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Sample records for societal costs

  1. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  2. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  3. The societal cost of schizophrenia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Mattias; Granstrom, Ola; Omerov, Sead; Jacob, Johanna; Landen, Mikael

    2013-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has severe consequences for patients and their families. Moreover, the expensive treatment of schizophrenia imposes a burden on health care providers and the wider society. Existing cost estimates for Sweden, however, are based on relatively small patient populations and need to be confirmed in a large register-based study. To investigate the health care resource utilization and cost-of-illness in patients with schizophrenia in Sweden and to relate the costs to hospitalizations and global assessment of functioning (GAF). Hospital-based registry data were combined with national registry data from a large patient population to get reliable estimates of the costs of schizophrenia in Sweden. Schizophrenia was defined by ICD-10 codes F20; F21; F23.1,2,8,9; F25.1,8,9. Registry data on socio-demographics and disease-related healthcare resource use in outpatient and inpatient care were obtained from Northern Stockholm Psychiatry. Data on pharmaceuticals were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare, and data on sick leave and early retirement were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Costs for community mental health care were not available at the individual level, but were estimated based on previous studies and aggregate cost data from Stockholm. Resource use data from the registries were combined with unit costs from publicly available sources. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual psychiatric cost per patient with schizophrenia in 2008 was EUR 42700 (95% CI: EUR 41500-44000), based on a sample of 2161 patients. To this should be added costs for community mental health care of EUR 12400 per patient, giving a total cost of EUR 55100 per patient. The two largest cost items in the total costs were indirect costs due to lost productivity (60%) and community mental health care (22% of the total

  4. The Societal Costs of Schizophrenia in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pletscher, Mark; Mattli, Renato; von Wyl, Agnes; Reich, Oliver; Wieser, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that typically develops in early adulthood and becomes chronic in most cases. The disease is associated with elevated health care utilization, impaired functionality and the loss of life years and quality of life. The prevalence and costs of schizophrenia are not yet known for Switzerland. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of schizophrenia in Switzerland and to assess its burden on patients, caregivers and society as a whole. A hospital registry was combined with an outpatient physician survey and health insurance claims data to capture all patients living in the northern part of the canton of Zurich. Structured interviews with outpatient physicians were held to obtain information on outpatient care in private practices. Total costs included direct medical and nonmedical costs and lost production. All costs were calculated for the year 2012 from a societal perspective using a prevalence-based bottom-up approach. Intangible costs were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Uncertainty and its sources were addressed in univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The point prevalence of schizophrenia in Switzerland was estimated at 0.39% of the population. The average costs of schizophrenia in 2012 were EUR 39,408 per patient. Lost production accounted for 64% (EUR 25,108) of the total cost of illness, direct medical costs for 24% (EUR 9,507) and care by relatives or in residential homes for the mentally ill for 12% (EUR 4,793). Inpatient hospital care amounted to EUR 6,242 per year or 66% of direct medical costs. The results show the high burden of schizophrenia on patients, caregivers and society. The prevalence estimate can be considered a lower bound because undiagnosed cases were not identified by our empirical strategy. The estimated costs are conservative because the costs of comorbidities were not considered. The strengths of this study are the full coverage of the sample region by a

  5. The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Mattias; Granström, Ola; Omérov, Sead; Jacob, Johanna; Landén, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive cost-of-illness studies in bipolar disorder, in particular studies based on patient-level data. The purpose of this study was to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalisation and patient functioning. Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care during 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47% of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm. This dataset was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual cost per patient was 28,011 in 2008 (n = 1,846). Indirect costs due to sick leave and early retirement represented 75%, inpatient costs 13%, outpatient costs 8%, pharmaceuticals 2% and community care another 2% of the total cost. Total costs were considerably higher during mood episodes (six times higher than in remission), for hospitalised patients (55,500 vs. 22,200) and for patients with low GAF scores. The high cost of bipolar disorder is driven primarily by indirect costs. Costs were strongly associated with mood episodes, hospitalisations and low GAF scores. This suggests that treatment that reduces the risk for relapses and hospitalizations and improve functioning may decrease both the societal cost of bipolar disorder and patient suffering.

  6. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  7. The cost of borderline personality disorder: societal cost of illness in BPD-patients.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, A D I; Dirksen, C D; Arntz, A; Severens, J L

    2007-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent, chronic condition. Because of its very problematic nature BPD is expected to be associated with substantial societal costs, although this has never been comprehensively assessed. Estimate the societal cost of BPD in the Netherlands. We used a prevalence-based bottom-up approach with a sample of 88 BPD patients who enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial comparing two kinds of outpatient psychotherapy. Costs were assessed by means of a structured interview, covering all healthcare costs, medication, informal care, productivity losses, and out-of-pocket expenses. Only BPD-related costs were included. All costs were expressed in Euros for the year 2000. A bootstrap procedure was performed to determine statistical uncertainty. All patients had been diagnosed with BPD using DSM-IV criteria. Mean age was 30.5 years and 92% was female. Based on a prevalence of 1.1% and an adult population of 11,990,942, we derived that there were 131,900 BPD patients in the Netherlands. Total bootstrapped yearly cost of illness was 2,222,763,789 euros (1,372,412,403-3,260,248,300 euros), only 22% was healthcare-related. Costs per patient were 16,852 euros. Although healthcare costs of non-institutionalized Borderline patients might not be disproportionate, total societal costs are substantial.

  8. Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-Illness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n=118) to costs of families from the general population…

  9. Information System for Societal Cost and Benefit Analysis of Vocational and Manpower Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Mehar

    The study was directed toward developing a manual for establishing societal benefits and costs of vocational and manpower programs in Wisconsin. After first outlining the background of benefit-cost analysis, problems in establishing cost functions in education are presented along with some important cost concepts and uses of cost information in…

  10. SOCIETAL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Lieske, Heidi B; Tran, Irwin; Turpcu, Adam; Colman, Shoshana

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a cross-sectional prevalence-based health care economic survey to ascertain the annual, incremental, societal ophthalmic costs associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Consecutive patients (n = 200) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were studied. A Control Cohort included patients with good (20/20-20/25) vision, while Study Cohort vision levels included Subcohort 1: 20/30 to 20/50, Subcohort 2: 20/60 to 20/100, Subcohort 3: 20/200 to 20/400, and Subcohort 4: 20/800 to no light perception. An interviewer-administered, standardized, written survey assessed 1) direct ophthalmic medical, 2) direct nonophthalmic medical, 3) direct nonmedical, and 4) indirect medical costs accrued due solely to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The mean annual societal cost for the Control Cohort was $6,116 and for the Study Cohort averaged $39,910 (P < 0.001). Study Subcohort 1 costs averaged $20,339, while Subcohort 4 costs averaged $82,984. Direct ophthalmic medical costs comprised 17.9% of Study Cohort societal ophthalmic costs, versus 74.1% of Control Cohort societal ophthalmic costs (P < 0.001) and 10.4% of 20/800 to no light perception subcohort costs. Direct nonmedical costs, primarily caregiver, comprised 67.1% of Study Cohort societal ophthalmic costs, versus 21.3% ($1,302/$6,116) of Control Cohort costs (P < 0.001) and 74.1% of 20/800 to no light perception subcohort costs. Total societal ophthalmic costs associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration dramatically increase as vision in the better-seeing eye decreases.

