevent harm to the organization and discourage the insider from violating the organization’s rules? Would intervention violate employee trust or legal guidelines? What about the possibilities of misuse? Predictive approaches cannot be validated a priori; false accusations can affect the career of the accused; and collection/monitoring of certain types of data may affect employee morale. In this chapter, we explore some of the social and ethical issues stemming from predictive insider threat monitoring and discuss ways that a predictive modeling approach brings to the forefront social and ethical issues that should be considered and resolved by stakeholders and communities of interest.

  11. Personality Predicts Social Dominance in Male Domestic Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types. PMID:25072296

  12. Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals) demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types. PMID:25072296

  13. Predicting fate from early connectivity in a social network.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David B

    2007-06-26

    In the long-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis), a long-lived tropical bird, early connectivity within a social network predicts male success an average of 4.8 years later. Long-tailed manakins have an unusual lek mating system in which pairs of unrelated males, at the top of complex overlapping teams of as many as 15 males, cooperate for obligate dual-male song and dance courtship displays. For as long as 8 years before forming stable "alpha-beta" partnerships, males interact with many other males in complex, temporally dynamic social networks. "Information centrality" is a network connectivity metric that accounts for indirect as well as shortest (geodesic) paths among interactors. The odds that males would rise socially rose by a factor of five for each one-unit increase in their early information centrality. Connectivity of males destined to rise did not change over time but increased in males that failed to rise socially. The results suggest that network connectivity is important for young males (ages 1-6) but less so for older males of high status (ages 10-15) and that it is difficult to explain present success without reference to social history. PMID:17576933

  14. Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.

  15. Major histocompatibility complex linked databases and prediction tools for designing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satarudra Prakash; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

    2016-03-01

    Presently, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is receiving considerable interest owing to its remarkable role in antigen presentation and vaccine design. The specific databases and prediction approaches related to MHC sequences, structures and binding/nonbinding peptides have been aggressively developed in the past two decades with their own benchmarks and standards. Before using these databases and prediction tools, it is important to analyze why and how the tools are constructed along with their strengths and limitations. The current review presents insights into web-based immunological bioinformatics resources that include searchable databases of MHC sequences, epitopes and prediction tools that are linked to MHC based vaccine design, including population coverage analysis. In T cell epitope forecasts, MHC class I binding predictions are very accurate for most of the identified MHC alleles. However, these predictions could be further improved by integrating proteasome cleavage (in conjugation with transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) binding) prediction, as well as T cell receptor binding prediction. On the other hand, MHC class II restricted epitope predictions display relatively low accuracy compared to MHC class I. To date, pan-specific tools have been developed, which not only deliver significantly improved predictions in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of the coverage of MHC alleles and supertypes. In addition, structural modeling and simulation systems for peptide-MHC complexes enable the molecular-level investigation of immune processes. Finally, epitope prediction tools, and their assessments and guidelines, have been presented to immunologist for the design of novel vaccine and diagnostics.

  16. Childhood Social Anxiety and Social Support-Seeking: Distinctive Links with Perceived Support from Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…

  17. Links between Empathy, Social Behavior, and Social Understanding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Girardi, Alberta; Coplan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine both social behaviors (i.e., aggression, shyness-withdrawal, and prosocial tendencies) and social understanding (i.e., attitudes and responses to such behaviors in hypothetical peers) of empathic and low empathic children. Participants were 136 children in kindergarten and grade one. Parents…

  18. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  19. Trait and Social Influences in the Links among Adolescent Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages…

  20. Web-Based Knowledge Exchange through Social Links in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipowski, Tomasz; Kazienko, Przemyslaw; Brodka, Piotr; Kajdanowicz, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge exchange between employees is an essential feature of recent commercial organisations on the competitive market. Based on the data gathered by various information technology (IT) systems, social links can be extracted and exploited in knowledge exchange systems of a new kind. Users of such a system ask their queries and the system…

  1. Linking Teacher Socialization Research with a PETE Program: Insights from Beginning and Experienced Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Ann; Hartley, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which beginning and experienced teachers differed in their perceptions of shaping school forces and their being shaped by school forces. The findings allow the authors to examine the link between teacher socialization research and practice in a physical education teacher education (PETE)…

  2. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  3. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved.

  4. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  5. Variation in the X-Linked EFHC2 Gene Is Associated with Social Cognitive Abilities in Males

    PubMed Central

    Startin, Carla M.; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males. PMID:26107779

  6. Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene is associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

    PubMed

    Startin, Carla M; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males. PMID:26107779

  7. Emotionally biased cognitive processes: the weakest link predicts prospective changes in depressive symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Jonas; Duyck, Wouter; Koster, Ernst H W

    2015-01-01

    Emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory are predictive of future depressive symptoms. It remains unknown, however, how these biased cognitive processes interact to predict depressive symptom levels in the long-term. In the present study, we tested the predictive value of two integrative approaches to model relations between multiple biased cognitive processes, namely the additive (i.e., cognitive processes have a cumulative effect) vs. the weakest link (i.e., the dominant pathogenic process is important) model. We also tested whether these integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptom severity. At Time 1, participants completed measures of depressive symptom severity and emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory. At Time 2, one year later, participants were reassessed to determine depressive symptom levels and perceived stress. Results revealed that the weakest link model had incremental validity over the additive model in predicting prospective changes in depressive symptoms, though both models explained a significant proportion of variance in the change in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. None of the integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict changes in depressive symptomatology. These findings suggest that the best cognitive marker of the evolution in depressive symptoms is the cognitive process that is dominantly biased toward negative material, which operates independent from experienced stress. This highlights the importance of considering idiographic cognitive profiles with multiple cognitive processes for understanding and modifying effects of cognitive biases in depression.

  8. Conceptual disorganization weakens links in cognitive pathways: Disentangling neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Luther, Lauren; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down. To accomplish these aims, comprehensive assessments of conceptual disorganization, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition were administered to 67 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We found that conceptual disorganization significantly moderated the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition, with links between cognitive processes weakening when conceptual disorganization is present even at minimal levels of severity. There was no evidence that conceptual disorganization-or any other specific disorganized symptom-drove the limiting relationship of neurocognition on social cognition. Based on our findings, conceptual disorganization appears to be a critical piece of the puzzle when disentangling the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition. Roles of specific disorganized symptoms in the neurocognition - social cognition relationship were less clear. Findings from this study suggest that disorganized symptoms are an important treatment consideration when aiming to improve cognitive impairments.

  9. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. PMID:27550962

  10. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  11. Predicting Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior in Kindergarten: Examining the Buffering Role of Early Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Krill, Sarah C.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested an ecological model predicting children’s behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Method Study participants were 1161 socio-demographically diverse mother-child pairs who participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of two years old at Time 1 and three years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached Kindergarten and were six years old on average. Results Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by sub-optimal parenting behavior, predicts children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later sub-optimal parenting behaviors and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Conclusions Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and children’s withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention. PMID:24697587

  12. Predicting externalizing and internalizing behavior in kindergarten: examining the buffering role of early social support.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Krill, Sarah C; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    This study tested an ecological model predicting children's behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Study participants were 1,161 sociodemographically diverse mother-child pairs that participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of 2 years old at Time 1 and 3 years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached kindergarten and were 6 years old on average. Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by suboptimal parenting behavior, predicts children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later suboptimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and children's withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention.

  13. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization – collective efficacy and social trust – with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. PMID:26120326

  14. The degree-related clustering coefficient and its application to link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Zhao, Chengli; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-07-01

    Link prediction plays a significant role in explaining the evolution of networks. However it is still a challenging problem that has been addressed only with topological information in recent years. Based on the belief that network nodes with a great number of common neighbors are more likely to be connected, many similarity indices have achieved considerable accuracy and efficiency. Motivated by the natural assumption that the effect of missing links on the estimation of a node's clustering ability could be related to node degree, in this paper, we propose a degree-related clustering coefficient index to quantify the clustering ability of nodes. Unlike the classical clustering coefficient, our new coefficient is highly robust when the observed bias of links is considered. Furthermore, we propose a degree-related clustering ability path (DCP) index, which applies the proposed coefficient to the link prediction problem. Experiments on 12 real-world networks show that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust compared with four common-neighbor-based similarity indices (Common Neighbors(CN), Adamic-Adar(AA), Resource Allocation(RA), and Preferential Attachment(PA)), and the recently introduced clustering ability (CA) index.

  15. Similarity index based on local paths for link prediction of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Jin, Ci-Hang; Zhou, Tao

    2009-10-01

    Predictions of missing links of incomplete networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks or very likely but not yet existent links in evolutionary networks like friendship networks in web society, can be considered as a guideline for further experiments or valuable information for web users. In this paper, we present a local path index to estimate the likelihood of the existence of a link between two nodes. We propose a network model with controllable density and noise strength in generating links, as well as collect data of six real networks. Extensive numerical simulations on both modeled networks and real networks demonstrated the high effectiveness and efficiency of the local path index compared with two well-known and widely used indices: the common neighbors and the Katz index. Indeed, the local path index provides competitively accurate predictions as the Katz index while requires much less CPU time and memory space than the Katz index, which is therefore a strong candidate for potential practical applications in data mining of huge-size networks.

  16. Egocentrism versus protocentrism: the status of self in social prediction.

    PubMed

    Karniol, Rachel

    2003-07-01

    In this article, the author discusses the limitations of the egocentric view of self in which self serves as an automatic filter, inhibiting access to alternative representations of others' thoughts and feelings. The author then outlines a protocentric model, the self-as-distinct (SAD) model, in which generic representations of prototypic others serve as the default; representations of self, specific others, or categories encode only distinctiveness from generic knowledge about prototypic others. Thus, self-knowledge is distributed both in generic representations in which self and prototypic others are undifferentiated and in a self-representation that encodes distinctiveness. The self-representation does not serve to make predictions about others because it encodes how self differs from the generic representation of others. Predictions that are the same about self and others are protocentric, based on generic knowledge that serves as the default. The SAD model parsimoniously accounts for many inconsistent findings across various domains in social cognition.

  17. Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Suzanne J; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Amiras, Dimitri; Egerton, Alice; Howard, Robert J; Grasby, Paul M

    2007-02-15

    Research in non-human primates has implicated striatal dopamine (D2) receptor function in the expression of social dominance--a fundamental component of social extraversion. We predicted that trait extraversion - indexed by the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) - would correlate with striatal DA (D2) receptor measures - indexed by [(11)C]-Raclopride binding potential (BP) - in 28 healthy post-menopausal females (mean age=75 years; range=58-91 years). Region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses were performed, using a reference tissue model for [(11)C]-Raclopride. ROI analysis showed moderately significant negative correlations between extraversion and BP measures in the left caudate and between psychoticism scores and BP in the right putamen. Unexpectedly, scores on the Lie scale, a measure of socially desirable responding, were significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the putamen and survived Bonferroni correction on the right side. After controlling for the potential confounding of self-report bias in high Lie scorers, only the correlation between Lie scores and BP measures in the right putamen remained significant. Voxel-based analysis showed only Lie scores to be significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the right putamen. We explored this association further by applying an ROI-based approach to data on a previously scanned sample of young adults (n=13) and found a similar pattern of association, which achieved trend level significance in the right putamen. Although unanticipated, the relationship observed between BP measures in the right putamen and Lie scores is consistent with dopaminergic involvement in socially rewarding behaviour. How this relates to dopaminergic tone will need to be further explored.

  18. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn

    PubMed Central

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Tsui, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. Methods An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of “likes” on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Results Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Conclusion Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of potential interested individuals. PMID:25709390

  19. Using of CBA Method for Evaluation of the Investments in the Link with Social Responsible Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvová, Ľubica; Vaňová, Jaromíra

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.

  20. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  1. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  2. Personality moderates the links of social identity with work motivation and job searching

    PubMed Central

    Baay, Pieter E.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; van der Lippe, Tanja; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Work motivation is critical for successful school-to-work transitions, but little is known about its determinants among labor market entrants. Applying a social identity framework, we examined whether work motivation and job searching are social-contextually determined. We expected that some job seekers are more sensitive to contextual influence, depending on their personality. Mediation analyses on 591 Dutch vocational training students indicate that the perception of more positive work norms in someone's social context was related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, which in turn predicted higher preparatory job search behavior and job search intentions. Multi-group analysis shows that perceived work norms more strongly predict work motivation among overcontrollers compared to resilients and undercontrollers. In conclusion, work motivation and job searching appear contextually determined: especially among those sensitive to contextual influence, people seem to work when they believe that is what people like them do. PMID:25278928

  3. Statistical prediction of the atmospheric behavior for free space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, Lukas; Vitasek, Jan; Vanderka, Ales; Latal, Jan; Perecar, Frantisek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The atmosphere is unstable and unpredictable environment, where are continual changes of the air refractive index. These changes cause fluctuation of optical power at the receiver site. The prediction of behavior of the atmosphere and effect of this behavior on the FSO link is very complicated or even impossible. Aim of this article is focused on statistical analysis of measured level signal RSSI of the FSO link and atmospheric properties measured by hydro-meteorological station. For measured data the statistical analysis tools were used. Next part of article is focused on determination of the linear regression model to calculate level of RSSI depending on the atmospheric properties. Two empirical equations are result for day and night time. These equations describe behavior of signal RSSI in 30 days interval. Finally, comparison of the obtained mathematical model with real measured data of RSSI was introduced for one week before and one week after the analyzed time interval.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  5. Human hypocretin and melanin concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L.; Staba, Richard J.; Behnke, Eric J.; Lam, Hoa A.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Karlsson, Karl Æ.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behavior are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 (Hcrt-1) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), measured in the human amygdala. We show that Hcrt-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction, and anger, behaviors that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, MCH levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. MCH levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas Hcrt-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized. PMID:23462990

  6. Predictive decision making driven by multiple time-linked reward representations in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marco K; Kolling, Nils; Akaishi, Rei; Chau, Bolton K H; Brown, Joshua W; Nelissen, Natalie; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2016-01-01

    In many natural environments the value of a choice gradually gets better or worse as circumstances change. Discerning such trends makes predicting future choice values possible. We show that humans track such trends by comparing estimates of recent and past reward rates, which they are able to hold simultaneously in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Comparison of recent and past reward rates with positive and negative decision weights is reflected by opposing dACC signals indexing these quantities. The relative strengths of time-linked reward representations in dACC predict whether subjects persist in their current behaviour or switch to an alternative. Computationally, trend-guided choice can be modelled by using a reinforcement-learning mechanism that computes a longer-term estimate (or expectation) of prediction errors. Using such a model, we find a relative predominance of expected prediction errors in dACC, instantaneous prediction errors in the ventral striatum and choice signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. PMID:27477632

  7. Predictive decision making driven by multiple time-linked reward representations in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Marco K.; Kolling, Nils; Akaishi, Rei; Chau, Bolton K. H.; Brown, Joshua W.; Nelissen, Natalie; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2016-01-01

    In many natural environments the value of a choice gradually gets better or worse as circumstances change. Discerning such trends makes predicting future choice values possible. We show that humans track such trends by comparing estimates of recent and past reward rates, which they are able to hold simultaneously in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Comparison of recent and past reward rates with positive and negative decision weights is reflected by opposing dACC signals indexing these quantities. The relative strengths of time-linked reward representations in dACC predict whether subjects persist in their current behaviour or switch to an alternative. Computationally, trend-guided choice can be modelled by using a reinforcement-learning mechanism that computes a longer-term estimate (or expectation) of prediction errors. Using such a model, we find a relative predominance of expected prediction errors in dACC, instantaneous prediction errors in the ventral striatum and choice signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. PMID:27477632

  8. Efficient estimation and prediction for the Bayesian binary spatial model with flexible link functions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vivekananda; Evangelou, Evangelos; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2016-03-01

    Spatial generalized linear mixed models (SGLMMs) are popular models for spatial data with a non-Gaussian response. Binomial SGLMMs with logit or probit link functions are often used to model spatially dependent binomial random variables. It is known that for independent binomial data, the robit regression model provides a more robust (against extreme observations) alternative to the more popular logistic and probit models. In this article, we introduce a Bayesian spatial robit model for spatially dependent binomial data. Since constructing a meaningful prior on the link function parameter as well as the spatial correlation parameters in SGLMMs is difficult, we propose an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for the estimation of these parameters as well as for the prediction of the random effects. The EB methodology is implemented by efficient importance sampling methods based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. Our simulation study shows that the robit model is robust against model misspecification, and our EB method results in estimates with less bias than full Bayesian (FB) analysis. The methodology is applied to a Celastrus Orbiculatus data, and a Rhizoctonia root data. For the former, which is known to contain outlying observations, the robit model is shown to do better for predicting the spatial distribution of an invasive species. For the latter, our approach is doing as well as the classical models for predicting the disease severity for a root disease, as the probit link is shown to be appropriate. Though this article is written for Binomial SGLMMs for brevity, the EB methodology is more general and can be applied to other types of SGLMMs. In the accompanying R package geoBayes, implementations for other SGLMMs such as Poisson and Gamma SGLMMs are provided. PMID:26331903

  9. Efficient estimation and prediction for the Bayesian binary spatial model with flexible link functions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vivekananda; Evangelou, Evangelos; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2016-03-01

    Spatial generalized linear mixed models (SGLMMs) are popular models for spatial data with a non-Gaussian response. Binomial SGLMMs with logit or probit link functions are often used to model spatially dependent binomial random variables. It is known that for independent binomial data, the robit regression model provides a more robust (against extreme observations) alternative to the more popular logistic and probit models. In this article, we introduce a Bayesian spatial robit model for spatially dependent binomial data. Since constructing a meaningful prior on the link function parameter as well as the spatial correlation parameters in SGLMMs is difficult, we propose an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for the estimation of these parameters as well as for the prediction of the random effects. The EB methodology is implemented by efficient importance sampling methods based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. Our simulation study shows that the robit model is robust against model misspecification, and our EB method results in estimates with less bias than full Bayesian (FB) analysis. The methodology is applied to a Celastrus Orbiculatus data, and a Rhizoctonia root data. For the former, which is known to contain outlying observations, the robit model is shown to do better for predicting the spatial distribution of an invasive species. For the latter, our approach is doing as well as the classical models for predicting the disease severity for a root disease, as the probit link is shown to be appropriate. Though this article is written for Binomial SGLMMs for brevity, the EB methodology is more general and can be applied to other types of SGLMMs. In the accompanying R package geoBayes, implementations for other SGLMMs such as Poisson and Gamma SGLMMs are provided.

