Science.gov

Sample records for social science approach

  1. Social Determinants of Population Health: A Systems Sciences Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fink, David S.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Population distributions of health emerge from the complex interplay of health-related factors at multiple levels, from the biological to the societal level. Individuals are aggregated within social networks, affected by their locations, and influenced differently across time. From aggregations of individuals, group properties can emerge, including some exposures that are ubiquitous within populations but variant across populations. By combining a focus on social determinants of health with a conceptual framework for understanding how genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, society, and environment interact, a systems science approach can inform our understanding of the underlying causes of the unequal distribution of health across generations and populations, and can help us identify promising approaches to reduce such inequalities. In this paper, we discuss how systems science approaches have already made several substantive and methodological contributions to the study of population health from a social epidemiology perspective. PMID:27642548

  2. Teaching Social Science Research: An Applied Approach Using Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, M. Janice; And Others

    A four-week summer project for 100 rural tenth graders in the University of Alabama's Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep) enabled students to acquire and apply social sciences research skills. The students investigated drinking water quality in three rural Alabama counties by interviewing local officials, health workers, and…

  3. A Social Construction Approach to Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machanick, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Computer science education research has mostly focused on cognitive approaches to learning. Cognitive approaches to understanding learning do not account for all the phenomena observed in teaching and learning. A number of apparently successful educational approaches, such as peer assessment, apprentice-based learning and action learning, have…

  4. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Social Sciences and Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social), the Humanities, and the private and public sectors of…

  5. A decision science approach for integrating social science in climate and energy solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2016-06-01

    The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.

  6. The Implementation of a Social Constructivist Approach in Primary Science Education in Confucian Heritage Culture: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H?ng, Ngô Vu Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Social constructivism has been increasingly studied and implemented in science school education. Nevertheless, there is a lack of holistic studies on the implementation of social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture. This study aims to determine to what extent a social constructivist approach is…

  7. Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

  8. Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

  9. Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R; Wasco, S M

    2000-12-01

    This paper is a primer for community psychologists on feminist research. Much like the field of community psychology, feminist scholarship is defined by its values and process. Informed by the political ideologies of the 1970s women's movement (liberal, radical, socialist feminism, and womanism), feminist scholars reinterpreted classic concepts in philosophy of science to create feminist epistemologies and methodologies. Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge. Feminist methodologies attempt to eradicate sexist bias in research and find ways to capture women's voices that are consistent with feminist ideals. Practically, the process of feminist research is characterized by four primary features: (1) expanding methodologies to include both quantitative and qualitative methods, (2) connecting women for group-level data collection, (3) reducing the hierarchical relationship between researchers and their participants to facilitate trust and disclosure, and (4) recognizing and reflecting upon the emotionality of women's lives. Recommendations for how community psychologists can integrate feminist scholarship into their practice are discussed.

  10. Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A science, technology, and society approach to teach global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

    2006-03-01

    As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students’ science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school district in the United States. The study was based on the analysis of students’ responses to a writing prompt addressing an increased greenhouse effect and global warming at the beginning of and at the completion of instruction over the school year. The results indicate that students with adequate science knowledge tended to express activism more frequently, and that their expression of activism increased as they gained better science knowledge after the instruction. The results highlight the importance of effective instruction of this contemporary and controversial issue with K-12 students, so that they come to be aware of this societal problem, take action in solving the problem, and become socially responsible youth and adults.

  11. The implementation of a social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture: the case of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hằng, Ngô Vũ Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2015-09-01

    Social constructivism has been increasingly studied and implemented in science school education. Nevertheless, there is a lack of holistic studies on the implementation of social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture. This study aims to determine to what extent a social constructivist approach is implemented in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture and to give explanations for the implementation from a cultural perspective. Findings reveal that in Confucian heritage culture a social constructivist approach has so far not implemented well in primary science education. The implementation has been considerably influenced by Confucian heritage culture, which has characteristics divergent from and aligning with those of social constructivism. This study indicates a need for design-based research on social constructivism-based science curriculum for Confucian heritage culture.

  12. The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources' attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science's strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders') understandings of marginalized populations. PMID:24782921

  13. Teaching Climate Social Science and Its Practices: A Two-Pronged Approach to Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude

  14. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  15. Social Work and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  16. Towards "evidence-making intervention" approaches in the social science of implementation science: The making of methadone in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Tim; Closson, Elizabeth F; Paparini, Sara; Guise, Andy; Strathdee, Steffanie

    2016-04-01

    In this commentary, we take the recent introduction of methadone treatment in response to emerging problems of HIV linked to heroin addiction in Kenya as a case for reflecting on the social science of implementation science. We offer a framework of 'evidence-making intervention' which we hold as distinct from mainstream 'evidence-based intervention' approaches. Whilst accepting that interventions are shaped in their contexts, evidence-based intervention approaches tend to imagine a stable intervention object with universal effect potential. By contrast, an evidence-making intervention approach investigates how an intervention, and the knowledge which constitutes it, is made locally, through its processes of implementation. Drawing on qualitative research generated in Kenya prior to (2012-2013) and during (2014-2015) the implementation of methadone treatment, we explore the making of 'methadone promise' as a case of evidence-making intervention. We show how enactments of methadone promise make multiple methadones, through which a binary is negotiated between the narratives of methadone as hope for addiction recovery and methadone as hope for HIV prevention. Addiction recovery narratives predominate, despite methadone's incorporation into policy via its globally supported HIV prevention evidence-base. Key practices in the making of methadone promise in Kenya include its medicalization, and renaming, as 'medically assisted treatment' - or simply 'MAT' - which distance it from prior constitutions elsewhere as a drug of substitution, and the visualisation of its effects wherein unhealthy people can be seen and shown to have become well. We also show how actors seek to protect the story of methadone promise from counter narratives, including through mass media projects. We conclude that there is no single biomedical object of methadone intervening on a single biological body across contexts, and no single universe of evidence. By giving weight to local rather than

  17. An Inquiry-Based Mobile Learning Approach to Enhancing Social Science Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Chuang, Chien-Wen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a mobile exploration activity that guides elementary students to learn during a social science activity with digital support from mobile devices and wireless communications. The students are situated in both the real world and the virtual world to extend their learning experiences. The learning activities between the field and…

  18. The Contemporary Transdisciplinary Approach as a Methodology to Aid Students of Humanities and Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Petia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author (Todorova, Petia) addresses the problems students of humanities and social sciences face in the choice of methodology which they should employ in the theoretic discussion of a given task. This is due to the fact that in the course of their education the necessity of methodological competency is largely neglected and is…

  19. Preserving the Whole: A Two-Track Approach to Rescuing Social Science Data and Metadata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ann; Dionne, JoAnn; Dennis, Martin

    Focusing on the experience of the Yale University (Connecticut) social science data preservation project, this document presents a case study of migration as a preservation strategy, exploring options for migrating data stored in a technically obsolete format and their associated documentation stored on paper. The first section provides background…

  20. Reading Online News Media for Science Content: A Social Psychological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    Reading multimodal (popularized) scientific texts is studied predominantly in terms of said-to-be-required technical decoding skills. In this article I suggest that there are other interesting approaches to studying the reading of multimodal (popularized) scientific texts, approaches that are grounded in social psychological concerns. These…

  1. Between (Racial) Groups and a Hard Place: An Exploration of Social Science Approaches to Race and Genetics, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W Carson; Best, Latrica E

    2016-01-01

    As the social sciences expand their involvement in genetic and genomic research, more information is needed to understand how theoretical concepts are applied to genetic data found in social surveys. Given the layers of complexity of studying race in relation to genetics and genomics, it is important to identify the varying approaches used to discuss and operationalize race and identity by social scientists. The present study explores how social scientists have used race, ethnicity, and ancestry in studies published in four social science journals from 2000 to 2014. We identify not only how race, ethnicity, and ancestry are classified and conceptualized in this growing area of research, but also how these concepts are incorporated into the methodology and presentation of results, all of which structure the discussion of race, identity, and inequality. This research indicates the slippage between concepts, classifications, and their use by social scientists in their genetics-related research. The current study can assist social scientists with clarifying their use and interpretations of race and ethnicity with the incorporation of genetic data, while limiting possible misinterpretations of the complexities of the connection between genetics and the social world.

  2. Oregon Social Sciences Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

  3. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  4. Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…

  5. Linking Law and Social Studies, Grades 9-12: An Interdisciplinary Approach with Social Studies, Science and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armancas-Fisher, Margaret; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers an interdisciplinary approach to law-related education (LRE) intended to assist teachers with introducing LRE into a variety of social studies courses. The guide begins with a definition of LRE, its objectives and methods, and its place in the general school curriculum. The introductory section includes a description…

  6. Social Dynamics of Science

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212

  7. Social Science: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charles Gene

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…

  8. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  9. Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science: Incorporating ecosystem services approaches into ocean and coastal decision-making and governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of social science has been recognized as a priority for effective ocean and coastal management, driving much discussion and fostering emerging efforts in several areas. The Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science (IWG-OSS) is tasked with assisting the Su...

  10. Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies’ usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Results: Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs

  11. Designing and Evaluating Science Teaching Sequences: An Approach Drawing upon the Concept of Learning Demand and a Social Constructivist Perspective on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, John; Scott, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Reviews evidence on the effectiveness of "sequence of teaching activities" on student learning and the design and evaluation of science teaching sequences. Discusses the social constructivist perspective on learning and offers a generalized approach to planning a science teaching sequence. Provides an example of how to plan an…

  12. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  13. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social

  14. Behavioral Sciences in Secondary Schools: An Inquiry-Oriented Interdisciplinary Approach to the Human Behavioral Sciences in Social Studies. Professional Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    Trends in secondary-level behavioral science curriculum development, informational background, and strategies for teaching behavioral science concepts are provided in this book. Chapters one through three define the behavioral sciences and examine their changing role and status in social studies education. Chapters four through six develop…

  15. Culture and the Contagion of Conflict: Social Science and Computational Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-05

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Psychology and Department of Computer Science, University of...outlets such as the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Journal of Applied Psychology , Psychological Science, and Journal of Experimental Psychology ...Understanding the mechanisms that produce these contagion processes is critical for both psychological theory (which tends to look at conflict in isolated

  16. Social Sciences and Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  17. The Integration of Social Science and Literary Materials: An Approach to Teaching Urban Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Wynetta Devore; Schlesinger, Elfriede G.

    1977-01-01

    A course designed to enhance human behavior and social environment content dealing with urban family life is described. The use of sociological and literary material by white and minority team teachers reduces tension generated by examination of material that is close to student experience. (Author/LBH)

  18. Digital Media for Low-Income Preschoolers' Effective Science Learning: A Study of iPad Instructions with a Social Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena; Tu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    As digital media devices have been increasingly used in early childhood educational settings, this study examined whether the iPad with a Vygotskian social development approach--namely, More Knowledgeable Other--can be integrated into low-income preschool classrooms to improve science learning. An analysis of variance was used to examine the…

  19. Social Science and Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Robert R.

    With the growth of the social sciences, there has been increasing interest in use of their products to shed light on, and solve, some of the pressing social problems of our society. This monograph, the first in a series of studies on social change, reports on an analysis of applications of social change theory and research to programs of…

  20. Communicating science in social settings.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2013-08-20

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

  1. Communicating science in social settings

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

  2. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  3. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  4. Social Anthropology and Social Science History.

    PubMed

    Kertzer, David I

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced-and shunned-history in recent years.

  5. Marketing the Social Sciences Ethically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Social sciences in the community college are at a critical point in their history and development. Except for a few statistical aberrations, enrollment in the social sciences and humanities is declining significantly. The idea of marketing a segment of a college's or university's offerings, particularly when it is not tied to a particular problem…

  6. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  7. The Social Sciences as a Domain of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Forrest H.

    The author claims that the nature of the social sciences is to combine interpretive and empirical approaches in an attempt to understand human thought and behavior. He views the domain of social sciences as being different from that of the humanities or the natural sciences. Social scientists test interpretations by considering the extent to which…

  8. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  9. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  10. Let the social sciences evolve.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Waring, Timothy M

    2014-08-01

    We agree that evolutionary perspectives may help us organize many divergent realms of the science of human behavior. Nevertheless, an imperative to unite all social science under an evolutionary framework risks turning off researchers who have their own theoretical perspectives that can be informed by evolutionary theory without being exclusively defined by it. We propose a few considerations for scholars interested in joining the evolutionary and social sciences.

  11. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  12. Science, Semantics, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, J. L.

    Social semiotics suggests that social and cultural formations, including the language and practice of science and the ways in which new generations and communities advance them, develop as an integral part of the evolution of social ecosystems. Some recent models of complex dynamic systems in physics, chemistry, and biology focus more on the…

  13. Human Ecology: An Approach to the Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the use of and recommends a new direction for laboratory work within the context of teaching human ecology for science and social science teachers and compares traditional and human ecological approaches to science laboratory work. (CS)

  14. Response: Social Work, Science, Social Impact--Crafting an Integrative Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…

  15. Putting the Social Sciences into Science Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, S. Holly

    Although the social sciences have become legitimate sources of science news, many journalism instructors of science communication do not believe the social sciences warrant special or required attention in their courses. This is unfortunate, for the social sciences are important enough and different enough to require both their inclusion and…

  16. Time representations in social science

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420

  17. Time representations in social science.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  18. History of the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Hamilton

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of the social sciences in America, indicating that the field is still chiefly a collection of topics, albeit important ones such as mental hospitals, child development, and eugenics. Also indicates that although source materials are vast, synthetic overviews are needed in a number of areas. (JN)

  19. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  20. The Business of Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlieb, George

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that the social science business is here to stay. The use of survey research, of invoking the learned as a form of symbolic action, of obfuscating the realities of limited budget and limited throughput and limited drive by "researching the problem," all provide a flywheel that shows every sign not merely of stability but of acceleration.…

  1. SOLIB: A Social Science Program Library for Small Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halley, Fred S.

    A package of social science programs--Sociology Library (SOLIB)--for small computers provides users with a partial solution to the problems stemming from the heterogeneity of social science applications programs. SOLIB offers a uniform approach to data handling and program documentation; all its programs are written in standard FORTRAN for the IBM…

  2. Increasing Knowledge in Social Science Among Agricultural Educators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph H., Jr.; And Others

    Social science concepts are presented as related parts of a systematic approach to understanding and predicting human behavior and implementing programs. This monograph was developed to improve the effectiveness of the change agent in agricultural education by increasing his knowledge in the area of social sciences relating to initiating and…

  3. Social Science Docket, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    A joint publication of the New York and New Jersey State Councils for the Social Studies, "Social Science Docket" presents K-12 teachers with resources covering the social science disciplines, including history, economics, political science, sociology, geography, anthropology, and psychology. Each issue includes theme-related and…

  4. Manifesto of computational social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, R.; Gilbert, N.; Bonelli, G.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Deffuant, G.; Kertesz, J.; Loreto, V.; Moat, S.; Nadal, J.-P.; Sanchez, A.; Nowak, A.; Flache, A.; San Miguel, M.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The increasing integration of technology into our lives has created unprecedented volumes of data on society's everyday behaviour. Such data opens up exciting new opportunities to work towards a quantitative understanding of our complex social systems, within the realms of a new discipline known as Computational Social Science. Against a background of financial crises, riots and international epidemics, the urgent need for a greater comprehension of the complexity of our interconnected global society and an ability to apply such insights in policy decisions is clear. This manifesto outlines the objectives of this new scientific direction, considering the challenges involved in it, and the extensive impact on science, technology and society that the success of this endeavour is likely to bring about.

  5. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  6. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  7. The ICPSR and Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2008-01-01

    The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added bibliographic…

  8. Social sciences and social problems: The next century

    SciTech Connect

    Smelser, N.J.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents his views in three areas: (1) Looking toward the next century, with an eye to identifying the lines of social change and the ranges of social problems we can expect. (2) Sketching an inherited and persistent view of the application of social-science to social problems. (3) Revision of views in light of understanding social problems and how social-science knowledge bears on them. 7 refs.

  9. The Social Sciences and the Comparative Study of Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joseph, Ed.

    Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences…

  10. Health, Wellbeing and Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-09-09

    For social interventions aimed at improving nutrition behavior evidence from randomized trials is essential but cannot be the only approach of research activities. Interventions on dietary habits require considerations on food security, economic and environmental sustainability, and a broad meaning of wellbeing which includes, but also goes beyond, health effects. The model of research in nutrition requires a new consideration of observational studies, mainly through different analytical models. Nutrition and food studies need research programs where medical (nutrition and health), psychology (how we behave), economics (how resources are used and their impact on wellbeing) and sociology (how social determinant shape behavior) collaborate.

  11. Archaeology as a social science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  12. Mechanistic models in computational social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative social science is not only about regression analysis or, in general, data inference. Computer simulations of social mechanisms have an over 60 years long history. They have been used for many different purposes—to test scenarios, to test the consistency of descriptive theories (proof-of-concept models), to explore emergent phenomena, for forecasting, etc. In this essay, we sketch these historical developments, the role of mechanistic models in the social sciences and the influences from the natural and formal sciences. We argue that mechanistic computational models form a natural common ground for social and natural sciences, and look forward to possible future information flow across the social-natural divide.

  13. Disentangling the translational sciences: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Louis D

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author first attempts to disentangle a number of issues in translational science from a social science perspective. As expected in a fledgling field of study being approached from various disciplines, there are marked differences in the research literature on terminology, definition of terms, and conceptualization of staging of clinical research from the pilot phase to widespread dissemination in the community. The author asserts that translational efforts in the social sciences are at a crossroads, and its greatest challenge involves the movement of interventions gleaned from clinical trials to community settings. Four strategies for reaching this goal are discussed: the use of methods derived from health services research, a yet-to-be-developed strategy where decisions to modify aspects of an intervention derived from a clinical trial are triggered by data-based criteria, community based participatory action research (CBPR), and a hybrid system wherein methods from CBPR and traditional experimental procedures are combined to achieve translation. The author ends on an optimistic note, emphasizing the impressive advances in the area over the existing barriers and calling for a unified interdisciplinary science of translation.

  14. Social Sciences and Dentistry: A Critical Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, N. David, Ed.; Cohen Lois K., Ed.