  11. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  12. Don’t Discount Societal Value in Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    As healthcare resources become increasingly scarce due to growing demand and stagnating budgets, the need for effective priority setting and resource allocation will become ever more critical to providing sustainable care to patients. While societal values should certainly play a part in guiding these processes, the methodology used to capture these values need not necessarily be limited to multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA)-based processes including ‘evidence-informed deliberative processes.’ However, if decision-makers intend to not only incorporates the values of the public they serve into decisions but have the decisions enacted as well, consideration should be given to more direct involvement of stakeholders. Based on the examples provided by Baltussen et al, MCDA-based processes like ‘evidence-informed deliberative processes’ could be one way of achieving this laudable goal. PMID:28949468

  13. Societal Economic Costs and Benefits from Death: Another Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2007-01-01

    B. Yang and D. Lester (2007) have produced an innovative contribution to the relevant literature. Unlike previous studies, they incorporate estimates of cost savings from suicide. Their argument could be strengthened in 3 ways. First, they may have underestimated some of the cost savings by relying on inflated estimates of mental health usage by…

  14. Societal Economic Costs and Benefits from Death: Another Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2007-01-01

    B. Yang and D. Lester (2007) have produced an innovative contribution to the relevant literature. Unlike previous studies, they incorporate estimates of cost savings from suicide. Their argument could be strengthened in 3 ways. First, they may have underestimated some of the cost savings by relying on inflated estimates of mental health usage by…

  15. Insights into the concept of vitality: associations with participation and societal costs.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, E; van Dongen, J M; Wendel-Vos, G C W; Hildebrandt, V H; Strijk, J E

    2016-04-01

    In healthcare, the focus is currently shifting from someone's disabilities to someone's abilities, which is also evident from the increasing focus on vitality. Vitality (here defined as energy, motivation and resilience) is an often used concept, which also aims at someone's capabilities. However, little is known about vitality yet; in particular about its association with participation and societal costs. Within a cross-sectional design, information regarding vitality, participation and societal costs was collected among 8015 Dutch adults aged 20 years and over. Vitality was measured using the validated Dutch Vitality Questionnaire (Vita-16). Information on economic (i.e. want/able to work, work absenteeism, work performance), societal (i.e. voluntary work, informal care giving) and social participation (i.e. quantity and quality of social contacts) and societal costs (i.e. healthcare and work-related costs) was collected using an internet survey. Significant associations were found between vitality and various economic (i.e.sustainable employability:want to work: β = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99-1.43,able to work:β = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.79-2.38;work absenteeism: OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.71-0.79;work performance:β = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.46-0.52), societal (i.e.voluntary work, informal care) and social (i.e.quantity and quality of social contacts) participation measures, as well as between vitality and societal costs (i.e.healthcare costs:β = -213.73, 95% CI: €-311.13 to €-107.08),absenteeism costs: β = -338.57, 95% CI: €-465.36 to €-214.14 and presenteeism costs:β = -1293.31, 95% CI: €-1492.69 to €-1088.95). This study showed significant positive associations between vitality and economic, societal and social participation and negative associations between vitality and societal costs. This may stimulate research on interventions enhancing and maintaining vitality and thereby contributing to improved participation and reduced costs. © The Author 2015. Published by

  16. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  17. Societal Burden of Clinically Anxious Youth Referred for Treatment: A Cost-of-illness Study

    PubMed Central

    Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8–18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n = 118) to costs of families from the general population (n = 41). To examine the convergent validity, bottom-up acquired costs derived from cost diaries were compared to top-down acquired costs obtained from national registrations. Bottom-up acquired costs measured by means of cost diaries amounted to €2,748 per family of a clinically referred anxious child per annum. Societal costs of families with clinically anxious children were almost 21 times as high compared to families from the general population. With respect to convergent validity, total health care costs using the bottom-up approach from clinically anxious children were quite comparable to those of top-down data of anxious children, although costs within the subcategories differed considerably. Clinical anxiety disorders in childhood cost the Dutch society more than 20 million euros a year. Based on results of discriminate and convergent validity, the cost diary seems a valid method in establishing cost-of-illness in childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:18214667

  18. Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: a cost-of-illness study.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2008-05-01

    A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study using a societal perspective was conducted to investigate the cost-of-illness in clinically anxious youth aged 8-18 in The Netherlands. Discriminant validity of the cost diary used was obtained by comparing costs of families with an anxious child (n = 118) to costs of families from the general population (n = 41). To examine the convergent validity, bottom-up acquired costs derived from cost diaries were compared to top-down acquired costs obtained from national registrations. Bottom-up acquired costs measured by means of cost diaries amounted to Euro 2,748 per family of a clinically referred anxious child per annum. Societal costs of families with clinically anxious children were almost 21 times as high compared to families from the general population. With respect to convergent validity, total health care costs using the bottom-up approach from clinically anxious children were quite comparable to those of top-down data of anxious children, although costs within the subcategories differed considerably. Clinical anxiety disorders in childhood cost the Dutch society more than 20 million euros a year. Based on results of discriminate and convergent validity, the cost diary seems a valid method in establishing cost-of-illness in childhood anxiety disorders.

  19. Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Howard G; White, Alan G; Schiller, Matt; Waldman, Tracy; Cleveland, Jody M; Roland, Carl L

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. Costs were grouped into three categories: health care, workplace, and criminal justice. Costs were estimated by 1) quantity method, which multiplies the number of opioid abuse patients by cost per opioid abuse patient; and 2) apportionment method, which begins with overall costs of drug abuse per component and apportions the share associated with prescription opioid abuse based on relative prevalence of prescription opioid to overall drug abuse. Excess health care costs per patient were based on claims data analysis of privately insured and Medicaid beneficiaries. Other data/information were derived from publicly available survey and other secondary sources. Total US societal costs of prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007 (USD in 2009). Workplace costs accounted for $25.6 billion (46%), health care costs accounted for $25.0 billion (45%), and criminal justice costs accounted for $5.1 billion (9%). Workplace costs were driven by lost earnings from premature death ($11.2 billion) and reduced compensation/lost employment ($7.9 billion). Health care costs consisted primarily of excess medical and prescription costs ($23.7 billion). Criminal justice costs were largely comprised of correctional facility ($2.3 billion) and police costs ($1.5 billion).   The costs of prescription opioid abuse represent a substantial and growing economic burden for the society. The increasing prevalence of abuse suggests an even greater societal burden in the future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE ON COST DRIVERS FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN SINDH, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Mitton, Craig; Qureshi, Rahat; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cost-drivers and estimating societal costs are important challenges for economic evaluation of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study assessed community experiences of health resource usage and perceived cost-drivers from a societal perspective to inform the design of an economic model for the Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials. Qualitative research was undertaken alongside the CLIP trial in two districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. Nine focus groups were conducted with a wide range of stakeholders, including pregnant women, mothers-in-law, husbands, fathers-in-law, healthcare providers at community and health facility-levels, and health decision/policy makers at district-level. The societal perspective included out-of-pocket (OOP), health system, and program implementation costs related to CLIP. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo software. Most pregnant women and male decision makers reported a large burden of OOP costs for in- and out-patient care, informal care from traditional healers, self-medication, childbirth, newborn care, transport to health facility, and missed wages by caretakers. Many healthcare providers identified health system costs associated with human resources for hypertension risk assessment, transport, and communication about patient referrals. Health decision/policy makers recognized program implementation costs (such as the mobile health infrastructure, staff training, and monitoring/supervision) as major investments for the health system. Our investigation of care-seeking practices revealed financial implications for families of pregnant women, and program implementation costs for the health system. The societal perspective provided comprehensive knowledge of cost drivers to guide an economic appraisal of the CLIP trial in Sindh, Pakistan.

  1. Air quality management using modern remote sensing and spatial technologies and associated societal costs.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker's productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Lifecycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment.