  10. Social context predicts recognition systems in ant queens.

    PubMed

    Dreier, S; D'Ettorre, P

    2009-03-01

    Recognition of group-members is a key feature of sociality. Ants use chemical communication to discriminate nestmates from intruders, enhancing kin cooperation and preventing parasitism. The recognition code is embedded in their cuticular chemical profile, which typically varies between colonies. We predicted that ants might be capable of accurate recognition in unusual situations when few individuals interact repeatedly, as new colonies started by two to three queens. Individual recognition would be favoured by selection when queens establish dominance hierarchies, because repeated fights for dominance are costly; but it would not evolve in absence of hierarchies. We previously showed that Pachycondyla co-founding queens, which form dominance hierarchies, have accurate individual recognition based on chemical cues. Here, we used the ant Lasius niger to test the null hypothesis that individual recognition does not occur when co-founding queens do not establish dominance hierarchies. Indeed, L. niger queens show a similar level of aggression towards both co-foundresses and intruders, indicating that they are unable of individual recognition, contrary to Pachycondyla. Additionally, the variation in chemical profiles of Lasius and Pachycondyla queens is comparable, thus informational constraints are unlikely to apply. We conclude that selection pressure from the social context is of crucial significance for the sophistication of recognition systems.

  11. Adolescent aggression and social cognition in the context of personality: impulsivity as a moderator of predictions from social information processing.

    PubMed

    Fite, Jennifer E; Goodnight, Jackson A; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2008-01-01

    This study asked how individual differences in social cognition and personality interact in predicting later aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between immediate response evaluations in social information processing (SIP) and later aggressive behavior would be moderated by impulsivity. In particular, the immediate positive evaluations of aggressive responses would be more strongly related to later aggressive behavior for high-impulsive than for low-impulsive individuals, because high-impulsive children would be less likely to integrate peripheral information and consider long-term future consequences of their actions. Participants were 585 adolescents (52% male) and their mothers and teachers from the longitudinal Child Development Project. Structural equation modeling indicated that teacher-reported impulsivity at ages 11-13 moderated the association between adolescents' endorsement of aggressive responses in hypothetical, ambiguous situations and subsequent mother-reported aggressive behavior. Specifically, positive endorsement of aggressive responses at age 13 was significantly related to later aggressive behavior (age 14-17) for participants with high and medium levels of impulsivity, but this association was not significant for participants with low levels of impulsivity. This study provides evidence of personality variables as potential moderators of the link between SIP and behavior. PMID:18459110

  12. Social dominance orientation: revisiting the structure and function of a variable predicting social and political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Arnold K; Sidanius, Jim; Pratto, Felicia; Levin, Shana; Thomsen, Lotte; Kteily, Nour; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is one of the most powerful predictors of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Although SDO works well as a unitary construct, some analyses suggest it might consist of two complementary dimensions--SDO-Dominance (SDO-D), or the preference for some groups to dominate others, and SDO-Egalitarianism (SDO-E), a preference for nonegalitarian intergroup relations. Using seven samples from the United States and Israel, the authors confirm factor-analytic evidence and show predictive validity for both dimensions. In the United States, SDO-D was theorized and found to be more related to old-fashioned racism, zero-sum competition, and aggressive intergroup phenomena than SDO-E; SDO-E better predicted more subtle legitimizing ideologies, conservatism, and opposition to redistributive social policies. In a contentious hierarchical intergroup context (the Israeli-Palestinian context), SDO-D better predicted both conservatism and aggressive intergroup attitudes. Fundamentally, these analyses begin to establish the existence of complementary psychological orientations underlying the preference for group-based dominance and inequality.

  13. What Factors Predict Who Will Have a Strong Social Network Following a Stroke?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcott, Sarah; Marshall, Jane; Hilari, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measures of social networks assess the number and nature of a person's social contacts, and strongly predict health outcomes. We explored how social networks change following a stroke and analyzed concurrent and baseline predictors of social networks 6 months poststroke. Method: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational study.…

  14. Perceived Social Support Moderates the Link between Attachment Anxiety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Sarah C. E.; Campbell, Lorne

    2014-01-01

    Two literatures have explored some of the effects intimate relationships can have on physical and mental health outcomes. Research investigating health through the lens of attachment theory has demonstrated that more anxiously attached individuals in particular consistently report poorer health. Separate research on perceived social support (e.g., partner or spousal support) suggests that higher support has salutary influences on various health outcomes. Little to no research, however, has explored the interaction of attachment anxiety and perceived social support on health outcomes. The present study examined the attachment-health link and the moderating role of perceived social support in a community sample of married couples. Results revealed that more anxious persons reported poorer overall physical and mental health, more bodily pain, more medical symptoms, and impaired daily functioning, even after controlling for age, relationship length, neuroticism, and marital quality. Additionally, perceived social support interacted with attachment anxiety to influence health; more anxious individuals' health was poorer even when perceived social support was high, whereas less anxious individuals' health benefited from high support. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings and the importance of considering attachment anxiety in future studies of poor health in adulthood are discussed. PMID:24736729

  15. Perceived social support moderates the link between attachment anxiety and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne

    2014-01-01

    Two literatures have explored some of the effects intimate relationships can have on physical and mental health outcomes. Research investigating health through the lens of attachment theory has demonstrated that more anxiously attached individuals in particular consistently report poorer health. Separate research on perceived social support (e.g., partner or spousal support) suggests that higher support has salutary influences on various health outcomes. Little to no research, however, has explored the interaction of attachment anxiety and perceived social support on health outcomes. The present study examined the attachment-health link and the moderating role of perceived social support in a community sample of married couples. Results revealed that more anxious persons reported poorer overall physical and mental health, more bodily pain, more medical symptoms, and impaired daily functioning, even after controlling for age, relationship length, neuroticism, and marital quality. Additionally, perceived social support interacted with attachment anxiety to influence health; more anxious individuals' health was poorer even when perceived social support was high, whereas less anxious individuals' health benefited from high support. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings and the importance of considering attachment anxiety in future studies of poor health in adulthood are discussed.

  16. Predicted Molecular Effects of Sequence Variants Link to System Level of Disease.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jonas; Hecht, Maximilian; Mahlich, Yannick; Bromberg, Yana; Rost, Burkhard

    2016-08-01

    Developments in experimental and computational biology are advancing our understanding of how protein sequence variation impacts molecular protein function. However, the leap from the micro level of molecular function to the macro level of the whole organism, e.g. disease, remains barred. Here, we present new results emphasizing earlier work that suggested some links from molecular function to disease. We focused on non-synonymous single nucleotide variants, also referred to as single amino acid variants (SAVs). Building upon OMIA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals), we introduced a curated set of 117 disease-causing SAVs in animals. Methods optimized to capture effects upon molecular function often correctly predict human (OMIM) and animal (OMIA) Mendelian disease-causing variants. We also predicted effects of human disease-causing variants in the mouse model, i.e. we put OMIM SAVs into mouse orthologs. Overall, fewer variants were predicted with effect in the model organism than in the original organism. Our results, along with other recent studies, demonstrate that predictions of molecular effects capture some important aspects of disease. Thus, in silico methods focusing on the micro level of molecular function can help to understand the macro system level of disease. PMID:27536940

  17. Predicted Molecular Effects of Sequence Variants Link to System Level of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana; Rost, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Developments in experimental and computational biology are advancing our understanding of how protein sequence variation impacts molecular protein function. However, the leap from the micro level of molecular function to the macro level of the whole organism, e.g. disease, remains barred. Here, we present new results emphasizing earlier work that suggested some links from molecular function to disease. We focused on non-synonymous single nucleotide variants, also referred to as single amino acid variants (SAVs). Building upon OMIA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals), we introduced a curated set of 117 disease-causing SAVs in animals. Methods optimized to capture effects upon molecular function often correctly predict human (OMIM) and animal (OMIA) Mendelian disease-causing variants. We also predicted effects of human disease-causing variants in the mouse model, i.e. we put OMIM SAVs into mouse orthologs. Overall, fewer variants were predicted with effect in the model organism than in the original organism. Our results, along with other recent studies, demonstrate that predictions of molecular effects capture some important aspects of disease. Thus, in silico methods focusing on the micro level of molecular function can help to understand the macro system level of disease. PMID:27536940

  18. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    PubMed

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce. PMID:25813489

  19. Microbial functional diversity enhances predictive models linking environmental parameters to ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeff R; Welsh, Allana; Hallin, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms drive biogeochemical processes, but linking these processes to real changes in microbial communities under field conditions is not trivial. Here, we present a model-based approach to estimate independent contributions of microbial community shifts to ecosystem properties. The approach was tested empirically, using denitrification potential as our model process, in a spatial survey of arable land encompassing a range of edaphic conditions and two agricultural production systems. Soil nitrate was the most important single predictor of denitrification potential (the change in Akaike's information criterion, corrected for sample size, ΔAIC(c) = 20.29); however, the inclusion of biotic variables (particularly the evenness and size of denitrifier communities [ΔAIC(c) = 12.02], and the abundance of one denitrifier genotype [ΔAIC(c) = 18.04]) had a substantial effect on model precision, comparable to the inclusion of abiotic variables (biotic R2 = 0.28, abiotic R2 = 0.50, biotic + abiotic R2 = 0.76). This approach provides a valuable tool for explicitly linking microbial communities to ecosystem functioning. By making this link, we have demonstrated that including aspects of microbial community structure and diversity in biogeochemical models can improve predictions of nutrient cycling in ecosystems and enhance our understanding of ecosystem functionality.

  20. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them.

  1. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks: Link Stabilization, Group Dynamics, and Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginnning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  2. Telecare and Social Link Solution for Ambient Assisted Living Using a Robot Companion with Visiophony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varène, Thibaut; Hillereau, Paul; Simonnet, Thierry

    An increasing number of people are in need of help at home (elderly, isolated and/or disabled persons; people with mild cognitive impairment). Several solutions can be considered to maintain a social link while providing tele-care to these people. Many proposals suggest the use of a robot acting as a companion. In this paper we will look at an environment constrained solution, its drawbacks (such as latency) and its advantages (flexibility, integration…). A key design choice is to control the robot using a unified Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) solution, while addressing bandwidth limitations, providing good communication quality and reducing transmission latency

  3. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  4. Links between inflammation, amygdala reactivity, and social support in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Muscatell, Keely A; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Dutcher, Janine M; Cole, Steven W; Bower, Julienne E

    2016-03-01

    Psychosocial stress can affect inflammatory processes that have important consequences for cancer outcomes and the behavioral side effects of cancer treatment. To date, however, little is known about the upstream neural processes that may link psychosocial stressors and inflammation in cancer patients and survivors. To address this issue, 15 women who had been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and completed cancer treatment and 15 age- and ethnicity-matched women with no cancer history were recruited for a neuroimaging study. Participants provided a blood sample for levels of circulating inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6), underwent an fMRI scan in which they completed a threat reactivity task designed to elicit activity in the amygdala, and reported their levels of perceived social attachment/support. There were no significant differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of CRP or IL-6, in amygdala reactivity to the socially threatening images, or in levels of perceived social support. However, results showed a strong, positive correlation between CRP concentration and left amygdala reactivity in the survivor group that was not apparent in controls. Higher levels of social support in the survivor group were also associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and CRP. These data suggest the possibility of a stronger "neural-immune pipeline" among breast cancer survivors, such that peripheral inflammation is more strongly associated with neural activity in threat-related brain regions.

  5. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  6. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  7. The Politics of Linking Schools and Social Services. The 1993 Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Louise, Ed.; Gardner, Sid, Ed.

    Linking schools and social services has become a national and international movement. This linking usually involves making a wide variety of services available to all family members, community development, cooperation among services, and systemwide change. This book provides a framework for discussing this issue. It examines the values behind…

  8. Librarians as Advocates of Social Media for Researchers: A Social Media Project Initiated by Linköping University Library, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Sassa; Svenningsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at Linköping University help researchers keep abreast of developments in their fields and to increase the visibility of their work. Strategic, professional use of social media ought to be an essential part of a researcher's communication strategy. This article investigates the level of awareness of the professional use of social media…

  9. Array Simulations Platform (ASP) predicts NASA Data Link Module (NDLM) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Allen David

    1993-01-01

    Through a variety of imbedded theoretical and actual antenna patterns, the array simulation platform (ASP) enhanced analysis of the array antenna pattern effects for the KTx (Ku-Band Transmit) service of the NDLM (NASA Data Link Module). The ASP utilizes internally stored models of the NDLM antennas and can develop the overall pattern of antenna arrays through common array calculation techniques. ASP expertly assisted in the diagnosing of element phase shifter errors during KTx testing and was able to accurately predict the overall array pattern from combinations of the four internally held element patterns. This paper provides an overview of the use of the ASP software in the solving of array mis-phasing problems.

  10. Linking ULIRGS and Quasars: Looking for Predicted Morphological Signatures of AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Nicole; Hicks, E. K. S.; Davies, R. I.

    2012-01-01

    Current leading theories propose a galactic evolutionary tract linking ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGS) with quasars via a `blowout’ stage, during which the energy output resulting from accretion of material onto the central black hole expels the gas obscuring the central quasar. However, this phase would be short-lived and therefore difficult to directly observe, meaning evidence that this is indeed how galaxies evolve is scare. We obtained 2-D K-band integral field data with SINFONI on the VLT for a sample of six quasars that are divided into 'pre-' and 'post-blowout' by comparing their ratios of infrared luminosity to the luminosity of the optical 'big blue bump'. By measuring the spatial distribution and column density of the warm molecular gas on scales down to less than 1 kpc we determine if a correlation exists between these quantities and the `pre-’ an `post-blowout’ subsamples as predicted by evolutionary models.

  11. Cognitive aging is linked to social role in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda; Baker, Nicholas; Amdam, Gro V

    2007-12-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive impairment in numerous animal species. Across taxa, decline in learning performance is linked to chronological age. The honey bee (Apis mellifera), in contrast, offers an opportunity to study such aspects of aging largely independent of age per se. This is because foraging onset can be decoupled from chronological age, although workers typically first perform tasks inside the nest and later forage outside the hive. Further, early phases of foraging are characterized by growth of specific brain neuropiles, whereas late phases of the forager life-stage are accompanied by accelerated rates of physiological senescence. Yet, it is unclear if these patterns of senescence include cognitive function. The flexibility of worker ontogeny, however, suggests that the bee can become an attractive model for studies of plasticity in cognitive aging that ultimately may lead to insight into mechanisms that govern age-related cognitive decline. To address this potential, we studied effects of honey bee chronological age and of social role on sensory sensitivity and associative olfactory learning performance. Our results show a decline in olfactory acquisition performance that is linked to social role, but not to chronological age. This decline occurs only in foragers with long foraging duration, but at the same time the foragers show less generalization of odors, which is indicative of more precise learning. Foragers that are reversed from foraging to nest tasks, furthermore, do not show deficits in olfactory acquisition. These results point to complex effects of aging on associative learning in honey bees. PMID:17976939

  12. Social Emotional Learning and Educational Stress: A Predictive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…

  13. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many breast cancer outreach programs assume that dissemination of information through social networks and provision of social support will promote screening. The authors prospectively examined the relationship between social network characteristics and adherence to screening guidelines. Method: Employed women age 40 years and older…

  14. Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…

  15. Links between Social and Linguistic Processing of Speech in Preschool Children with Autism: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Dawson, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Data on typically developing children suggest a link between social interaction and language learning, a finding of interest both to theories of language and theories of autism. In this study, we examined social and linguistic processing of speech in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing chronologically…

  16. Executive Function as a Mediator in the Link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…

  17. Core dimensions of personality broadly account for the link from perceived social support to symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2014-08-01

    Specific personality traits and poor social support are risk factors for anxiety and depression. Little work, however, has considered the effects of social support and personality on these aspects of psychopathology simultaneously. We examined whether perceived social support mediates the effects of core personality domains on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Measures of personality (based on the Five-Factor Model [FFM]), perceived social support, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were collected in a large Dutch adult population-based sample (n = 555), and, except for depression symptoms, in an independent U.S. adult population-based sample (n = 511). Path modeling was used to test the effects of FFM traits on symptoms of depression and anxiety, with and without the mediation of perceived social support. Social support showed no link to symptoms of anxiety and only modest links to symptoms of depression when controlling for the FFM traits. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with Extraversion also showing links to symptoms of depression. Social support has limited influence on symptoms of depression, and no effects on anxiety, over and above the effects of personality. Links between social support and anxiety/depression may largely reflect influences of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

  18. Using LinkedIn in the Marketing Classroom: Exploratory Insights and Recommendations for Teaching Social Media/Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Denny E.; McCorkle, Yuhua Li

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of social networking and media comes their consideration for use in the marketing classroom. Social networking skills are becoming essential for personal branding (e.g., networking, self-marketing) and corporate/product branding (e.g., marketing communication). This paper addresses the use of LinkedIn (i.e., an online…

  19. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  20. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and math – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market. PMID:26977112

  1. Psychological pathways linking social support to health outcomes: a visit with the "ghosts" of research past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Bert N; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s-2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes.

  2. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647

  3. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  4. Closing the loop: a spatial analysis to link observed environmental damage to predicted heavy metal emissions.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Anja; Hankard, Peter K; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Wadsworth, Richard A; Weeks, Jason M

    2003-05-01

    In many cases, the link between industrial emissions and damage to the environment can only be inferred. The Environment Agency of the United Kingdom imposes emissions limits on industrial sites so that predicted concentrations and deposition rates remain below standard thresholds. Estimates of appropriate critical levels and loads are usually based on laboratory results and rarely estimate synergistic effects between pollutants or consider biological adaptation or selection in the target receptor organisms. The Avonmouth smelter has been emitting zinc and other heavy metals since 1929. It has been the subject of a number of detailed and synoptic studies, especially the impact on soil invertebrates. Damage was assessed using both physiological and ecological measurements. Two methods of spatial analysis were investigated, namely interpolation using standard geographical information system (GIS) operators and atmospheric dispersal modeling using an off-the-shelf model. Both methods can be used to compute contours (isolines) of predicted biological effect. Correlation results show that dispersal modeling is at least as good as kriging but requires much less data. This article demonstrates the usefulness of GIS and dispersal models as tools in decision making to determine the most suitable sampling sites in the assessment and monitoring of the impact of contamination around major point sources.