    This bibliographic review of social sciences studies in the field of dentistry is a result of the collaboration of dentists and social and behavioral scientists who volunteered manuscripts to the Commission on Dental Practice of the Federation Dentaire Internationale. The manuscript topics include: (1) social science research on the dental…

  15. NTIS as a Social Science Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces history of National Technical Information Service (NTIS), charting growth into social science information resource. Acquisition criteria and sources of social science information processed by NTIS, indexing practices and subject classifications of interest to social scientists, and relationships between NTIS and Government Printing Office…

  16. [Information flow between medical and social sciences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-12-28

    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.

  17. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  18. Teaching and Learning about Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Experiential Learning Approach Amongst Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.

    2004-01-01

    There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…

  19. Science Focus: The Salters' Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kevin de

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the Salter's approach to teaching and learning science at the Junior Secondary level by showing how the phenomenon of fire is treated in curriculum materials. Discusses contents of the teachers' guide, student texts, and assessment pack. Gives an evaluation of the usefulness of the approach in the Australian context. (Author/MKR)

  20. The morphology of streams restored for market and nonmarket purposes: Insights from a mixed natural-social science approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Singh, Jai; Lave, Rebecca; Robertson, Morgan M.

    2015-07-01

    We use geomorphic surveys to quantify the differences between restored and nonrestored streams, and the difference between streams restored for market purposes (compensatory mitigation) from those restored for nonmarket programs. We also analyze the social and political-economic drivers of the stream restoration and mitigation industry using analysis of policy documents and interviews with key personnel including regulators, mitigation bankers, stream designers, and scientists. Restored streams are typically wider and geomorphically more homogenous than nonrestored streams. Streams restored for the mitigation market are typically headwater streams and part of a large, complex of long restored main channels, and many restored tributaries; streams restored for nonmarket purposes are typically shorter and consist of the main channel only. Interviews reveal that designers integrate many influences including economic and regulatory constraints, but traditions of practice have a large influence as well. Thus, social forces shape the morphology of restored streams.

  1. Preparing Community College Teachers of Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raymond C.

    1972-01-01

    An interdisciplinary doctoral degree program to prepare community college social science teachers is described. The program includes academic course work, summer practicums, internship, and comprehensive examinations. (RN)

  2. Teaching Science Via a Socio-Historical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agin, Michael L.

    Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) in April, 1972, in Chicago, this study substantiated the feasibility of teaching science via a socio-historical approach utilizing selected concepts related to the social and historical development of science and selected concepts related to atomic…

  3. Applying spatial thinking in social science research

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools. PMID:20431703

  4. Archaeology as a social science

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  5. From global change science to action with social sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

    2014-08-01

    US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

  6. Attitudes of Science and Social Studies Teachers Toward Interdisciplinary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Science and social science teachers (N=198) were surveyed to determine interest in interdisciplinary instruction, perception of current interdisciplinary approaches, and preferred forms for learning more about interdisciplinary instruction. Results and implications are discussed with listings of process skills identified as important and…

  7. The Morphology of Streams Restored for Market and Nonmarket Purposes: Insights From a Mixed Natural-Social Science Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stream restoration is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy creates an environment where restored stream 'credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of mitigation on restoration design and construction is unknown. We use geomorphic surveys to quantify the differences between restored and nonrestored streams, and the difference between streams restored for market purposes (compensatory mitigation) from those restored for nonmarket programs. Physical study sites are located in the state of North Carolina, USA. We also analyze the social and political-economic drivers of the stream restoration and mitigation industry using analysis of policy documents and interviews with key personnel including regulators, mitigation bankers, stream designers, and scientists. Restored streams are typically wider, shallower and geomorphically more homogeneous than nonrestored streams. For example, nonrestored streams are typically characterized by more than an order of magnitude variability in radius of curvature and meander wavelength within a single study reach. By contrast, the radius of curvature in many restored streams does not vary for nearly the entire project reach. Streams restored for the mitigation market are typically headwater streams and part of a large, complex of long restored main channels, and many restored tributaries; streams restored for nonmarket purposes are typically shorter and consist of the main channel only. Interviews reveal that social forces shape the morphology of restored streams. Designers integrate many influences including economic and regulatory constraints, but traditions of practice have a large influence as well. Home to a fairly mature stream mitigation banking market, North Carolina can provide

  8. Teaching Science with the Social Studies of Science for Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Muriel

    Integrating the social studies of science into science education would make explicit the cultures of science, which have been revealed by historians, philosophers, sociologists, and feminist science scholars. These cultures include the institutions of science, the interaction of science and the society in which it is practiced, and the internal culture of science. This pedagogy may be a route to increasing equity in science, by giving women and members of other under-represented groups an appreciation of the factors causing their alienation from the enterprise and the tools to change science for social justice. In this article, I present the theoretical basis of this position, along with the implementation strategies and preliminary assessment for a sophomore level biology course based on this perspective.

  9. Of mice and men: will the intersection of social science and genetics create new approaches for intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patricia A; Nicholls, Tonia L; Kumar, Ravinesh A; Stefanakis, Harry; Spidel, Alicia L; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have yielded a recognition that intimate partner violence is ubiquitous. Although violence within relationships is bidirectional, there is acknowledgment that violence directed against women is more persistent and dangerous. Strategies for treatment of men have been largely unsuccessful, and studies of women centered approaches to prevention are in their infancy. An emerging concept in the brain-behavior field is the recognition of genetics as a powerful influence on aggressive and violent behaviors. Mouse models of human health and disease have facilitated our understanding of the role of genetics in the manifestation of these traits. There is a need to push the boundaries of research on intimate partner violence by adopting biosocial approaches to understand its causes.

  10. Social Sciences and the Unity of Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Criticisms of the various social sciences from within their ranks are not a new thing, but recent years have seen such criticisms reach a pitch that make them hard to ignore. What they seem to have in common is the charge that this or that social science has become an enterprise that serious people have trouble taking seriously, because the most…

  11. Social Science Research Serving Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Mary, Ed.

    This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…

  12. Social Science Exploratory. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This Idaho Social Science Exploratory course of study applies standards-based content knowledge and skills to an enhanced investigation of geography, history, entrepreneurism, and civic engagement at an eighth-grade level. The exploratory course draws upon the disciplines to emphasize concepts and generalizations from the social sciences, promotes…

  13. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  14. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  15. Science In a Social CONtext: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addinell, Sue, Comp.; Solomon, Joan, Comp.

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  16. Strategic research in the social sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, W.S.

    1995-12-31

    The federal government has identified a number of multi-agency funding initiatives for science in strategic areas, such as the initiatives on global environmental change and high performance computing, that give some role to the social sciences. Seven strategic areas for social science research are given with potential for federal funding: (1) Democratization. (2) Human Capital. (3) Administrative Science. (4) Cognitive Science. (5) High Performance Computing and Digital Libraries. (6) Human Dimensions of Environmental Change. and (7) Human Genetic Diversity. The first two are addressed in detail and the remainder as a group. 10 refs.

  17. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  18. Trimodernism and Social Sciences: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.

  19. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  20. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  1. A social science data-fusion tool and the Data Management through e-Social Science (DAMES) infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Warner, Guy C; Blum, Jesse M; Jones, Simon B; Lambert, Paul S; Turner, Kenneth J; Tan, Larry; Dawson, Alison S F; Bell, David N F

    2010-08-28

    The last two decades have seen substantially increased potential for quantitative social science research. This has been made possible by the significant expansion of publicly available social science datasets, the development of new analytical methodologies, such as microsimulation, and increases in computing power. These rich resources do, however, bring with them substantial challenges associated with organizing and using data. These processes are often referred to as 'data management'. The Data Management through e-Social Science (DAMES) project is working to support activities of data management for social science research. This paper describes the DAMES infrastructure, focusing on the data-fusion process that is central to the project approach. It covers: the background and requirements for provision of resources by DAMES; the use of grid technologies to provide easy-to-use tools and user front-ends for several common social science data-management tasks such as data fusion; the approach taken to solve problems related to data resources and metadata relevant to social science applications; and the implementation of the architecture that has been designed to achieve this infrastructure.

  2. Sea Changes in Social Science Education: Woods Hole 2000. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S., Ed.

    The agenda for the Social Science Education Consortium conference at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) was designed to continue a tradition of examining scholarship relative to the social sciences in K-12 education. The content focus for this volume, is political science, economics, and sociology. Following a "Foreword" (Matthew T. Downey; Joseph P.…

  3. The Social Implications of Science and Science Choices at 14+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Milton B.

    1981-01-01

    Suggesting a distinction between student attitudes toward science as a school subject (SUBATT) and toward the social implications of science (SOCATT), reports results of a study using various measures focusing on SOCATT and SUBATT of approximately 2,200 students in 33 schools, including findings related to sex differences. (DS)

  4. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.

  5. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  6. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  7. Scientific Competencies in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…

  8. What Future for Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2004-01-01

    Each of the authors discussed in this review essay deplores the attempts of scholars in the human sciences to ape their colleagues in the natural sciences and economics. Their criticisms are not dissimilar, nor are they without merit, but it is important to ask the following questions: What would they offer in its place? What kind of…

  9. Network Analysis in Comparative Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…

  10. Old Fears Haunt New Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    In September 1965, not long after news broke about a Pentagon-sponsored program to study social conflict in South America, the Social Science Research Council played host to a meeting on overseas research. Feelings were raw. Opposition to the Vietnam War was mounting, and many scholars worried that the Pentagon's studies of conflict and…

  11. Applied Social Science, Teaching, and Political Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Edward; Garrido-Pinto, German

    1977-01-01

    Behind differences in style of North and Latin American social scientists lie profound divergences of conceptions of social science and of typical levels of analysis. Important consequences of these differences follow for styles of teaching, research, or community involvement. This paper explores these cleavages and exemplifies how one might teach…

  12. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  13. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  14. Citizenship and Social Justice in Urban Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emdin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article describes, and then applies a newly developed framework for classroom citizenship as an entry point into addressing social justice issues in urban science classrooms. The author provides in-depth descriptions of cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism (3Cs), and presents this triad of tools as an approach to…

  15. A Science of Social Work? Response to John Brekke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    I take the opportunity provided by John Brekke's (2012) article to respond to the general assumptions and approaches that may be brought when considering the question of a science of social work. I consider first, what should be our frames of reference, our communities of interest, or our boundaries of inclusion, for such a discussion?…

  16. A social-ecological systems approach for environmental management.

    PubMed

    Virapongse, Arika; Brooks, Samantha; Metcalf, Elizabeth Covelli; Zedalis, Morgan; Gosz, Jim; Kliskey, Andrew; Alessa, Lilian

    2016-08-01

    Urgent environmental issues are testing the limits of current management approaches and pushing demand for innovative approaches that integrate across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Practitioners, scholars, and policy-makers alike call for increased integration of natural and social sciences to develop new approaches that address the range of ecological and societal impacts of modern environmental issues. From a theoretical perspective, social-ecological systems (SES) science offers a compelling approach for improved environmental management through the application of transdisciplinary and resilience concepts. A framework for translating SES theory into practice, however, is lacking. In this paper, we define the key components of an SES-based environmental management approach. We offer recommendations for integrating an SES approach into existing environmental management practices. Results presented are useful for management professionals that seek to employ an SES environmental management approach and scholars aiming to advance the theoretical foundations of SES science for practical application.

  17. Two Approaches to Science-Technology-Society (S-T-S) Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.

    1989-01-01

    Science policy studies and the social studies of science are two ways to approach science-technology-society (STS) education. This paper applies the two perspectives to STS education and explores the implications of the two approaches for the domain of STS education and the relationship to science education. (YP)

  18. [Social support and health: standpoints from the social and human sciences].

    PubMed

    Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida

    2012-05-01

    This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.

  19. Ethnic Nationalism: Social Science Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Anthony H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews various theories which combine to produce a paradigm for the analysis of ethnic nationalism. Covers terminology confusion, biosocial theories, modernization theories, Marxist/Leninist theories, internal colonialism, ethnic pluralism, micro-social theories, system theories and multivariate models, development and modernization, power,…

  20. On art and science: an epistemic framework for integrating social science and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Jason Adam

    2014-06-01

    Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment.

  1. Finding Science in the School Body: Reflections on Transgressing the Boundaries of Science Education and the Social Studies of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the framings that the fields of the social studies of science and science education use for each other. It is shown that the social studies of science frames science education as passive and timeless. Science education frames science studies as a set of representations to better capture how science works. The paper then…

  2. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  3. Expansion and Increasing Diversification of the Universe of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gareau, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Refutes the very concept of a social science. Observes that the disciplines which study man and society are too heavily characterized by diversity, lack of consensus, and dissonance to be considered sciences. Classifies social science as a "non-science" and considers the term "social studies" to be a more honest and descriptive name to attach to…

  4. The Relationship of Information Science to the Social Sciences: A Co-Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Henry

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between information science and the social sciences through a co-citation cluster analysis of a three-year cumulation of the Social Sciences Citation Index. The internal structure of information science clusters is discussed, as well as external linkages to fields of social science. Thirteen references are listed. (BK)

  5. Nonparametric Bayes analysis of social science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunihama, Tsuyoshi

    Social science data often contain complex characteristics that standard statistical methods fail to capture. Social surveys assign many questions to respondents, which often consist of mixed-scale variables. Each of the variables can follow a complex distribution outside parametric families and associations among variables may have more complicated structures than standard linear dependence. Therefore, it is not straightforward to develop a statistical model which can approximate structures well in the social science data. In addition, many social surveys have collected data over time and therefore we need to incorporate dynamic dependence into the models. Also, it is standard to observe massive number of missing values in the social science data. To address these challenging problems, this thesis develops flexible nonparametric Bayesian methods for the analysis of social science data. Chapter 1 briefly explains backgrounds and motivations of the projects in the following chapters. Chapter 2 develops a nonparametric Bayesian modeling of temporal dependence in large sparse contingency tables, relying on a probabilistic factorization of the joint pmf. Chapter 3 proposes nonparametric Bayes inference on conditional independence with conditional mutual information used as a measure of the strength of conditional dependence. Chapter 4 proposes a novel Bayesian density estimation method in social surveys with complex designs where there is a gap between sample and population. We correct for the bias by adjusting mixture weights in Bayesian mixture models. Chapter 5 develops a nonparametric model for mixed-scale longitudinal surveys, in which various types of variables can be induced through latent continuous variables and dynamic latent factors lead to flexibly time-varying associations among variables.

  6. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  7. Survey Nonresponse Bias in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…

  8. Africa: A Social Studies and Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holboke, Kathy; And Others

    This packet was designed to help teachers maximize a visit to a zoo's Africa exhibit. The packet provides two levels of activities, grades 3-5, and grades 6-8, for use before, during and after the visit. Activities are designed to enhance skills taught in science, social studies, language arts, reading, art, and math. A multi-grade background…

  9. Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

  10. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan H., Ed.; Fischer, John L., Ed.

    This book is one of a series prepared in connection with the Survey of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The primary goal of the report is to provide a balanced statement of the past accomplishments, present status, and future prospects of anthropology. Although selective, the report attempts a great deal: 1)…

  11. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  12. Virtual Games in Social Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…

  13. Undergraduate Research in Social Sciences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusey, William W., III; Watt, William J.

    Ten seniors at Washington and Lee University participated in an undergraduate educational training program during the 1967-1968 school year. The program provided research training in education and the social sciences, and opportunities to work closely with experienced faculty in order to effectively formulate and clarify problems. The projects…

  14. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  15. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  16. Michael Polanyi and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Maben Walter

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…

  17. Rural science education as social justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  18. Rural science education as social justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppley, Karen

    2016-12-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  19. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  20. Historical Approaches in German Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heering, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the second half of the 20th century, historical approaches became relevant in science education. This development can at least in part be explained with the growing awareness of the importance to address Nature of Science aspects in science education. In comparison to the international publications, some particularities can be…

  1. Human Social Culture Behavior Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Networks    Shark  Bay  Dolphin  Network TECHNICAL APPROACH: • Use  real world wild bottlenose  dolphin  data to develop and  validate new methods for...Methods for Coping with  I t A bi d I l t D tnaccura e,  m guous an   ncomp e e  a a • Investigate Biological: – What  dolphin  attributes or observer

  2. Social controversy belongs in the climate science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.

  3. B. F. Skinner and G. H. Mead: on biological science and social science.

    PubMed

    Blackman, D E

    1991-03-01

    Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions.

  4. B. F. Skinner and G. H. Mead: on biological science and social science.

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, D E

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions. PMID:2037828

  5. Radio and the Teaching of the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a sampling of radio tapes which are available for use in the classroom, to help social science teachers promote a taste for history and other social sciences in a real and dynamic way. (KC)

  6. Approach to Physical Sciences, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, A., Ed.

    Methods of teaching physics and chemistry, which revolve around the inclusion of high school courses within the overall science curriculum and whose emphasis is on the latest developments in scientific research and technology, were the subject of the thirteenth annual Summer School for Senior Science Teachers. Paper themes are concerned with…

  7. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  8. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    PubMed

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  9. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.

  10. Social Climate Science: A New Vista for Psychological Science.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology.

  11. The Role of the Social Sciences in a Changing Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Federico

    1998-01-01

    Considers the role of the social sciences in Europe and elsewhere and the relation between social science and the United Nations organization UNESCO. States that the social sciences are the missing link between reflection and action marking many policy failures and that special emphasis be placed on certain research orientations. (CMK)

  12. Social Science Research: A Chronology for Judicial and Legislative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G., Sr.

    The influence of social science research on educational policy, particularly since the 1954 Brown vs Board of Education decision, has been significant. The paper presents an historical overview of the judicial use of social science data. Three questions are investigated: to what extent has social science influenced judicial decision-making? what…

  13. Mapping Social Interactions: The Science of Proxemics.

    PubMed

    McCall, Cade

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture. We also discuss ways in which these approaches can be integrated with psychophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Throughout, we argue that contemporary proxemics research provides psychology and neuroscience with a means to study social cognition and behavior as they naturally emerge and unfold in vivo.

  14. Physical science: A dynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    A partial table of contents is: Early concepts of nature. The rebirth of science. Energy, work, and power. Relativity. The atom. The periodic nature of elements. Chemical energy. The dynamic Earth. The solar system. Stars and nebulae. Extraterrestrial life. The author presents an introduction to physical science and the spirit of scientific inquiry through a historical survey of scientific thought. Specific forces, processes, energies and phenomena are outlined. Various tables, illustrations and questions accompany the text.