  2. Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

  3. The Economic impact of ME/CFS: Individual and societal costs

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A; Benton, Mary C; Valentine, Lisa; Johnson, Abra; Torres-Harding, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background ME/CFS is characterized by debilitating fatigue in addition to other physical and cognitive symptoms. It is estimated to affect over 800,000 adults in the U.S. ME/CFS often results in diminished functionality and increased economic impact. The economic impact of an illness is generally divided into two categories: direct and indirect costs. Despite high prevalence rates and the disabling nature of the illness, few studies have examined the costs of ME/CFS at the individual and societal level. In fact, of the four studies examining the economic impact of ME/ME/CFS only two used a U. S. sample. The current study used community and tertiary samples to examine the direct costs of ME/CFS. Methods Using archival data, Study 1 examined the direct cost of ME/CFS in a community-based sample in Chicago. Study 2 estimated the direct cost of ME/CFS in a tertiary sample in Chicago. Both Study1 and Study 2 assessed direct costs using office visit costs, medical test costs, and medication costs. Results For Study 1, the annual direct total cost per ME/CFS patient was estimated to be $2,342, with the total annual direct cost of ME/CFS to society being approximately $2 billion. In Study 2, the annual direct was estimated to be $8,675 per ME/CFS patient, with the total annual direct cost of ME/CFS to society being approximately $7 billion. Conclusion Using ME/CFS prevalence data of 0.42 and indirect costs estimates from Reynolds et al. (2004), the direct and indirect cost of ME/CFS to society was estimated to be $18,677,912,000 for the community sample and $23,972,300,000 for the tertiary sample. These findings indicate that whether or not individuals are recruited from a community or tertiary sample, ME/CFS imposes substantial economic costs. PMID:18397528

  4. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Tanjima; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included), and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios. PMID:18786247

  5. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382

  6. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  7. Societal costs and effects of implementing population-based mammography screening in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Maria Klitgaard; Niclasen, Birgit V; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    With a low breast cancer incidence and low population density, Greenland is geographically and organisationally challenged in implementing a cost effective breast cancer screening programme where a large proportion of the Greenlandic women will have to travel far to attend. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost utility of different strategies for implementing population-based breast cancer screening in Greenland. Two strategies were evaluated: Centralised screening in the capital Nuuk and decentralised screening in the five municipal regions of Greenland. A cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis were performed from a societal perspective to estimate the costs per years of life saved and per QALY gained. Two accommodation models for the women's attendance were examined; accommodation in ordinary hotels or in patient hotels. The least costly accommodation model was the hotel model compared with the patient hotel model, regardless of screening strategy. The decentralised strategy was more cost effective compared with the centralised strategy, resulting in 0.5 million DKK per years of life saved (YLS) and 4.1 million DKK per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained within the hotel model. These ratios are significantly higher compared with findings from other countries. The sensitivity analysis showed a substantial gap between the most and least favourable model assumptions. The investigated strategies were all estimated to be extremely costly, mostly due to high transportation and accommodation costs and loss of productivity, and none would be accepted as cost-effective per YLS/QALY gained within a conventional threshold level. The least expensive strategy was regional screening with hotel accommodation.

  8. The societal costs of femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, S M; Bouwmans, C A M; Heetveld, M J; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2014-03-01

    The study rationale was to provide a detailed overview of the costs for femoral neck fracture treatment with internal fixation in the Netherlands. Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. Costs were higher for older, less healthy patients. Results are comparable to internationally published costs. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed overview of the cost and healthcare consumption of patients treated for a hip fracture with internal fixation. A secondary aim was to compare costs of patients who underwent a revision surgery with patients who did not. The study was performed alongside the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial, concerning femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation. Patient characteristics and healthcare consumption were collected. Total follow-up was 2 years. A societal perspective was adopted. Costs included hospital costs during primary stay and follow-up, and costs related to rehabilitation and changes in living situation. Costs were compared between non-revision surgery patients, implant removal patients, and revision arthroplasty patients. A total of 248 patients were included (mean age 71 years). Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. In the non-revision surgery patients total costs were 17,405 (N = 137), in the implant removal patients 10,066 (N = 38), and in the revision arthroplasty patients 26,733 (N = 67). The main contributing costs were related to the primary surgery, admission days, physical therapy, and revision surgeries. The main determinant was the costs of admission to a rehabilitation center/nursing home. Costs were specifically high in elderly with comorbidity, who were less independent pre-fracture, and have a longer admission to the hospital and/or a nursing home. Costs were also higher in revision surgery patients. The 2-years follow-up costs in our study were comparable to published costs

  9. [(Domestic) violence against women: socioeconomic consequences and societal costs. Introduction and overview].

    PubMed

    Brzank, P

    2009-03-01

    Due to prevalence as well as serious health and social impacts, domestic violence against women is considered a problem of high relevance for victims themselves and for the society as a whole. Empirical data also prove this correlation for Germany. Nevertheless the extensive implications and their interdependency have hardly been examined. In this article, a definition of domestic violence is given followed by a brief introduction of the problem. Next an overview of the results from national and international surveys regarding the social consequences and the economic costs of domestic violence is presented. The burden for following generations becomes obvious, including the consequences for family and social relationship structures, for victims' occupational situations, productivity loss, high risk for poverty, homelessness and the interdependencies on health status. Estimations from international studies on the societal costs illustrate the economic dimension.

  10. The economic cost of measles: Healthcare, public health and societal costs of the 2012-13 outbreak in Merseyside, UK.

    PubMed

    Ghebrehewet, Sam; Thorrington, Dominic; Farmer, Siobhan; Kearney, James; Blissett, Deidre; McLeod, Hugh; Keenan, Alex

    2016-04-04

    Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection that caused large outbreaks in England in 2012 and 2013 in areas which failed to achieve herd protection levels (95%) consistently. We sought to quantify the economic costs associated with the 2012-13 Merseyside measles outbreak, relative to the cost of extending preventative vaccination to secure herd protection. A costing model based on a critical literature review was developed. A workshop and interviews were held with key stakeholders in the Merseyside outbreak to understand the pathway of a measles case and then quantify healthcare activity and costs for the main NHS providers and public health team incurred during the initial four month period to May 2012. These data were used to model the total costs of the full outbreak to August 2013, comprising those to healthcare providers for patient treatment, public health and societal productivity losses. The modelled total cost of the full outbreak was compared to the cost of extending the preventative vaccination programme to achieve herd protection. The Merseyside outbreak included 2458 reported cases. The estimated cost of the outbreak was £ 4.4m (sensitivity analysis £ 3.9 m to £ 5.2m) comprising 15% (£ 0.7 m) NHS patient treatment costs, 40% (£ 1.8m) public health costs and 44% (£ 2.0m) for societal productivity losses. In comparison, over the previous five years in Cheshire and Merseyside a further 11,793 MMR vaccinations would have been needed to achieve herd protection at an estimated cost of £ 182,909 (4% of the total cost of the measles outbreak). Failure to consistently reach MMR uptake levels of 95% across all localities and sectors (achieve herd protection) risks comparatively higher economic costs associated with the containment (including healthcare costs) and implementation of effective public health management of outbreaks. Commissioned by the Cheshire and Merseyside Public Health England Centre. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. Methods The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0–9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0–9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. Results From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30mcg, IFN beta-1b 250mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Conclusions Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier. PMID:26987055