  5. Perceived morningness-eveningness predicts academic adjustment and substance use across university, but social jetlag is not to blame.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Munroe, Melanie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-01-01

    academic adjustment and substance use, indicating that social jetlag did not explain the link between perceived morningness-eveningness and negative psychosocial adjustment. An important finding was the significant predictive effect of higher substance use on social jetlag over time. Results of the present study highlight the importance of employing a longitudinal framework within which to specifically determine the direction of effects among the study variables in order to validate proposed theoretical models that aim to guide our understanding of how perceived morningness-eveningness, social jetlag, academic adjustment and substance use relate to each other.

  6. Perceived morningness-eveningness predicts academic adjustment and substance use across university, but social jetlag is not to blame.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Munroe, Melanie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-01-01

    academic adjustment and substance use, indicating that social jetlag did not explain the link between perceived morningness-eveningness and negative psychosocial adjustment. An important finding was the significant predictive effect of higher substance use on social jetlag over time. Results of the present study highlight the importance of employing a longitudinal framework within which to specifically determine the direction of effects among the study variables in order to validate proposed theoretical models that aim to guide our understanding of how perceived morningness-eveningness, social jetlag, academic adjustment and substance use relate to each other. PMID:26507124

  7. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predict impaired social functioning in subjects at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ali; Jahshan, Carol; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of social functioning deficits were assessed in 22 individuals "at risk" for psychosis. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predicted social functioning at follow-up. Early intervention efforts that focus on social and cognitive skills are indicated in this vulnerable population.

  8. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  9. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  10. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  11. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  12. Role of Social Performance in Predicting Learning Problems: Prediction of Risk Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Prette, Almir Del; De Oliveira, Lael Almeida; Gresham, Frank M.; Vance, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are specific behaviors that individuals exhibit in order to successfully complete social tasks whereas social competence represents judgments by significant others that these social tasks have been successfully accomplished. The present investigation identified the best sociobehavioral predictors obtained from different raters…

  13. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  14. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402

  15. Performances and reliability predictions of optical data transmission links using a system simulator for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechou, L.; Deshayes, Y.; Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.; Guerin, A.; Tronche, C.

    Space missions for Earth Observation are called upon to carry a growing number of instruments in their payload, whose performances are increasing. Future space systems are therefore intended to generate huge amounts of data and a key challenge in coming years will therefore lie in the ability to transmit that significant quantity of data to ground. Thus very high data rate Payload Telemetry (PLTM) systems will be required to face the demand of the future Earth Exploration Satellite Systems and reliability is one of the major concern of such systems. An attractive approach associated with the concept of predictive modeling consists in analyzing the impact of components malfunctioning on the optical link performances taking into account the network requirements and experimental degradation laws. Reliability estimation is traditionally based on life-testing and a basic approach is to use Telcordia requirements (468GR) for optical telecommunication applications. However, due to the various interactions between components, operating lifetime of a system cannot be taken as the lifetime of the less reliable component. In this paper, an original methodology is proposed to estimate reliability of an optical communication system by using a dedicated system simulator for predictive modeling and design for reliability. At first, we present frameworks of point-to-point optical communication systems for space applications where high data rate (or frequency bandwidth), lower cost or mass saving are needed. Optoelectronics devices used in these systems can be similar to those found in terrestrial optical network. Particularly we report simulation results of transmission performances after introduction of DFB Laser diode parameters variations versus time extrapolated from accelerated tests based on terrestrial or submarine telecommunications qualification standards. Simulations are performed to investigate and predict the consequence of degradations of the Laser diode (acting as a

  16. Predicting Social Integration in the Community among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to examine determinants of social integration in the community among college students. Two-wave panel data from an undergraduate student sample (N = 310) was used to explore the effects of multiple sets of variables (personal, interpersonal, and situational) on social integration in the community. Structural equation analysis…

  17. Genetic links, family ties, and social bonds: rights and responsibilities in the face of genetic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, R

    1998-02-01

    Currently, some of the most significant moral issues involving genetic links relate to genetic knowledge. In this paper, instead of looking at the frequently addressed issues of responsibilities professionals or institutions have to individuals, I take up the question of what responsibilities individuals have to one another with respect to genetic knowledge. I address the questions of whether individuals have a moral right to pursue their own goals without contributing to society's knowledge of population genetics, without adding to their family's knowledge of its genetic history, and without discovering genetic information about themselves and their offspring. These questions lead to an examination of the presumed right to genetic ignorance and an exploration of a variety of social bonds. Analyzing cases in light of these considerations leads to a surprising conclusion about a widely accepted precept of genetic counseling, to some ethical insights into typical problems, and to some further unanswered questions about personal responsibility in the face of genetic knowledge.

  18. Prediction and validation of gene-disease associations using methods inspired by social network analyses.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, U Martin; Natarajan, Nagarajan; Tewari, Ambuj; Woods, John O; Dhillon, Inderjit S; Marcotte, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    Correctly identifying associations of genes with diseases has long been a goal in biology. With the emergence of large-scale gene-phenotype association datasets in biology, we can leverage statistical and machine learning methods to help us achieve this goal. In this paper, we present two methods for predicting gene-disease associations based on functional gene associations and gene-phenotype associations in model organisms. The first method, the Katz measure, is motivated from its success in social network link prediction, and is very closely related to some of the recent methods proposed for gene-disease association inference. The second method, called Catapult (Combining dATa Across species using Positive-Unlabeled Learning Techniques), is a supervised machine learning method that uses a biased support vector machine where the features are derived from walks in a heterogeneous gene-trait network. We study the performance of the proposed methods and related state-of-the-art methods using two different evaluation strategies, on two distinct data sets, namely OMIM phenotypes and drug-target interactions. Finally, by measuring the performance of the methods using two different evaluation strategies, we show that even though both methods perform very well, the Katz measure is better at identifying associations between traits and poorly studied genes, whereas Catapult is better suited to correctly identifying gene-trait associations overall [corrected].

  19. Genotyping Oral Commensal Bacteria to Predict Social Contact and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Amelia D.; Riley, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Social network structure is a fundamental determinant of human health, from infectious to chronic diseases. However, quantitative and unbiased approaches to measuring social network structure are lacking. We hypothesized that genetic relatedness of oral commensal bacteria could be used to infer social contact between humans, just as genetic relatedness of pathogens can be used to determine transmission chains of pathogens. We used a traditional, questionnaire survey-based method to characterize the contact network of the School of Public Health at a large research university. We then collected saliva from a subset of individuals to analyze their oral microflora using a modified deep sequencing multilocus sequence typing (MLST) procedure. We examined micro-evolutionary changes in the S. viridans group to uncover transmission patterns reflecting social network structure. We amplified seven housekeeping gene loci from the Streptococcus viridans group, a group of ubiquitous commensal bacteria, and sequenced the PCR products using next-generation sequencing. By comparing the generated S. viridans reads between pairs of individuals, we reconstructed the social network of the sampled individuals and compared it to the network derived from the questionnaire survey-based method. The genetic relatedness significantly (p-value < 0.001) correlated with social distance in the questionnaire-based network, and the reconstructed network closely matched the network derived from the questionnaire survey-based method. Oral commensal bacterial are thus likely transmitted through routine physical contact or shared environment. Their genetic relatedness can be used to represent a combination of social contact and shared physical space, therefore reconstructing networks of contact. This study provides the first step in developing a method to measure direct social contact based on commensal organism genotyping, potentially capable of unmasking hidden social networks that contribute to

  20. Prediction of data stream parameters in atmospheric turbulent wireless communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiker, A.; Yarkoni, N.; Blaunstein, N.; Zilberman, A.; Kopeika, N.

    2007-01-01

    A unified approach for calculation of information data stream parameters in the atmospheric optical communication channel is presented based on irradiance fluctuations of optical wave propagation through turbulence and on a generalized Ricean K-parameter distribution. The effects of turbulence are described via the well-known Kolmogorov scheme of turbulent structure relaxation in terms of stochastic scintillation theory described by the gamma-gamma distribution along with measurements of the values of the refractive index structure parameter, Cn 2. The relation between the Ricean parameter K and the signal scintillation parameter σI 2 is considered to develop a unified description of the corresponding probability density function (pdf) of signal fading within an atmospheric wireless communication link. Through the corresponding pdf and parameter K, signal data stream parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER), and capacity of the optical atmospheric channel (C) are estimated. Such an approach permits the reliable prediction of the effects of fading caused by different levels of turbulence and agrees with experimental data observed at different atmospheric levels, at the heights of both 100-200 m and above 1-2 km. It is shown that at heights of 100-200 m, effects of fading, caused by turbulence, occur much more frequently than those at the heights of 1-2 km. Data stream parameters such as channel capacity, SNR, and spectral efficiency become stronger at higher altitudes, while at the same time the BER becomes relatively negligible.

  1. An integrated climate service strategy for African drought monitoring and prediction: linking information to action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M.

    2008-12-01

    For 23 years, the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has applied climate data analysis in support of timely food insecurity mitigation and adaptation in Africa. FEWS NET, therefore, provides a compelling example of a sector-specific climate service. We briefly review the phases, successes and shortcomings of the FEWS NET climate service, describe an improved long term climate service strategy, and present new research supporting an improved, integrated drought monitoring approach. Our new monitoring system emphasizes seamless links between historical precipitation archives, near real-time rainfall estimates, and 1-to-4 month statistical predictions. Assessment of forecast skill shows useful levels of accuracy for many regions during key periods of the growing season. Integrating these forecasts with near real time blended satellite-gauge precipitation observations facilitates early identification of mid-season agricultural drought. Integrated historical climate archives (1979-present) permit analysis of observed and forecast climate conditions in terms of historical probabilities and analogs. Tools specific to staple crops and pastoralist settings are then used to assess the likely impacts of hydrometeorological anomalies. These are geographically integrated with livelihoods information and interpreted in terms of current food security conditions and timelines to determine human consequences. A client-server web-mapping data portal will allow users to dynamically access the climate anomaly information, and visualize the results in conjunction with livelihood information.

  2. Prediction of data stream parameters in atmospheric turbulent wireless communication links.

    PubMed

    Tiker, A; Yarkoni, N; Blaunstein, N; Zilberman, A; Kopeika, N

    2007-01-10

    A unified approach for calculation of information data stream parameters in the atmospheric optical communication channel is presented based on irradiance fluctuations of optical wave propagation through turbulence and on a generalized Ricean K-parameter distribution. The effects of turbulence are described via the well-known Kolmogorov scheme of turbulent structure relaxation in terms of stochastic scintillation theory described by the gamma-gamma distribution along with measurements of the values of the refractive index structure parameter, C(n)(2). The relation between the Ricean parameter K and the signal scintillation parameter sigma(I)(2) is considered to develop a unified description of the corresponding probability density function (pdf) of signal fading within an atmospheric wireless communication link. Through the corresponding pdf and parameter K, signal data stream parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER), and capacity of the optical atmospheric channel (C) are estimated. Such an approach permits the reliable prediction of the effects of fading caused by different levels of turbulence and agrees with experimental data observed at different atmospheric levels, at the heights of both 100-200 m and above 1-2 km. It is shown that at heights of 100-200 m, effects of fading, caused by turbulence, occur much more frequently than those at the heights of 1-2 km. Data stream parameters such as channel capacity, SNR, and spectral efficiency become stronger at higher altitudes, while at the same time the BER becomes relatively negligible.

  3. Unsupervised Group Discovery and LInk Prediction in Relational Datasets: a nonparametric Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsourelakis, P

    2007-05-03

    Clustering represents one of the most common statistical procedures and a standard tool for pattern discovery and dimension reduction. Most often the objects to be clustered are described by a set of measurements or observables e.g. the coordinates of the vectors, the attributes of people. In a lot of cases however the available observations appear in the form of links or connections (e.g. communication or transaction networks). This data contains valuable information that can in general be exploited in order to discover groups and better understand the structure of the dataset. Since in most real-world datasets, several of these links are missing, it is also useful to develop procedures that can predict those unobserved connections. In this report we address the problem of unsupervised group discovery in relational datasets. A fundamental issue in all clustering problems is that the actual number of clusters is unknown a priori. In most cases this is addressed by running the model several times assuming a different number of clusters each time and selecting the value that provides the best fit based on some criterion (ie Bayes factor in the case of Bayesian techniques). It is easily understood that it would be preferable to develop techniques that are able to number of clusters is essentially learned from that data along with the rest of model parameters. For that purpose, we adopt a nonparametric Bayesian framework which provides a very flexible modeling environment in which the size of the model i.e. the number of clusters, can adapt to the available data and readily accommodate outliers. The latter is particularly important since several groups of interest might consist of a small number of members and would most likely be smeared out by traditional modeling techniques. Finally, the proposed framework combines all the advantages of standard Bayesian techniques such as integration of prior knowledge in a principled manner, seamless accommodation of missing data

  4. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  5. Individual personalities predict social behaviour in wild networks of great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Aplin, L M; Farine, D R; Morand-Ferron, J; Cole, E F; Cockburn, A; Sheldon, B C

    2013-11-01

    Social environments have an important effect on a range of ecological processes, and form a crucial component of selection. However, little is known of the link between personality, social behaviour and population structure. We combine a well-understood personality trait with large-scale social networks in wild songbirds, and show that personality underpins multiple aspects of social organisation. First, we demonstrate a relationship between network centrality and personality with 'proactive' (fast-exploring) individuals associating weakly with greater numbers of conspecifics and moving between flocks. Second, temporal stability of associations relates to personality: 'reactive' (slow-exploring) birds form synergistically stable relationships. Finally, we show that personality influences social structure, with males non-randomly distributed across groups. These results provide strong evidence that songbirds follow alternative social strategies related to personality. This has implications not only for the causes of social network structure but also for the strength and direction of selection on personality in natural populations. PMID:24047530

  6. Social status predicts wound healing in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Social status can have striking effects on health in humans and other animals, but the causes often are unknown. In male vertebrates, status-related differences in health may be influenced by correlates of male social status that suppress immune responses. Immunosuppressive correlates of low social status may include chronic social stress, poor physical condition, and old age; the immunosuppressive correlates of high status may include high testosterone and energetic costs of reproduction. Here we test whether these correlates could create status-related differences in immune function by measuring the incidence of illness and injury and then examining healing rates in a 27-y data set of natural injuries and illnesses in wild baboon males. We found no evidence that the high testosterone and intense reproductive effort associated with high rank suppress immune responses. Instead, high-ranking males were less likely to become ill, and they recovered more quickly than low-ranking males, even controlling for differences in age. Notably, alpha males, who experience high glucocorticoids, as well as the highest testosterone and reproductive effort, healed significantly faster than other males, even other high-ranking males. We discuss why alpha males seem to escape from the immunosuppressive costs of glucocorticoids but low-ranking males do not, including the idea that glucocorticoids' effects depend on an individual's physiological and social context. PMID:22615389

  7. Social status predicts wound healing in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-06-01

    Social status can have striking effects on health in humans and other animals, but the causes often are unknown. In male vertebrates, status-related differences in health may be influenced by correlates of male social status that suppress immune responses. Immunosuppressive correlates of low social status may include chronic social stress, poor physical condition, and old age; the immunosuppressive correlates of high status may include high testosterone and energetic costs of reproduction. Here we test whether these correlates could create status-related differences in immune function by measuring the incidence of illness and injury and then examining healing rates in a 27-y data set of natural injuries and illnesses in wild baboon males. We found no evidence that the high testosterone and intense reproductive effort associated with high rank suppress immune responses. Instead, high-ranking males were less likely to become ill, and they recovered more quickly than low-ranking males, even controlling for differences in age. Notably, alpha males, who experience high glucocorticoids, as well as the highest testosterone and reproductive effort, healed significantly faster than other males, even other high-ranking males. We discuss why alpha males seem to escape from the immunosuppressive costs of glucocorticoids but low-ranking males do not, including the idea that glucocorticoids' effects depend on an individual's physiological and social context.

  8. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity.

  9. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. PMID:24410843

  10. The genetic basis of individual differences in reward processing and the link to addictive behavior and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Yacubian, J; Büchel, C

    2009-11-24

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission is widely recognized to be critical to the neurobiology of reward, motivation and addiction. Interestingly, social interactions and related behavior also activate the same neuronal system. Consequently, genetic variations of dopamine neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. This review focuses on advances made to date in an effort to link genetic individual variations and reward processing as a possible basis for addictive behaviors.

  11. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832

  12. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  13. Social Indicators Predicting Postsecondary Success. Publication #2014-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Princiotta, Daniel; Lippman, Laura; Ryberg, Renee; Schmitz, Hannah; Murphey, David; Cooper, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Only about 59 percent of full-time, first-time students at four-year institutions complete such a degree within six years at the same school. Completion rates are even lower for those starting part-time, or at less than four-year schools (and planning to transfer). Which social indicators--such as student engagement, enrollment status, and family…

  14. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    PubMed

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  15. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  16. Associations between Young Children's Emotion Attributions and Prediction of Outcome in Differing Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between young children's attributions of emotion at different points in a story, and with regard to their own prediction about the story's outcome, were investigated using two hypothetical scenarios of social and emotional challenge (social entry and negative event). First grade children (N = 250) showed an understanding that emotions…

  17. Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nicole; Schultz, Johannes; Milne, Elizabeth; Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Münchau, Alexander; Siegel, Markus; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two…

  18. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…

  19. Appraisal, Social Support, and Life Events: Predicting Outcome Behavior in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yo; Warren, Jared S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined relationship between social support and appraisal of life events in predicting adaptive, externalizing, and internalizing behavior in 265 seven- to 13-year-olds. Found support for both the main effects and moderator models of the association between life events and global social support. Gender differences were found. Appraisal of life…

  20. Community College Online Course Retention and Final Grade: Predictability of Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Simon Y.; Gomez, Joel; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between social presence and course retention as well as final grade in community college online courses. Social presence is defined as the degree of one's feeling, perception and reaction to another intellectual entity in the online environment. Course final…

  1. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  2. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  3. Linking Contextual Affordances: Examining Racial-Ethnic Socialization and Parental Career Support among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Sha'Kema M.; Thomas, Anita Jones

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the link between self-reported racial-ethnic socialization experiences and perceived parental career support among African American undergraduate and graduate students. The results of two separate multivariate multiple regression analyses found that messages about coping with racism positively predicted…

  4. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  5. Necessary, but not sufficient: links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia are moderated by disorganized symptoms.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  6. Myopic social prediction and the solo comparison effect.