  15. Project Calliope: Science and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We present the 'Project Calliope' picosatellite to explore how to use social media to initiate, fund, and engage in scientific research. 'Project Calliope' is a sonified ionospheric detector being launched in 2010 on the "TubeSat" platform. It has no federal or academic contribution, and relies on 'citizen scientists' and such 'citizen journalist' channels as ScientificBlogging.com for its technical and infrastructure support. The fundamental question of whether good science can come from small packages has a mixed answer. We put forth the 'Science2.0' concept of science as play, provide a method for engaging individuals as contributors, discuss the pros and cons of operating a research project with full transparency, and present preliminary K12 outreach results.

  16. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Jeane W.

    2014-01-01

    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  17. ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    behaviour (Ackland, 2014). Big Data and in particular, social media data, present both methodological challenges and opportunities in empirical social ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report Elena Mazourenko Joint...interest to the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF) Group of JOAD presented at the ACSPRI 4th International Social Science Methodology conference

  18. Curriculum for "Social Information Science"--Evaluation and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruchson-Arbib, Shifra

    This paper evaluates the success of a new specialization in library science, Social Information Science, developed by the author at Bar-Ilan University (Israel). The aim of Social Information is to expand the role of the library, to build new Social Information Banks, and to create a new profession, Social Information Scientist. The paper…

  19. Towards disability ethics: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rhonda; Sullivan, Martin

    2003-06-01

    In the social sciences, debates about the discursive and material constitution of subjectivity and identity no longer appear to be at loggerheads. This has important implications for how we are to construct a framework for thinking about disability ethics. Following recent inroads in disability theory and in the sociology of ethics, we would argue that one of the aims of a disability ethics is not to view disability exclusively as a question of impairment, but to reclaim the social aspects of impairment in conjunction with the embodied aspects of disability. We would also suggest that the social and cultural construction of impairment, or abnormal corporeality, cannot be considered apart from the moral and existential relations that exist between disabled and non-disabled persons. The question we want to raise in this discussion is whether thinking disability ethics through a bioethics framework is adequate to this task.

  20. Scientific approaches to science policy.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jeremy M

    2013-11-01

    The development of robust science policy depends on use of the best available data, rigorous analysis, and inclusion of a wide range of input. While director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), I took advantage of available data and emerging tools to analyze training time distribution by new NIGMS grantees, the distribution of the number of publications as a function of total annual National Institutes of Health support per investigator, and the predictive value of peer-review scores on subsequent scientific productivity. Rigorous data analysis should be used to develop new reforms and initiatives that will help build a more sustainable American biomedical research enterprise.

  1. The Arts and Humanities in the 1981 History/Social Science Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Harold

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the recommendation of the 1981 "California History/Social Science Framework" for the integration of arts/humanities with social studies courses. The need for an interdisciplinary approach is examined. Two examples of social studies courses using humanities content indicate that students are more motivated because their classes…

  2. The body social: an enactive approach to the self

    PubMed Central

    Kyselo, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes a new look at an old question: what is the human self? It offers a proposal for theorizing the self from an enactive perspective as an autonomous system that is constituted through interpersonal relations. It addresses a prevalent issue in the philosophy of cognitive science: the body-social problem. Embodied and social approaches to cognitive identity are in mutual tension. On the one hand, embodied cognitive science risks a new form of methodological individualism, implying a dichotomy not between the outside world of objects and the brain-bound individual but rather between body-bound individuals and the outside social world. On the other hand, approaches that emphasize the constitutive relevance of social interaction processes for cognitive identity run the risk of losing the individual in the interaction dynamics and of downplaying the role of embodiment. This paper adopts a middle way and outlines an enactive approach to individuation that is neither individualistic nor disembodied but integrates both approaches. Elaborating on Jonas’ notion of needful freedom it outlines an enactive proposal to understanding the self as co-generated in interactions and relations with others. I argue that the human self is a social existence that is organized in terms of a back and forth between social distinction and participation processes. On this view, the body, rather than being identical with the social self, becomes its mediator. PMID:25309471

  3. Connecting with Teachers: The Case for Language Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiely, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Paul Stapleton's assessment of the current state of language teaching research (LTR) raises important issues. However, his proposal that social science research approaches in ELT have failed, and that that they should be replaced by approaches from the biological sciences, is unlikely to connect with the knowledge-building needs of ELT…

  4. [Social Sciences and Humanities in Health in ABRASCO: the construction of social theory in health.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Spadacio, Cristiane; Barboza, Renato; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Viana, Sabrina Daniela Lopes; Rocha, Ane Talita

    2014-11-01

    The development of recent social thinking in health in Brazil is associated with the establishment of the Public Health field and the Brazilian Association of Graduate Studies in Public Health (ABRASCO). The area of Social Sciences in Health was created together with the founding of ABRASCO. This article presents the main aspects related to the establishment and institutionalization of Social Sciences in Health in ABRASCO, based on interviews with its presidents and the coordinators of the Social Sciences Committees from 1995 to 2011. The interviews allowed capturing and analyzing the context in which this field was established and its relevance and history in Public Health as a whole, grouped in five analytical categories: (1) the development of Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health; (2) interdisciplinarity in Public Health; (3) the contribution of Social Sciences to Public Health; (4) Social Sciences in Health and the "traditional" Social Sciences; and (5) challenges for Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health.

  5. Socially constructed learning in early childhood science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1991-12-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study in which the concept of electricity was introduced to young children in a child care centre. Three areas were examined: first, the perceived difficulties associated with the teaching of science to very young children (3 5 year olds); second, a discussion of the approach used to teach electricity to young children, and finally, the study and its findings. When the teaching of electricity (through a unit on torches) followed a socially constructed approach to learning, all of the children were able to connect up a simple electric circuit and talk about the electricity flowing around the circuit.

  6. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    PubMed

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  7. Science for Reducing Health Inequalities Emerges From Social Justice Movements.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Although the health sciences have investigated economic and social inequalities in morbidity and mortality for hundreds of years, health inequalities persist and are, by some measures, increasing. This is not simply a situation in which the knowledge exists but is not implemented. Rather, science in general and epidemiology in particular have focused on quantifying the effects of specific agents considered in isolation. This approach is powerful, but, in the absence of ecological concepts that connect parts and wholes, contributes to maintaining health inequalities. By joining movements for human rights and social justice, health scientists can identify research questions that are relevant to public health, develop methods that are appropriate to answering those questions, and contribute to efforts to reduce health inequalities.

  8. Integrating social science and genetics: news from the political front.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Dawes, Christopher T; Frost-Keller, Amanda; Settle, Jaime E; Verhulst, Brad

    2011-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of genetic models to expand the understanding of political preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Researchers in the social sciences have begun incorporating these models and have revealed that genetic differences account for individual differences in political beliefs, behaviors, and responses to the political environment. The first Integrating Genetics and the Social Sciences Conference, held at Boulder, Colorado in May of 2010, brought together these researchers. As a result, we jointly review the last 5 years of research in this area. In doing so, we explicate the methods, findings, and limitations of behavior genetic approaches, including twin designs, association studies, and genome-wide analyses, in their application toward exploring political preferences.

  9. Role of Social Networks in Developing Religious and Social Values of the Students of the World Islamic Sciences & Education University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mosa, Nosiba Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the role of Social Networks in the social and religious values of The World Islamic Sciences & Education University students. The study applied the survey and descriptive Approach. The population of the study represents all BA students who enrolled in the first academic semester for the year 2014-2015. The sample of…

  10. A sociohistorical examination of George Herbert Mead's approach to science education.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michelle L

    2016-07-01

    Although George Herbert Mead is widely known for his social psychological work, his views on science education also represent a significant, yet sometimes overlooked contribution. In a speech delivered in March 1906 entitled "The Teaching of Science in College," Mead calls for cultural courses on the sciences, such as sociology of science or history of science courses, to increase the relevancy of natural and physical science courses for high school and university students. These views reflect Mead's perspective on a number of traditional dualisms, including objectivity versus subjectivity and the social sciences versus natural and physical sciences. Taking a sociohistorical outlook, I identify the context behind Mead's approach to science education, which includes three major influences: (1) German intellectual thought and the Methodenstreit debate, (2) pragmatism and Darwin's theory of evolution, and (3) social reform efforts in Chicago and the General Science Movement.

  11. Operationalizing Social Work Science through Research-Practice Partnerships: Lessons from Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…

  12. Foundations of “new” social science: Institutional legitimacy from philosophy, complexity science, postmodernism, and agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as “autonomous agents” that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a “new” normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a “new” social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this “new” social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack. PMID:12011408

  13. Foundations of "new" social science: institutional legitimacy from philosophy, complexity science, postmodernism, and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill

    2002-05-14

    Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as "autonomous agents" that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a "new" normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a "new" social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this "new" social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack.

  14. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    PubMed

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

  15. Collaboration in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…

  16. The Employment Outlook for Social Science Majors in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Eva C.

    This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…

  17. Science, Innovation, and Social Work: Purpose: Clash or Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…

  18. Social Science in the Schools: A Search for Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissett, Irving; Stevens, W. William, Jr.

    The focus of the volume is on reasons for selecting or not selecting any particular social science content, including history, for inclusion in the elementary and secondary social studies curriculum. Prominent authors from each of the social sciences--among them, Paul Ward, David Easton, and Ronald Lippitt--describe the nature of their disciplines…

  19. Teaching Science through a Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

  20. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  1. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  2. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  3. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-11-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession.

  4. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer.

    PubMed

    Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor

    2014-09-19

    We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings.

  5. Social Networks in the Virtual Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Myers, James D.; Hoyt, David W.

    2002-08-01

    Located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility (HFMRF) houses 11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers. Additionally, the Virtual Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility (VNMRF) provides on-line Internet access to these HFMRF spectrometers. Through the VNMRF and its suite of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) tools, researchers may collaboratively set the controls of an NMR spectrometer, execute an NMR experiment, acquire data, analyze results, and communicate with other researchers all from the comforts of their home institutions and their own offices. Virtual science laboratories like the VNMRF promote a compelling vision. Consistent with Wulf's notion of a "collaboratory," a virtual science laboratory is a "'center without walls', in which the nation's researchers can perform their research without regard to geographical location." Such a laboratory strives to provide an open research environment in which scientists from different disciplines may collaborate on advanced research using leading-edge instruments and tools, while reducing the physical, organizational, and political boundaries that confront researchers as they amass their collective skills, capabilities, and brainpower to solve the world's most challenging scientific problems. In this article, we describe the social networks that have emerged from the VNMRF and the impacts and influences that CSCW technologies have had upon those networks. The development of social networks depends on various factors including personal and professional objectives, work functions, organizational roles, and afforded collaborative capabilities. As such, our results serve as a useful point of comparison and contrast in the analysis of social networks and CSCW impacts that evolve from scientific contexts as well as from other collaborative settings such as in business and education.

  6. Social Studies of Science: Society Crosses Disciplinary Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1977-01-01

    Topics of discussion at the third annual meeting of the Society of Social Studies of Science are presented. Differences in viewpoints and opinions between sociologists, science philosophers who comprise the organization are discussed. (CP)

  7. Interdisciplinarity and the social sciences: capital, institutions and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Garforth, Lisa; Kerr, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Recent discussions about disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity in the social sciences have tended to map and critique methods, theories and approaches to knowledge production, but spend less time exploring the ways in which institutional constraints and personal trajectories produce different kinds of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. In this paper we present findings on interdisciplinarity from UK research undertaken as part of an EC project on knowledge, gender and institutions. The research involved a small survey (n = 14), in-depth interviews (n = 5), two focus groups (n = 7) and observation of social scientists in one university department between June 2006 and April 2007. We reflect on the unwillingness of social scientists to confront the conditions of our academic labour in an account of our difficulties with gaining access and respondents in this study, before moving on to consider some of the different ways in which interdisciplinarity and disciplinary commitments were related to particular forms of scientific and symbolic capital. We go on to discuss this in relation to the autonomy of academic teaching-and-research staff compared to contract researchers, and consider the implications of our findings for the future of interdisciplinarity and the social sciences.

  8. Ensuring Sustainable Data Interoperability Across the Natural and Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Both the natural and social science data communities are attempting to address the long-term sustainability of their data infrastructures in rapidly changing research, technological, and policy environments. Many parts of these communities are also considering how to improve the interoperability and integration of their data and systems across natural, social, health, and other domains. However, these efforts have generally been undertaken in parallel, with little thought about how different sustainability approaches may impact long-term interoperability from scientific, legal, or economic perspectives, or vice versa, i.e., how improved interoperability could enhance—or threaten—infrastructure sustainability. Scientific progress depends substantially on the ability to learn from the legacy of previous work available for current and future scientists to study, often by integrating disparate data not previously assembled. Digital data are less likely than scientific publications to be usable in the future unless they are managed by science-oriented repositories that can support long-term data access with the documentation and services needed for future interoperability. We summarize recent discussions in the social and natural science communities on emerging approaches to sustainability and relevant interoperability activities, including efforts by the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructures project to address global change data infrastructure needs; the Group on Earth Observations to further implement data sharing and improve data management across diverse societal benefit areas; and the Research Data Alliance to develop legal interoperability principles and guidelines and to address challenges faced by domain repositories. We also examine emerging needs for data interoperability in the context of the post-2015 development agenda and the expected set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which set ambitious targets for sustainable development, poverty reduction, and

  9. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of

  10. A New Way of Thinking about Social Location in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, Warren

    2008-01-01

    The Durkheimian concept of the density of social relationships may prove more fruitful than the historical materialist notion of a social hierarchy for thinking about the social location of epistemic agents in science. To define a scientist's social location in terms of the density of her professional relationships with other scientists permits us…

  11. Social Studies: Selected Teaching Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John I., Ed.

    Nine essays serving as springboards to the study of historical events and cultures focus on the use of memorabilia and primary resources for teaching social studies. Following a short preface by John I. Thomas, Linda Carrillo examines ways in which folk songs can be used to arouse a child's interest in the study of other cultures. In "Using…

  12. Generational Approaches to Political Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Neal E.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates two models of generational political research: the lineage model in which generations are defined in terms of biological succession within family units, and the cohort model, in which generations are defined in terms of the common and unique life experiences (and socialization) of individuals born and raised in a particular time period.…

  13. Fieldwork and social science research ethics.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Qudsiya

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethical dilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork.

  14. Scientizing with "ScienceKit": Social Media and Storytelling Mobile Apps for Developing Playful Scientist Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Tamara; Ahn, June; Yip, Jason C.; Bonsignore, Elizabeth; Pauw, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of several studies in which the authors draw on social media, storytelling, and mobile apps to help children playfully develop their own approaches to science. The authors detail their efforts to strike a balance between the structure needed to promote science learning and the flexibility needed to nurture…

  15. Science Education and Human Rights: Explorations into Critical Social Consciousness and Postmodern Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd E.; Eichinger, John

    1999-01-01

    Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…

  16. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  17. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue.

  18. Urbanization and the carbon cycle: Contributions from social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotullio, Peter J.; Hughes, Sara; Sarzynski, Andrea; Pincetl, Stephanie; Sanchez Peña, Landy; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Runfola, Daniel; Seto, Karen C.

    2014-10-01

    This paper outlines the contributions of social science to the study of interactions between urbanization patterns and processes and the carbon cycle, and identifies gaps in knowledge and priority areas for future social scientific research contributions. While previously studied as a unidimensional process, we conceptualize urbanization as a multidimensional, social and biophysical process driven by continuous changes across space and time in various subsystems including biophysical, built environment, and socio-institutional (e.g., economic, political, demographic, behavioral, and sociological). We review research trends and findings focused on the socio-institutional subsystem of the urbanization process, and particularly the dynamics, relationships, and predictions relevant to energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Our findings suggest that a multidimensional perspective of urbanization facilitates a wider spectrum of research relevant to carbon cycle dynamics, even within the socio-institutional subsystem. However, there is little consensus around the details and mechanisms underlying the relationship between urban socio-institutional subsystems and the carbon cycle. We argue that progress in understanding the relationship between urbanization and the carbon cycle may be achieved if social scientists work collaboratively with each other as well as with scientists from other disciplines. From this review, we identify research priorities where collaborative social scientific efforts are necessary in conjunction with other disciplinary approaches to generate a more complete understanding of urbanization as a process and its relationship to the carbon cycle.

  19. Teaching Science Using Stories: The Storyline Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.

    2007-01-01

    Storytelling is an age-old and powerful means of communication that can be used as an effective teaching strategy in the science classroom. This article describes the authors' experiences implementing the Storyline Approach, an inquiry-based teaching method first introduced by Kieran Egan (1986), in the context of teaching the concept of air…

  20. An Approach for the Accurate Measurement of Social Morality Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In the social sciences, computer-based modeling has become an increasingly important tool receiving widespread attention. However, the derivation of the quantitative relationships linking individual moral behavior and social morality levels, so as to provide a useful basis for social policy-making, remains a challenge in the scholarly literature today. A quantitative measurement of morality from the perspective of complexity science constitutes an innovative attempt. Based on the NetLogo platform, this article examines the effect of various factors on social morality levels, using agents modeling moral behavior, immoral behavior, and a range of environmental social resources. Threshold values for the various parameters are obtained through sensitivity analysis; and practical solutions are proposed for reversing declines in social morality levels. The results show that: (1) Population size may accelerate or impede the speed with which immoral behavior comes to determine the overall level of social morality, but it has no effect on the level of social morality itself; (2) The impact of rewards and punishment on social morality levels follows the “5∶1 rewards-to-punishment rule,” which is to say that 5 units of rewards have the same effect as 1 unit of punishment; (3) The abundance of public resources is inversely related to the level of social morality; (4) When the cost of population mobility reaches 10% of the total energy level, immoral behavior begins to be suppressed (i.e. the 1/10 moral cost rule). The research approach and methods presented in this paper successfully address the difficulties involved in measuring social morality levels, and promise extensive application potentials. PMID:24312189

  1. Teaching Gifted Students Social Sciences in Grades Seven Through Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Curriculum Services.