  12. Societal costs of home and hospital end-of-life care for palliative care patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mo; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    In Canada, health system restructuring has led to a greater focus on home-based palliative care as an alternative to institutionalised palliative care. However, little is known about the effect of this change on end-of-life care costs and the extent to which the financial burden of care has shifted from the acute care public sector to families. The purpose of this study was to assess the societal costs of end-of-life care associated with two places of death (hospital and home) using a prospective cohort design in a home-based palliative care programme. Societal cost includes all costs incurred during the course of palliative care irrespective of payer (e.g. health system, out-of-pocket, informal care-giving costs, etc.). Primary caregivers of terminal cancer patients were recruited from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care in Toronto, Canada. Demographic, service utilisation, care-giving time, health and functional status, and death data were collected by telephone interviews with primary caregivers over the course of patients' palliative trajectory. Logistic regression was conducted to model an individual's propensity for home death. Total societal costs of end-of-life care and component costs were compared between home and hospital death using propensity score stratification. Costs were presented in 2012 Canadian dollars ($1.00 CDN = $1.00 USD). The estimated total societal cost of end-of-life care was $34,197.73 per patient over the entire palliative trajectory (4 months on average). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total societal costs between home and hospital death patients. Higher hospitalisation costs for hospital death patients were replaced by higher unpaid caregiver time and outpatient service costs for home death patients. Thus, from a societal cost perspective, alternative sites of death, while not associated with a significant change in total societal cost of end-of-life care, resulted in changes in the distribution of

  13. Costs associated with blood transfusions in Sweden--the societal cost of autologous, allogeneic and perioperative RBC transfusion.

    PubMed

    Glenngård, A H; Persson, U; Söderman, C

    2005-08-01

    Anaemia is characterised by an insufficient number of red blood cells (RBCs) and might occur for different reasons, e.g. surgical procedures are often with associated blood loss. Patients who suffer from anaemia have the option of treatment with blood transfusion or medical treatment. In this study, the societal cost, for the case of Sweden, of RBC transfusion using three different techniques, i.e. allogeneic, autologous and intraoperative transfusion, was estimated. The analysis was based on information from interviews with hospital staff at large Swedish hospitals and from published data. The average cost for a 2 units transfusion was found to be Swedish kronor (SEK) 6330 (702 Euro) for filtered allogeneic RBCs and SEK 5394 (598 Euro) for autologous RBCs for surgery patients. Transfusion reactions accounted for almost 35 per cent of the costs of allogeneic RBC transfusions. The administration cost was found to be much higher for autologous transfusions compared with allogeneic transfusions. The cost of intraoperative erythrocyte salvage was calculated to be SEK 2567 (285 Euro) per transfusion (>4 units).

  14. Long Term Societal Costs of Anterior Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) versus Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (CDA) for Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ghori, Ahmer; Konopka, Joseph F.; Cha, Thomas D.; Bono, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) have comparable clinical outcomes for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Given similar outcomes, an understanding of differences in long-term societal costs can help guide resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative long-term societal costs of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the treatment of single level cervical disc disease by considering upfront surgical costs, lost productivity, and risk of subsequent revision surgery. Methods We completed an economic and decision analysis using a Markov model to evaluate the long-term societal costs of ACDF and CDA in a theoretical cohort of 45-65 year old patients with single level cervical disc disease who have failed nonoperative treatment. Results The long-term societal costs for a 45-year old patient undergoing ACDF are $31,178 while long-term costs for CDA are $24,119. Long-term costs for CDA remain less expensive throughout the modeled age range of 45 to 65 years old. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that CDA remains less expensive than ACDF as long as annual reoperation rate remains below 10.5% annually. Conclusions Based on current data, CDA has lower long-term societal costs than ACDF for patients 45-65 years old by a substantial margin. Given reported reoperation rates of 2.5% for CDA, it is the preferred treatment for cervical radiculopathy from an economic perspective. PMID:26913221

  15. Is the societal approach wide enough to include relatives? Incorporating relatives' costs and effects in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Thomas; Levin, Lars-Ake

    2010-01-01

    It is important for economic evaluations in healthcare to cover all relevant information. However, many existing evaluations fall short of this goal, as they fail to include all the costs and effects for the relatives of a disabled or sick individual. The objective of this study was to analyse how relatives' costs and effects could be measured, valued and incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis. In this article, we discuss the theories underlying cost-effectiveness analyses in the healthcare arena; the general conclusion is that it is hard to find theoretical arguments for excluding relatives' costs and effects if a societal perspective is used. We argue that the cost of informal care should be calculated according to the opportunity cost method. To capture relatives' effects, we construct a new term, the R-QALY weight, which is defined as the effect on relatives' QALY weight of being related to a disabled or sick individual. We examine methods for measuring, valuing and incorporating the R-QALY weights. One suggested method is to estimate R-QALYs and incorporate them together with the patient's QALY in the analysis. However, there is no well established method as yet that can create R-QALY weights. One difficulty with measuring R-QALY weights using existing instruments is that these instruments are rarely focused on relative-related aspects. Even if generic quality-of-life instruments do cover some aspects relevant to relatives and caregivers, they may miss important aspects and potential altruistic preferences. A further development and validation of the existing caregiving instruments used for eliciting utility weights would therefore be beneficial for this area, as would further studies on the use of time trade-off or Standard Gamble methods for valuing R-QALY weights. Another potential method is to use the contingent valuation method to find a monetary value for all the relatives' costs and effects. Because cost-effectiveness analyses are used for

  16. The hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Fine, Michael J; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Linder, Jeffrey A; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Shields, Ryan K; Zimmerman, Richard K; Smith, Kenneth J

    2016-11-08

    Ambulatory antibiotic prescribing contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance and increases societal costs. Here, we estimate the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States. In an exploratory analysis, we used published data to develop point and range estimates for the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance (SCAR) attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription in the United States. We developed four estimation methods that focused on the antibiotic-resistance attributable costs of hospitalization, second-line inpatient antibiotic use, second-line outpatient antibiotic use, and antibiotic stewardship, then summed the estimates across all methods. The total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription was estimated to be $13 (range: $3-$95). The greatest contributor to the total SCAR was the cost of hospitalization ($9; 69 % of the total SCAR). The costs of second-line inpatient antibiotic use ($1; 8 % of the total SCAR), second-line outpatient antibiotic use ($2; 15 % of the total SCAR) and antibiotic stewardship ($1; 8 %). This apperars to be an error.; of the total SCAR) were modest contributors to the total SCAR. Assuming an average antibiotic cost of $20, the total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription would increase antibiotic costs by 65 % (range: 15-475 %) if incorporated into antibiotic costs paid by patients or payers. Each ambulatory antibiotic prescription is associated with a hidden SCAR that substantially increases the cost of an antibiotic prescription in the United States. This finding raises concerns regarding the magnitude of misalignment between individual and societal antibiotic costs.

  17. Societal cost-benefit analysis for soil remediation in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Annemarie P; Franken, Ron O G; Drissen, Eric; Versluijs, Kees C W; van den Berg, Reinier

    2008-01-01

    There is a political demand on the efficiency of environmental policy. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can play a role in answering that demand. This societal CBA for nationwide soil remediation operations in The Netherlands distinguishes 4 alternatives for future investments. In the zero alternative government funding will be terminated. Besides this, 3 policy alternatives are distinguished that are government financed. Soil remediation benefits human health, the drinking water supply, housing, perceptions, and the ecosystem. Soil remediation also answers the concerns of the Dutch population. The benefits to health (exposure to cadmium, lead, and carcinogens), drinking water supply, and housing are expressed in monetary terms. The extent that benefits equal the money spent depends partly on the value-loaded choice for the discount rate. Use of the current discount rate of 4% will mean a slightly negative balance whichever policy alternative is chosen. Focusing on nonmoneterized benefits, such as ecology, can cause the scales to tip in another direction. Using a lower discount rate will make future benefits, such as health and drinking water supply, more important. If the discount rate drops to 2% or less, all policy alternatives lead to a positive balance. Predominantly, the health benefits that are veiled in uncertainty can become a reason for applying a surcharge and, in turn, a higher discount rate. In that case, each of the alternatives will result in a net negative balance.