    PubMed

    Moore, Don A; Kim, Tai Gyu

    2003-12-01

    Four experiments explored the psychological processes by which people make comparative social judgments. Each participant chose how much money to wager on beating an opponent on either a difficult or a simple trivia quiz. Quiz difficulty did not influence the average person's probability of winning, yet participants bet more on a simple quiz than on a difficult quiz in the first 3 experiments. The results suggest that this effect results from a tendency to attend more closely to a focal actor than to others. Experiment 4 directly manipulated focusing; when participants were led to focus on the opponent instead of themselves, the effect was reversed. The discussion relates the results to other literatures including overly optimistic self-evaluation, false consensus, overconfidence, and social comparison.

  7. Social dominance orientation predicts drive for muscularity among British men.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Neofytou, Rudolfos-Valentino; Jablonska, Joanna; Thirlwell, Holly; Taylor, Donna; McCreary, Donald R

    2013-09-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that men's drive for muscularity would be associated with their valuation of domination, power, status, and aggression over others. A community sample of 359 men from London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, trait aggression, and need for power, as well as their demographic details. Bivariate correlations showed that greater drive for muscularity was significantly correlated with most of the measures and their subscales. However, in a multiple regression analysis, the only significant predictor of drive for muscularity was support for group-based dominance hierarchies (Adj. R(2)=.17). These results suggest that men's drive for muscularity is associated with a socio-political ideology that favours social dominance.

  8. Linking Big and Small Data Across the Social, Engineering, and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Levy, M. A.; Downs, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development cut across the social, health, ecological, engineering, and Earth sciences, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and across the spectrum from basic to applied research and decision making. The rapidly increasing availability of data and information in digital form from a variety of data repositories, networks, and other sources provides new opportunities to link and integrate both traditional data holdings as well as emerging "big data" resources in ways that enable interdisciplinary research and facilitate the use of objective scientific data and information in society. Taking advantage of these opportunities not only requires improved technical and scientific data interoperability across disciplines, scales, and data types, but also concerted efforts to bridge gaps and barriers between key communities, institutions, and networks. Given the long time perspectives required in planning sustainable approaches to development, it is also imperative to address user requirements for long-term data continuity and stewardship by trustworthy repositories. We report here on lessons learned by CIESIN working on a range of sustainable development issues to integrate data across multiple repositories and networks. This includes CIESIN's roles in developing policy-relevant climate and environmental indicators, soil data for African agriculture, and exposure and risk measures for hazards, disease, and conflict, as well as CIESIN's participation in a range of national and international initiatives related both to sustainable development and to open data access, interoperability, and stewardship.

  9. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520–1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ18O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ18O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events. PMID:26270656

  10. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-01

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ18O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ18O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  11. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Du, Yajuan

    2015-08-13

    The collapse of some pre-historical and historical cultures, including Chinese dynasties were presumably linked to widespread droughts, on the basis of synchronicities of societal crises and proxy-based climate events. Here, we present a comparison of ancient inscriptions in Dayu Cave from Qinling Mountains, central China, which described accurate times and detailed impacts of seven drought events during the period of 1520-1920 CE, with high-resolution speleothem records from the same cave. The comparable results provide unique and robust tests on relationships among speleothem δ(18)O changes, drought events, and societal unrest. With direct historical evidences, our results suggest that droughts and even modest events interrupting otherwise wet intervals can cause serious social crises. Modeling results of speleothem δ(18)O series suggest that future precipitation in central China may be below the average of the past 500 years. As Qinling Mountain is the main recharge area of two large water transfer projects and habitats of many endangered species, it is imperative to explore an adaptive strategy for the decline in precipitation and/or drought events.

  12. For Tests That Are Predictively Powerful and without Social Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    In Philip Pullman's dark matter sci-fi trilogy, there is a golden compass that in the hands of the right person is predictively powerful; the same was supposed to be true of the SAT/ACT--the statistically indistinguishable standardized tests for college admissions. They were intended to be reliable mechanisms for identifying future trajectories,…

  13. An Integrated Children Disease Prediction Tool within a Special Social Network.

    PubMed

    Apostolova Trpkovska, Marika; Yildirim Yayilgan, Sule; Besimi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a social network with an integrated children disease prediction system developed by the use of the specially designed Children General Disease Ontology (CGDO). This ontology consists of children diseases and their relationship with symptoms and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL rules) that are specially designed for predicting diseases. The prediction process starts by filling data about the appeared signs and symptoms by the user which are after that mapped with the CGDO ontology. Once the data are mapped, the prediction results are presented. The phase of prediction executes the rules which extract the predicted disease details based on the SWRL rule specified. The motivation behind the development of this system is to spread knowledge about the children diseases and their symptoms in a very simple way using the specialized social networking website www.emama.mk. PMID:27071879

  14. An Integrated Children Disease Prediction Tool within a Special Social Network.

    PubMed

    Apostolova Trpkovska, Marika; Yildirim Yayilgan, Sule; Besimi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a social network with an integrated children disease prediction system developed by the use of the specially designed Children General Disease Ontology (CGDO). This ontology consists of children diseases and their relationship with symptoms and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL rules) that are specially designed for predicting diseases. The prediction process starts by filling data about the appeared signs and symptoms by the user which are after that mapped with the CGDO ontology. Once the data are mapped, the prediction results are presented. The phase of prediction executes the rules which extract the predicted disease details based on the SWRL rule specified. The motivation behind the development of this system is to spread knowledge about the children diseases and their symptoms in a very simple way using the specialized social networking website www.emama.mk.

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's cognitive and social agency: Predicting first-grade cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms predict children's low social and cognitive agency-low motivation to initiate social interaction and actively engage in activities. When mothers' depressive symptoms were high in infancy, children displayed poor first-grade cognitive functioning due to (a) tendencies to become socially withdrawn by 36 months and low in mastery motivation by 54 months and (b) tendencies for children's low agency to predict declines in mothers' sensitivity and cognitive stimulation. Findings suggest that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine cognitive development through bidirectional processes centered on children's low motivation to engage in social interaction and initiate and persist at everyday tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389834

  16. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  17. Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.

  18. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  19. Social Calls Predict Foraging Success in Big Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Animals foraging in the dark are simultaneously engaged in prey pursuit, collision avoidance and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient, non-visual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics [e.g., 1]. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls [e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5]. Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract [e.g., 6] or repel conspecifics [7] and could denote territoriality or food-claiming. Here, we provide evidence that a social call emitted only by male bats, exclusively in a foraging context [5], the “frequency-modulated bout” (FMB), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment, while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, inter-bat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat’s distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  20. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  1. Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-04-14

    Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g.,). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls (e.g.,). Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract (e.g.,) or repel conspecifics and could denote territoriality or food claiming. Here, we provide evidence that the "frequency-modulated bout" (FMB), a social call emitted only by male bats (exclusively in a foraging context), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, interbat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat's distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  2. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures.

  3. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  4. The predictive chameleon: evidence for anticipated social action.

    PubMed

    Genschow, Oliver; Brass, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that movement observation leads to an activation of a corresponding motor representation in the observer. Recent theoretical accounts have put forward the idea that such motor simulation serves an anticipatory function. In line with this assumption, the results from 2 experiments indicate that merely observing an event in someone else (e.g., nose wrinkling) triggers the anticipated action in the observer (e.g., nose scratching). Moreover, extending recent findings on ideomotor action, our second experiment suggests that this anticipated action effect is based on inferring the other person's desire to act. Thus, our research demonstrates the existence of a link between inferring another person's desire to move and the release of an action that matches this desire. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  5. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood. PMID:26267439

  8. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  9. Extending the theory of planned behavior: the role of self and social influences in predicting adolescent regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M

    2008-02-01

    The current study aimed to test the validity of an extended theory of planned behavior model (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), incorporating additional self and social influences, for predicting adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants (N = 423) completed an initial questionnaire that assessed the standard TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, as well as past behavior, self-identity, and the additional social influence variables of group norms, family social support, friends' social support, and social provisions. One week after completion of the main questionnaire, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed self-reported physical activity during the previous week. The standard TPB variable--past behavior, self-identity, and group norms, but not social support influences--predicted intentions, with intention, past behavior, and self-identity predicting behavior. Overall, the results provide support for an extended version of the TPB incorporating self-identity and those social influences linked explicitly to membership of a behaviorally relevant reference group. PMID:18369243

  10. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed.

  11. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:26569560

  12. Family and peer social support and their links to psychological distress among hurricane-exposed minority youth.

    PubMed

    Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F

    2014-07-01

    Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.

  13. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  14. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  15. Linking Social--Environmental Risk Factors with Aggression in Suburban Adolescents: The Role of Social--Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…

  16. Children's vagal regulatory capacity predicts attenuated sympathetic stress reactivity in a socially supportive context: evidence for a protective effect of the vagal system.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Brian C; Wadsworth, Martha E; Wilhelm, Frank H; Mauss, Iris B

    2012-05-01

    Social support and vagal regulatory capacity (VRC), an index of flexible vagal responses during various types of stress, are linked to attenuated stress responding and positive health outcomes. Guided by the polyvagal perspective, we tested whether children's VRC is associated with attenuated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity in socially supportive conditions. Sixty-one 4- to 5-year-old children living in poverty underwent two standardized laboratory stress induction procedures. Cardiac vagal reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) to a first set of stressors (social, cognitive, physical, and emotional) indexed VRC. During a second set of stressors, participants were randomly assigned to a supportive or nonsupportive social context, and cardiac sympathetic reactivity (preejection period) was assessed. We hypothesized VRC would predict lower SNS stress reactivity, but only in the socially supportive context. Children with high VRC showed attenuated SNS stress reactivity in the socially supportive context compared to children with high VRC in the nonsupportive context and children with low VRC in either context. Individual differences in VRC predict attenuated SNS stress reactivity in socially supportive conditions. Understanding how social support and VRC jointly mitigate SNS stress reactivity may further efforts to prevent negative health outcomes. Implications for biological sensitivity to context and differential susceptibility theories are discussed.

  17. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Cáceres, Daniel M.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-01

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change. PMID:21220325

  18. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  19. Examining a social reaction model in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM; Gerrard et al., 2008) is a modified dual-processing model designed to improve the predictive value of existing health risk behavior by suggesting that there are two pathways to health risk behaviors: a reasoned path that is mediated by behavioral intention and a social reaction path that is mediated by behavioral willingness. Although there is evidence supporting the social reaction path to risk behavior among adolescents, most of this work has focused on specific components of the pathway such as prototypes or willingness rather than looking at the entire social reaction pathway as a whole. As such, the primary goal of the present study was to determine whether the social reaction pathway has acceptable fit for a sample of adolescents using a longitudinal design. Results from 835 adolescents support the social reaction pathway of the PWM model when applied to adolescent alcohol use. Specifically, prototypes, perceived vulnerability, and norms predicted willingness to drink, which in turn predicted drinking behavior (drinks per week and peak number of drinks) over a period of 12months. As such, these findings suggest that the social reaction pathway of the PWM is applicable to adolescent drinkers, meaning that adolescent drinking behavior is based on a less planned and socially based decision process. PMID:27155242

  20. Emotional Experience Predicts Social Adjustment Independent of Neurocognition and Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Ivy F.; Grove, Tyler B.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Emotion abnormalities are prominent features of schizophrenia. While the capacity for emotions is essential to social adaptation, little is known about the role of emotional experience in the social dysfunction observed in schizophrenia. Objective This study examined the contribution of emotional experience, neurocognition, and social cognition to functional outcome in schizophrenia. Method Self-reported emotional experience (anhedonia, affect intensity, emotion frequency) was assessed in 33 stable schizophrenic/schizoaffective patients and 33 healthy controls. Symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcome were also assessed. Results Patients and controls exhibited good internal reliability on all self-report scales, except for negative affect intensity. Patients reported equally intense but less frequent positive emotions, more intense and frequent negative emotions, and more anhedonia. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that emotional experience accounted for significant amounts of variance of social adjustment independent of neurocognition and social cognition. Conclusion These data show that emotional experience can be reliably assessed and is an important determinant of functional outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:20051314

  1. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  2. Self-reported racism and social support predict blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the effects of perceived racism and social support (quantity and quality) on blood pressure reactivity. In a college sample of 64 Blacks (M age = 22.69 years, SD =6.60), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed before and during a standardized serial subtraction task. Perceptions of racism and the quantity and quality of social support were measured by self-report. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived racism and social support (neither quantity nor quality) were not independent predictors of SBP or DBP changes (ps >.05). These analyses did indicate that perceived racism interacted with the quantity of social support (p <.002, partial R2 =.175) and with the quality of social support (p <.0007, partial R2 =.195) to predict DBP changes. Perceived racism also interacted with the quantity of social support to predict changes in SBP (p <.02, partial R2 =.11). In general, whereas high social support was related to less marked blood pressure changes under conditions of low perceived racism, high social support was associated with exaggerated blood pressure changes under conditions of high perceived racism. These significant interaction effects persisted after statistically controlling for potential confounders. The findings highlight the importance of examining the joint contribution of real-world experiences and coping resources to blood pressure reactivity in Blacks.

  3. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Lansford, Jennifer E; Agoston, Anna M; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, and DPA. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: Peer victimization predicted social alienation, which then predicted DPA. Early externalizing behavior set this path in motion and made an independent contribution to DPA. This research identifies an important pathway through which externalizing behavior and consequent peer victimization launch children onto a risky social trajectory.

  5. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  6. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  7. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Gillian M; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  8. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  9. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  10. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children. PMID:26219261

  11. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment.

  12. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. PMID:25124381

  13. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P.; Coan, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress. PMID:25349459

  14. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marlen Z; Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P; Coan, James A

    2015-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress.

  15. The missing link: district nurses as social connection for older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between social connection and health is widely recognised. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the impact of district nursing care on social connection for people with a chronic illness such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using a mixed-method approach, an exploration of the perceptions of older people living in the community with T2DM regarding their health and social connections was carried out. Findings revealed a strong relationship between the clients and the district nurse. The district nurse is an important aspect of clients' social connection. For some clients where their social connection is limited, the district nurse is a central element. When the district nurse is the major social connection, problems can arise for the client, especially when they are being discharged or changes are made to their care.

  16. The Prospective Role of Cognitive Appraisals and Social Support in Predicting Children's Posttraumatic Stress.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Ellis, Alicia A; Williamson, Paul; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2015-11-01

    Although both social support and cognitive appraisals are strong predictors of children's posttraumatic adjustment, understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited. We assessed whether cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between social support and symptom development, as predicted by cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ninety seven children (Mean age = 12.08 years) were assessed at one month and six months following a single incident trauma. We administered self-report measures of cognitive appraisals, social support, and a diagnostic interview for PTSD. Results indicated that cognitive appraisals at one month post-trauma mediated the relationship between social support at one month post-trauma, and PTSD severity at follow-up. Differences in this relationship were observed between child-reported social support and parent-rated ability to provide support. Firm evidence was provided for the application of cognitive models of PTSD to children.

  17. Qualities of Peer Relations on Social Networking Websites: Predictions from Negative Mother-Teen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P

    2011-09-01

    This study examined associations between characteristics of teenagers' relationships with their mothers and their later socializing behavior and peer relationship quality online. At age 13, teenagers and their mothers participated in an interaction in which mothers' and adolescents' behavior undermining autonomy and relatedness was observed, and indicators of teens' depressive symptoms and social anxiety were assessed. At age 20, youth self-reported on their online behaviors, youths' social networking webpages were observationally coded to assess peer relationship quality online, and symptoms of depression and social anxiety were reassessed. Results suggested that problematic mother-teen relationships were predictive of youths' later preference for online communication and greater likelihood of forming a friendship with someone met online, yet poorer quality in online relationships. Findings are discussed within a developmental framework suggesting the importance of considering youths' family interactions during early adolescence as predictors of future online socializing behavior and online interactions with peers. PMID:21860584

  18. Social networks predict patch discovery in a wild population of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Aplin, L M; Farine, D R; Morand-Ferron, J; Sheldon, B C

    2012-10-22

    Animals use social information in a wide variety of contexts. Its extensive use by individuals to locate food patches has been documented in a number of species, and various mechanisms of discovery have been identified. However, less is known about whether individuals differ in their access to, and use of, social information to find food. We measured the social network of a wild population of three sympatric tit species (family Paridae) and then recorded individual discovery of novel food patches. By using recently developed methods for network-based diffusion analysis, we show that order of arrival at new food patches was predicted by social associations. Models based only on group searching did not explain this relationship. Furthermore, network position was correlated with likelihood of patch discovery, with central individuals more likely to locate and use novel foraging patches than those with limited social connections. These results demonstrate the utility of social network analysis as a method to investigate social information use, and suggest that the greater probability of receiving social information about new foraging patches confers a benefit on more socially connected individuals.

  19. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations during resting state predicts social well-being.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Social well-being represents primarily public phenomena, which is crucial for mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neural basis of this construct, especially how it is maintained during resting state. To explore the neural correlates of social well-being, this study correlated the regional fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) with social well-being of healthy individuals. The results revealed that the fALFF in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right thalamus and right insula positively predicted individual differences in social well-being. Furthermore, we demonstrated the different role of three pursuits of human well-being (i.e., pleasure, meaning and engagement) in these associations. Specifically, the pursuits of meaning and engagement, not pleasure mediated the effect of the fALFF in right pSTG on social well-being, whereas the pursuit of engagement mediated the effect of the fALFF in right thalamus on social well-being. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that spontaneous brain activity in multiple regions related to self-regulatory and social-cognitive processes contributes to social well-being, suggesting that the spontaneous activity of the human brain reflects the efficiency of social well-being.

  20. Fast Prediction of HCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network Linked to a Fluid Mechanics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Chen, J; Babaimopoulos, A

    2006-08-29

    We have developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based combustion model and have integrated it into a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) to produce a new analysis tool (titled KIVA3V-ANN) that can yield accurate HCCI predictions at very low computational cost. The neural network predicts ignition delay as a function of operating parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and residual gas fraction). KIVA3V-ANN keeps track of the time history of the ignition delay during the engine cycle to evaluate the ignition integral and predict ignition for each computational cell. After a cell ignites, chemistry becomes active, and a two-step chemical kinetic mechanism predicts composition and heat generation in the ignited cells. KIVA3V-ANN has been validated by comparison with isooctane HCCI experiments in two different engines. The neural network provides reasonable predictions for HCCI combustion and emissions that, although typically not as good as obtained with the more physically representative multi-zone model, are obtained at a much reduced computational cost. KIVA3V-ANN can perform reasonably accurate HCCI calculations while requiring only 10% more computational effort than a motored KIVA3V run. It is therefore considered a valuable tool for evaluation of engine maps or other performance analysis tasks requiring multiple individual runs.