    Intended for use by teachers, consultants and administrators, the booklet discusses social science instruction for gifted students in grades 7-9. An introductory section provides an overview of goals and parameters of the social sciences (psychology, sociology, and anthropology). The scientific research process is described in terms of five steps,…

  2. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  3. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  4. Social Science Research on Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1989-01-01

    Examines trends in social science research on biotechnology and agriculture. Discusses role of private industry's biotechnology "hype" in defining social science research policy in universities. Suggests that widespread promotion of biotechnology as "revolutionary" contributed to lack of academic scrutiny. Examines social…

  5. Social Sciences and Space Exploration: New Directions for University Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheston, T. Stephen; And Others

    During the 1970s, efforts to teach and research the social science and humanities aspects of the space program were reintensified. A 1978 survey of faculty suggested the need for a single volume that united introductory material on the various social science disciplines and the classroom experience of faculty already teaching in the field. This…

  6. Instructional Technologies in Social Science Instruction in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Johann; Brown, Cheryl; Muller, Johan; Soudien, Crain

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the results of a survey and a description of instructional technologies in place in the social sciences in South African Universities. Lecturers in the social sciences reported a well-established practice of information and communication technologies (ICTs) use for general purposes (although frequent use tended to be for email…

  7. Teaching and Learning about Science and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benne, Kenneth D.; Birnbaum, Max

    This monograph explores aspects of science and technology in contemporary society and suggests methods for teaching about social policy issues which have resulted from scientific and technological developments. Section one offers an argument for teaching about science and social policy; surveys the sociology, politics, and history of contemporary…

  8. Science/Technology/Society in the Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Phillip A.

    The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…

  9. Kant or Marx? Philosophy and the Origins of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…

  10. Social Science Research Council Annual Report, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.

    The report summarizes membership, activities, and finances of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) for the year 1976-1977. SSRC is a nonprofit corporation which has as its purpose the advancement of research in the social sciences. It endeavors to stimulate the development of theory and empirical knowledge concerning human behavior through…

  11. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  12. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  13. Engaging bodies in the public imagination: bioarchaeology as social science, science, and humanities.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Duncan, William N

    2015-01-01

    Bioarchaeology is the contextual analysis of biological remains from past societies. It is a young and growing discipline born during the latter half of the twentieth century from its roots in physical anthropology and archaeology. Although often associated with the study of ancient diet and disease, bioarchaeology leverages variable temporal scales and its global scope to provide a uniquely comparative perspective on human life that transcends traditional boundaries of the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Here, we explore the public face of bioarchaeology and consider the trends in publication practices that reflect diversifying research strategies. Bioarchaeology is a popular topic on web-based science news aggregators. However, we identify a disconnect between bioarchaeology's traditional research emphases, emerging research foci, and findings that actually spark the public imagination. A majority of popular news articles emphasize basic discovery or "natural curiosities." Publication data indicate the field also remains regionally focused with relatively little emphasis on nomothetic goals. Nevertheless, bioarchaeology can do more to leverage its historical perspective and corporeal emphasis to engage a number of topics with importance across traditional academic boundaries. Big data, comparative, multi-investigator, interdisciplinary projects on violence, colonialism, and health offer the most obvious potential for driving research narratives in the biological and social sciences. Humanistic approaches that explore emotional connections to the past can also have merit. The diversity of research outlets and products indicates the field must embrace the importance of nontraditional activities in its value structure to maximize our potential in public arenas.

  14. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  15. Twenty-five years of Social Science in Law.

    PubMed

    Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens

    2011-02-01

    In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.

  16. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: a view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Patricia L; Olster, Deborah H; Morgan, Glen D; Abrams, David B

    2008-08-01

    Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral-social-ecologic models of multilevel "causes of the causes" and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit of

  17. Ways of Living. Science In a Social CONtext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  18. Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  19. Technology, Invention and Industry. Science In a Social CONtext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  20. Analyzing the Scientific Evolution of Social Work Using Science Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…

  1. Social and Subject Factors in Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    Reports the results of research on the attitudes of third year secondary school students toward school science and the social implications of science. Discusses the nature of attitude testing, the process of constructing an attitude scale, and the implications of this study as they relate to the science curriculum. (JR)

  2. Evaluation of Life Sciences and Social Sciences Course Books in Term of Societal Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aykac, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…

  3. Social Sciences in Asia I: Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand. Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences, No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Part of a series which provides overviews of social science research and teaching in UNESCO member nations, the document focuses on Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Thailand. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. Chapter I discusses social science teaching at major universities in Bangladesh and recommends that research…

  4. The Social Sciences and Geographic Education: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, John M., Ed.; And Others

    This book brings together articles by educators, geographers, social scientists, and those whose competence and interests cross two or more of these fields. Geography as a discipline has played an important part in social studies/social science education. These chapters are representative of current thinking on many facets of the interaction among…

  5. Interdisciplinary education approach to the human science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhang, Nian

    2012-06-01

    We introduced human sciences as components, and integrated them together as an interdisciplinary endeavor over decades. This year, we built a website to maintain systematically the educational research service. We captured the human sciences in various components in the SPIE proceedings over the last decades, which included: (i) ears & eyes like adaptive wavelets, (ii) brain-like unsupervised learning independent component analysis (ICA); (iii) compressive sampling spatiotemporal sparse information processing, (iv) nanoengineering approach to sensing components, (v) systems biology measurements, and (vi) biomedical wellness applications. In order to serve the interdisciplinary community better, our system approach is based on that the former recipients invited the next recipients to deliver their review talks and panel discussions. Since only the former recipients of each component can lead the nomination committees and make the final selections, we also create a leadership award which may be nominated by any conference attendance, to be approved by the conference organization committee.

  6. Behavioral and social sciences at the National Institutes of Health: Methods, measures, and data infrastructures as a scientific priority.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its strategic plan for 2017-2021. This plan focuses on three equally important strategic priorities: 1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, 2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and 3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on scientific priority two and future directions in measurement science, technology, data infrastructure, behavioral ontologies, and big data methods and analytics that have the potential to transform the behavioral and social sciences into more cumulative, data rich sciences that more efficiently build on prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  8. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others’ mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25709572

  9. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Lobato, Emilio J C; McConnell, Daniel S; Fiore, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others' mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience.

  10. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 905,...

  11. Bad Science and Its Social Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

  12. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes.

  13. Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations: An Exciting New Direction.

    PubMed

    Matz, Jacob; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia

    2016-08-22

    The Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations Conference in May 2016 was a unique gathering of scholars from the social sciences and environmental health sciences, government agency professionals, community organizers and activists, and students. Conference participants described the research and practice of environmental public health as done through a transdisciplinary lens and with a community-based participatory research/community-engaged research model. NIEHS' role in supporting such work has helped create a growing number of social and environmental health scientists who cross boundaries as they work with each other and with community-based organizations.

  14. The Social Sciences as Continuous with Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherryholmes, Cleo H.

    W. V. O. Quine's analysis of the analytic and synthetic distinction is discussed. The implications of his argument for science are stated as: (1) the importance of formal logic and proofs in science is reduced; (2) the importance of rhetoric in science is recognized; (3) the meaning of words cannot be fixed, and nonexistent identities between…

  15. Taking a Scientific Approach to Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, S.

    2011-09-01

    It is now well-documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory science courses often fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, these same courses have been found to teach students things we don't intend. Building on a tradition of research, the physics and astronomy education research communities have been investigating the effects of educational reforms at the undergraduate level for decades. Both within these scientific communities and in the fields of education, cognitive science, psychology, and other social sciences, we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students. This presentation will discuss a variety of effective classroom practices, (with an emphasis on peer instruction, "clickers," and small group activities), the surrounding educational structures, and examine assessments which indicate when and why these do (and sometimes do not) work. After a broad survey of education research, we will look at some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments within this field that are being conducted at the University of Colorado. Throughout, we will consider research and practices that can be of value in both physics and astronomy classes, as well as applications to teaching in a variety of environments.

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  18. Shaping a Science of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…

  19. Social scientists in public health: a fuzzy approach.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Juliana Luporini; Stephan, Celso; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze the presence of social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the field of public health. A survey by the Lattes Curriculum and sites of Medical Colleges, Institutes of Health Research Collective, seeking professionals who work in healthcare and have done some stage of their training in the areas of social sciences. In confluence with Norbert Elias' concepts of social networks and configuration of interdependence it was used fuzzy logic, and the tool free statistical software R version 2.12.0 which enabled a graphic representation of social scientists interdependence in the field of social sciences-health-social sciences. A total of 238 professionals were ready in 6 distinct clusters according to the distance or closer of each professional in relation to public health and social sciences. The work was shown with great analytical and graphical representation possibilities for social sciences of health, in using this innovative quantitative methodology.

  20. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. Objective This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students’ opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Methods Data were collected from the Universitas 21 “Use of social media in health education” survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Results Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media “almost always” reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Conclusions Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. PMID:28052842

  1. Bibliographic References for Numeric Social Science Data Files: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sue A.

    1979-01-01

    Some information components associated with social science numeric data bases are outlined, and guidelines, examples, and a uniform vocabulary for the creation of bibliograpic citations are included. (Author/MBR)

  2. Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women

    PubMed Central

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2014-01-01

    In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts. PMID:24904342

  3. Team Experiences for Science and Social Studies Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Borowiec, Jonathan B.; James, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how senior-level, preservice teacher certification candidates in secondary science and social science methods classes work in teams to prepare instructional materials on a community-based issue (such as the effect of the deposition of arsenic in a creek and small city lake). Argues that such projects provide valuable learning experiences…

  4. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-05-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in the literature generally took into consideration NOS views of only natural scientists. This study primarily proposes to explore the views of scientists in both the natural and social sciences regarding the seven target aspects of NOS. The second aim of the study is to find out the similarities and dissimilarities between the views of scientists who majored in social sciences and those who majored in natural sciences in terms of the target aspects of NOS. The sample was 69 scientists representing 5 scientific disciplines from natural and social sciences. Interviews were employed for obtaining data. The data were analyzed by means of cognitive maps. This study revealed that the scientists in the sample have neither completely informed views nor completely naïve views according to contemporary scientific understanding. Their views were a blend of the two in terms of almost all the target aspects of NOS. The views of the scientists in natural science and in social science were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally had similar viewpoints. This situation suggested that the scientists' views about NOS are not related to their scientific disciplines.

  5. Integrating the Teaching of Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Thomas; Voss, Burton

    Examples of the interface of science and society are offered as several persuasive reasons for integrating science and social studies curriculum in elementary and secondary schools. These reasons include: (1) the search for new personal and societal values as a result of scientific and technological development in prolonging human life, in…

  6. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  7. Reforming Science Education. Social Perspectives & Personal Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    Science education reform is an ongoing process. In recent years many have begun to look not only to teachers for change, but they are also insisting on the involvement of administrators, parents, community members, and some business organizations to bring about this change. This book presents facts and insights regarding science education reform…

  8. Kindergarten. History-Social Science: A Brief Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This handbook outlines the kindergarten course entitled "Myself and Others in My World." A statement of the California philosophy of history-social science education precedes the handbook's three sections. The first two sections present major goals of the program, an overview of social studies content for grades K-6, and a chart of areas…

  9. Shaping Social Work Science: What Should Quantitative Researchers Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shenyang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…

  10. Social Science Instructional Guides: High School (Grades 9-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Carl; And Others

    The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 9-12. Three components comprise each section: time allocations for units, instructional objectives, and a content outline. The Grade 9 course, Cultures of the Non-Western World, contains…

  11. Computerized Simulation in the Social Sciences: A Survey and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, G. David

    2009-01-01

    After years at the periphery of the social sciences, simulation is now emerging as an important and widely used tool for understanding social phenomena. Through simulation, researchers can identify causal effects, specify critical parameter estimates, and clarify the state of the art with respect to what is understood about how processes evolve…

  12. Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow: The History and Social Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Dralle, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of personal digital assistants, which are hand-held computers, in history and social science classrooms, explaining that they offer possibilities for greater access to technology at a fraction of the cost of desktop or laptop computers. Describes how removed today's social studies classrooms, students, and teachers are from this…

  13. The Relationship between Method and Validity in Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David; And Others

    An endless debate in social science research focuses on whether or not there is a philosophical basis for justifying the application of scientific methods to social inquiry. A review of the philosophies of various scholars in the field indicates that there is no single procedure for arriving at a valid statement in a scientific inquiry. Natural…

  14. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  15. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  16. Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.

    This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1,…

  17. Social Science Research Council Annual Report, 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.

    The Social Science Research Council's activities during its 50th anniversary year are summarized. In addition to presenting detailed accounts from 30 committees which comprise the Council, the report includes a staff essay on social development during early childhood. The report indicates that the Council pursued the advancement of research in the…

  18. Social Science Instructional Guides: Middle School. (Grades 6-8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Karen; And Others

    The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 6, 7, and 8. The courses focus on the geographic setting, history, and cultures of the Americans and the need for inter-American cooperation. The guides for each course contain three…

  19. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  20. Adding Life to Social Studies, Language Arts, Math and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Dorothy Tousley; Archer, Sally

    This booklet is designed to use the newspaper in the teaching of social studies, language arts, math, and science. Each of these major areas is divided into several topics. Each topic is defined, followed by a list of activities using newspaper articles or pictures to develop the topic. The seven topics for social studies are sociology;…

  1. [The approach of sciences of complexity in health services administration].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Historically, health services administration has been managed under a Taylorist, Fayolist, humanist and bureaucratic focus approach. However, today dynamic and competitive behaviors that require others approaches in management are developing. Because of the social, scientific and technological changes that are occurring, it is necessary to abandon hierarchical and authoritarian schemes, "up and down" lines, prescriptive rules and order line up must be left behind. Health services administration is an adapted complex system that is not proportional, neither predictable in direction or magnitude. A new proposal is to focus on the sciences of complexity, where the social factors, materials, economics, human and ethics coincide with order and disorder, reason and unreason, and in which we must accept that the phenomenon that emerges creates different organizing different structures from the addition or subtraction of components. There is distance in the process of cause and direct effect. The mirage from the sciences of complexity are trans-disciplinary and we have accepted this in others branches of knowledge, such as quantum physics, non-linear mathematics and cybernetics, so we have to accept the influence of entropy, non-entropy, attractors, the theory of chaos and fractals.

  2. Learning to teach science for social justice in urban schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Purvi

    This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also

  3. History, Philosophy, and Science in a Social Perspective: A Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-06-01

    Various studies have promoted instruction in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science classes, but the best way of putting this perspective into practice remains undetermined. To contribute to this issue, we developed a pedagogical project in some high schools in Brazil that aimed to present science content using an historical-philosophical approach focusing on the HPS from a social perspective. The content was developed broadly, highlighting the dialogues between science and the cultures in which scientific knowledge was accumulated. The results of the first stage of project implementation show that some strategies efficiently encouraged student discussion about science using an historical-philosophical approach. One successful strategy was the use of artistic material, such as movies and plays. The creative language and images in these elements allowed teachers to broaden historical-philosophical discussions without compromising science content. This project shows that a social approach to the HPS stimulates interdisciplinary discussions in science classes, enabling students to reflect on the nature of science.

  4. Puritan Day: A Social Science Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    2007-01-01

    Most students assume that a thriving society runs smoothly because people abide by the laws. But there are various informal, as well as formal, means of social control such as gossip, ridicule, and shame that function even in complex societies to achieve social control, or conformity to group norms. Good teaching ideas have the potential to lead…

  5. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 106, ANTHROPOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHANNAN, PAUL

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES THE MAJOR CONCEPTS, STRUCTURE, AND METHODS OF ANTHROPOLOGY FOR GRADES K-6. THE FOLLOWING UNIT AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) NEEDS AND NEED SATISFACTION, (2) HUMAN PERSONALITY, (3) SOCIAL GROUPS, (4) SOCIAL NETWORKS, (5) HUMAN CULTURE, (6) CHANGE AND EVOLUTION, AND (7) CURRENT CULTURAL CHANGES. A SUMMARY CHART PRESENTS A FLOW…

  6. Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2007-02-01

    Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1. Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.

  7. Putting Sociology First—Reconsidering the Role of the Social in `Nature of Science' Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemplén, Gábor Á.

    2009-05-01

    Contrasting two examples from 2005, a creationism-trial and a recent textbook, the article shows two different ways of employing social considerations to demarcate science from non-science. Drawing conclusions from the comparison, and citing some of the leading proponents of science studies, the paper argues for a novel perspective in teaching nature of science (NOS) issues, one that grows out of sociological and anthropological considerations of (scientific) expertise. In contrast to currently dominant epistemic approaches to teach NOS, this view makes it possible to incorporate epistemic and social norms in a unified framework that can alleviate presently problematic aspects of NOS modules, and can help students appreciate science as a privileged form of knowledge-production without becoming scientistic. A pilot module to carry out the above is presented and assessed, showing that a broad sociological starting point is closer to the lifeworld of students, and that traditional epistemic considerations need not be compromised.

  8. Beyond Coping. Some Approaches to Social Education. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosemary

    This report examines various approaches to social education that are currently in use in Great Britain. Discussed in an overview of social education are the following topics: social education in secondary schools, social education and the Youth Service, social education for adults, training in personal interaction, the social education of mentally…

  9. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  10. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idlis, G. M.; Tomilin, Konstantin

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  11. Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics.