  18. ASA grade and Charlson Comorbidity Index of spinal surgery patients: correlation with complications and societal costs.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Robert G; Stephen, James H; Vernick, Coleen; Campbell, Peter G; Yadla, Sanjay; Ghobrial, George M; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Ratliff, John K

    2014-01-01

    The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA grade) are useful for predicting morbidity and mortality for a variety of disease processes. To evaluate CCI and ASA grade as predictors of complications after spinal surgery and examine the correlation between these comorbidity indices and the cost of care. Prospective observational study. All patients undergoing any spine surgery at a single academic tertiary center over a 6-month period. Direct health-care costs estimated from diagnosis related group and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. Demographic data, including all patient comorbidities, procedural data, and all complications, occurring within 30 days of the index procedure were prospectively recorded. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and ASA grades determined from the operative record. Diagnosis related group and CPT codes were captured for each patient. Direct costs were estimated from a societal perspective using Medicare rates of reimbursement. A multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association of the CCI and ASA grade to the rate of complication and direct health-care costs. Two hundred twenty-six cases were analyzed. The average CCI score for the patient cohort was 0.92, and the average ASA grade was 2.65. The CCI and ASA grade were significantly correlated, with Spearman ρ of 0.458 (p<.001). Both CCI and ASA grade were associated with increasing body mass index (p<.01) and increasing patient age (p<.0001). Increasing CCI was associated with an increasing likelihood of occurrence of any complication (p=.0093) and of minor complications (p=.0032). Increasing ASA grade was significantly associated with an increasing likelihood of occurrence of a major complication (p=.0035). Increasing ASA grade showed a significant association with

  19. Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Jones, Peter J. H.; Carlberg, Jared G.

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) following a low glycemic index (GI) or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1) estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2) evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3) assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4) calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9) to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8) and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52) to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4) million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term. PMID:28737688

  20. The costs of dementia from the societal perspective: is care provided in the community really cheaper than nursing home care?

    PubMed

    König, Hans-Helmut; Leicht, Hanna; Brettschneider, Christian; Bachmann, Cadja; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Köhler, Mirjam; Luppa, Melanie; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Werle, Jochen; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-02-01

    To compare the costs of care for community-dwelling dementia patients with the costs of care for dementia patients living in nursing homes from the societal perspective. Cross-sectional bottom-up cost of illness study nested within the multicenter German AgeCoDe-cohort. Community and nursing homes. One hundred twenty-eight community-dwelling dementia patients and 48 dementia patients living in nursing homes. None. Utilization and costs of medical care and long term care, including formal and informal social and nursing care based on proxy interviews. Informal care was valued using the replacement cost method. Unadjusted mean annual total costs including informal care were €29,930 ($43,997) for community-dwelling patients and €33,482 ($49,218) for patients living in nursing homes. However, multiple regression analysis controlling for age, sex, deficits in basic and instrumental activities of daily living and comorbidity showed that living in the community significantly increased total costs by €11,344 ($16,676; P < .01) compared with living in a nursing home, mainly due to higher costs of informal care (+€20,585; +$30,260; P < .001). From the societal perspective care for dementia patients living in the community tends to cost more than care in nursing homes when functional impairment is controlled for. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Societal cost of traumatic brain injury: A comparison of cost-of-injuries related to biking with and without helmet use.

    PubMed

    Costa, Camille K; Dagher, Jehane H; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if a difference in societal costs exists from traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in patients who wear helmets compared to non-wearers. This is a retrospective cost-of-injury study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital (MGH) following a TBI that occurred while cycling between 2007-2011. Information was collected from Quebec Trauma Registry. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated societal costs. The median costs of hospitalization were significantly higher (p = 0.037) in the no helmet group ($7246.67 vs. $4328.17). No differences in costs were found for inpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.525), outpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.192), loss of productivity (p = 0.108) or death (p = 1.000). Overall, the differences in total societal costs between the helmet and no helmet group were not significantly different (p = 0.065). However, the median total costs for patients with isolated TBI in the non-helmet group ($22, 232.82) was significantly higher (p = 0.045) compared to the helmet group ($13, 920.15). Cyclists sustaining TBIs who did not wear helmets in this study were found to cost society nearly double that of helmeted cyclists.

  2. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  3. Measuring the societal burden of cancer: the cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda

    2015-02-15

    Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control.

  4. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  5. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fast, Shannon M; González, Marta C; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy.

  6. Drug pricing for a novel treatment for wet macular degeneration: using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to ensure societal value.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay; Bakal, Jeff; Sharma, Susan M; Covert, Dave; Shah, Gaurav K

    2005-06-01

    Health economic models can assist policy-makers in determining the value of novel treatments from the viewpoint of society. In this context, value is defined as the benefit of treatment, given its cost. A new treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), juxtascleral administration of anecortave acetate, 15 mg for depot suspension (Retaane), is now in a late-phase clinical trial. In a theoretical analysis, we sought to determine the cost at which this treatment might offer economic value to society, using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A series of 1-year cost-utility models was created for the investigational treatment and standard treatment (photodynamic therapy [PDT] with verteporfin [Visudyne]). Value to society was defined in terms of theoretical associated ICERs (in US dollars): $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), $50,000/QALY, $20,000/QALY and $0/QALY, the point of economic indifference. Models were created from the societal perspective and included a patient-derived utility assessment involving regression equations to estimate time trade-off preferences, event probabilities derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of anecortave administration and PDT with verteporfin, decision analysis and relevant costing information. An ICER of $100,000/QALY would be associated with an anecortave cost of $3022/vial, an ICER of $50,000/QALY with an anecortave cost of $2986/vial and an ICER of $20,000/QALY with an anecortave cost of $2964/vial. The point of economic indifference between anecortave administration and standard therapy would occur with an anecortave cost of $2950/vial. In theory, an anecortave cost of $2986/vial is associated with an ICER of $50,000/QALY, the threshold used by many health technology assessment and reimbursement agencies.

  7. Impact of ibrutinib and idelalisib on the pharmaceutical cost of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the individual and societal levels.

    PubMed

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Borah, Bijan J; Finnes, Heidi D; Chaffee, Kari G; Ding, Wei; Leis, Jose F; Chanan-Khan, Asher A; Parikh, Sameer A; Slager, Susan L; Kay, Neil E; Call, Tim G

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib on pharmaceutical costs in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at the societal level and assess individual out-of-pocket costs under Medicare Part D. Average wholesale price of commonly used CLL treatment regimens was ascertained from national registries. Using the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified the proportion of patients with newly diagnosed CLL who experience progression to the point of requiring treatment. Using these data, total pharmaceutical cost over a 10-year period after diagnosis was estimated for a hypothetic cohort of 100 newly diagnosed patients under three scenarios: before approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib (historical scenario), after approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib as salvage therapy (current scenarios A and B), and assuming use of ibrutinib as first-line treatment (potential future scenario). Estimated 10-year pharmaceutical costs for 100 newly diagnosed patients were as follows: $4,565,929 (approximately $45,659 per newly diagnosed patient and $157,446 per treated patient) for the historical scenario, $7,794,843 (approximately $77,948 per newly diagnosed patient and $268,788 per treated patient) for current scenario A, $6,309,162 (approximately $63,092 per newly diagnosed patient and $217,557 per treated patient) for current scenario B, and $16,414,055 (approximately $164,141 per newly diagnosed patient and $566,002 per treated patient) for the potential future scenario. Total out-of-pocket cost for 100 patients with newly diagnosed CLL under Medicare Part D increased from $9,426 under the historical scenario (approximately $325 per treated patient) to $363,830 and $255,051 under current scenarios A and B (approximately $8,800 to $12,500 per treated patient) and to $1,031,367 (approximately $35,564 per treated patient) under the future scenario. Although ibrutinib and idelalisib are profound treatment advances, they will dramatically