  1. The prediction of preschool children's weight from family environment factors: gender-linked differences.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Line; Rinaldi, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to test an explanatory model predicting preschool girls' and boys' body weight from certain child variables (food intake, sedentary behaviors, and eating habits), as well as family variables (interaction during mealtime and level of family financial resources allocated to meeting children's eating needs). A randomized stratified subsample of parents was selected from a larger study (Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, QLSCD-1998-2002), with a breakdown of 581 girls and 611 boys of 4 years of age. Children's skin fold ratio, weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to parents (usually the mother). Using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for girls and boys, the family environment model of healthy weight development was tested. Results yielded a good fit of the model for both genders. For boys, significant predictors of body weight in the model were family food insecurity and conflicts during mealtime. Healthy eating was predicted by food insecurity, mealtime conflicts, and sedentary behaviors. Mealtime conflicts predicted sedentary behaviors. For girls, none of the variables predicted body weight, however food insecurity predicted less healthy eating. These results outline the importance of prevention and intervention within families with young children.

  2. High self-control protects the link between social support and positivity ratio for Israeli students exposed to contextual risk.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie

    2015-08-01

    This study examined how Israeli students, despite exposure to contextual risk factors, may experience a high ratio of self-reported positive to negative emotions (i.e., positivity ratio). Self-control skills and perceived social support were tested as protective factors, where each was posited to moderate the relation between risk status and positivity ratio. The participants were 460 Israeli students (51% girls) in grades 8-10. Contrary to expectations, students attending a school with high contextual risks did not differ from students attending a school with low contextual risks in their scores on self-control skills, perceived social support, or positivity ratio. However, an exploratory follow-up moderation analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction, indicating that while low self-control skills eliminate the link between social support and positivity ratio for students attending the school defined as at-risk, high self-control protects this link. These results suggest that neither contextual risk in itself nor initial differences in self-control or social support account for differences in students' positivity ratio. Rather, it is the way these factors interact with each other that matters. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  3. The role of socially prescribed perfectionism in the link between perceived racial discrimination and African American adolescents' depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Robinson, W LaVome; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-05-01

    Research examining the social origins of perfectionism has focused on negative evaluative experiences in the family, with less attention to negative social evaluations in other contexts and situations relevant for African American adolescents. The experience of racial discrimination is common for African American youth, and may trigger maladaptive perfectionistic beliefs if the youth perceive that they do not meet others' standards (socially prescribed perfectionism) or internalize discriminatory messages. Thus, the present study examined longitudinal associations among racial discrimination, socially prescribed perfectionism, and depressive symptoms among a community sample of urban and predominantly low income African American adolescents (n = 492; 46.7 % female). In each of grades 7, 8 and 9, participants reported their experiences with racial discrimination, perfectionistic beliefs, and depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that experiences with racial discrimination in grade 7 were associated with socially prescribed perfectionism in grade 8 which, in turn, was linked with depressive symptoms in grade 9. Results suggest that prospective associations between the experience of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms are due, in part, to increased socially prescribed perfectionism. Implications for interventions targeting depression in African American are discussed.

  4. Incorporating the Last Four Digits of Social Security Numbers Substantially Improves Linking Patient Data from De-identified Hospital Claims Databases

    PubMed Central

    Naessens, James M; Visscher, Sue L; Peterson, Stephanie M; Swanson, Kristi M; Johnson, Matthew G; Rahman, Parvez A; Schindler, Joe; Sonneborn, Mark; Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess algorithms for linking patients across de-identified databases without compromising confidentiality. Data Sources/Study Setting Hospital discharges from 11 Mayo Clinic hospitals during January 2008–September 2012 (assessment and validation data). Minnesota death certificates and hospital discharges from 2009 to 2012 for entire state (application data). Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for four linking algorithms tested by identifying readmissions and posthospital mortality on the assessment data with application to statewide data. Data Collection/Extraction Methods De-identified claims included patient gender, birthdate, and zip code. Assessment records were matched with institutional sources containing unique identifiers and the last four digits of Social Security number (SSNL4). Principal Findings Gender, birthdate, and five-digit zip code identified readmissions with a sensitivity of 98.0 percent and a PPV of 97.7 percent and identified postdischarge mortality with 84.4 percent sensitivity and 98.9 percent PPV. Inclusion of SSNL4 produced nearly perfect identification of readmissions and deaths. When applied statewide, regions bordering states with unavailable hospital discharge data had lower rates. Conclusion Addition of SSNL4 to administrative data, accompanied by appropriate data use and data release policies, can enable trusted repositories to link data with nearly perfect accuracy without compromising patient confidentiality. States maintaining centralized de-identified databases should add SSNL4 to data specifications. PMID:26073819

  5. Linking parental socialization to interpersonal protective processes, academic self-presentation, and expectations among rural African American youth.

    PubMed

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Shannon J; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through youth self-pride, which included racial identity and self-esteem, and through academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization to attain a better understanding of the ways in which these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride and academic orientation.

  6. A multi-label, semi-supervised classification approach applied to personality prediction in social media.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Carolina E S; de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2014-10-01

    Social media allow web users to create and share content pertaining to different subjects, exposing their activities, opinions, feelings and thoughts. In this context, online social media has attracted the interest of data scientists seeking to understand behaviours and trends, whilst collecting statistics for social sites. One potential application for these data is personality prediction, which aims to understand a user's behaviour within social media. Traditional personality prediction relies on users' profiles, their status updates, the messages they post, etc. Here, a personality prediction system for social media data is introduced that differs from most approaches in the literature, in that it works with groups of texts, instead of single texts, and does not take users' profiles into account. Also, the proposed approach extracts meta-attributes from texts and does not work directly with the content of the messages. The set of possible personality traits is taken from the Big Five model and allows the problem to be characterised as a multi-label classification task. The problem is then transformed into a set of five binary classification problems and solved by means of a semi-supervised learning approach, due to the difficulty in annotating the massive amounts of data generated in social media. In our implementation, the proposed system was trained with three well-known machine-learning algorithms, namely a Naïve Bayes classifier, a Support Vector Machine, and a Multilayer Perceptron neural network. The system was applied to predict the personality of Tweets taken from three datasets available in the literature, and resulted in an approximately 83% accurate prediction, with some of the personality traits presenting better individual classification rates than others.

  7. A multi-label, semi-supervised classification approach applied to personality prediction in social media.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Carolina E S; de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2014-10-01

    Social media allow web users to create and share content pertaining to different subjects, exposing their activities, opinions, feelings and thoughts. In this context, online social media has attracted the interest of data scientists seeking to understand behaviours and trends, whilst collecting statistics for social sites. One potential application for these data is personality prediction, which aims to understand a user's behaviour within social media. Traditional personality prediction relies on users' profiles, their status updates, the messages they post, etc. Here, a personality prediction system for social media data is introduced that differs from most approaches in the literature, in that it works with groups of texts, instead of single texts, and does not take users' profiles into account. Also, the proposed approach extracts meta-attributes from texts and does not work directly with the content of the messages. The set of possible personality traits is taken from the Big Five model and allows the problem to be characterised as a multi-label classification task. The problem is then transformed into a set of five binary classification problems and solved by means of a semi-supervised learning approach, due to the difficulty in annotating the massive amounts of data generated in social media. In our implementation, the proposed system was trained with three well-known machine-learning algorithms, namely a Naïve Bayes classifier, a Support Vector Machine, and a Multilayer Perceptron neural network. The system was applied to predict the personality of Tweets taken from three datasets available in the literature, and resulted in an approximately 83% accurate prediction, with some of the personality traits presenting better individual classification rates than others. PMID:24969690

  8. Making smart social judgments takes time: infants' recruitment of goal information when generating action predictions.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young infants perceive others' actions as structured by goals. One open question is whether the recruitment of this understanding when predicting others' actions imposes a cognitive challenge for young infants. The current study explored infants' ability to utilize their knowledge of others' goals to rapidly predict future behavior in complex social environments and distinguish goal-directed actions from other kinds of movements. Fifteen-month-olds (N = 40) viewed videos of an actor engaged in either a goal-directed (grasping) or an ambiguous (brushing the back of her hand) action on a Tobii eye-tracker. At test, critical elements of the scene were changed and infants' predictive fixations were examined to determine whether they relied on goal information to anticipate the actor's future behavior. Results revealed that infants reliably generated goal-based visual predictions for the grasping action, but not for the back-of-hand behavior. Moreover, response latencies were longer for goal-based predictions than for location-based predictions, suggesting that goal-based predictions are cognitively taxing. Analyses of areas of interest indicated that heightened attention to the overall scene, as opposed to specific patterns of attention, was the critical indicator of successful judgments regarding an actor's future goal-directed behavior. These findings shed light on the processes that support "smart" social behavior in infants, as it may be a challenge for young infants to use information about others' intentions to inform rapid predictions. PMID:24835053

  9. Optimal launch power prediction of a 100G PM-DQPSK dispersion-managed link with the Gaussian noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Telmo P.; Drummond, Miguel V.; Pavlović, Natasa B.; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2014-08-01

    Of all the non-linear fiber propagation models proposed over the years, the Gaussian Noise (GN) model is growing in popularity due to its simplicity and yet reliability when it comes to predict performance of uncompensated coherent transmission (UT) systems that rely on state-of-the art digital-signal processing (DSP) for dispersion compensation. However, many of the systems currently deployed rely on optical CD compensation. Overhauling or upgrading these systems with the most recent DSP is not always feasible. In this context, it is important to broad the range of the GNmodel to dispersion managed (DM) systems, so both scenarios can benefit from a low complexity, fast and reliable performance prediction tool. In this paper, we validate the first results comparing the performance in both accuracy and simulation time of the GN model simulating a realistic DM scenario that relies on periodical spans of non-dispersion shifted fiber (NDSF) to perform the dispersion compensation. The same realistic scenarios were modeled with commercial software and the GN model. The objective was to predict the optimal launch power for different link lengths, central wavelengths and channel spacing values. Preliminary results obtained with the GN model are in good agreement with the ones from the commercial software for several link distances tested up to 2400 Km.

  10. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings.

  11. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. PMID:26166191

  12. Popularity, Social Acceptance, and Aggression in Adolescent Peer Groups: Links with Academic Performance and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …

  13. Social Justice: The Missing Link in School Administrators' Perspectives on Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Portelli, John P.; Rottmann, Cindy; Pashby, Karen; Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Mujuwamariya, Donatille

    2012-01-01

    Critical scholars view schooling as one piece of a larger struggle for democracy and social justice. We investigated 41 school administrators' perceptions about the role and importance of equity, diversity and social justice in new teacher induction in the province of Ontario. Interviews reveal that principals were interested in shaping teacher…

  14. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  15. Stability and Change in Kindergartners' Friendships: Examination of Links with Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Marie-France; Poulin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in kindergartners' friendships were examined based on a typology of profiles (stable, fluid, loss, gain, friendless). Our purpose was to determine whether children belonging to the five profiles differed in their social functioning. The sample was composed of 2353 kindergartners. Reciprocal friendships and social functioning…

  16. Parent-Child Physical and Pretense Play: Links to Children's Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2000-01-01

    This study examined relationships between parent-child pretense and physical play and children's social competence. Observations suggest that mutually responsive parent-child interaction during both pretense and physical play is associated with children's social competence. Children's emotion knowledge was positively associated with social…

  17. AIDS Epidemic Spurs Social Scientists to Examine Behavior Linked to Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic is spurring social scientists to try to understand the social and sexual forces that spread the sexually transmitted disease, to learn how to change the personal behavior that makes up those forces, and to improve and prolong the lives of those who have the disease. (MLW)

  18. Modeling Contextual Effects in Developmental Research: Linking Theory and Method in the Study of Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    This special section was inspired by the recent increased interest and methodological advances in the assessment of context-specificity in child and adolescent social development. While the effects of groups, situations, and social relationships on cognitive, affective and behavioral development have long been acknowledged in theoretical…

  19. Linking Prevention Science and Social and Emotional Learning: The Oregon Resiliency Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the Oregon Resiliency Project, an effort to enhance positive social-emotional development of children and youth through social and emotional learning (SEL). The project was launched in 2001 as a collaborative effort between faculty and graduate student researchers at the University of Oregon. The primary…

  20. Linking Transformative Learning and Social Justice through the Lens of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal perceived sustainable behaviors, attitudes, and feelings related to racism and social justice of the graduates of the Social Justice Training Institute. Methodology: A descriptive methodology approach was used to collect data. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 35 graduates of the…

  1. Predicting detection limits of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and bioanalytical techniques in general.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyun; Garcia-D'Angeli, Alexa; Brennan, Joseph P; Huo, Qun

    2014-01-21

    The detection limit is one of the most important performance parameters for bioanalytical techniques. Here we present a generic method to estimate the detection limit of biomolecular assays based on a step-by-step analysis of the assay procedure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used here as an example; however, much of the information presented in this article may be applied to other types of biomolecular assays and analytical techniques. A clear understanding of what affects the detection limit can help researchers to evaluate different bio-analytical techniques properly, and to design better strategies to optimize and achieve the best analytical performance.

  2. Linking Law and Social Studies, Grades 9-12: An Interdisciplinary Approach with Social Studies, Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armancas-Fisher, Margaret; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers an interdisciplinary approach to law-related education (LRE) intended to assist teachers with introducing LRE into a variety of social studies courses. The guide begins with a definition of LRE, its objectives and methods, and its place in the general school curriculum. The introductory section includes a description…

  3. The Missing Link: Delayed Emotional Development Predicts Challenging Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behavior (CB). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the factors underlying CB in an adult, clinical ID sample (n = 203). Low levels of emotional development (ED), as measured by the "Scheme of Appraisal of ED," predicted overall CB, specifically…

  4. Prediction of preschool social behavior from social-emotional development at one year.

    PubMed

    Klein, R P; Durfee, J T

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to directly investigate later consequences of the early mother-infant relationship, several measures of social-emotional and cognitive-motivational development at 12 months of age were correlated with two measures of preschool adjustment for 26 children. Results indicated that both of our measures of early social functioning were related to more optimal adjustment in a peer-setting at three-and-a-half years of age. Taken together, the results of the study provide empirical support for the widely held, but seldom tested, hypothesis that the quality of the early mother-infant tie has important consequences for the child's subsequent development in most areas. PMID:421601

  5. What are the Links Between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children. PMID:24033572

  6. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  7. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host’s degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden. PMID:26915589

  8. Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioural inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these…

  9. Predicting Achievement in Mathematics in Adolescent Students: The Role of Individual and Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja; Socan, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    The study examined individual factors and social factors that influence adolescent students' achievement in mathematics. The predictive model suggested direct positive effects of student intelligence, self-rated openness and parental education on achievement in mathematics, whereas direct effects of extraversion on measures of achievement…

  10. Behavioral insights on big data: using social media for predicting biomedical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D

    2014-11-01

    Social media 'big data' can provide valuable insights about people's behaviors, such as their likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors or contracting a disease. Although in its infancy, advancing this research provides the promise of predicting health-related behaviors to promptly prepare for and respond to public health emergencies and epidemics. PMID:25438614

  11. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  12. Prediction of rain effects on earth-space communication links operating in the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, Warren L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of precipitation on earth-space communication links operating the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range. Emphasis is on the quantitative prediction of rain attenuation and depolarization. Discussions center on the models developed at Virginia Tech. Comments on other models are included as well as literature references to key works. Also included is the system level modeling for dual polarized communication systems with techniques for calculating antenna and propagation medium effects. Simple models for the calculation of average annual attenuation and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) are presented. Calculation of worst month statistics are also presented.

  13. Observing others stay or switch - How social prediction errors are integrated into reward reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Niklas; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2016-08-01

    Reward properties of stimuli can undergo sudden changes, and the detection of these 'reversals' is often made difficult by the probabilistic nature of rewards/punishments. Here we tested whether and how humans use social information (someone else's choices) to overcome uncertainty during reversal learning. We show a substantial social influence during reversal learning, which was modulated by the type of observed behavior. Participants frequently followed observed conservative choices (no switches after punishment) made by the (fictitious) other player but ignored impulsive choices (switches), even though the experiment was set up so that both types of response behavior would be similarly beneficial/detrimental (Study 1). Computational modeling showed that participants integrated the observed choices as a 'social prediction error' instead of ignoring or blindly following the other player. Modeling also confirmed higher learning rates for 'conservative' versus 'impulsive' social prediction errors. Importantly, this 'conservative bias' was boosted by interpersonal similarity, which in conjunction with the lack of effects observed in a non-social control experiment (Study 2) confirmed its social nature. A third study suggested that relative weighting of observed impulsive responses increased with increased volatility (frequency of reversals). Finally, simulations showed that in the present paradigm integrating social and reward information was not necessarily more adaptive to maximize earnings than learning from reward alone. Moreover, integrating social information increased accuracy only when conservative and impulsive choices were weighted similarly during learning. These findings suggest that to guide decisions in choice contexts that involve reward reversals humans utilize social cues conforming with their preconceptions more strongly than cues conflicting with them, especially when the other is similar. PMID:27128170

  14. The missing link: delayed emotional development predicts challenging behavior in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behavior (CB). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the factors underlying CB in an adult, clinical ID sample (n = 203). Low levels of emotional development (ED), as measured by the Scheme of Appraisal of ED, predicted overall CB, specifically irritability and self-injury, high unemployment and low occupation rates, while severity of ID controlled for ED did not. Autism was the only mental disorder associated with overall CB, stereotypy, lethargy, and predicted antipsychotic drug usage. Given the persistence and clinical significance of CB, evaluation of autism and ED may suggest priority areas for diagnostics and therapy, to provide the prerequisites for participation in society and living up one's potentials.