  12. Science Students and the Social Sciences: Strange Bedfellows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeong, Foong May

    2014-01-01

    With various internet resources available to students, the main aim of a good university education today should not merely be to provide students with content knowledge, but rather to equip them with essential skills necessary to develop into lifelong learners. Among science educators, repeated calls have been made to promote a more holistic…

  13. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  14. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  15. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  16. History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This framework, centered in the chronological study of history, proposes an integrated and correlated approach to the teaching of history and the social sciences. The framework is structured around three major goals, each comprising several curriculum strands which are to be developed from kindergarten through grade 12. The three goals are: (1)…

  17. The Efficacy of Collaborative Strategic Reading in Middle School Science and Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Alison G.; Klingner, Janette K.; Buckley, Pamela; Annamma, Subini; Lasser, Cristin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a multi-component reading comprehension instructional approach, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), compared to business-as-usual instructional methods with 19 teachers and 1074 students in middle school social studies and science classrooms in a large urban district. Researchers collaborated with school…

  18. How to integrate social sciences in hydrological research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in environmental science. Many scholars have long advocated for a joint effort of scientists from different disciplines (interdisciplinarity) to address the problems of the growing pressure on environmental and human systems (Nature, 2015). Such a need was also recognised for the hydrological sciences (HS) e.g. most recently by Vogel et al. (2015). Vibrant new approaches such as "Panta Rhei" (Montanari et al., 2013) and "Socio-Hydrology" (Sivapalan et al., 2012) discuss and propose options for the deeper involvement of hydrologists in socio-economic questions. While there is widespread consensus that coping with the challenges of global change in water resources requires more consideration of human activity, it still remains unclear which roles the social sciences and the humanities (SSH) should assume in this context. Despite the frequent usage of the term "interdisciplinarity" in related discussions, there seems to be a tendency towards assimilation of socio-economic aspects into hydrological research rather than an opening up for interdisciplinary collaboration with social scientists at eye level. The literature, however, remains vague with respect to the concepts of integration and does not allow confirming this assumed tendency. Moreover, the discourse within the hydrological research community on increasing the consideration of societal aspects in hydrological modelling and research is still led by a comparatively small group. In this contribution we highlight the most interesting results of a survey among hydrologists (with 184 respondents). The survey participants do not think that SSH is presently well integrated into hydrological research. They recognize the need for better cooperation between the two disciplines. When asked about ways to improve the status of cooperation, a higher status and acknowledgment of interdisciplinary research by colleagues do not

  19. Linking physics, humanities, and social sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

    2001-02-01

    Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyzes her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled "The Atomic Era," which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a physicist, a sociologist, and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, ! ! assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses, and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analyzed.

  20. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  1. The Hybridization of Social Science Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Mattei

    1996-01-01

    Describes the growth of science as a twofold process: (1) the fragmentation of formal disciplines; and (2) a recombination of the specialties resulting from this fragmentation. Discusses the division of disciplines into specialized subfields that has led to the development of hybrid specialties, and maintains that the concept of hybridization is…

  2. Software for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Software Clearinghouse, Raleigh, NC.

    This computer software program bibliography available from the National Collegiate Software Clearinghouse (NCSC) includes programs for college students and researchers in anthropology, economics and business, education, English and text analysis, foreign language, general interest, history, management, philosophy and religion, political science,…

  3. Science, Social Work, Prevention: Finding the Intersections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the science of prevention of adolescent health and behavior problems has matured as a result of longitudinal studies of predictors of these problems and controlled studies of preventive interventions focused on those predictors that have revealed efficacious prevention strategies. This article builds on three Aaron Rosen…

  4. Habits of Mind: Integrating the Social and Personal Characteristics of Doing Science into the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkmann, Mark J.; Eichinger, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on three habits associated with personal values and attitudes, and one habit associated with social skills of doing science. Illustrates four habits of mind, first through a story of modern scientific investigation, then as the basis of school laboratory science experience. Discusses implications related to integration of these four habits…

  5. Art Related Experiences for Social Science, Natural Science, and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Edward B.

    This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…

  6. Mexican American Women in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca Zinn, Maxine

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the biased image of Mexican-American women in current literature can be improved by: locating Mexican-American females in precise organizational context; distinguishing between macro- and microanalytical levels; separating social structural from cultural phenomena; and relating Mexican-American women's studies to general feminist…

  7. Social Science Perspectives on Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E., Ed.; Dynneson, Thomas L., Ed.

    This anthology examines the role and current conditions of citizenship in the United States' society. The compilation of essays by eminent social scientists and educators explore the concept of citizenship from various disciplinary perspectives: educational (Thomas L. Dynneson and Richard E. Gross); political (Robert B. Woyach); historical (Kerry…

  8. Teaching energy using an integrated science approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, Valeria; Miceli, Cristina; Testa, Italo

    2017-01-01

    Despite its relevance to all scientific domains, the debate surrounding the teaching of energy is still open. The main point remains the problems students have in understanding some aspects of the energy concept and in applying their knowledge to the comprehension of natural phenomena. In this paper, we present a research-based interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of energy in which the first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to interpret physical, chemical and biological processes. The contents of the three disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology) were reconstructed focusing on six basic aspects of energy (forms, transfer, transformation, conservation, degradation, and entropy) and using common teaching methodologies. The module was assessed with 39 secondary school students (aged 15-16) using a 30-question research instrument and a treatment/control group methodology. Analysis of students’ learning outcomes suggests a better understanding of the energy concept, supporting the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach in the teaching of energy in physics and science in general. Implications for the teaching of energy are briefly discussed.

  9. Social Thinking®: Science, Pseudoscience, or Antiscience?

    PubMed

    Leaf, Justin B; Kassardjian, Alyne; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Cihon, Joseph H; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-06-01

    Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science. Today, an intervention that is commonly implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is Social Thinking®. This intervention has been utilized by behaviorists and non-behaviorists. This commentary will outline Social Thinking® and provide evidence that the procedure, at the current time, qualifies as a pseudoscience and, therefore, should not be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, especially given the availability of alternatives which clearly meet the standard of evidence science.

  10. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  11. Turning Visitors into Citizens: Using Social Science for Civic Engagement in Informal Science Education Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Alexis; Arvizu, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    How can museums and other informal learning institutions cultivate greater civic engagement among the visiting public around important social issues? This case study of the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpreters' (NNOCCI) professional learning community illustrates how insights from the social sciences can be productively…

  12. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  13. Michael Polanyi: Science as Personal Knowledge and Social Practice.

    PubMed

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2017-03-20

    Tacit knowing: 2016 marked the 125th anniversary of the birth of the physical chemist Michael Polanyi, as well as the 40th of his death. This essay discusses his philosophy of science-in particular, his most significant work in this area, Personal Knowledge-from the perspective of his personal biography, as well as its lasting influence on the social sciences. In the photograph: Michael Polanyi at the Fritz Haber Institute in 1968.

  14. From Big Data to Knowledge in the Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Moser, Richard P; Riley, William T

    2015-05-01

    One of the challenges associated with high-volume, diverse datasets is whether synthesis of open data streams can translate into actionable knowledge. Recognizing that challenge and other issues related to these types of data, the National Institutes of Health developed the Big Data to Knowledge or BD2K initiative. The concept of translating "big data to knowledge" is important to the social and behavioral sciences in several respects. First, a general shift to data-intensive science will exert an influence on all scientific disciplines, but particularly on the behavioral and social sciences given the wealth of behavior and related constructs captured by big data sources. Second, science is itself a social enterprise; by applying principles from the social sciences to the conduct of research, it should be possible to ameliorate some of the systemic problems that plague the scientific enterprise in the age of big data. We explore the feasibility of recalibrating the basic mechanisms of the scientific enterprise so that they are more transparent and cumulative; more integrative and cohesive; and more rapid, relevant, and responsive.

  15. From Big Data to Knowledge in the Social Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Moser, Richard P.; Riley, William T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges associated with high-volume, diverse datasets is whether synthesis of open data streams can translate into actionable knowledge. Recognizing that challenge and other issues related to these types of data, the National Institutes of Health developed the Big Data to Knowledge or BD2K initiative. The concept of translating “big data to knowledge” is important to the social and behavioral sciences in several respects. First, a general shift to data-intensive science will exert an influence on all scientific disciplines, but particularly on the behavioral and social sciences given the wealth of behavior and related constructs captured by big data sources. Second, science is itself a social enterprise; by applying principles from the social sciences to the conduct of research, it should be possible to ameliorate some of the systemic problems that plague the scientific enterprise in the age of big data. We explore the feasibility of recalibrating the basic mechanisms of the scientific enterprise so that they are more transparent and cumulative; more integrative and cohesive; and more rapid, relevant, and responsive. PMID:26294799

  16. Social Media and Science: where do we go from here?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Robinson, S.; Arrowsmith, R.; Semken, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    What is black and white and 'read' all over? Facebook, that's what. As of December 2012 Facebook had over 618 million daily users, and over a billion monthly users from around the world (http://newsroom.fb.com/Key-Facts). Twitter has more than 130 million active users and generates as many as 340 million Tweets a day (http://blog.twitter.com/2012/03/twitter-turns-six.html). Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are not the future of communication, they are the reality, and scientists (and science organizations) need to become part of the conversation. More than half of the teenage and adult population of the US belongs to a social network or are using another form of social media on a regular basis. This creates an opportunity for organizations to use the well-established functionality and pervasiveness of social media platforms to communicate important scientific information and discoveries. In addition, the informal environment of social media allows scientists to interact with non-scientists in a friendly and non-threatening way that can be used to create engagement scenarios that continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify science. Social media also provides scientists with the means and opportunity to improve the way science is viewed by the public while improving general science literacy and integrating scientific discoveries into the fabric of the lives of non-scientists. Many questions remain regarding the best way to utilize the opportunities that social media present. For instance, how can we reach a broader, more diverse audience? What are realistic expectations about the effects of social media? How do we improve the quality of content? How can we use social media to communicate scientific information in innovative ways? And perhaps most importantly, how do we know if we are communicating successfully? The EarthScope National Office will share our experiences creating a social media program from the

  17. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P

    2011-10-13

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance.

  18. On Trial: the Compatibility of Measurement in the Physical and Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, S. J.; Vosk, T.; Pendrill, L. R.; Stenner, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we put social measurement on trial: providing two perspectives arguing why measurement in the social and in the physical sciences are incompatible and counter with two perspectives supporting compatibility. For the case ‘against’, we first argue that there is a lack of definition in the social sciences. Thus, while measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence, calibrated instruments, and predictive theory that work together to test the quantitative nature of properties, measurement in the social sciences, in the main, rests on a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data, does not require calibrated instruments, and rarely articulates predictive theories. The second argument for the case ‘against’ introduces the problem associated with psychometrics, including different approaches, methodologies, criteria for success and failure, and considerations as to what counts as measurement. Making the first case ‘for’, we highlight practical principles for improved social measurement including units, laws, theory, and metrology. The second argument ‘for’ introduces the exemplar of the Lexile Framework for reading that exploits metrological principles and parallels the paths taken by, for example, thermometry. We conclude by proposing a way forward potentially applicable to both physical and social measurement, in which inferences are modelled in terms of a measurement system, where specifically the output of the instrument in response to probing the object (‘entity’) is a performance metric, i.e. how well the set-up performs the assessment.

  19. Communication Research in Library and Information Science: A Bibliography on Communication in the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldhart, Thomas J.; Waldhart, Enid S.

    Research studies on communication in the sciences, social sciences, and technology published from 1964 through 1973 are listed in this bibliography. The 1,288 serially-numbered bibliographic items are subdivided into five broad headings: General, Structures of Communication, Discipline Oriented Studies, Communication Barriers, and Communication…

  20. Integrating genetics and social science: genetic risk scores.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest-hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry.

  1. Integrating Genetics and Social Science: Genetic Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363

  2. The pivotal role of the social sciences in environmental health sciences research.

    PubMed

    Finn, Symma; Collman, Gwen

    2016-09-06

    Environmental health sciences research seeks to elucidate environmental factors that put human health at risk. A primary aim is to develop strategies to prevent or reduce exposures and disease occurrence. Given this primary focus on prevention, environmental health sciences research focuses on the populations most at risk such as communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research programs incorporate the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research to study health disparities. These programs promote community engagement, culturally appropriate communications with a variety of stakeholders, and consideration of the social determinants of health that interact with environmental factors to increase risk. Multidisciplinary research teams that include social and behavioral scientists are essential to conduct this type of research. This article outlines the history of social and behavioral research funding at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and offers examples of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-funded projects that exemplify the value of social science to the environmental health sciences.

  3. Habitus, social fields, and circuits in rural science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Carol B.; Shumar, Wesley; Hammond, Lorie; Carlone, Heidi; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Schooling and science education are embedded within larger socio-cultural, political and economic contexts, influenced by global flows of capital, labor, ideas, and images. In this article we consider the ways in which ethnography traces the web of interactions (circuits), in a rural community and the ways that science inquiry was associated with character education. Our discussion examines the relationship between social fields, habitus, and meritocracy under new and ever-changing neoliberal conditions. These macro-level forces play out in everyday practices in the community and reveal schools, as well as science education, as sites for struggle.

  4. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748). Dates & Times: May 2, 2012; 7 p...; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990,...

  5. Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem: A Social Science Research Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, B.; Huntington, H. P.; Pete, M. C.; Sepez, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Bering Sea is changing from an ice-dominated to an increasingly open water system. The over-arching goal of the NSF-supported Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) is to understand the effects of climate variability and change on the Bering Sea ecosystem. To the people who are simultaneously a part of that ecosystem and rely on its productivity for life and work, climate change and its effects are among the top concerns. Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem articulates a vision and approaches for social science research as a component of the BEST Program (www.arcus.org/bering). This science plan seeks to initiate research to elucidate the dynamic relationship between the Bering Sea ecosystem and the humans who constitute an integral component of that system. To do so, this plan delineates a research program focused on three broad themes: 1. Impacts on humans: how past, current, and possible future changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem affect the health and well-being of people living and depending on this region for subsistence, employment, and cultural survival. 2. Human impacts: how changing human uses of the Bering Sea region affect the natural cycles of this ecosystem by moderating and/or accelerating systemic changes. 3. Dynamics of human and non-human natural systems: how the human-environmental dynamic has changed through time and may change in the future due to internal and external opportunities and pressures. These themes are developed in the context of a community-driven approach based on the concerns, goals, and interests of Bering Sea residents and other stakeholders of the region. This plan has been drafted through the collaboration of Bering Sea residents (primarily Alaska Natives) and non-resident stakeholders, social scientists, and natural scientists to focus efforts around research questions important to stakeholders, which in various ways center on issues of sustainability (of resources, economic opportunities, ways of life, and culture itself). The

  6. Response: From Fish and Bicycles to a Science of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne Cay

    2012-01-01

    John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a…

  7. Towards teaching science for social responsibility: An examination of flaws in science, technology and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Roger T.; Price, Ronald F.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we continue our search for a socially responsible science education by an examination of the trends in the Science, Technology and Society movement. These trends reflect differing ideological perspectives and result in courses which serve different ends. We identify two major flaws in the movement that inhibits the realization of a schooling in science dedicated to democracy. We propose skills necessary for citizens to participate in debate over issues surrounding the impact of science and technology on society and a teaching stategy to help develop them.

  8. Science, a Psychological versus a Logical Approach in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    Under which approach do pupils attain more optimally, a logical versus a psychological procedure of instruction? Pupils do need to achieve well in a world of science. Science is all around us and pupils need to understand various principles and laws of science. Thus, teachers in the school curriculum must choose carefully objectives for pupil…

  9. Understanding the Science-Learning Environment: A Genetically Sensitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…

  10. Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.; Saleh, Issa M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning" examines the challenges involved in the development of modern curriculum models, teaching strategies, and assessments in science education in order to prepare future students in the 21st century economies. This comprehensive collection of research brings together science educators,…

  11. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 122, MORALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCRIVEN, MICHAEL

    THIS POSITION PAPER PRESENTS AN APPROACH TO THE VERY DIFFICULT PROBLEM OF HANDLING VALUES IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, PARTICULARLY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT DISCUSSES THE FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS AND THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR MORAL VALUE JUDGMENTS. THE DISCUSSIONS ARE PRESENTED UNDER THREE GENERAL TOPIC AREAS--(1) "PRELIMINARIES" WHICH…

  12. Guide to Social Science Resources in Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Elizabeth H.; Sheldon, Kathleen E.

    This annotated bibliography describes the contents and critically evaluates 654 social science books and collections of journal articles in women's studies. The objective is to assist in research and in the organization of undergraduate or graduate courses on women. The resources are presented in nine sections. Section I covers anthropology,…

  13. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  14. Using WebQuests in the Social Sciences Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachina, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates if WebQuests have been an effective instructional tool for teaching Social Sciences subjects. In order to obtain an answer to this question, a review of scholarly literature from 1995 to the present has been undertaken and action research in 8th grade U.S. history course was conducted. The literature investigation has…

  15. Pupils' Attitudes to the Social Implications of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies the attitudes of a sample of 2,100 students of age 14+ to the social implications of science. This sample was selected from 30 secondary schools which represent the major regions in England and the major types within each region. (HM)

  16. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  17. Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…

  18. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  19. Searching the Social Sciences Citation Index on BRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Richard V.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrates on describing and illustrating by example the unique BRS features of the online Social Sciences Citation Index. Appendices provide a key to the BRS/SSCI citation elements, BRS standardized language codes, publication type codes, author's classification of BRS/SSCI subject category codes, search examples, and database specifications.…

  20. The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskyte, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

  1. K-12 Social Science. Program Evaluation. Agenda 93-225.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol S.

    This document is an evaluation of the social science program in the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools. The program is a traditional instructional program that grows conceptually with the student and is designed to meet the needs of students and society. The elementary program meets state guidelines and is the expanding horizon program researched…

  2. Teaching for Thinking in History and the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Lynn H.

    "Critical thinking" has been defined as reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. Since the social sciences require practitioners to ask relevant questions, develop appropriate evaluation criteria, generalize from observed facts, conceptualize hypotheses, and make judgements, critical thinking skills should…

  3. Science, Technology, and Society in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiddie, Laura

    1990-01-01

    Highlights some current resources for teaching science-related social issues in elementary and secondary classrooms from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. Issues covered are varied and include population growth, environmental concerns, bioethical questions, hunger and food resources, water resources, nuclear energy, and…

  4. Social Science Research Council Annual Report, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.

    Detailed accounts of activities of 19 committees of the Social Science Research Council form the major portion of this annual report. In addition, the Council president's report summarizes the activities, trends, and goals of the Council in areas such as research planning, the improvement of research methodology, and the training of competent…

  5. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  6. Preparing Students for Science in the Face of Social Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David

    2015-01-01

    Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…

  7. Social Sciences and Constitutional Rights--the Consequences of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)

  8. Socializing Respect and Knowledge in a Racially Integrated Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Jorge; Kattan, Shlomy; Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In this article we examine the socialization of respect in a racially integrated science classroom in Northern California that employed a character education program called Tribes. We focus on the ways scripts derived from this program are enacted during Community Circle activities and how breaches to these scripts and the norms of respectful…

  9. Update 76: Selected Recent Works in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mary L., Ed.; Lusignan, Louise, Ed.