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines from a societal perspective in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W

    2013-01-01

    To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be 'cost-effective' vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

  10. Service and Wider Societal Costs of Very Young Children with Autism in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Sharac, Jessica; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Aldred, Catherine; Slonims, Vicky; Green, Jonathan; Bourne, Katy; Blazey, Laura; Holt, Clare; Kapadia, Dharmi; MacDonald, Wendy; Pickles, Andrew; White, Lydia; Houghton, Tori; Taylor, Carol; Cutress, Anna; Leach, Sue; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Barron, Sam; Colmer, Ruth; Randles, Sarah; Beggs, Karen; Collino, Julia; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with a substantial economic burden, but there is little evidence of the costs in the early years; the period in which children are increasingly likely to be diagnosed. We describe the services used by 152 children aged 24-60 months with autism, report family out-of-pocket expenses and productivity…

  11. Service and Wider Societal Costs of Very Young Children with Autism in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Sharac, Jessica; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Aldred, Catherine; Slonims, Vicky; Green, Jonathan; Bourne, Katy; Blazey, Laura; Holt, Clare; Kapadia, Dharmi; MacDonald, Wendy; Pickles, Andrew; White, Lydia; Houghton, Tori; Taylor, Carol; Cutress, Anna; Leach, Sue; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Barron, Sam; Colmer, Ruth; Randles, Sarah; Beggs, Karen; Collino, Julia; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with a substantial economic burden, but there is little evidence of the costs in the early years; the period in which children are increasingly likely to be diagnosed. We describe the services used by 152 children aged 24-60 months with autism, report family out-of-pocket expenses and productivity…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Florbetapir-PET in Alzheimer's Disease: A Spanish Societal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, John; Michalopoulos, Steven; Dai, Minghan; Andrade, Paula; Dilla, Tatiana; Happich, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The rising prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other diseases associated with dementia, imposes significant burden to various stakeholders who care for the elderly. Management of AD is complicated by multiple factors including disease-specific features which make it difficult to diagnose accurately during milder stages. Florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (florbetapir-PET) is an approved imaging tool used to capture beta-amyloid neuritic plaque density in brains of cognitively impaired adults undergoing evaluation for AD and other causes of cognitive impairment. It has the potential to help improve healthcare outcomes as it may help clinicians identify patients with AD early so that treatments are initiated when most effective. Evaluate the potential long-term clinical and economic outcomes of adopting florbetapir-PET--adjunctive to standard clinical evaluation (SCE)--versus SCE alone in the diagnostic assessment of cognitively impaired patients with suspected AD. A decision analysis with a ten-year time horizon was developed in compliance with Good Research Practices and CHEERS guidelines. The target population was comprised of Spanish patients who were undergoing initial assessment for cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score=20). Diagnostic accuracy, rate of cognitive decline, effect of drugs on cognition and dwelling status, economic burden (direct and indirect costs), and quality of life (QoL) were based on relevant clinical studies and published literature. Scenario analysis was applied to explore outcomes under different conditions, which included: (i) use of florbetapir-PET earlier in disease progression (MMSE score=22); and (ii) the addition of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET to SCE. Adjunctive florbetapir-PET increased quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) by 0.008 years and increased costs by 36 compared to SCE alone (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER], 4,769). Use of florbetapir-PET was dominant in alternate

  13. Societal cost-of-illness in patients with borderline personality disorder one year before, during and after dialectical behavior therapy in routine outpatient care.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Till; Fydrich, Thomas; Stiglmayr, Christian; Marschall, Paul; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Renneberg, Babette; Fleßa, Steffen; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Societal cost-of-illness in a German sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was calculated for 12 months prior to an outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program, during a year of DBT in routine outpatient care and during a follow-up year. We retrospectively assessed resource consumption and productivity loss by means of a structured interview. Direct costs were calculated as opportunity costs and indirect costs were calculated according to the Human Capital Approach. All costs were expressed in Euros for the year 2010. Total mean annual BPD-related societal cost-of-illness was €28026 (SD = €33081) during pre-treatment, €18758 (SD = €19450) during the DBT treatment year for the 47 DBT treatment completers, and €14750 (SD = €18592) during the follow-up year for the 33 patients who participated in the final assessment. Cost savings were mainly due to marked reductions in inpatient treatment costs, while indirect costs barely decreased. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that the treatment of BPD patients with an outpatient DBT program is associated with substantial overall cost savings. Already during the DBT treatment year, these savings clearly exceed the additional treatment costs of DBT and are further extended during the follow-up year. Correspondingly, outpatient DBT has the potential to be a cost-effective treatment for BPD patients. Efforts promoting its implementation in routine care should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Societal Costs and Benefits of Treatment with Trastuzumab in Patients with Early HER2neu-Overexpressing Breast Cancer in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab has revolutionized the way we treat early Her2Neu-positive breast cancer, as it significantly improves disease-free and overall survival. Little is known about the societal costs and benefits of treatment with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting in Southeast Asia. Methods Societal costs (benefits) were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect costs minus benefits in the base case. Direct costs were derived from 4 treatment centers in Singapore (2 private and 2 public, comprising 60-70% of all patients with cancer seen in the island-nation); indirect costs were assessed as the loss of productivity caused by the disease or treatment. Benefits to society were based on extra years of productivity, as measured by GNI per capita, resulting from the quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved with the use of trastuzumab as determined in the models by Kurian, Liberato and Garrison. Results Incremental costs in Singapore, in 2005 US dollars, were $26,971.05. Average Cost per QALY was $19,174.59 (Median: $18,993.70). Costs (benefits) to society ranged from a cost of $79.42 to a benefit of $9,263.06, depending on the model used (Average benefit: $4,375.89, Median $3,944.03). Sensitivity analysis ranged from a cost of $10,685.00 to a Benefit of US$17,298.79 Conclusions Treatment with adjuvant trastuzumab is likely to generate net societal economic benefits in Singapore. Nevertheless, the lower range of possible outcomes does not refute the possibility that treatment may actually generate costs. These costs however clearly fall within the usual range of acceptable cost-effectiveness. PMID:21586176

  15. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning. Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250 PMID:24496244

  16. Cost effectiveness and budgetary impact of the Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for societal participation in people with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Sarita A; Swildens, Wilma E; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Stant, A Dennis; Feenstra, Talitha L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-09-15

    People with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) frequently experience problems with regard to societal participation (i.e. work, education and daily activities outside the home), and require professional support in this area. The Boston University approach to Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) is a comprehensive methodology that can offer this type of support. To date, several Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT's) investigating the effectiveness of BPR have yielded positive outcomes with regard to societal participation. However, information about the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of the methodology, which may be important for broader dissemination of the approach, is lacking. BPR may be more cost effective than Care As Usual (CAU) because an increase in participation and independence may reduce the costs to society. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate, from a societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness of BPR for people with SMI who wish to increase their societal participation. In addition, the budget impact of implementing BPR in the Dutch healthcare setting will be assessed by means of a budget impact analysis (BIA) after completion of the trial. In a multisite RCT, 225 adults (18-64 years of age) with SMI will be randomly allocated to the experimental (BPR) or the control condition (CAU). Additionally, a pilot study will be conducted with a group of 25 patients with severe and enduring eating disorders. All participants will be offered support aimed at personal rehabilitation goals, and will be monitored over a period of a year. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months after enrolment. Based on trial results, further analyses will be performed to assess cost-effectiveness and the budgetary impact of implementation scenarios. The trial results will provide insight into the cost-effectiveness of BPR in supporting people with SMI who would like to increase their level of societal participation. These results can be used to make