  15. Linking Nurses with Evidence-Based Information via Social Media Tools: An Analysis of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Carter-Templeton, Heather; Krishnamurthy, Mangala; Nelson, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Many health professional believe that social media tools can play a pivotal role in sharing and facilitating the use of evidence-based information with patients and other healthcare providers. By understanding how social media tools function, healthcare professionals can capitalize on these interactive platforms to improve the health of others. However, limited information exists to guide nurse educators in preparing healthcare professionals to engage patients or share evidence-based information among peers. The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent to which professional development programs using social media for sharing evidence-based information have reported their research and/or experience in the published literature. PMID:27332455

  16. The Social Modulation of Pain: Others as Predictive Signals of Salience – a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Charlotte; Springer, Anne; Weinman, John A.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in cognitive neuroscience have investigated the cognitive and affective modulation of pain. By contrast, fewer studies have focused on the social modulation of pain, despite a plethora of relevant clinical findings. Here we present the first review of experimental studies addressing how interpersonal factors, such as the presence, behavior, and spatial proximity of an observer, modulate pain. Based on a systematic literature search, we identified 26 studies on experimentally induced pain that manipulated different interpersonal variables and measured behavioral, physiological, and neural pain-related responses. We observed that the modulation of pain by interpersonal factors depended on (1) the degree to which the social partners were active or were perceived by the participants to possess possibility for action; (2) the degree to which participants could perceive the specific intentions of the social partners; (3) the type of pre-existing relationship between the social partner and the person in pain, and lastly, (4) individual differences in relating to others and coping styles. Based on these findings, we propose that the modulation of pain by social factors can be fruitfully understood in relation to a recent predictive coding model, the free energy framework, particularly as applied to interoception and social cognition. Specifically, we argue that interpersonal interactions during pain may function as social, predictive signals of contextual threat or safety and as such influence the salience of noxious stimuli. The perception of such interpersonal interactions may in turn depend on (a) prior beliefs about interpersonal relating and (b) the certainty or precision by which an interpersonal interaction may predict environmental threat or safety. PMID:23888136

  17. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  18. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments. PMID:19564610

  19. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills. PMID:26348613

  20. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  1. Considerations of Elder Sibling Closeness in Predicting Younger Sibling Substance Use: Social Learning versus Social Bonding Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080

  2. Can Tweets Predict Citations? Metrics of Social Impact Based on Twitter and Correlation with Traditional Metrics of Scientific Impact

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Citations in peer-reviewed articles and the impact factor are generally accepted measures of scientific impact. Web 2.0 tools such as Twitter, blogs or social bookmarking tools provide the possibility to construct innovative article-level or journal-level metrics to gauge impact and influence. However, the relationship of the these new metrics to traditional metrics such as citations is not known. Objective (1) To explore the feasibility of measuring social impact of and public attention to scholarly articles by analyzing buzz in social media, (2) to explore the dynamics, content, and timing of tweets relative to the publication of a scholarly article, and (3) to explore whether these metrics are sensitive and specific enough to predict highly cited articles. Methods Between July 2008 and November 2011, all tweets containing links to articles in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) were mined. For a subset of 1573 tweets about 55 articles published between issues 3/2009 and 2/2010, different metrics of social media impact were calculated and compared against subsequent citation data from Scopus and Google Scholar 17 to 29 months later. A heuristic to predict the top-cited articles in each issue through tweet metrics was validated. Results A total of 4208 tweets cited 286 distinct JMIR articles. The distribution of tweets over the first 30 days after article publication followed a power law (Zipf, Bradford, or Pareto distribution), with most tweets sent on the day when an article was published (1458/3318, 43.94% of all tweets in a 60-day period) or on the following day (528/3318, 15.9%), followed by a rapid decay. The Pearson correlations between tweetations and citations were moderate and statistically significant, with correlation coefficients ranging from .42 to .72 for the log-transformed Google Scholar citations, but were less clear for Scopus citations and rank correlations. A linear multivariate model with time and tweets as significant

  3. Plasma oxytocin levels predict social cue recognition in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Gold, James M; Frost, Katherine H; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  4. Pattern formation in a model for mountain pine beetle dispersal: linking model predictions to data.

    PubMed

    Strohm, S; Tyson, R C; Powell, J A

    2013-10-01

    Pattern formation occurs in a wide range of biological systems. This pattern formation can occur in mathematical models because of diffusion-driven instability or due to the interaction between reaction, diffusion, and chemotaxis. In this paper, we investigate the spatial pattern formation of attack clusters in a system for Mountain Pine Beetle. The pattern formation (aggregation) of the Mountain Pine Beetle in order to attack susceptible trees is crucial for their survival and reproduction. We use a reaction-diffusion equation with chemotaxis to model the interaction between Mountain Pine Beetle, Mountain Pine Beetle pheromones, and susceptible trees. Mathematical analysis is utilized to discover the spacing in-between beetle attacks on the susceptible landscape. The model predictions are verified by analysing aerial detection survey data of Mountain Pine Beetle Attack from the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. We find that the distance between Mountain Pine Beetle attack clusters predicted by our model closely corresponds to the observed attack data in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. These results clarify the spatial mechanisms controlling the transition from incipient to epidemic populations and may lead to control measures which protect forests from Mountain Pine Beetle outbreak.

  5. Predictive factors of diabetic complications: a possible link between family history of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was assessment of predictive factors of diabetic retinopathy. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed by recruiting 1228 type 2 diabetic patients from a diabetes referral clinic over a six-month period (from July to December, 2012). Diabetes risk factors, complications, laboratory results have been recorded. Results Of the 1228 diabetic patients (54% women, mean age 58.48 ± 9.94 years), prevalence of diabetes retinopathy was 26.6%. There were significant associations between retinopathy and family history of diabetes (p = 0.04), hypertension (p = 0.0001), diabetic duration (p = 0.0001), poor glycemic control (p = 0.0001) and age of onset of diabetes (p = 0.0001). However, no significant associations were found between retinopathy with dyslipidemia and obesity. In logistic regression model, poor glycemic control (p = 0.014), hypertension (p = 0.0001), duration of diabetes (p = 0.0001) and family history of diabetes (p = 0.012) independently predicted retinopathy after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusions Diabetic complications are resulting from an interaction from genes and environmental factors. A family history of diabetes is pointing toward a possible genetic and epigenetic basis for diabetic retinopathy. Our findings suggest the role of epigenetic modifications and metabolic memory in diabetic retinopathy in subjects with family history of diabetes. PMID:24860795

  6. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success. PMID:17183795

  7. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success.

  8. Parent-child relationship quality moderates the link between marital conflict and adolescents' physiological responses to social evaluative threat.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    This study examined how marital conflict and parent-child relationship quality moderate individual differences in adolescents' adrenocortical and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to social evaluative threat. Saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase, sAA) were collected from 153 youth (52% female; ages 10-17 years) before and after, and cardiovascular activity was assessed before and during, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Marital conflict predicted higher levels of sAA reactivity but lower levels of heart rate (HR) reactivity. Parent-child relationship quality moderated these associations, such that marital conflict was more strongly related to heightened sAA and dampened SBP reactivity if youth had low-quality relationships with their parents. The findings suggest a "dual-hazard" pathway with implications for biosocial models of the family, as well as theories of the social determinants of biological sensitivity/susceptibility to context.

  9. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. PMID:25586915

  10. Exploring the World of Sports. Linking Fiction to Nonfiction. Literature Bridges to Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Phyllis J.

    This book is designed to help elementary teachers plan an integrated unit of study involving sports. It links popular fiction titles on the topic of sports to related nonfiction titles that will fascinate young readers and build their knowledge across the curriculum. The book includes suggestions for individual, small group, and large group…

  11. Conversations with Siblings and with Friends: Links between Relationship Quality and Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Alexandra L.; Dunn, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates features of interaction between children that are linked to the development of understanding of mind, and asks whether these associations are evident across different relationships. Comparisons are made of the naturally occurring conversations in a sample of 43 4-year-old children, each observed with a sibling and with a…

  12. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.

  13. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. PMID:25258563

  14. SI-SHY: Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioral inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these outcomes. The current study further advances these areas by examining whether protective parenting mediated the relation between dysregulated fear in toddlerhood and social withdrawal in kindergarten. Participants included 93 toddlers and their mothers, who engaged in laboratory tasks assessing traditional fearful temperament, dysregulated fear, and protective parenting. When children reached kindergarten, they returned to the laboratory for a multimethod assessment of social withdrawal. Results confirmed the hypothesis that dysregulated fear predicted social withdrawal through protective parenting, and this occurred above and beyond the effect of traditional fearful temperament. These findings bolster support for the use of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct related to, but perhaps more discerning of risk than traditionally measured fearful temperament/behavioral inhibition and highlight the importance of transactional influences between the individual and the caregiving environment in the development of social withdrawal. PMID:25242893

  15. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Arginine vasotocin, isotocin and nonapeptide receptor gene expression link to social status and aggression in sex-dependent patterns.

    PubMed

    Lema, S C; Sanders, K E; Walti, K A

    2015-02-01

    Nonapeptide hormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin family regulate social behaviours. In mammals and birds, variation in behaviour also is linked to expression patterns of the V1a-type receptor and the oxytocin/mesotocin receptor in the brain. Genome duplications, however, expand the diversity of nonapeptide receptors in actinopterygian fishes, and two distinct V1a-type receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) for vasotocin, as well as at least two V2-type receptors (v2a and v2b), have been identified in these taxa. The present study investigates how aggression connected to social status relates to the abundance patterns of gene transcripts encoding four vasotocin receptors, an isotocin receptor (itr), pro-vasotocin (proVT) and pro-isotocin (proIT) in the brain of the pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae. Sexually-mature pupfish were maintained in mixed-sex social groups and assessed for individual variation in aggressive behaviours. Males in these groups behaved more aggressively than females, and larger fish exhibited higher aggression relative to smaller fish of the same sex. Hypothalamic proVT transcript abundance was elevated in dominant males compared to subordinate males, and correlated positively with individual variation in aggression in both social classes. Transcripts encoding vasotocin receptor v1a1 were at higher levels in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of socially subordinate males than dominant males. Dominant males exhibited elevated hypothalamic v1a2 receptor transcript abundance relative to subordinate males and females, and telencephalic v1a2 mRNA abundance in dominant males was also associated positively with individual aggressiveness. Transcripts in the telencephalon encoding itr were elevated in females relative to males, and both telencephalic proIT and hypothalamic itr transcript abundance varied with female social status. Taken together, these data link hypothalamic proVT expression to aggression and implicate forebrain expression of the V1a

  17. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. PMID:26163713

  18. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations. PMID:26720584

  19. Promoting breastfeeding in Bolivia: do social networks add to the predictive value of traditional socioeconomic characteristics?

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Becker, Fannie; Valente, Thomas W

    2006-03-01

    This study tested whether the prediction of health-related knowledge (correct breastfeeding practices in this case) could be improved by including information about the composition of an individual's personal network above and beyond that predicted by his/her socioeconomic or demographic characteristics. Few studies have tested the predictive value of social networks, especially for population-based studies, despite an increased use of social networks in the past few years in several fields of health research, especially in research relating to prevention of HIV/AIDS and design of HIV/AIDS programmes. Promotion of breastfeeding practices that enhance child survival is important in Bolivia because of high infant morbidity and mortality in the country. Data on a cross-sectional urban probability sample of 2,354 women and men aged 15-49 years were collected from seven urban areas in Bolivia. Model building and the log likelihood ratio criteria were used for assessing the significance of variables in a logistic model. Results showed that the network variables added significantly (p < 0.05 for knowledge of breastfeeding only with no other liquids and for knowledge of breastfeeding only with no solids p < 0.01) to the predictive power of the socioeconomic variables. These results may also hold for other health research areas, increasingly using social network analysis, such as that of HIV/AIDS.

  20. Structure-based comparative analysis and prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Phuc Vinh Nguyen; Goldman, Radoslav; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Narsule, Tejas; Simonyan, Vahan; Soika, Valerii; Mazumder, Raja

    2013-04-01

    The asparagine-X-serine/threonine (NXS/T) motif, where X is any amino acid except proline, is the consensus motif for N-linked glycosylation. Significant numbers of high-resolution crystal structures of glycosylated proteins allow us to carry out structural analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites (NGS). Our analysis shows that there is enough structural information from diverse glycoproteins to allow the development of rules which can be used to predict NGS. A Python-based tool was developed to investigate asparagines implicated in N-glycosylation in five species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis shows that 78% of all asparagines of NXS/T motif involved in N-glycosylation are localized in the loop/turn conformation in the human proteome. Similar distribution was revealed for all the other species examined. Comparative analysis of the occurrence of NXS/T motifs not known to be glycosylated and their reverse sequence (S/TXN) shows a similar distribution across the secondary structural elements, indicating that the NXS/T motif in itself is not biologically relevant. Based on our analysis, we have defined rules to determine NGS. Using machine learning methods based on these rules we can predict with 93% accuracy if a particular site will be glycosylated. If structural information is not available the tool uses structural prediction results resulting in 74% accuracy. The tool was used to identify glycosylation sites in 108 human proteins with structures and 2247 proteins without structures that have acquired NXS/T site/s due to non-synonymous variation. The tool, Structure Feature Analysis Tool (SFAT), is freely available to the public at http://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu/tools/sfat. PMID:23459159

  1. Situations matter: teaching the Lewinian link between social psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Dana S

    2011-11-01

    A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.

  2. [Psychological and social factors predictive of loneliness: a cognitive and behavioral approach].

    PubMed

    Badoux-Levy, A; Robin, M; Lavarde, A-M; Grygielski, V

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the psychological and social mechanisms leading to loneliness. Based on cognitive and behavioral approaches developed in health psychology, we tested several models that might allow one to predict certain determinants of the feeling of loneliness. Included in the study were 45 individuals suffering from loneliness who had come to one of several Centres Thérapeutiques de Lutte contre l'Isolement "Recherche et Rencontres". The subjects were asked to respond to four scales: the UCLA loneliness scale, Cattell's 16 PF 5 personality scale, Sherbourne and Stewart's social support scale, and Lazarus and Folkman's Ways of Coping Checklist. The present results confirm the previously reported deficit of social support perceived by subjects in this population. Concerning their personality, this population sample falls outside national norms in 7 dimensions: compared to the general population, the socially isolated individual appears essentially to be introverted and anxious, emotionally unstable, avoiding conflicts, timid and ill at ease in the company of -others, imaginative and distracted. To face up to their feeling of loneliness, they have a tendency to use coping styles such as "keep it to yourself" and "wishful thinking". On the other hand, they resort very little to social support. Among the pertinent variables, 5 predictive factors were recognized, and they could explain 51% of the variance in the feeling of loneliness: they include the global score of perceived social support, coping strategies focussed around wishful thinking, coping strategies that avoid resort to social support, personality traits of imaginativeness and absent-mindedness, and an introverted personality. Three predictors contributed independently to the model: absence of resort to social support, the use of wishful thinking, and the imaginative-distracted personality trait. We likewise found evidence for a mediator role of the absence of resort to

  3. Aging- and task-related resilience decline is linked to food responsiveness in highly social honey bees.

    PubMed

    Speth, Martin T; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V; Münch, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Conventional invertebrate models of aging have provided striking examples for the influence of food- and nutrient-sensing on lifespan and stress resilience. On the other hand, studies in highly social insects, such as honey bees, have revealed how social context can shape very plastic life-history traits, for example flexible aging dynamics in the helper caste (workers). It is, however, not understood how food perception and stress resilience are connected in honey bee workers with different social task behaviors and aging dynamics. To explore this linkage, we tested if starvation resilience, which normally declines with age, depends on food responsiveness in honey bees. We studied two typically non-senesced groups of worker bees with different social task behaviors: mature nurses (caregivers) and mature foragers (food collectors). In addition, we included a group of old foragers for which functional senescence is well-established. Bees were individually scored for their food perception by measuring the gustatory response to different sucrose concentrations. Subsequently, individuals were tested for survival under starvation stress. We found that starvation stress resilience, but not gustatory responsiveness differed between workers with different social task behaviors (mature nurses vs. mature foragers). In addition starvation stress resilience differed between foragers with different aging progressions (mature foragers vs. old foragers). Control experiments confirmed that differences in starvation resilience between mature nurses and mature foragers were robust against changing experimental conditions, such as water provision and activity. For all worker groups we established that individuals with low gustatory responsiveness were more resilient to starvation stress. Finally, for the group of rapidly aging foragers we found that low food responsiveness was linked to a delayed age-related decline in starvation resilience. Our study highlights associations between

  4. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves. PMID:25385010

  5. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves.

  6. Modeling evapotranspiration based on plant hydraulic theory can predict spatial variability across an elevation gradient and link to biogeochemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Frank, J.; Reed, D.; Whitehouse, F.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Massman, W. J.; Sperry, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    In woody plant systems transpiration is often the dominant component of total evapotranspiration, and so it is key to understanding water and energy cycles. Moreover, transpiration is tightly coupled to carbon and nutrient fluxes, and so it is also vital to understanding spatial variability of biogeochemical fluxes. However, the spatial variability of transpiration and its links to biogeochemical fluxes, within- and among-ecosystems, has been a challenge to constrain because of complex feedbacks between physical and biological controls. Plant hydraulics provides an emerging theory with the rigor needed to develop testable hypotheses and build useful models for scaling these coupled fluxes from individual plants to regional scales. This theory predicts that vegetative controls over water, energy, carbon, and nutrient fluxes can be determined from the limitation of plant water transport through the soil-xylem-stomata pathway. Limits to plant water transport can be predicted from measurable plant structure and function (e.g., vulnerability to cavitation). We present a next-generation coupled transpiration-biogeochemistry model based on this emerging theory. The model, TREEScav, is capable of predicting transpiration, along with carbon and nutrient flows, constrained by plant structure and function. The model incorporates tightly coupled mechanisms of the demand and supply of water through the soil-xylem-stomata system, with the feedbacks to photosynthesis and utilizable carbohydrates. The model is evaluated by testing it against transpiration and carbon flux data along an elevation gradient of woody plants comprising sagebrush steppe, mid-elevation lodgepole pine forests, and subalpine spruce/fir forests in the Rocky Mountains. The model accurately predicts transpiration and carbon fluxes as measured from gas exchange, sap flux, and eddy covariance towers. The results of this work demonstrate that credible spatial predictions of transpiration and related

  7. Career Guidance in Unstable Times: Linking Economic, Social and Individual Benefits. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that peaked in 2009 sent shockwaves that will be felt for years to come. It affected businesses, increased social risk for many and destabilised job and career prospects. Young people, particularly, have been badly affected. They are suffering the highest unemployment rates and their prospects have been damaged most. But,…

  8. Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs Linked to Social Anxiety in Stuttering: Development of a Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clare, Tamsen; Menzies, Ross G.; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Thompson, Robyn; Block, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Those who stutter have a proclivity to social anxiety. Yet, to date, there is no comprehensive measure of thoughts and beliefs about stuttering that represent the cognitions associated with that anxiety. Aims: The present paper describes the development of a measure to assess unhelpful thoughts and beliefs about stuttering. Methods &…

  9. Children's Self-Reports about Anger Regulation: Direct and Indirect Links to Social Preference and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Karen F.; And Others

    2002-01-01

    Assessed direct relations between three aspects of self-reported anger regulation and peer-rated social preference and aggression as well as indirect relations between these constructs as mediated by observed anger expression. Interviewed 274 second-graders following anger-arousing games. Found that anger regulation was only indirectly related to…

  10. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  11. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C.; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Coons, Michael J.; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22 419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  12. Cognitive and social lifestyle: links with neuropathology and cognition in late life.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David A; Arnold, Steven E; Valenzuela, Michael J; Brayne, Carol; Schneider, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many studies report an association of cognitive and social experiential factors and related traits with dementia risk. Further, many clinical-pathologic studies find a poor correspondence between levels of neuropathology and the presence of dementia and level of cognitive impairment. The poor correspondence suggests that other factors contribute to the maintenance or loss of cognitive function, with factors associated with the maintenance of function referred to as neural or cognitive reserve. This has led investigators to examine the associations of cognitive and social experiential factors with neuropathology as a first step in disentangling the complex associations between these experiential risk factors, neuropathology, and cognitive impairment. Despite the consistent associations of a range of cognitive and social lifestyle factors with cognitive decline and dementia risk, the extant clinical-pathologic data find only a single factor from one cohort, linguistic ability, related to AD pathology. Other factors, including education, harm avoidance, and emotional neglect, are associated with cerebrovascular disease. Overall, the associations are weak. Some factors, such as education, social networks, and purpose in life, modify the relation of neuropathology to cognition. Finally, some factors such as cognitive activity appear to bypass known pathologies altogether suggesting a more direct association with biologic indices that promote person-specific differences in reserve and resilience. Future work will first need to replicate findings across more studies to ensure the veracity of the existing data. Second, effort is needed to identify the molecular substrates of neural reserve as potential mediators of the association of lifestyle factors with cognition.