    This is a selected bibliography of current reference and acquisition tools in the social sciences. The tools include sourcebooks, dictionaries, indexes, conference proceedings, special bibliographies, directories, research reports, and journals. Most citations represent works published since 1970 and new editions of important earlier works.…

  10. Specifying the Content of Humble Social-Science Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    in social science we can juxtapose the value of rational- choice theory with the insights from empirical behavioral psychology (e.g., those...intellectual structure needed for causal modeling. An important exception is that econometricians, despite their empiricism , work creatively to infer

  11. How to Organize Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    It is argued that social scientists have done a disservice to their own work by trying to mold it according to the model of basic natural science. The main recommendation is that they should organize the work according to models which suit their own purposes. (JB)

  12. Child Development Associate. Social Science: Children in the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…

  13. Social Science in Medicine: The Question of "Relevance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begun, James W.; Rieker, Patricia P.

    1980-01-01

    Initial efforts at the University of North Carolina to develop a social science curriculum that is relevant to medical practice are reported. Descriptions of course content, format, teaching strategies, and course evaluation are included with a focus on the question of relevance. (Author/JMD)

  14. A Guide to Federal Funding in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficklen, Myra

    This guide is intended to help colleges and universities identify sources of federal funding in the social sciences. Brief summaries of federal program grants for institutions and for individuals are provided. Each summary includes a description of the grant, the amount of money available, and deadlines for applications. Grants for research and…

  15. Research Dissemination in Creative Arts, Humanities and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazeley, Pat

    2006-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…

  16. Career Activities in Social Science: Grades 7, 8, 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    The career activities guide in social science, part of an Idaho State Department of Vocational Education career exploration series for grades 7, 8, and 9, is designed as supplementary material to enrich the regular curriculum. Any one activity in the guide might be used without involving any other activities. The cross-referenced index indicates…

  17. Kinetic exchange models: From molecular physics to social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2013-08-01

    We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.

  18. On Using GIS to Teach in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how a professor can harness the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and use GIS to teach in the social sciences. She shows examples of how GIS can illustrate concepts during lecture or discussion, and provides two specific GIS assignments: one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate…

  19. The Origins of Finite Mathematics: The Social Science Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Arguably the first significant innovation in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum of the second half of the twentieth century was the finite mathematics course. The origins of this course lie in the excitement that arose, in the period around World War II, about applying mathematics to the social sciences. In this article we tell some of that…

  20. Children and Television Advertising from a Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecora, Norma

    1995-01-01

    Uses previous reviews on the literature on children and television advertising to trace the short history of research from a social science perspective on advertising directed at children. Examines the dimensions that have come to define the field. Argues that nothing in these studies indicates an increasingly sophisticated perspective of the…

  1. Puerto Ricans in Historical and Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This review of the literature on Puerto Ricans in historical and social science research focuses on major English-language books. The review finds that colonialism has been a major factor in, an orienting influence of, and a focus for critical writing about Puerto Ricans. In general, books published before 1970 were reflective, implicitly or…

  2. Inference and Hierarchical Modeling in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, David

    1995-01-01

    The use of hierarchical models in social science research is discussed, with emphasis on causal inference and consideration of the limitations of hierarchical models. The increased use of Gibbs sampling and other Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods in the application of hierarchical models is recommended. (SLD)

  3. Why So Much Social Science Research Is Not Implemented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Richard O.

    This paper explores possible answers to the question of why more social science research is not applied to the solution of current problems. A series of interviews in several cities with 45 people, including members of city government and university administrators and faculty, provided the data for this study. In particular, the work of the Urban…

  4. Using Geography To Integrate Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dircks, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on geography in secondary education, offering reasons why geography is becoming more popular in schools. Provides four activities that integrate science and social studies through geography. Includes topics such as ecological disasters, monsoons, the ozone layer, and global warming. (CMK)

  5. Attitudes toward Information Competency of University Students in Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…

  6. Funds of Relationality: Social Bonds and Science Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardon, Regina

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological…

  7. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  8. Social Science Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include…

  9. The Perspective of Women Managing Research Teams in Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…

  10. Social Search: A Taxonomy of, and a User-Centred Approach to, Social Web Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Michael; Shiri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of social search as a new concept, drawing upon the patterns of web search behaviour. It aims to: define social search; present a taxonomy of social search; and propose a user-centred social search method. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach was adopted to investigate…

  11. Toward critical spatial thinking in the social sciences and humanities

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, Michael F.; Janelle, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of geographically referenced information into the conceptual frameworks and applied uses of the social sciences and humanities has been an ongoing process over the past few centuries. It has gained momentum in recent decades with advances in technologies for computation and visualization and with the arrival of new data sources. This article begins with an overview of this transition, and argues that the spatial integration of information resources and the cross-disciplinary sharing of analysis and representation methodologies are important forces for the integration of scientific and artistic expression, and that they draw on core concepts in spatial (and spatio-temporal) thinking. We do not suggest that this is akin to prior concepts of unified knowledge systems, but we do maintain that the boundaries to knowledge transfer are disintegrating and that our abilities in problem solving for purposes of artistic expression and scientific development are enhanced through spatial perspectives. Moreover, approaches to education at all levels must recognize the need to impart proficiency in the critical and efficient application of these fundamental spatial concepts, if students and researchers are to make use of expanding access to a broadening range of spatialized information and data processing technologies. PMID:20454588

  12. Teaching science and ethics to undergraduates: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Alan H

    2013-06-01

    The teaching of the ethical implications of scientific advances in science courses for undergraduates has significant advantages for both science and non-science majors. The article describes three courses taught by the author as examples of the concept, and examines the disadvantages as well as the advantages. A significant advantage of this approach is that many students take the courses primarily because of the ethical component who would not otherwise take science. A disadvantage is less time in the course for the science; arguably, this is outweighed by the greater retention of the science when it is put into context.

  13. Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…

  14. Integration of molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science for global precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science.

  15. Citizen Science Practices for Computational Social Science Research: The Conceptualization of Pop-Up Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Gutierrez-Roig, Mario; Bonhoure, Isabelle; Perelló, Josep

    2015-12-01

    Under the name of Citizen Science, many innovative practices in which volunteers partner up with scientists to pose and answer real-world questions are growing rapidly worldwide. Citizen Science can furnish ready-made solutions with citizens playing an active role. However, this framework is still far from being well established as a standard tool for computational social science research. Here, we present our experience in bridging gap between computational social science and the philosophy underlying Citizen Science, which in our case has taken the form of what we call ``pop-up experiments." These are non-permanent, highly participatory collective experiments which blend features developed by big data methodologies and behavioural experimental protocols with the ideals of Citizen Science. The main issues to take into account whenever planning experiments of this type are classified, discussed and grouped into three categories: infrastructure, public engagement, and the knowledge return for citizens. We explain the solutions we have implemented, providing practical examples grounded in our own experience in an urban context (Barcelona, Spain). Our aim here is that this work will serve as a guideline for groups willing to adopt and expand such in-vivo practices and we hope it opens up the debate regarding the possibilities (and also the limitations) that the Citizen Science framework can offer the study of social phenomena.

  16. Team Communication: The Social Identity Approach to Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    identity in individual behavior . This research blends the social identity approach, collaborative public management, and leadership communication in...order to alleviate these issues. The analysis of this research proposes that the social identity approach to organizational behavior gives insight...into individual member behavior and thus the behavior of groups and the organization itself. Communication techniques are filtered through the social

  17. A Social-Ecological Approach to Promote Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Walker, Laura; Bacon, Ansley; Palmer, Susan B.; Jesien, George S.; Nygren, Margaret A.; Heller, Tamar; Gotto, George S.; Abery, Brian H.; Johnson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a social-ecological approach for promoting and enhancing self-determination among individuals with developmental disabilities. A five-level model is presented, based on the interaction of person and environmental factors, that identifies a series of social mediator variables (i.e., social effectiveness, social capital,…

  18. The Need for More Scientific Approaches to Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two possible goals for public science communication are: a) improving the public's in-depth understanding of the scientific subject; and b) fostering the public's belief that scientific efforts make a better world. Although (a) is often a natural target when scientists try to communicate their subject, the importance of (b) is underscored by the NSF, who investigated the "cultural authority of science" to understand science's role in policymaking. Surveys consistently find that there is a huge divergence between "knowledge" and "admiration" of science in society because science literacy has very little to do with public perception of science. However, even if both goals could be achieved, it doesn't necessarily mean that the general public will act on scientific advice. Different parts of society have different criteria for reaching judgments about how to act in their best interests. This makes the study of science communication important when controversies arise requiring public engagement. Climate change, sustainability, and water crises are only a few examples of such controversial subjects. Science communication can be designed carefully to sponsor dialogue and participation, to overcome perceptual obstacles, and to engage with stakeholders and the wider public. This study reviews work in social science that tries to answer: When is science communication necessary? What is involved in science communication? What is the role of media in effective science communication? It also reviews common recommendations for improved public engagement by scientists and science organizations. As part of this effort, I will present some portions of my science films. I will conclude with suggestions on what scientific institutions can focus on to build trust, relationships, and participation across segments of the public. Keywords: informal learning, popular science, climate change, water crisis, science communication, science films, science policy.

  19. Teaching Science to Children: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Alfred E.

    Developed to serve as a comprehensive science methods text for elementary school teachers, this book combines method with content and presents 294 science activities for classroom use. The activities are organized by content areas into 20 chapters and address topics such as sound, weather, plants and animals, oceans, nutrition, and the…

  20. The Constructivist Approach to Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birse, Margaret

    Many primary school teachers feel a lack of confidence in teaching science and technology. This paper aims to demonstrate useful and practical strategies for non-specialist science teachers to use in stimulating a positive scientific attitude among primary school students. It proposes that teachers should strive to develop children's natural…

  1. The Ghetto Underclass: Social Science Perspectives. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This volume presents the research findings of numerous scholars on the theme, The Ghetto Underclass: Social Science Perspectives. The following 13 articles are included: (1) "The Cost of Racial and Class Exclusion in the Inner City" (L. Wacquant and W. Wilson); (2) "Urban Industrial Transition and the Underclass" (J. Kasarda); (3) "Absent Fathers…

  2. What is Social Sciences and Humanities Research "Worth,"? Neoliberalism and the Framing of Social Sciences and Humanities Work in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the discursive politics represented in attempts to frame social sciences and humanities work in the mould of neoliberal knowledge capitalism. The critique offered is inspired by Foucault's critical thought on neoliberalism and an interpretation of "neoliberal governmentality" that flows from his College…

  3. Science, Technology and Nonviolent Action: The Case for a Utopian Dimension in the Social Analysis of Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of social studies of military science and technology and their limitations. Describes social defense, a nonviolent community resistance to aggression, and some of its implications for science and technology. Presents illustrative findings concerning the kinds of science and technology that would serve a system of social…

  4. Defining science literacy: A pedagogical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilakis, Kathryn

    A functional knowledge of science is required to capably evaluate the validity of conflicting positions on topics such as fracking, climate change, and the safety of genetically modified food. Scientifically illiterate individuals are at risk of favoring the persuasive arguments of those championing partisan, anti-science agendas. In an effort to enhance the scientific literacy of community college students and equip them with the skill set necessary to make informed decisions, this study generated a pedagogical definition of science literacy using survey methodology and then utilized the definition to construct an accessible, comprehensive, and pragmatic web-based science literacy program. In response to an email solicitation, college and university science educators submitted lists of topics within their specialty they considered essential when assessing science literacy. Their responses were tabulated and those topics cited most frequently by the participating physicists, biologists, chemists and geoscientists were assembled into a definition of science literacy. This definition was translated into a modular, web-based course suitable for both online and classroom learning published as: www.scienceliteracyforum.com.

  5. Social learning in Models and Cases - an Interdisciplinary Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Johannes; De Cian, Enrica; Carrara, Samuel; Monetti, Silvia; Berg, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Our paper follows an interdisciplinary understanding of social learning. We contribute to the literature on social learning in transition research by bridging case-oriented research and modelling-oriented transition research. We start by describing selected theories on social learning in innovation, diffusion and transition research. We present theoretical understandings of social learning in techno-economic and agent-based modelling. Then we elaborate on empirical research on social learning in transition case studies. We identify and synthetize key dimensions of social learning in transition case studies. In the following we bridge between more formal and generalising modelling approaches towards social learning processes and more descriptive, individualising case study approaches by interpreting the case study analysis into a visual guide on functional forms of social learning typically identified in the cases. We then try to exemplarily vary functional forms of social learning in integrated assessment models. We conclude by drawing the lessons learned from the interdisciplinary approach - methodologically and empirically.

  6. Improving Process Evaluations of Health Behavior Interventions: Learning From the Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    This article reflects on the current state of process evaluations of health behavior interventions and argues that evaluation practice in this area could be improved by drawing on the social science literature to a greater degree. While process evaluations of health behavior interventions have increasingly engaged with the social world and sociological aspects of interventions, there has been a lag in applying relevant and potentially useful approaches from the social sciences. This has limited the scope for health behavior process evaluations to address pertinent contextual issues and methodological challenges. Three aspects of process evaluations are discussed: the incorporation of contexts of interventions; engagement with the concept of "process" in process evaluation; and working with theory to understand interventions. Following on from this, the article also comments on the need for new methodologies and on the implications for addressing health inequalities.

  7. Autonomy in Science Education: A Practical Approach in Attitude Shifting towards Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalil, Pasl A.; Abu Sbeih, M. Z.; Boujettif, M.; Barakat, R.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a 2-year study in teaching school science, based on the stimulation of higher thinking levels in learning science using a highly student-centred and constructivist learning approach. We sought to shift and strengthen students' positive attitudes towards science learning, self-efficacy towards invention, and achievement.…

  8. Social Sciences for the Prevention of Blindness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organizations working for the elimination of Chlamydia-triggered blindness (trachoma) follow the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with the aim to achieve a minimum of 80% of children with clean faces in endemic communities, mass treatment covering the whole district with trachoma rates of 10% or more and surveillance plans. Trachoma recurrence that is common after implementing the SAFE strategy 3, 5 or even 7 times evidence that the cognitive processes requiring assimilation and integration of knowledge did not register with parents, caretakers and children. Moreover, repeated awareness campaigns to improve hygiene did not systematically produce irreversible changes of behavior in neglected populations. In view of this evidence, the rational behind mass drug administration as the mainstay of preventable blindness elimination demands a wider scope than simple mathematical models. The reluctance to see disappointing outcomes that leads to repeated interventions may suggest from a sociologic point of view that the strategies are products of those evaluating the activities of those who fund them and vice versa. A similar articulation emerges for reciprocal interactions between researchers and those judging the pertinence and quality of their work. So far, the lack of autocritic elimination strategy approaches may expose inbred circles that did not properly grasp the fact that antibiotics, trichiasis surgery and education limited to improvement of hygiene are inefficient if not associated with long-term basic educational actions in schools. PMID:26161032

  9. Social and Behavioral Sciences: Report of the Project 2061 Phase I Social and Behavioral Sciences Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appley, Mortimer H.; Maher, Winifred B.

    This is one of five panel reports that have been prepared as part of the first phase of Project 2061, a long-term, multipurpose undertaking of the American Association for the Advancement of Science designed to help reform science, mathematics, and technology education in the United States. Major sections included are: (1) "Orienting…

  10. After the Biomedical Technology Revolution: Where to Now for a Bio-Psycho-Social Approach to Social Work?

    PubMed

    Healy, Karen

    2016-07-01

    In the late twentieth century, the bio-psycho-social framework emerged as a powerful influence on the conceptualisation and delivery of health and rehabilitation services including social work services in these fields. The bio-psycho-social framework is built on a systems view of health and well-being ( Garland and Howard, 2009). The systems perspective encourages medical and allied health professions, including social work, to recognise and to respond to the multiple systems impacting on individual health and well-being ( Engel, 2003). This paper analyses how advances in biomedical technology, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and human genomics, are challenging the bio-psycho-social approach to practice. The paper examines the pressures on the social work profession to embrace biomedical science and points to the problems in doing so. The conclusion points to some tentative ways forward for social workers to engage critically with biomedical advances and to strengthen the bio-psycho-social framework in the interests of holistic and ethical approaches to social work practice.

  11. After the Biomedical Technology Revolution: Where to Now for a Bio-Psycho-Social Approach to Social Work?

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In the late twentieth century, the bio-psycho-social framework emerged as a powerful influence on the conceptualisation and delivery of health and rehabilitation services including social work services in these fields. The bio-psycho-social framework is built on a systems view of health and well-being ( Garland and Howard, 2009). The systems perspective encourages medical and allied health professions, including social work, to recognise and to respond to the multiple systems impacting on individual health and well-being ( Engel, 2003). This paper analyses how advances in biomedical technology, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and human genomics, are challenging the bio-psycho-social approach to practice. The paper examines the pressures on the social work profession to embrace biomedical science and points to the problems in doing so. The conclusion points to some tentative ways forward for social workers to engage critically with biomedical advances and to strengthen the bio-psycho-social framework in the interests of holistic and ethical approaches to social work practice. PMID:27559237

  12. Computer Mediated Social Network Approach to Software Support and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    mathematics (Euler, 1741;  Sachs, Stiebitz, & Wilson, 1988), philosophy ( Durkheim , 2001), the social science domain (Granovetter  1973; 1983; Milgram, 1967...to philosophy  ( Durkheim , 2001), to the strength of the connections a (Granovetter 1973; Granovetter, 1983) and the  number of connections (Milgram...Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches  (Second ed.) Sage Publications Inc.   Durkheim , É. (2001). The elementary forms of religious life, New

  13. Science education needs a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Matthias; Labudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by an increasing consensus on the importance of science education for the economy and society as a whole, in recent years, a growing number of educational programs, initiatives and projects have been launched by various players (from educational policy makers over teacher education institutions to industry). Many of these initiatives have a direct or indirect link to molecular sciences. In this article, we develop a two-dimensional framework which can be used as a guideline in the classification and discussion of existing projects as well as in the planning and design of future initiatives. The framework incorporates three organizational levels or groups of persons and the two very central fields of objectives 'knowledge and skills' and 'motivation and interest'. On the basis of this framework, we discuss four projects in which our science and technology education center has been involved, with respect to their influence on the knowledge, skills and interest of pupils, teachers and school administration representatives in science.

  14. Obama signals fresh approach to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-02-01

    "More than ever before, science holds the key to our survival as a planet and our security and prosperity as a nation." Statements like these from US President Barack Obama have been widely applauded by the US scientific community. With several scientists already named to fill top posts in Obama's administration - which will feature physicists Steven Chu and John Holdren as energy secretary and presidential science advisor, respectively - it seems clear that he intends to back up his words with actions.