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of inactivated virosomal subunit influenza vaccination in children aged 3-14 years from the provider and societal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Navas, E; Salleras, L; Domínguez, A; Ibáñez, D; Prat, A; Sentís, J; Garrido, P

    2007-04-20

    The costs and benefits of vaccinating a theoretical cohort of 1000 preschool and school age children (3-14 years) with one dose of inactivated virosomal subunit influenza vaccine in primary health care centers of the Catalan Health Service during the fall annual health examination were compared with the current strategy of no routine vaccination. The economic analysis was carried out from the provider perspective (cost-effectiveness analysis) and from the societal perspective (cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis). The time horizon of the study was established at 6 months. In the base case (cost of vaccination of euro 9.425, cost of paediatric visit plus antibiotic and antipyretic treatment of euro 42.50, cost of 1 day of hospital stay of euro 454.25, cost of the work lost by the mother to take care of her ill child of euro 29.2 and cost of 1 year of quality adjusted life year lost of euro 10,662), the vaccination does not save money from the provider perspective (net present value=euro-1460.51), but the cost-effectiveness ratios are very reasonable (euro 5.80 per episode of acute febrile respiratory process avoided and euro 18.26 per quality adjusted life year saved). From the societal perspective, the vaccination saves money (net present value=euro+7587.03) and the benefit-cost ratio is 1.80, meaning that euro 0.80 is saved per euro invested. Our study shows that vaccination of children 3-14 years old with a single dose of inactivated subunit influenza vaccine in primary health care centers during the fall annual health examination provides socioeconomic benefits to the society in addition to substantial health benefits for the child.

  18. Estimating the cost of cholera-vaccine delivery from the societal point of view: A case of introduction of cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Jahangir A M

    2015-09-11

    Cholera is a major global public health problem that causes both epidemic and endemic disease. The World Health Organization recommends oral cholera vaccines as a public health tool in addition to traditional prevention practices and treatments in both epidemic and endemic settings. In many developing countries like Bangladesh, the major issue concerns the affordability of this vaccine. In February 2011, a feasibility study entitled, "Introduction of Cholera Vaccine in Bangladesh (ICVB)", was conducted for a vaccination campaign using inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine (Shanchol) in a high risk area of Mirpur, Dhaka. Empirical data obtained from this trial was used to determine the vaccination cost for a fully immunized person from the societal perspective. A total of 123,661 people were fully vaccinated receiving two doses of the vaccine, while 18,178 people received one dose of the same vaccine. The total cost for vaccine delivery was US$ 492,238 giving a total vaccination cost per fully-vaccinated individual of US$ 3.98. The purchase cost of the vaccine accounted for 58% of the overall cost of vaccination. Attempts to reduce the per-dose cost of the vaccine are likely to have a large impact on the cost of similar vaccination campaigns in the future.

  19. Management patterns and health care use after intracerebral hemorrhage. a cost-of-illness study from a societal perspective in Germany.

    PubMed

    Weimar, Christian; Weber, Carsten; Wagner, Markus; Busse, Otto; Haberl, Roman Ludwig; Lauterbach, Karl W; Diener, Hans Christoph

    2003-01-01

    The German cost-of-illness study of stroke is a multicenter study in 6 departments of internal medicine, 9 departments of general neurology and 15 departments of neurology with an acute stroke unit. The aims of this study are to describe the management patterns, cost of treatment and overall resource utilization after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) as well as the major differences to ischemic stroke (IS). During a 12-month period, 30 participating centers with a special interest in stroke prospectively included 586 patients with ICH which were collected in a joint data bank. About 75% of all patients could be centrally followed up via structured telephone interviews after 3 and 12 months to assess further acute hospital and rehabilitation stays, outpatient resource utilization, functional outcome and quality of life. Mortality after 3 months (33.5%) was markedly higher than in patients with IS from the same hospitals. Accordingly, only 30.9% of patients had regained independent functional status after 3 months. Cumulative cost of treatment amounted to 5301 EUR for inpatient stay in the documenting hospital and 8920 EUR for the overall hospital stay including rehabilitation. Mean direct cost after discharge during the first year amounted to 4598 EUR and the loss of work force was equivalent to 5537 EUR in all surviving patients. This study provides a comprehensive overview of patient characteristics, treatment strategies and health care cost of ICH from a societal perspective in Germany. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. The impact of non-adherence to medication in patients with schizophrenia on health, social care and societal costs. Analysis of the QUATRO study.

    PubMed

    King, D; Knapp, M; Patel, A; Amaddeo, F; Tansella, M; Schene, A; Koeter, M; Angermeyer, M; Becker, T

    2014-03-01

    Aims. For people with schizophrenia, non-adherence to antipsychotic medications may result in high use of health and other services. The objective of our research was to examine the economic consequences of non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic medication. Methods. Data were taken from QUATRO, a randomized controlled trial that drew a sample of adults with schizophrenia receiving psychiatric services in four European cities: Amsterdam, Leipzig, London and Verona. Trial inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, requiring on-going antipsychotic medication for at least 1-year following baseline assessment, and exhibiting evidence of clinical instability in the year prior to baseline. The patient-completed Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to calculate the 5-point Morisky index of adherence. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed to determine the effect of adherence on (i) health and social care and (ii) societal costs before and after treatment, taking into account other potential cost-influencing factors. Results. The effect of non-adherence on costs was mixed. For different groups of services, and according to treatment group assignment, non-adherence was both negatively and positively associated with costs. Conclusions. The impact of non-adherence on costs varies across the types of services used by individuals with schizophrenia.

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Two Forms of Case Management Compared to a Control Group for Persons with Dementia and Their Informal Caregivers from a Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eekhout, Iris; Joling, Karlijn J.; van Mierlo, Lisa D.; Meiland, Franka J. M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article was to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two most prominent types of case management in the Netherlands (intensive case management and linkage models) against no access to case management (control group) for people with already diagnosed dementia and their informal caregivers. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted from a societal perspective embedded within a two year prospective, observational, controlled, cohort study with 521 informal caregivers and community-dwelling persons with dementia. Case management provided within one care organization (intensive case management model, ICMM), case management where care was provided by different care organizations within one region (Linkage model, LM), and a group with no access to case management (control) were compared. The economic evaluation related incremental costs to incremental effects regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), psychological health of the informal caregiver (GHQ-12), and quality adjusted life years (QALY) of the person with dementia and informal caregiver. Results Inverse-propensity-score-weighted models showed no significant differences in clinical or total cost outcomes between the three groups. Informal care costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to both other groups. Day center costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to the control group. For all outcomes, the probability that the ICMM was cost-effective in comparison with LM and the control group was larger than 0.97 at a threshold ratio of 0 €/incremental unit of effect. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the ICMM is cost-effective compared to the control group and the LM. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution since this study was not a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27655234

  2. Societal cost-effectiveness analysis of the 21-gene assay in estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative early-stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hideko; Nakagawa, Chizuko; Yamashige, Shinji; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hayashi, Naoki; Hornberger, John; Yu, Tiffany; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Nakamura, Seigo