  13. Human Resource Development, Social Capital, Emotional Intelligence: Any Link to Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kit; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a theoretical framework that attempts to show the integration among human resource development (HRD), social capital (SC), emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational productivity. Design/methodology/approach: The literature search included the following: a computerized search of accessible and available…

  14. Links between Different Measures of Mother/Father Involvement and Child Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeau, Diane; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The relative integration of fathers into the parental unit clearly poses numerous conceptual and methodological challenges despite the considerable progress that has been made in this area. Important social changes that have occurred over a relatively short period of time have resulted in a redefinition of parental roles which supports the…

  15. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes.

  16. Linking Social Gerontology with Quantitative Skills: A Class Project Using U.S. Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Christine L.; Caffrey, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how social gerontologists and researchers attempt to integrate accurate and emphasizing techniques about age related phenomena into their curricula. Focuses on quantitative and critical thinking skills used to manipulate raw data in a class census project. Concludes students were encouraged to use information and facts to make…

  17. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  18. Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deasy, Richard J., Ed.

    Two purposes of this compendium are: (1) to recommend to researchers and funders of research promising lines of inquiry and study suggested by recent, strong studies of the academic and social effects of learning in the arts; and (2) to provide designers of arts education curriculum and instruction with insights found in the research that suggest…

  19. Link or Breach? The Role of Trust in Developing Social Capital within a Family Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article examines survey and focus group transcripts of a well-established early years literacy project in Scotland in light of contextual information about changing local authority policy in order to look at the gains in social capital identified by participants and the extent to which these indicate lasting durable change that will reap…

  20. Social Consciousness and Career Awareness: Emerging Link in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, John S., Jr.

    This digest summarizes a full length report of the same title (HE 024 794) which discusses contemporary college students' apparent lack of understanding of citizenship and how it relates to positive career pursuits. A proposal is made to make students more aware of both the need for and the benefit of socially responsible citizens, and for…

  1. Pretend and Physical Play: Links to Preschoolers' Affective Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated different forms of pretend and physical play as predictors of preschool children's "affective social competence" (ASC). Data were collected from 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity) over a 2-year period. Children participated…

  2. Links between Co-Occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…

  3. Children in the Urban Environment. Linking Social Policy and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Norma Kolko, Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    The 12 chapters of this volume offer a comprehensive portrait of today's children and their challenging urban environments. The opportunities and obstacles that confront children are examined in detail, and key social problems are discussed in the following contributions: (1) "Growing Up in the Urban Environment: Opportunities and Obstacles for…

  4. Intra- and Interracial Best Friendships during Middle School: Links to Social and Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Rebecca Kang; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined patterns of intra- and interracial best friendships during middle school and their associations with social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that intraracial friendships would be beneficial for racial or ethnic minority youth because such relationships provide protection and solidarity in a discriminatory society.…

  5. Ice and Sand: Linking the Sandbox to Geographic Features in Elementary Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers are an excellent subject for elementary social studies classes. Their effects are easy for students to model with inexpensive teaching supplies, such as sand and ice. Students can conduct research nationally with virtual field trips or locally with real field trips. The models and research can be used as starting point for a discussion of…

  6. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  7. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  8. In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crethar, Hugh C.; Rivera, Edil Torres; Nash, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Multicultural, feminist, and social justice counseling theories are often viewed as disparate helping models. This article examines the complementary nature of these models and discusses the need to promote a clearer understanding of the ways in which these common threads can be used in counseling practice.

  9. Feedback as Dialogue: Exploring the Links between Formative Assessment and Social Software in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; Warburton, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between formative assessment and social software. Formative assessment practices though beneficial for student learning become marginalised and constrained in open and distance learning environments in higher education. Feedback is a key factor in formative assessment and learners can benefit from the deployment…

  10. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  11. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  12. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain.

  13. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

  14. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.

    PubMed

    Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  15. The Generalization of Attachment Representations to New Social Situations: Predicting Behavior during Initial Interactions with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents’ initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N = 135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in two social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:19025297

  16. Social Competence and Parental Support as Mediators of the Link between Stress and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Measured metabolic control, adherence, life stress, social competence, and parental support in adolescents (N=104) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Found that stress was directly associated with metabolic control, independent of the link between adherence and metabolic control. Social competence buffered negative association between…

  17. Phencyclidine in the social interaction test: an animal model of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug that can mimic several aspects of the schizophrenic symptomatology in healthy volunteers. In a series of studies PCP was administered to rats to determine whether it was possible to develop an animal model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The rats were tested in the social interaction test and it was found that PCP dose-dependently induces stereotyped behaviour and social withdrawal, which may correspond to certain aspects of the positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The effects of PCP could be reduced selectively by antipsychotic drug treatment, whereas drugs lacking antipsychotic effects did not alleviate the PCP-induced behaviours. Together these findings indicate that PCP effects in the rat social interaction test may be a model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity and that it may be useful for the evaluation of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  18. Social bonds and change during incarceration: testing a missing link in the reentry research.

    PubMed

    Rocque, Michael; Bierie, David M; MacKenzie, Doris L

    2011-08-01

    Research examining prisoner reentry has demonstrated negative impacts of incarceration on social bonds. However, this research is limited in two ways. First, it generally examines outcomes after release, paying less attention to processes occurring in prison. Second, this work tends to examine "incarceration" as a whole, regarding prisons as homogenous. This study uses data from an experiment in which offenders were randomly assigned to incarceration at one of two prisons polarized across a number of structural characteristics that research suggests affect social bonds (a traditional prison vs. a correctional boot camp). Groups were compared with respect to commitment, belief, attachment, and in terms of changes among their relationships during incarceration. The data showed that the boot camp improved prosocial beliefs, but few differences emerged in terms of commitment and attachment. Similarly, the data showed few differences in attachment regardless of the prosocial or antisocial orientation of the inmate's friends or family.

  19. Interoception, emotion and brain: new insights link internal physiology to social behaviour. Commentary on:

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue, Terasawa and colleagues used functional neuroimaging to test for common neural substrates supporting conscious appraisal of subjective bodily and emotional states and explored how the relationship might account for personality and experience of anxiety symptoms. Their study highlights a role for the same region of anterior insula cortex in appraisal of emotions and bodily physiology. The reactivity of this region also mediated the relationship between ‘bodily sensibility’ and social fear, translating a cognitive representation of subjective physical state into an individual personality trait that influences social interaction. The task used by Terasawa and colleagues taps into conscious aspects to the expression of this dynamic. These findings add to increasing evidence for the role of anterior insula as the interface between physiologically driven internal motivational states, emotional awareness and interpersonal behaviour. PMID:23482658

  20. Physical and Behavioral Measures that Predict Cats’ Socialization in an Animal Shelter Environment during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Drain, Natasha; Makolinski, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Information from surveys completed by the cats’ caregivers provided a score for the level of socialization of cats. We examined the effectiveness of structured assessments and measures in their ability to distinguish More and Less Socialized cats in a shelter-like setting over a three day period. Statistical models were developed that best predicted More and Less Socialized cats. Measures from these models were used to calculate a point system where more points indicated more socialization. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately distinguish More Socialized from Less Socialized cats. Abstract Animal welfare organizations typically take in cats with unknown levels of socialization towards humans, ranging from unsocialized cats well-socialized but lost pets. Agencies typically determine the socialization status and disposition options of cats within three days, when even a well-socialized pet may be too frightened of the unfamiliar surroundings to display its typical behavior. This is the third part of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate a reliable and valid tool to predict cats’ socialization levels. We recruited cats from the full spectrum of socialization and, using information from the cats’ caregivers regarding typical behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar people, assigned each cat to a Socialization Category. This information was compared to the cats’ behavior during three days of structured assessments conducted in a shelter-like setting. The results of logistic regression modeling generated two models using assessments from the mornings of the second and third day, focusing on predicting shyer or more aloof but socialized cats. Using the coefficients from each of these models, two sets of points were calculated which were useful in differentiating More and Less Socialized cats. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately identify

  1. Virtual reality experiments linking social environment and psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Veling, Wim; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Dorrestijn, Emily; van der Gaag, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Initial studies with healthy subjects and individuals with high risk for psychosis have suggested that virtual reality (VR) environments may be used to investigate social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis. One small study reported that VR can safely be used in individuals with current persecutory delusions. The present pilot study investigated the feasibility and potential negative side effects of exposure to different virtual social risk environments in patients with first episode psychosis and in healthy controls. Seventeen patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) and 24 healthy control subjects (HC) participated in four virtual experiments during which they walked for 3.5-4 minutes in a virtual café, looking for avatars with digits on their clothing. The level of paranoid thoughts, as well as psychological, physiological, and behavioral correlates of paranoid thoughts, were measured in different virtual social risk environments, manipulating two factors: population density and ethnicity of avatars. FEP and HC frequently had paranoid thoughts about avatars. Paranoia in the real world correlated strongly with paranoid thoughts about avatars in virtual environments (Spearman's ρ=0.67 and 0.54 in FEP and HC respectively, p<0.01). FEP kept a smaller distance to avatars than HC. In FEP, but not in HC, galvanic skin response was significantly stronger in virtual environments with avatars of other ethnicity than in the own ethnicity condition. These results suggest that VR is an acceptable and sufficiently realistic method to use in patients with first episode psychosis. VR research may help to increase our understanding of the social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis and to develop new treatment applications.

  2. Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct) = 300) and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs. PMID:24146888

  3. Defining the Social Phenotype in Williams Syndrome: A Model for Linking Gene, the Brain, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Bellugi, Ursula; Reilly, Judy; Mills, Debra L.; Galaburda, Albert; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Research into phenotype-genotype correlations in neurodevelopmental disorders has greatly elucidated the contribution of genetic and neurobiological factors to variations in typical and atypical development. Etiologically relatively homogeneous disorders, such as Williams syndrome (WS), provide unique opportunities for elucidating gene-brain-behavior relationships. WS is a neurogenetic disorder, caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. This results in a cascade of physical, cognitive-behavioral, affective, and neurobiological aberrations. WS is associated with a markedly uneven neurocognitive profile, and the mature state cognitive profile of WS is relatively well developed. Although anecdotally, individuals with WS have been frequently described as unusually friendly and sociable, personality remains a considerably less well-studied area. This paper investigates genetic influences, cognitive-behavioral characteristics, aberrations in brain structure and function, and environmental and biological variables that influence the social outcomes of individuals with WS. We bring together a series of findings across multiple levels of scientific enquiry to examine the social phenotype in WS, reflecting the journey from gene to the brain to behavior. Understanding the complex multilevel scientific perspective in WS has implications for understanding typical social development by identifying important developmental events and markers, as well as helping to define the boundaries of psychopathology. PMID:18211726

  4. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A C; Cunningham, C B; Ruff, J S; Potts, W K

    2015-06-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odours of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behaviour, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analysing expression levels before, during and after competition for reproductive resources over 3 days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species.

  5. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  6. Tipping Points in Adolescent Adjustment: Predicting Social Functioning from Adolescents’ Conflict with Parents and Friends

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461

  7. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.

  8. Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  9. Do Patient Characteristics Predict Outcome of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Wiltink, Jörg; Hoyer, Jürgen; Beutel, Manfred E.; Ruckes, Christian; Herpertz, Stephan; Joraschky, Peter; Koranyi, Susan; Michal, Matthias; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Salzer, Simone; Strauss, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about patient characteristics as predictors for outcome in manualized short term psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT). No study has addressed which patient variables predict outcome of PDT for social anxiety disorder. Research Design and Methods In the largest multicenter trial on psychotherapy of social anxiety (SA) to date comparing cognitive therapy, PDT and wait list condition N = 230 patients were assigned to receive PDT, of which N = 166 completed treatment. Treatment outcome was assessed based on diverse parameters such as endstate functioning, remission, response, and drop-out. The relationship between patient characteristics (demographic variables, mental co-morbidity, personality, interpersonal problems) and outcome was analysed using logistic and linear regressions. Results Pre-treatment SA predicted up to 39 percent of variance of outcome. Only few additional baseline characteristics predicted better treatment outcome (namely, lower comorbidity and interpersonal problems) with a limited proportion of incremental variance (5.5 to 10 percent), while, e.g., shame, self-esteem or harm avoidance did not. Conclusions We argue that the central importance of pre-treatment symptom severity for predicting outcomes should advocate alternative treatment strategies (e.g. longer treatments, combination of psychotherapy and medication) in those who are most disturbed. Given the relatively small amount of variance explained by the other patient characteristics, process variables and patient-therapist interaction should additionally be taken into account in future research. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN53517394 PMID:26785255

  10. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent’s drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment. PMID:25284922

  11. Neural circuits underlying mother’s voice perception predict social communication abilities in children

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M.; Baker, Amanda E.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child’s life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother’s voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother’s voice or whether this brain activity is related to children’s social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother’s voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother’s voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  12. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (<1 s) nonsense words produced by their biological mother and two female control voices and explored relationships between speech-evoked neural activity and social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired. PMID:27185915

  13. "A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers": Correction to Levy et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Reports an error in "A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers" by Becca R. Levy, Luigi Ferrucci, Alan B. Zonderman, Martin D. Slade, Juan Troncoso and Susan M. Resnick (Psychology and Aging, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 7, 2015, np). In the article, the correct analyses were reported for bootstrapping; however, the sizes of the bootstrapping samples for Studies 1 and 2 were reversed. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-54839-001.) Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Highly Predictive Reprogramming of tRNA Modifications Is Linked to Selective Expression of Codon-Biased Genes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cells respond to stress by controlling gene expression at several levels, with little known about the role of translation. Here, we demonstrate a coordinated translational stress response system involving stress-specific reprogramming of tRNA wobble modifications that leads to selective translation of codon-biased mRNAs representing different classes of critical response proteins. In budding yeast exposed to four oxidants and five alkylating agents, tRNA modification patterns accurately distinguished among chemically similar stressors, with 14 modified ribonucleosides forming the basis for a data-driven model that predicts toxicant chemistry with >80% sensitivity and specificity. tRNA modification subpatterns also distinguish SN1 from SN2 alkylating agents, with SN2-induced increases in m3C in tRNA mechanistically linked to selective translation of threonine-rich membrane proteins from genes enriched with ACC and ACT degenerate codons for threonine. These results establish tRNA modifications as predictive biomarkers of exposure and illustrate a novel regulatory mechanism for translational control of cell stress response. PMID:25772370

  15. The genetics of loneliness: linking evolutionary theory to genome-wide genetics, epigenetics, and social science.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Luc; van Roekel, Eeske; Verhagen, Maaike; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Maes, Marlies; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-03-01

    As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notion that these genes are related to loneliness is compatible with the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of loneliness. Research on gene-environment interactions indicates that social-environmental factors (e.g., low social support) may have a more pronounced effect and lead to higher levels of loneliness if individuals carry the sensitive variant of these candidate genes. Currently, there is no extant research on loneliness based on genome-wide association studies, gene-environment-interaction studies, or studies in epigenetics. Such studies would allow researchers to identify networks of genes that contribute to loneliness. The contribution of genetics to loneliness research will become stronger when genome-wide genetics and epigenetics are integrated and used along with well-established methods in psychology to analyze the complex process of gene-environment interplay.

  16. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  17. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  18. Social determinants of health predict state incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the predictive ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the state level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate state-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models predicting HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that state-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that state-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates.

  19. Social determinants of health predict state incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the predictive ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the state level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate state-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models predicting HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that state-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that state-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates. PMID:25225050

  20. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor; Korshunova, Irina; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guirado, Ramon; Garcia-Mompó, Clara; Nacher, Juan; Stewart, Michael G; Berezin, Vladimir; Sandi, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning, and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence of chronic stress-induced changes in the neural E/I balance in the hippocampus. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic restraint stress would lead to reduced hippocampal NLGN-2 levels, in association with alterations in social behavior. We found that rats submitted to chronic restraint stress in adulthood display reduced sociability and increased aggression. This occurs along with a reduction of NLGN-2, but not NLGN-1 expression (as shown with western blot, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses), throughout the hippocampus and detectable in different layers of the CA1, CA3, and DG subfields. Furthermore, using synthetic peptides that comprise sequences in either NLGN-1 (neurolide-1) or NLGN-2 (neurolide-2) involved in the interaction with their presynaptic partner neurexin (NRXN)-1, intra-hippocampal administration of neurolide-2 led also to reduced sociability and increased aggression. These results highlight hippocampal NLGN-2 as a key molecular substrate regulating social behaviors and underscore NLGNs as promising targets for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of dysfunctional social behaviors. PMID:24213355

  1. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status: Links with Problem Behaviors and Tests of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip R; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers' behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls' cliques were more behaviorally homogenous than were boys' cliques. On average, leaders (especially if they were boys) were perceived as engaging in more problem behaviors than were nonleaders. In girls' cliques, peripheral group members were more similar to their group leader on indirect aggression than were girls who were more central to the clique. Peer leaders perceived themselves as being more able to influence peers but did not differ from nonleaders in their perceived susceptibility to peer influence. The findings contribute to our understanding of processes through which influence may occur in adolescent peer groups.