  15. From FRA to RFN: How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  16. Eclecticism as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences.

    PubMed

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price.

  17. Scientific Method in Teaching Physics in Languages and Social Sciences Department of High—Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagl, Mirko G.; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja M.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of scientific materials in the last few decades, demands that the contemporary educational system should select and develop methods of effective learning in the process of acquiring skills and knowledge usable and feasible for a longer period of time. Grammar schools as general educational institutions possess all that is necessary for the development of new teaching methods and fitting into contemporary social tendencies. In the languages and social sciences department in of grammar schools physics is the only natural sciences subject present during all four years. The classical approach to teaching is tiring as such and creates aversion towards learning physic when it deals with pupils oriented towards social sciences. The introduction of scientific methods raises the motivation to a substantial level and when applied both the teacher and pupils forget when the class starts or ends. The assignment has shown the analysis of initial knowledge of physics of the pupils attending the first grade of languages and social sciences department of of grammar schools as a preparation for the introduction of the scientific method, the analysis of the initial test with the topic of gravitation, as well as the analysis of the final test after applying the scientific method through the topic of gravitation. The introduction of the scientific method has duly justified the expectations and resulted in increasing the level of achievement among the pupils in the experimental class.

  18. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057

  19. Assessing Trustworthiness in Social Media: A Social Computing Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-17

    NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Huan Liu Huan Liu 611102 c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of...network information is available. In particular, given personal preferences about some of the social media users, how can we infer the preferences of...in inferring personal preferences in social media. To address the scalability issue, we use social influence theory to construct new features based on

  20. A Social Identity Approach to Sport Psychology: Principles, Practice, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tim; Alexander Haslam, S; Coffee, Pete; Lavallee, David

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, we outline an approach to sport psychology that understands groups not simply as features of sporting contexts but rather as elements that can be, and often are, incorporated into a person's sense of self and, through this, become powerful determinants of their sport-related behavior. The underpinnings of this social identity approach are outlined, and four key lessons for sport that are indicative of the analytical and practical power of the approach are presented. These suggest that social identity is the basis for sports group (1) behavior, (2) formation and development, (3) support and stress appraisal, and (4) leadership. Building on recent developments within sport science, we outline an agenda for future research by identifying a range of topics to which the social identity approach could fruitfully contribute.

  1. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  2. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National...

  3. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  4. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda...

  5. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  6. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  7. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... University of California--Santa Barbara by the Division of Social and Economic Sciences (10748). Dates.... Frederick Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology, and Society Program; Division of Social and...

  8. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative... Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the...

  9. The State of Social Science History in the Late 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1989-01-01

    Examines definitions of and attitudes toward social science history (SSH), questioning its place in the history and social science curriculum. Reports on a questionnaire (included) sent to members of the Social Science History Association to assess the place of SSH in education. Concludes that SSH is firmly established in several disciplines and…

  10. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    references in preparation of the publishing process. In addition, references to well documented earth and space science data are available via an increasing amount of data publications. This approach serves both, the institutional geo and space data centers which increase their awareness and importance, but also the scientists, which will find the right and already DOI-referenced data in the appropriate data journals. The Open Data and Open Archive approach finally merges in the concept of Open Science. Open Science emphasizes an open sharing of knowledge of all kind, based on a transparent multi-disciplinary and cross-domain scientific work. But Open Science is not just an idea, it also stands for a variety of projects which following the rules of Open Science, such as open methodology, open source, open data, open access, open peer review and open educational resources. Open Science also demands a new culture of scientific collaboration based on social media, and the use of shared cloud technology for data storage and computing. But, we should not forget, the WWW is not a one way road. As more data, methods and software for science research become freely available at the Internet, as more chances for a commercial or even destructive use of scientific data are opened. Already now, the giant search engine provider, such as Google or Microsoft and others are collecting, storing and analyzing all data which is available at the net. The usage of Deep Learning for the detection of semantical coherence of data for e.g. the creation of personalized on time and on location predictions using neuronal networks and artificial intelligence methods should not be reserved for them but also used within Open Science for the creation of new scientific knowledge. Open Science does not mean just to dump our scientific data, information and knowledge into the Web. Far from it, we are still responsible for a sustainable handling of our data for the benefit of humankind. The usage of the

  11. A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Katie C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

  12. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  13. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  14. Social Networks and Mourning: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Nissan

    1990-01-01

    Suggests using social network theory to explain varieties of mourning behavior in different societies. Compares participation in funeral ceremonies of members of different social circles in American society and Israeli kibbutz. Concludes that results demonstrated validity of concepts deriving from social network analysis in study of bereavement,…

  15. A Holistic Approach to the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Bonnie

    The document explains the need for holistic social studies teaching methods, proposes a holistic model for use in a fourth grade social studies class, and places the model within the general context of social studies education. A holistic method is defined as a way of teaching which is cognitively and affectively integrated with individual…

  16. Conceptualising Educational Changes: A Social Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…

  17. [Actors of journal publishing in the social and medical sciences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-04-19

    Journals published by universities take up a modest part of the scientific literature at the moment, but there are several signs and even more reasons to believe that their significance is rising. Recently, the most significant increase can be detected in social sciences. The top list of university rankings based on journal publishing activity brings into the forefront - beside some obvious favorites (Oxford, Cambridge, Chicago) - some less expected universities, as well.

  18. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Parisot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  19. On the Control of Science: Four Views, IV. On the Social Deployment of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mencher, Alan G.

    1971-01-01

    Suggests that it is the social responsibility of scientists and engineers to correct the vast and dangerous misconceptions about themselves, for there is a real danger that festering anti-scientism could eventually destroy science. Although political processes are used to decide community choices, scientific literacy is a continuing necessity. (AL)

  20. Science/Technology/Society: Activities and Resources for Secondary Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    This book contains 45 activities suitable for use in secondary science and social studies classes. Except for the first four activities, which are quick attention getters, all the activities are presented in a standard format. Each begins with an introduction, that provides a brief overview of the activity's content and the teaching strategies…

  1. Stable Rules: Science and Social Transmission. Studies in the Learning Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Henry

    In laying the groundwork for a co-operative scientific inquiry in the field of learning sciences the following five areas of access to the study are considered in this introductory inquiry statement: 1) genetic sociology (symbolic systems and early socialization); 2) experimental ethnography (the effect of literacy on the structure of skill and…

  2. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    PubMed

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  3. Space Science Informatics: A Canadian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Shillington, J.; Gordon, M.

    2011-02-01

    The rapidly increasing volume of space science data is leading to a growing need for tools for scientists to access, analyze, and share data. To address this need, the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (CSSDP) provides space scientists with access to a wide range of space data, observations, and investigative tools. CSSDP serves as a one-stop shop for scientists to discover, gather, and visualize relevant data. The data portal has embedded analysis tools and workflows to simplify common research tasks, along with a rich collaboration framework to develop and share scientific findings (see Figure 1). The data portal is accessible at http://www.cssdp.ca.

  4. [Legacy and promises from the teaching of Social Sciences in the Health field].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes the teaching and learning of social sciences in health sciences courses from the perspective of the curriculum and learning generated by research groups and thesis supervision activities. The author conducts a rereading of the classics and main contemporary scientists, based on the subarea's scientific output and her own personal experience as professor, researcher, and thesis supervisor. The article focuses on the tradition and teaching of the classics in social sciences, the main contemporary social theories, social sciences in health with an emphasis on teaching, and observations on the interface between teaching in social sciences and life sciences. The author concludes by highlighting the importance of work by social scientists in the health field and identifies the following problematic points: difficulties in dealing with mediations between the biological and the social; frequent subordination of foundations to techniques; and ideological and common-sense issues in the teaching and appropriation of Social Sciences in Health.

  5. Managing Science and Technology: One School's Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Keith

    2003-01-01

    At Brindishe School in South East London a system of teams with team leaders is used to manage and organise all subject work throughout the school year. It is a highly effective system, receiving due praise in a recent Ofsted inspection. In this article, the author sets out a typical science/technology year at Brindishe to show how the system…

  6. Science Workshop: A Whole Language Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, Wendy; And Others

    This book highlights ways in which science instruction benefits from the perspectives of teachers committed to whole language. The introductory chapter starts from a viewpoint outside the classroom and seeks to identify overall patterns while the remaining chapters build from experiences in individual classrooms. This book assumes that teachers…

  7. Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Justin

    2012-03-01

    Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation This article starts by considering the differences within the positivist tradition and then it moves on to compare two of the most prominent schools of postpositivism, namely critical realism and social constructionism. Critical realists hold, with positivism, that knowledge should be positively applied, but reject the positivist method for doing this, arguing that causal explanations have to be based not on empirical regularities but on references to unobservable structures. Social constructionists take a different approach to postpositivism and endorse a relativist rejection of truth and hold that the task of research is to foster a scepticism that undermines any positive truth claim made. It is argued that social constructionism is a contradictory position.

  8. The practice of psychological science: searching for Cronbach's two streams in social-personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2009-06-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."

  9. Science--A Process Approach, Product Development Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara A.; Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    Science - A Process Approach, a science program for grades kindergarten through sixth, mainly focuses on scientific processes: observing, classifying, using numbers, measuring, space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, interpreting data, controlling variables, and experimenting.…

  10. A Holistic Approach for Science Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orion, Nir

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that a genuine reform endeavor towards the "Science for All" paradigm should adopt a holistic approach. There are several countries around the world that adopted the "Science for All" paradigm at the beginning of the 21st century. However, while looking closely at the amount of change that took place in…

  11. FAST: Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed; And Others

    Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) is a program which is intended to facilitate student transition from the general science process programs of elementary schools to the discipline-oriented programs of high school. This guide has been developed to provide an overview of the total program as well as a description of the…

  12. Science through Children's Literature: An Integrated Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, Carol M.; Butzow, John W.

    The purpose of this book is to suggest an alternative approach to the teaching of elementary science in light of more contemporary definitions of both reading and science. This method utilizes well-selected and conceptually and factually correct works of narrative children's literature. Although the method is most easily applied with picture books…

  13. A Language-Sensitive Science Teacher Training Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamondidis, Elaine; Shaheen, Manal

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Primary Science Program's (PSP) 12-step approach to teacher development. Components of the framework are used consistently throughout South Africa in PSP INSET workshops. One desired outcome is that teachers will design tasks that develop both language and science skills. (Author/VWL)

  14. Intolerance for approach of ambiguity in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuckertz, Jennie M; Strege, Marlene V; Amir, Nader

    2016-02-19

    Previous research has utilised the approach-avoidance task (AAT) to measure approach and avoidance action tendencies in socially anxious individuals. "Neutral" social stimuli may be perceived as ambiguous and hence threatening to socially anxious individuals, however it is unclear whether this results in difficulty approaching ambiguous ("neutral") versus unambiguous threat (e.g. disgust) faces (i.e. intolerance of ambiguity). Thirty participants with social anxiety disorder (SADs) and 29 non-anxious controls completed an implicit AAT in which they were instructed to approach or avoid neutral and disgust faces (i.e. pull or push a joystick) based on colour of the picture border. Results indicated that SADs demonstrated greater difficulty approaching neutral relative to disgust faces. Moreover, intolerance for approach of ambiguity predicted social anxiety severity while controlling for the effects of trait anxiety and depression. Our results provide further support for the role of intolerance of ambiguity in SAD.

  15. Computational Social Science: Exciting Progress and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Duncan

    The past 15 years have witnessed a remarkable increase in both the scale and scope of social and behavioral data available to researchers, leading some to herald the emergence of a new field: ``computational social science.'' Against these exciting developments stands a stubborn fact: that in spite of many thousands of published papers, there has been surprisingly little progress on the ``big'' questions that motivated the field in the first place--questions concerning systemic risk in financial systems, problem solving in complex organizations, and the dynamics of epidemics or social movements, among others. In this talk I highlight some examples of research that would not have been possible just a handful of years ago and that illustrate the promise of CSS. At the same time, they illustrate its limitations. I then conclude with some thoughts on how CSS can bridge the gap between its current state and its potential.

  16. Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-06-01

    Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

  17. Human Reproduction: Social and Technological Aspects. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Mary C.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  18. Social Studies and Social Sciences: A Fifty-Year Perspective. Bulletin No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wronski, Stanley P., Ed.; Bragaw, Donald H., Ed.

    This publication documents the development of the social studies during the past 50 years. This collection of essays updates major trends in history, political science, sociology, economics, psychology, anthropology, and geography. Unlike two earlier collections, this book has an emphasis on the continuing problems, trends, and issues in both the…

  19. Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer Anne

    This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching

  20. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences.

    PubMed

    Osterrieder, Anne

    2013-07-11

    Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit.

  1. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  2. Barriers and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science into Natural Resource Management: Lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  3. Social approach and emotion recognition in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracey A; Porter, Melanie A; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-03-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to chronological age- (CA-) and mental age- (MA-) matched controls, the FXS group performed significantly more poorly on the emotion recognition tasks, and displayed a bias towards detecting negative emotions. Moreover, after controlling for emotion recognition deficits, the FXS group displayed significantly reduced ratings of social approachability. These findings suggest that a social anxiety pattern, rather than poor socioemotional processing, may best explain the social avoidance observed in FXS.

  4. Four Values Education Approaches for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Four types of values education approaches for use in teaching in high school biology classes are described. The approaches include moral development, values clarification, action learning, and analysis. Inculcation is mentioned but not discussed because the author feels that it does little to help develop values. (SA)

  5. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  6. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

    2012-09-10

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  7. Using a Cognitive-Process Approach To Teach Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet-Klingenberg, Lana; Chadsey-Rusch, Janis

    This study evaluated a cognitive-process approach used to train three secondary-aged students with moderate mental retardation on a social skill involving response to criticism. The cognitive-process approach teaches a generative process of social behavior rather than specific component behaviors; relies on receptive and expressive language…

  8. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  9. Measuring Vapor Intrusion: From Source Science Politics to a Transdisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Little, Peter C; Pennell, Kelly G

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of indoor air quality has been on the upswing in recent years. In this article, we focus on how the transport of subsurface vapors into indoor air spaces, a process known as "vapor intrusion," (VI) is defined and addressed. For environmental engineers and physical scientists who specialize in this emerging indoor environmental exposure science, VI is notoriously difficult to characterize, leading the regulatory community to seek improved science-based understandings of VI pathways and exposures. Yet despite the recent growth in VI science and competition between environmental consulting companies, VI studies have largely overlooked the social and political field in which VI problems emerge and are experienced by those at risk. To balance and inform current VI studies, this article explores VI science and policy and develops a critique of what we call "source science politics." Drawing inspiration from the creative synthesis of social and environmental science/engineering perspectives, the article offers a transdisciplinary approach to VI that highlights collaboration with social scientists and impacted communities and cultivates epistemic empathy.

  10. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions.

  11. The NASA Science Internet: An integrated approach to networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, Fred

    1991-01-01

    An integrated approach to building a networking infrastructure is an absolute necessity for meeting the multidisciplinary science networking requirements of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) science community. These networking requirements include communication connectivity between computational resources, databases, and library systems, as well as to other scientists and researchers around the world. A consolidated networking approach allows strategic use of the existing science networking within the Federal government, and it provides networking capability that takes into consideration national and international trends towards multivendor and multiprotocol service. It also offers a practical vehicle for optimizing costs and maximizing performance. Finally, and perhaps most important to the development of high speed computing is that an integrated network constitutes a focus for phasing to the National Research and Education Network (NREN). The NASA Science Internet (NSI) program, established in mid 1988, is structured to provide just such an integrated network. A description of the NSI is presented.

  12. [Internationalism and science. Social and scientific bases of the European information science movement].

    PubMed

    Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M

    1997-01-01

    As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.

  13. Citation analysis of faculty publication: beyond Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index.

    PubMed

    Reed, K L

    1995-10-01

    When evaluated for promotion or tenure, faculty members are increasingly judged more on the quality than on the quantity of their scholarly publications. As a result, they want help from librarians in locating all citations to their published works for documentation in their curriculum vitae. Citation analysis using Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index provides a logical starting point in measuring quality, but the limitations of these sources leave a void in coverage of citations to an author's work. This article discusses alternative and additional methods of locating citations to published works.

  14. A Family Resemblance Approach to the Nature of Science for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzik, Gürol; Nola, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Although there is universal consensus both in the science education literature and in the science standards documents to the effect that students should learn not only the content of science but also its nature, there is little agreement about what that nature is. This led many science educators to adopt what is sometimes called "the consensus view" about the nature of science (NOS), whose goal is to teach students only those characteristics of science on which there is wide consensus. This is an attractive view, but it has some shortcomings and weaknesses. In this article we present and defend an alternative approach based on the notion of family resemblance. We argue that the family resemblance approach is superior to the consensus view in several ways, which we discuss in some detail.

  15. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  16. Social Sciences in Asia III: Burma, Mongolia, New Zealand, The Philippines, Singapore. Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences, No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Part of a series which provides overviews of social science research and teaching in UNESCO member nations, the document focuses on Burma, Mongolia, New Zealand, Philippines, and Singapore. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. For each country, the following information is presented: history of social science activity, institutional…

  17. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald

    2013-12-01

    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century.

  18. Approaches To Teaching Science in the Jordanian Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Anne; Abu-Hola, I. R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study of the influence of different approaches to teaching units from the Jordanian science curriculum on over 600 students from grades 6, 9, and 10. Trains a small sample of male and female teachers in the use of cooperative learning and lecture-demonstration approaches to teaching. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. One Man's Approach to a Basic Course in Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents a twofold approach to teaching basic geology based on five principles to make science accessible to students who think they are bored with or afraid of the subject. The approach focuses on: appealing to the mind (to attack boredom) and appealing to the emotions (to attack fear). (BC)

  20. Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424

  1. Social acceleration and the network effect: a defence of social 'science fiction' and network determinism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Robert

    2010-06-01

    This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.

  2. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers toward the Teaching of "Controversial" Topics in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy.…

  3. User Reaction to Current Contents: Behavioral, Social, and Management Sciences*

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Nina W.