  2. Viewing imitation as child responsiveness: a link between teaching and discipline domains of socialization.

    PubMed

    Forman, D R; Kochanska, G

    2001-03-01

    The authors observed 106 children's imitation and responses to maternal control at 14 and 22 months. Imitation was observed in a teaching task in which mothers modeled 3 standard pretend-play sequences. Responses to control were observed in typical discipline contexts. Girls imitated more than boys. Responsive imitation measures were coherent and longitudinally stable and correlated significantly with responsiveness to maternal control. The authors propose that a young child's willingness to imitate his or her parent in a teaching context and to comply in a control context both reflect a responsive or receptive stance toward parental socialization. The consistency of children's responsiveness across contexts has implications for both sociomoral and cognitive development. PMID:11269388

  3. Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

    1999-01-01

    Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

  4. Genetic variants in AVPR1A linked to autism predict amygdala activation and personality traits in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Kolachana, B; Gold, B; Olsh, A; Nicodemus, KK; Mattay, V; Dean, M; Weinberger, DR

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the neuropeptide vasopressin is a key molecule for complex emotional and social behaviours. Two microsatellite polymorphisms, RS1 and RS3, near the promoter of AVPR1A, encoding the receptor subtype most heavily implicated in behaviour regulation, have been linked to autism and behavioural traits. However, the impact of these variants on human brain function is unknown. Here we show that human amygdala function is strongly associated with genetic variation in AVPR1A. Using an imaging genetics approach in a sample of 121 volunteers studied with an emotional face-matching paradigm, we found that differential activation of amygdala is observed in carriers of risk alleles for RS3 and RS1. Alleles in RS1 previously reported to be significantly over- and undertransmitted to autistic probands showed opposing effects on amygdala activation. Furthermore, we show functional difference in human brain between short and long repeat lengths that mirror findings recently obtained in a corresponding variant in voles. Our results indicate a neural mechanism mediating genetic risk for autism through an impact on amygdala signalling and provide a rationale for exploring therapeutic strategies aimed at abnormal amygdala function in this disorder. PMID:18490926

  5. Predicting Human Preferences Using the Block Structure of Complex Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, Roger; Llorente, Alejandro; Moro, Esteban; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    With ever-increasing available data, predicting individuals' preferences and helping them locate the most relevant information has become a pressing need. Understanding and predicting preferences is also important from a fundamental point of view, as part of what has been called a “new” computational social science. Here, we propose a novel approach based on stochastic block models, which have been developed by sociologists as plausible models of complex networks of social interactions. Our model is in the spirit of predicting individuals' preferences based on the preferences of others but, rather than fitting a particular model, we rely on a Bayesian approach that samples over the ensemble of all possible models. We show that our approach is considerably more accurate than leading recommender algorithms, with major relative improvements between 38% and 99% over industry-level algorithms. Besides, our approach sheds light on decision-making processes by identifying groups of individuals that have consistently similar preferences, and enabling the analysis of the characteristics of those groups. PMID:22984533

  6. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization.

  7. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  8. Early social experience predicts referential communicative adjustments in five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold; Toni, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A large body of work has focused on children's ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children's social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children's ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children's communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee ('audience design'). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children's beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior.

  9. Prediction errors to emotional expressions: the roles of the amygdala in social referencing.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Harma; Brislin, Sarah J; White, Stuart F; Blair, James R

    2015-04-01

    Social referencing paradigms in humans and observational learning paradigms in animals suggest that emotional expressions are important for communicating valence. It has been proposed that these expressions initiate stimulus-reinforcement learning. Relatively little is known about the role of emotional expressions in reinforcement learning, particularly in the context of social referencing. In this study, we examined object valence learning in the context of a social referencing paradigm. Participants viewed objects and faces that turned toward the objects and displayed a fearful, happy or neutral reaction to them, while judging the gender of these faces. Notably, amygdala activation was larger when the expressions following an object were less expected. Moreover, when asked, participants were both more likely to want to approach, and showed stronger amygdala responses to, objects associated with happy relative to objects associated with fearful expressions. This suggests that the amygdala plays two roles in social referencing: (i) initiating learning regarding the valence of an object as a function of prediction errors to expressions displayed toward this object and (ii) orchestrating an emotional response to the object when value judgments are being made regarding this object.

  10. Predicting Post Traumatic Growth Based upon Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Vaziri, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi-Zanjani, Nahid; Shamkoeyan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG. Methods The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG. Results Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively. Conclusion The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities. PMID:25250161

  11. Prediction errors to emotional expressions: the roles of the amygdala in social referencing.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Harma; Brislin, Sarah J; White, Stuart F; Blair, James R

    2015-04-01

    Social referencing paradigms in humans and observational learning paradigms in animals suggest that emotional expressions are important for communicating valence. It has been proposed that these expressions initiate stimulus-reinforcement learning. Relatively little is known about the role of emotional expressions in reinforcement learning, particularly in the context of social referencing. In this study, we examined object valence learning in the context of a social referencing paradigm. Participants viewed objects and faces that turned toward the objects and displayed a fearful, happy or neutral reaction to them, while judging the gender of these faces. Notably, amygdala activation was larger when the expressions following an object were less expected. Moreover, when asked, participants were both more likely to want to approach, and showed stronger amygdala responses to, objects associated with happy relative to objects associated with fearful expressions. This suggests that the amygdala plays two roles in social referencing: (i) initiating learning regarding the valence of an object as a function of prediction errors to expressions displayed toward this object and (ii) orchestrating an emotional response to the object when value judgments are being made regarding this object. PMID:24939872

  12. Early Social Experience Predicts Referential Communicative Adjustments in Five-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Arjen; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold; Toni, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A large body of work has focused on children’s ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children’s social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children’s ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children’s communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee (‘audience design’). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children’s beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior. PMID:24009696

  13. Fibrinogen: a possible link between social class and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J; Meade, T W; Stirling, Y; Vickers, M V; Semmence, A

    1985-01-01

    Mortality from coronary heart disease in civil servants in the lowest grade of employment has been found to be about three times that of men in the highest grade of employment. As part of an investigation of this finding several haemostatic variables were measured in a sample of 29 men in lower grades of employment and 45 men in higher grades. There was a significant difference in plasma fibrinogen concentrations between men in lower grades of employment and those in higher grades (mean 3.39 g/l v 2.95 g/l, respectively; p less than 0.01) but not in other haemostatic variables. Multiple regression analyses showed significant independent associations of fibrinogen concentration with smoking (p less than 0.05) and grade of employment (p less than 0.05). The size of the observed difference between the grades of employment was similar to that between those dying of coronary heart disease or surviving during longitudinal study; it may therefore be an important part of the mechanism underlying social class differences in coronary heart disease. The statistical relation between fibrinogen concentrations and other characteristics that may be concerned in the aetiology of coronary heart disease was examined. A summary measure of job stress was significantly related to fibrinogen concentration (p less than 0.01) and made a substantial contribution to explaining the differences between grades of employment. Behaviour type and a score of physical activity were not significantly related to fibrinogen concentration. PMID:3933646

  14. Designing a Collaborative Visual Analytics Tool for Social and Technological Change Prediction.

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Ning; Scott, Michael J.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Correia, James; Taylor, Zachary T.; Xu, Jianhua; Unwin, Stephen D.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2009-09-01

    We describe our ongoing efforts to design and develop a collaborative visual analytics tool to interactively model social and technological change of our society in a future setting. The work involves an interdisciplinary team of scientists from atmospheric physics, electrical engineering, building engineering, social sciences, economics, public policy, and national security. The goal of the collaborative tool is to predict the impact of global climate change on the U.S. power grids and its implications for society and national security. These future scenarios provide critical assessment and information necessary for policymakers and stakeholders to help formulate a coherent, unified strategy toward shaping a safe and secure society. The paper introduces the problem background and related work, explains the motivation and rationale behind our design approach, presents our collaborative visual analytics tool and usage examples, and finally shares the development challenge and lessons learned from our investigation.

  15. Dynamical predictions of insular hubs for social cognition and their application to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Tomio, Ailin; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is considered a rich hub for context-sensitive emotions/social cognition. Patients with focal IC stroke provide unique opportunities to study socio-emotional processes. Nevertheless, Couto et al. (2013b) have recently reported controversial results regarding IC involvement in emotion and social cognition. Similarly, patients with similar lesions show high functional variability, ranging from almost totally preserved to strongly impaired behavior. Critical evidence suggests that the variability of these patients in the above domains can be explained by enhanced neuroplasticity, compensatory processes, and functional remapping after stroke. Therefore, socio-emotional processes would depend on long-distance connections between the IC and frontotemporal regions. We propose that predictive coding and effective connectivity represent a novel approach to explore functional connectivity and assess compensatory, contralateral, and subsidiary network differences among focal stroke patients. This approach would help explain why socio-emotional performance is so variable within this population. PMID:25408640

  16. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Grades 1 to 6: Prediction from Early Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Oxford, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    From 1092 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we identified three trajectory patterns of social withdrawal from teacher reports in Grades 1-6: A Normative consistently low group (86%); a Decreasing group (5%) with initially high withdrawal that decreased; and an Increasing group (9%) with initially low withdrawal that increased. Prediction models supported the role of early dysregulated temperament, insensitive parenting, and attachment. Preschool shy temperament was a specific pathway to decreasing withdrawal, and poor inhibitory control, to increasing withdrawal. Children on the increasing pathway were more lonely, solitary, and excluded by peers. Results suggest differentiated pathways to varying trajectories of social withdrawal and highlight the importance of identification of longitudinal patterns in relation to risk. PMID:18793064

  17. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  18. Predicting social impacts associated with roadway development in a scenic area

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-12

    The issue of predicting social impacts that could result from the construction and use of new roadways is one that faces, or will face, many communities in the U.S. and throughout the world. Where road development takes place in a scenic area, especially one that is dependent on tourist trade, the nature of the secondary land conversion that often accompanies road construction is especially important. We have assessed the social impacts likely to accompany construction of a scenic parkway in a rural area abutting the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In this paper, we share the substantive findings of that study as well as our methodological observations on the challenges of projecting impacts in an area that has no planning or zoning, a situation that is common to many rural areas. We also discuss how we dealt with the fact that the major effects of the project would not begin until nearly 15 years in the future, when construction is completed and the roadway is opened to traffic. In order to predict land use patterns at the completion of roadway construction, we studied plat maps, which accurately reflect changing ownership patterns before such changes become apparent on the ground. We also conducted interviews with local realtors and developers who, in the absence of a local government planning department, tend to be the best sources of information concerning local land use trends. Uncertainty of future events was accounted for by projecting impacts for different scenarios, reflecting varying rates of growth and types of development. We believe that the description of our methodological approach should prove helpful to other analysts faced with the need to predict long-term transformations without the benefit of existing land use plans. In our assessment, we examined potential effects to local population, housing, land use, public services, taxes, economic structure, cultural resources, and social structure. Our findings are discussed briefly in this paper.

  19. The link between identification and in-group favouritism: effects of threat to social identity and trust-related emotions.

    PubMed

    Voci, Alberto

    2006-06-01

    The relation between identification and in-group favouritism was analysed across two studies, in which the relevance of three intervening factors was demonstrated: (a) the moderating role of social identity threat, (b) the mediating role of trust-related emotions experienced towards in-group and out-group members, and (c) the importance of the distinction between in-group and out-group evaluations. When the in-group was not threatened, the link between identification and in-group bias was unreliable. The effect of in-group identification on in-group bias was stronger when either the value or the distinctiveness of the in-group were threatened. A value threat strengthened the influence of identification on in-group evaluation and, via out-group distrust, on out-group derogation. Under a distinctiveness threat, identification affected out-group evaluation and intergroup differentiation. These results demonstrate that the relation between identification and in-group favouritism is reliable only in a clear intergroup context. Moreover, they show that the role and the strength of in-group and out-group trust are altered by the type of social identity threat introduced. Finally, they clarify that in-group love and out-group hate phenomena are not zero-sum, and that their presence may be simultaneous when the value of the in-group is threatened by out-group members.

  20. Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2013-11-01

    Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty. PMID:23963831

  1. Linking social environment and stress physiology in feral mares (Equus caballus): group transfers elevate fecal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Cassandra M V; Adelman, James S; Smith, Jessica; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-15

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) have a complex social structure, the stability of which is important to their overall health. Behavioral and demographic research has shown that decreases in group (or band) stability reduce female fitness, but the potential effects on the physiological stress response have not been demonstrated. To fully understand how band stability affects group-member fitness, we need to understand not only behavioral and demographic, but also physiological consequences of decreases to that stability. We studied group changes in feral mares (an activity that induces instability, including both male and female aggression) on Shackleford Banks, NC. We found that mares in the midst of changing groups exhibit increased fecal cortisol levels. In addition, mares making more group transfers show higher levels of cortisol two weeks post-behavior. These results offer insights into how social instability is integrated into an animal's physiological phenotype. In addition, our results have important implications for feral horse management. On Shackleford Banks, mares contracepted with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) make approximately 10 times as many group changes as do untreated mares. Such animals may therefore be at higher risk of chronic stress. These results support the growing consensus that links between behavior and physiological stress must be taken into account when managing for healthy, functional populations. PMID:24275609

  2. Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2013-11-01

    Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty.

  3. Linking social environment and stress physiology in feral mares (Equus caballus): group transfers elevate fecal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Cassandra M V; Adelman, James S; Smith, Jessica; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-15

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) have a complex social structure, the stability of which is important to their overall health. Behavioral and demographic research has shown that decreases in group (or band) stability reduce female fitness, but the potential effects on the physiological stress response have not been demonstrated. To fully understand how band stability affects group-member fitness, we need to understand not only behavioral and demographic, but also physiological consequences of decreases to that stability. We studied group changes in feral mares (an activity that induces instability, including both male and female aggression) on Shackleford Banks, NC. We found that mares in the midst of changing groups exhibit increased fecal cortisol levels. In addition, mares making more group transfers show higher levels of cortisol two weeks post-behavior. These results offer insights into how social instability is integrated into an animal's physiological phenotype. In addition, our results have important implications for feral horse management. On Shackleford Banks, mares contracepted with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) make approximately 10 times as many group changes as do untreated mares. Such animals may therefore be at higher risk of chronic stress. These results support the growing consensus that links between behavior and physiological stress must be taken into account when managing for healthy, functional populations.

  4. Early social fear predicts kindergarteners' socially anxious behaviors: Direct associations, moderation by inhibitory control, and differences from nonsocial fear.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-10-01

    Although social and nonsocial fear are discernable as early as preschool, little is known about their distinct associations with developmental outcomes. For example, fear has been identified as a predictor of social anxiety problems, but no work has examined whether social and nonsocial fear make independent contributions to risk. We investigated the extent to which early social and nonsocial fear were associated with socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. To do this, we identified distinct trajectories of social and nonsocial fear across toddlerhood and preschool. Only social fear was associated with socially anxious behaviors at ages 2 and 5. Because the ability to regulate fear contributes to the degree to which fearful children are at risk for anxiety problems, we also tested whether an early developing aspect of self-regulation modulated associations between early fear and kindergarten socially anxious behaviors. Specifically, we tested whether inhibitory control differentially modulated associations between early levels of social and nonsocial fear and socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. Associations between trajectories of early social fear and age 5 socially anxious behaviors were moderated by individual differences in inhibitory control. Consistent with previous research showing associations between overcontrol and anxiety symptoms, more negative outcomes were observed when stable, high levels of social fear across childhood were coupled with high levels of inhibitory control. Results suggest that the combination of social fear and overcontrol reflect a profile of early risk for the development of social inhibition and social anxiety problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  6. Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice.

  7. Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

  8. Apocalypse...now? Molecular epidemiology, predictive genetic tests, and social communication of genetic contents.

    PubMed

    Castiel, L D

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of identity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'. PMID:10089550

  9. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    PubMed

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman") subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  10. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M

    1993-05-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualistic, direct control of behavioral choices and deemphasize factors, such as racism and poverty, particularly relevant to that segment of the African American population most at risk for HIV infection. Applications of these models without taking into account the unique issues associated with behavioral choices within the African American community may fail to capture the relevant determinants of risk behaviors.

  11. Seeing Eye to Eye: Predicting Teacher-Student Agreement on Classroom Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise; Wagner, Caroline; Atkins, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between classroom characteristics and teacher-student agreement in perceptions of students’ classroom peer networks. Social network, peer nomination, and observational data were collected from a sample of second through fourth grade teachers (N=33) and students (N=669) in 33 classrooms across five high poverty urban schools. Results demonstrate that variation in teacher-student agreement on the structure of students’ peer networks can be explained, in part, by developmental factors and classroom characteristics. Developmental increases in network density partially mediated the positive relationship between grade level and teacher-student agreement. Larger class sizes and higher levels of normative aggressive behavior resulted in lower levels of teacher-student agreement. Teachers’ levels of classroom organization had mixed influences, with behavior management negatively predicting agreement, and productivity positively predicting agreement. These results underscore the importance of the classroom context in shaping teacher and student perceptions of peer networks. PMID:21666768

  12. Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multi-method BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25522059

  13. Reading a Suspenseful Literary Text Activates Brain Areas Related to Social Cognition and Predictive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's “The Sandman”) subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  14. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. ‘social connectedness’) with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes—females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

  15. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2014-10-22

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. 'social connectedness') with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes--females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals.

  16. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  17. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  18. Home Away Home: Better Understanding of the Role of Social Support in Predicting Cross-Cultural Adjustment among International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Yoko; Hosoda, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined international students' adjustment problems, yet, these studies have not explored the mechanisms through which social support operates in the context of stressful events in predicting cross-cultural adjustment among international students. Using Barrera's (1988) models of social support, the present study…

  19. "They like Me, They like Me Not": Popularity and Adolescents' Perceptions of Acceptance Predicting Social Functioning Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhaney, Kathleen B.; Antonishak, Jill; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the dual roles of adolescents' perceptions of social acceptance and sociometric popularity in predicting relative changes over time in adolescents' social functioning. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from 164 adolescents who were interviewed at age 13 years and then again at age 14 years, as well…

  20. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our