    1971-01-01

    The Missouri Institute of Psychiatry Library Current Contents Service offers free dissemination of ISI's Current Contents: Behavioral, Social and Management Sciences to 144 mental health professionals employed at twelve locations in the Missouri Division of Mental Health system. The service includes free document delivery of up to 100 articles per subscription. Sixty percent of the participants in the project are sharing copies of CCBSMS with their colleagues. Operation of the service is described, and data on degree of use are analyzed by user professional orientation and hospital location. The most frequently cited journal titles are compared to lists of heavily used titles derived from other sources. These lists of titles are offered as empirical guides to frequently consulted behavioral science journals. After six months experience participants appear to be highly satisfied. Ninetytwo percent responding to an evaluative questionnaire want to continue the service another year. PMID:5582098

  4. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  5. Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's population was Indian 500 y ago and is still overwhelmingly Indian today, whereas the United States' population was Native American 500 years ago but is overwhelmingly Old World (especially European) today. Reversals of fortune disappeared when CCP analyzed populations rather than geographic regions: for instance, the geographic region of the modern United States has become relatively richer since AD 1500, but the predominantly European population now occupying the United States was already relatively rich in AD 1500. Evidently, European colonists carried ingredients of wealth with them. I discuss the biological and cultural baggage transported by European immigrants and associated with wealth. Among that baggage, AJR emphasize institutions, CCP emphasize social capital, and I identify many different elements only loosely coupled to each other. This paper discusses the problem, especially acute in the social sciences, of “operationalizing” intuitive concepts (such as mass, temperature, wealth, and innovation) so that they can be measured. Basic concepts tend to be harder to define, operationalize, and measure in the social sciences than in the laboratory sciences. PMID:25385597

  6. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science.

  7. Autonomic response to approachability characteristics, approach behavior, and social functioning in Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed. PMID:26459097

  8. An Innovative Approach to Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bernard; Burnham, Chris; Bridges, Bill

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports on the results of a multi-year NSF project aimed at undergraduate instruction in astronomy. Its goal is to help incoming university students, particularly from minority groups, develop critical thinking skills and a better understanding of basic scientific principles. The project employs the techniques of ``Writing Across the Curriculum" to counter student math and science anxiety. It employs a workbook consisting of four sections: (1) basic skills exercises, (2) an evolving cosmology, (3) chapter reading responses, and (4) an astronomical scrapbook. Experience with this workbook in introductory astronomy classes at NMSU is discussed, along with suggestions on how the exercises can be incorporated into beginning astronomy classes at other universities.

  9. The Historical Approach to Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Wytze; Singh, Amar

    1983-01-01

    Advantages of using an historical approach in teaching physics are discussed, focusing on the questioning techniques that a teacher can adopt in analyzing a particular episode or concept in the history of physics. Questions related to a theory's reception among the scientific community are also discussed. (JN)

  10. Constructivist Learning Approach in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Cavide

    2009-01-01

    Constructivism is not a new concept. It has its roots in philosophy and has been applied to sociology and anthropology, as well as cognitive psychology and education. The aim of this research is to reveal if there is a significant difference between the means of achievement and retention learning scores of constructivist learning approach applied…

  11. Integration of Molecular Pathology, Epidemiology, and Social Science for Global Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Summary The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations, and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial, and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors, and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference, and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology, and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors, and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging, and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science. PMID:26636627

  12. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  13. [Research ethics in social sciences--new challenges].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how already established principles of research ethics can be incorporated to the ethical review of research projects in Social Sciences, particularly ethnographic studies or studies using the techniques of participant observation and open interviews. The discussion is guided by an analysis of the methodological and ethical procedures used in the production of the ethnographic documentary "Severina's Story". The analysis of the film shows the urgent need to expand the horizons of the debate around research ethics beyond the biomedical fundaments of this field.

  14. Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: a research agenda. 2006.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ulrich; Sznaider, Natan

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for a re-conceptualization of the social sciences by asking for a cosmopolitan turn. The intellectual undertaking of redefining cosmopolitanism is a trans-disciplinary one, which includes geography, anthropology, ethnology, international relations, international law, political philosophy and political theory, and now sociology and social theory. Methodological nationalism, which subsumes society under the nation-state, has until now made this task almost impossible. The alternative, a 'cosmopolitan outlook', is a contested term and project. Cosmopolitanism must not be equalized with the global (or globalization), with 'world system theory' (Wallerstein), with 'world polity' (Meyer and others), or with 'world-society' (Luhmann). All of those concepts presuppose basic dualisms, such as domestic/foreign or national/international, which in reality have become ambiguous. Methodological cosmopolitanism opens up new horizons by demonstrating how we can make the empirical investigation of border crossings and other transnational phenomena possible.

  15. Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ulrich; Sznaider, Natan

    2006-03-01

    This article calls for a re-conceptualization of the social sciences by asking for a cosmopolitan turn. The intellectual undertaking of redefining cosmopolitanism is a trans-disciplinary one, which includes geography, anthropology, ethnology, international relations, international law, political philosophy and political theory, and now sociology and social theory. Methodological nationalism, which subsumes society under the nation-state, has until now made this task almost impossible. The alternative, a 'cosmopolitan outlook', is a contested term and project. Cosmopolitanism must not be equalized with the global (or globalization), with 'world system theory' (Wallerstein), with 'world polity' (Meyer and others), or with 'world-society' (Luhmann). All of those concepts presuppose basic dualisms, such as domestic/foreign or national/international, which in reality have become ambiguous. Methodological cosmopolitanism opens up new horizons by demonstrating how we can make the empirical investigation of border crossings and other transnational phenomena possible.

  16. Social Science and Health Research: Growth at the National Institutes of Health

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, Christine A.; Abeles, Ronald P.

    2004-01-01

    Programs within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have recently taken steps to enhance social science contributions to health research. A June 2000 conference convened by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research highlighted the role of the social sciences in health research and developed an agenda for advancing such research. The conference and agenda underscored the importance of research on basic social scientific concepts and constructs, basic social science research on the etiology of health and illness, and the application of basic social science constructs in health services, treatment, and prevention research. Recent activities at NIH suggest a growing commitment to social science research and its integration into interdisciplinary multilevel studies of health. PMID:14713689

  17. Educacion y Ciencias Sociales en el Mundo Moderno. [Education and the Social Sciences in the Modern World].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…

  18. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

  19. "We Learn How to Predict and Be a Scientist": Early Science Experiences and Kindergarten Children's Social Meanings about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Samarapungavan, Ala; Patrick, Helen

    2009-01-01

    We examine kindergarten children's emerging social meanings about science as a function of their participation in integrated science inquiry and literacy activities associated with the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP). We describe changes in 123 SLP kindergarten children's narrative accounts of learning science in school during three different…

  20. Social media & stem cell science: examining the discourse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Amy; Lomax, Geoffrey; Santarini, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that the representation of scientific and medical issues in the traditional media such as newspapers, TV and radio is an important determinant of public opinion and related public policy outcomes, particularly with regard to attitudes toward stem cell research. With the emergence of social media, the discursive space around public policy issues has expanded to include a new demographic of media consumer who is directly involved in political action. However, little is known about the influence of social media on scientific public policy conversations. We analyzed Twitter posts on two topics relating to stem cell science and policy according to the originator and tone of the tweet, and whether the tweet was intended to be neutral or to further a stated policy position. This analysis provides a means for clarifying the role of social media in influencing public opinion of policy issues such as stem cell research and offers organizations a better understanding of how to more effectively apply social media to advancing their stem cell policy positions.

  1. Teaching Note--Infusing Social Justice into Doctoral Programs of Social Welfare: An Incremental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Kimberly D.; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Moylan, Carrie; Garcia, Antonio; Derr, Amelia S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an effort to further infuse social justice education into doctoral programs in social welfare. It articulates the rationale and tactical approaches for aligning mission statements with the operational realities of university contexts. Within 1 school of social work, doctoral students with diverse orientations to social…

  2. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  3. Middle School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Social Justice: A Study of Two Female Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is to document two middle school science teachers' perceptions of social justice and how these teachers implement various aspects of social justice in their science instruction. The two teachers teach science in an urban school that serves students from low-income, immigrant, and ethnic minority families. The…

  4. Crossing borders between social and physical sciences in post-event investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruin, I.; Gruntfest, E.; Lutoff, C.; Anquetin, S.; Scolobig, A.; Creutin, J.-D.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    In natural hazard research social and physical scientists tend to approach post-event investigations within their narrow disciplinary lenses. Efforts that are called trans-disciplinary often add social science but do not integrate it effectively. For example, an economist might be brought in to address a question of "value" without any understanding or interest in the context in which the value will be applied (e.g., Merrell et al. 2002, Simmons and Sutter 2005). At the same time, social scientists would benefit from some knowledge of geology, meteorology, hydrology, forecasting operations, and hazard detection systems in order, for instance, to understand the nature and types of uncertainty in the physical systems. Proactive partnership between social and physical scientists in post-event investigations needs a background knowledge and a preparation about several issues from both sides. Moreover neither physical nor social scientists necessarily understand and appreciate the contributions that they can reciprocally bring to their works. Post-event collaborations between social and physical science are rare. The few examples of multi-disciplinary work, when examined closely, are not integrated collaborative projects but patchwork quilts of a variety of specialists taking separate aspects of an issue. There are examples where social scientists and engineers are engaged in one project, but the efforts tend to include social scientists as an "add on" to an existing physical science investigation. In this way, true integration of information, data and knowledge from different fields is lacking and the result is that neither the physical nor the social science perspectives gain a comprehensive picture of the issue under scrutiny. Looking at the flash flood problem, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of the phenomenon are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of and warnings for these events. On the other hand warning and crisis

  5. Educational Approaches When Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Brian

    This paper overviews the history of science education from the launch of Sputnik through reform movements and associated legislation to the most recent Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The paper also considers stakeholder groups that would need to be involved if NGSS is to be implemented properly, including teachers, parents and unions. Each group holds a responsibility within a school system that needs to be addressed from a practical standpoint to increase the likelihood of the effective adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards. This paper provides background and program information about the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). It also considers the educational, philosophical, and instructional approach known as inquiry which is strongly advocated by NGSS and explores where and how other well-studied instructional approaches might have a place within an inquiry-based classroom.

  6. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  7. Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    2001-12-01

    This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory.

  8. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  9. Learning from Each Other: What Social Studies Can Learn from the Controversy Surrounding the Teaching of Evolution in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the need for researchers to move beyond discipline-specific approaches to research and practice and offers an example of how interdisciplinary understandings can increase knowledge in respective disciplines. The specific focus of the article is the shared challenges of broaching controversy in science and social studies…

  10. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  11. Perception of Supports and Barriers: Career Decision-Making for Sikh Indo-Canadian Young Women Entering the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Priya S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the supports and barriers that Sikh Indo-Canadian young women perceive in their career decision-making process to enter the applied social sciences at the university level. A qualitative descriptive case study approach (Yin, 2003) was used. Analyses indicated self-efficacy appraisals played an…

  12. Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2015-08-25

    A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations.

  13. Research, Engagement, and Public Bioethics: Promoting Socially Robust Science

    PubMed Central

    Pickersgill, Martyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Citizens today are increasingly expected to be knowledgeable about and prepared to engage with biomedical knowledge. In this article, I wish to reframe this ‘public understanding of science’ project, and place fresh emphasis on public understandings of research: an engagement with the everyday laboratory practices of biomedicine and its associated ethics, rather than of specific scientific facts. This is not based on an assumption that non-scientists are ‘ignorant’ and are thus unable to ‘appropriately’ use or debate science; rather, it is underpinned by an empirically-grounded observation that some individuals may be unfamiliar with certain specificities of particular modes of research and ethical frameworks, and, as a consequence, have their autonomy compromised when invited to participate in biomedical investigations. Drawing on the perspectives of participants in my own sociological research on the social and ethical dimensions of neuroscience, I argue that public understandings of biomedical research and its ethics should be developed both at the community level and within the research moment itself, in order to enhance autonomy and promote more socially robust science. Public bioethics will have play a key role in such an endeavour, and indeed will contribute in important ways to the opening up of new spaces of symmetrical engagement between bioethicists, scientists, and wider publics – and hence to the democratisation of the bioethical enterprise. PMID:21673017

  14. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  15. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human…

  16. A Novel Approach to Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butman, Alexander M.

    1967-01-01

    Teachers can help students to understand, retain, and relate to what is taught in a Social Studies class by selecting television shows, novels, films, and plays which broaden the students' environment beyond their personal experience. Several events in American History can be made more stimulating by the use of novels to present vivid pictures of…

  17. [Benchmarks for interdisciplinary health and social sciences research: contributions of a research seminar].

    PubMed

    Kivits, Joëlle; Fournier, Cécile; Mino, Jean-Christophe; Frattini, Marie-Odile; Winance, Myriam; Lefève, Céline; Robelet, Magali

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on an interdisciplinary seminar, initiated by philosophy and sociology researchers and public health professionals. The objective of this seminar was to explore the mechanisms involved in setting up and conducting interdisciplinary research, by investigating the practical modalities of articulating health and human and social sciences research in order to more clearly understand the conditions, tensions and contributions of collaborative research. These questions were discussed on the basis of detailed analysis of four recent or current research projects. Case studies identified four typical epistemological or methodological issues faced by researchers in the fields of health and human and social sciences: institutional conditions and their effects on research; deconstruction of the object; the researcher's commitment in his/her field; the articulation of research methods. Three prerequisites for interdisciplinary research in social and human sciences and in health were identified: mutual questioning of research positions and fields of study; awareness of the tensions related to institutional positions and disciplinary affiliation; joint elaboration and exchanges between various types of knowledge to ensure an interdisciplinary approach throughout all of the research process.

  18. [The teaching of social sciences in health: between practice and theory].

    PubMed

    Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2014-04-01

    The models of teaching social sciences and clinical practice are insufficient for the needs of practical-reflective teaching of social sciences applied to health. The scope of this article is to reflect on the challenges and perspectives of social science education for health professionals. In the 1950s the important movement bringing together social sciences and the field of health began, however weak credentials still prevail. This is due to the low professional status of social scientists in health and the ill-defined position of the social sciences professionals in the health field. It is also due to the scant importance attributed by students to the social sciences, the small number of professionals and the colonization of the social sciences by the biomedical culture in the health field. Thus, the professionals of social sciences applied to health are also faced with the need to build an identity, even after six decades of their presence in the field of health. This is because their ambivalent status has established them as a partial, incomplete and virtual presence, requiring a complex survival strategy in the nebulous area between social sciences and health.

  19. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  20. Colombian initiatives in the Social Appropriation of Science and Technology: tendencies and challenges for a broader understanding of these dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bustos, Tania; Franco Avellaneda, Manuel; Lozano Borda, Marcela; Falla, Sigrid; Papagayo, Diana

    2012-03-01

    Is aimed at broadening Colombia's understanding of the social appropriation of science and technology, particularly the types of actors who promote initiatives in this sphere. Using a chain referral sampling methodology, a hundred such initiatives in Colombia were identified and documented, which were promoted by civil society, the State, business, the research community and mediators. The article further analyzes these iniciatives and indicates the challenges they represent, especially in breaking down the traditional approach to the social appropriation of science and technology in Colombia and replacing it with more participative strategies.

  1. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice.

  2. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.

  3. Theoretical Approaches to Disability Content in Social Work Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Stephen French; DePoy, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes disability theory and content in the social work curriculum and advances a theoretically expansive approach to disability that is consistent with social work's commitment to diversity and the elimination of oppression. Suggests shifting disability content from an emphasis on individual deficiency toward addressing disability as the…

  4. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  5. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  6. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  7. A Social Constructivist Approach to Computer-Mediated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a computer-mediated teaching system called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) that incorporates a social constructivist approach, maintaining that learning occurs primarily through a socially interactive process. Discusses use of CAPSI in an undergraduate course at the University of Manitoba that showed students…

  8. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  9. Producing and Consuming the Controversial--A Social Media Perspective on Political Conversations in the Social Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…

  10. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  11. Integrating Social Studies and Ethnobotany: A Multicultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of four lessons that integrate social studies, language arts, and life science for high school students. Explains that students participate in a wildflower collection activity, interview a person from another culture to collect interesting facts and wild stories, research a flowering plant, and make wildflower bookmarks. (CMK)

  12. Early Careers of Recent U.S. Social Science PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Emory; Rudd, Elizabeth; Nerad, Maresi

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we analyse findings of the largest, most comprehensive survey of the career paths of social science PhD graduates to date, "Social Science PhDs--Five+Years Out (SS5)". "SS5" surveyed more than 3,000 graduates of U.S. PhD programmes in six social science fields six to ten years after earning their PhD. The…

  13. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  14. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  15. International Co-operation and Trends in Social Science Information Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)

  16. [Boundaries and integrity in the "Social Contract for Spanish Science", 1907-1939].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between science and politics in Spain in the early 20th century from the perspective of the Social Contract for Science. The article shows that a genuine social contract for science was instituted in Spain during this period, although some boundary and integrity problems emerged. These problems are analyzed, showing that the boundary problems were a product of the conservative viewpoint on the relationship between science and politics, while the integrity problems involved the activation of networks of influence in the awarding of scholarships to study abroad. Finally, the analysis reveals that these problems did not invalidate the Spanish social contract for science.

  17. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and

  18. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Harsh R.; Martinez, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K–12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community. PMID:27047583

  19. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  20. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding and Promoting Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark; Rees, Tim; Coffee, Pete; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Polman, Remco

    2017-03-27

    Against the backdrop of a global physical inactivity crisis, attempts to both understand and positively influence physical activity behaviours are characterized by a focus on individual-level factors (e.g. cognitions, attitudes, motivation). We outline a new perspective, drawn from an emerging body of work exploring the applicability of social identity and self-categorization theories to domains of sport and health, from which to understand and address this pervasive problem. This social identity approach suggests that the groups to which people belong can be, and often are, incorporated into their sense of self and, through this, are powerful determinants of physical activity-related behaviour. We start by reviewing the current state of physical activity research and highlighting the potential for the social identity approach to help understand how social factors influence these behaviours. Next, we outline the theoretical underpinnings of the social identity approach and provide three key examples that speak to the analytical and practical value of the social identity approach in physical activity settings. Specifically, we argue that social identity (1) can be harnessed to promote engagement in physical activity, (2) underpins exercise group behaviour, and (3) underpins effective leadership in exercise settings. We conclude by identifying prospects for a range of theory-informed research developments.