    2014-09-05

    Breast-cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing in Japan. Japanese-specific clinical validity and utility data for the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX® Breast Cancer Assay; Genomic Health, Inc., Redwood City, USA) are now available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 21-gene assay for the guidance of adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative, early-stage breast cancer patients, from the Japanese societal perspective. The recurrence risk group distribution by the 21-gene assay result and the assay's influence on adjuvant chemotherapy recommendations were obtained from a study of 104 patients. A state-transition cohort (Markov) model tracked time from surgery until distant recurrence and from distant recurrence to death. Adjuvant chemotherapy benefit by 21-gene assay risk group was based on published clinical validation studies. Direct and indirect medical costs were obtained from the referral centers. Utilities associated with progression and chemotherapy-related adverse events were extracted from literature. Sensitivity analyses assessed the key drivers and robustness of the primary outcomes. The 21-gene assay identified 48% of patients as low-risk, 36% as intermediate-risk, and 16% as high-risk. Total acute chemotherapy-related costs decreased by ¥154,066 due to less adjuvant chemotherapy usage. In the high-risk group, adjuvant chemotherapy use increased 18%, leading to survival benefits. Chemotherapy use overall decreased by 19%. Monitoring costs increased by ¥3,744 but recurrence costs declined by ¥46,113 per patient. Use of the 21-gene assay increased quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) by 0.241 per patient on average; the net cost per QALY gained was ¥636,752 ($6,368). The 21-gene assay for women with estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative, early-stage breast cancer is projected to be cost-effective in Japan.

  3. The Cost Effectiveness of Nalmefene for Reduction of Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with High or Very High Drinking-Risk Levels from a UK Societal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Bell, Melissa; Irving, Adam H; Laramée, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate costs and health outcomes of nalmefene plus psychosocial support, compared with psychosocial intervention alone, for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients, specifically focusing on societal costs related to productivity losses and crime. A Markov model was constructed to model costs and health outcomes of the treatments over 5 years. Analyses were conducted for nalmefene's licensed population: adults with both alcohol dependence and high or very high drinking-risk levels (DRLs) who do not require immediate detoxification and who have high or very high DRLs after initial assessment. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained as assessed from a UK societal perspective. Alcohol-attributable productivity loss, crime and health events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption were taken from published risk-relation studies. Health-related and societal costs were drawn from public data and the literature. Data on the treatment effect, as well as baseline characteristics of the modelled population and utilities, came from three pivotal phase 3 trials of nalmefene. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support was dominant compared with psychosocial intervention alone, resulting in QALYs gained and reduced societal costs. Sensitivity analyses showed that this conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to per-patient reduced costs of £3324 and £2483, due to reduced productivity losses and crime events, respectively. Nalmefene is cost effective from a UK societal perspective, resulting in greater QALY gains and lower costs compared with psychosocial support alone. Nalmefene demonstrates considerable public benefits by reducing alcohol-attributable productivity losses and crime events in adults with both alcohol dependence and high or very high DRLs who do not require immediate detoxification and who have high or very high DRLs after initial assessment.

  4. Societal Implications of Health Insurance Coverage for Medically Necessary Services in the U.S. Transgender Population: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Padula, William V; Heru, Shiona; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission (GIC) prioritized research on the implications of a clause expressly prohibiting the denial of health insurance coverage for transgender-related services. These medically necessary services include primary and preventive care as well as transitional therapy. To analyze the cost-effectiveness of insurance coverage for medically necessary transgender-related services. Markov model with 5- and 10-year time horizons from a U.S. societal perspective, discounted at 3% (USD 2013). Data on outcomes were abstracted from the 2011 National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS). U.S. transgender population starting before transitional therapy. No health benefits compared to health insurance coverage for medically necessary services. This coverage can lead to hormone replacement therapy, sex reassignment surgery, or both. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for successful transition or negative outcomes (e.g. HIV, depression, suicidality, drug abuse, mortality) dependent on insurance coverage or no health benefit at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Budget impact interpreted as the U.S. per-member-per-month cost. Compared to no health benefits for transgender patients ($23,619; 6.49 QALYs), insurance coverage for medically necessary services came at a greater cost and effectiveness ($31,816; 7.37 QALYs), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $9314/QALY. The budget impact of this coverage is approximately $0.016 per member per month. Although the cost for transitions is $10,000-22,000 and the cost of provider coverage is $2175/year, these additional expenses hold good value for reducing the risk of negative endpoints--HIV, depression, suicidality, and drug abuse. Results were robust to uncertainty. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that provider coverage was cost-effective in 85% of simulations. Health insurance coverage for the U.S. transgender population is affordable

  5. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    PubMed

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-09-15

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Societal costs of exposure to toxic substances: economic and health costs of four case studies that are candidates for environmental causation.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, T; Zegarac, M

    2001-01-01

    Four outcomes that evidence suggests are candidates for "environmental causation" were chosen for analysis: diabetes, Parkinson's disease (PD), neurodevelopmental effects and hypothyroidism, and deficits in intelligence quotient (IQ). These are an enormous burden in the United States, Canada, and other industrial countries. We review findings on actual social and economic costs, construct estimates of some of the costs from pertinent sources, and provide several hypothetical examples consistent with published evidence. Many detailed costs are estimated, but these are fragmented and missing in coverage and jurisdiction. Nonetheless, the cumulative costs identified are very large, totaling $568 billion to $793 billion per year for Canada and the United States combined. Partial Canadian costs alone are $46 billion to $52 billion per year. Specifics include diabetes (United States and Canada), $128 billion per year; PD in the United States, $13 billion to $28.5 billion per year; neurodevelopmental deficits and hypothryoidism are endemic and, including estimates of costs of childhood disorders that evidence suggests are linked, amount to $81.5 billion to $167 billion per year for the United States and $2 billion per year in Ontario; loss of 5 IQ points cost $30 billion per year in Canada and $275 billion to $326 billion per year in the United States; and hypothetical dynamic economic impacts cost another $19 billion to $92 billion per year for the United States and Canada combined. Reasoned arguments based on the weight of evidence can support the hypothesis that at least 10%, up to 50% of these costs are environmentally induced--between $57 billion and $397 billion per year. PMID:11744507

  7. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  8. Societal assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

  9. The Role of Vitality in the Relationship Between a Healthy Lifestyle and Societal Costs of Health Care and Lost Productivity: A Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, L; van Dongen, J M; Hildebrandt, V H; Strijk, J E

    2016-07-01

    To examine the mediating effect of vitality in the relationship between healthy lifestyle characteristics and health-care and productivity-related costs. Observational prospective cohort study with 2 measurements. Online questionnaires were filled out in 2013 (T0) and 2014 (T1). A random sample of a Dutch online interview panel was obtained. Data of 4231 Dutch adults who had complete data at T0 and T1 were used in the present study. Participants were representative for the Dutch adult population in terms of age, gender, and having chronic disease(s). Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI), vitality, and health-care and productivity-related costs. The HLI consisted of the sum of 6 healthy lifestyle characteristics, including a healthy BMI (yes/no), meeting physical activity, fruit, vegetable, and alcohol consumption guidelines (yes/no), and smoking status (yes: non or former smoker/no: current smoker). Health-care and productivity-related costs were measured using a utilization questionnaire. Linear regression analysis. The HLI was related to vitality. In addition, vitality was related to health-care costs and productivity-related costs. Furthermore, vitality was found to transmit 28.4% of the effect of HLI on health-care costs and 39.4% of the effect of HLI on productivity-related costs. Lifestyle was related to vitality and vitality to health-care and productivity-related costs. Vitality mediated the relationship between lifestyle and health-care and productivity-related costs. Therefore, we recommend to sustain and improve both vitality and lifestyle. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled--a multi-methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs.

    PubMed

    Bylund, P-O; Wretstrand, A; Falkmer, T; Lövgren, A; Petzäll, J

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has shown that elderly and disabled travelers using Special Transportation Services (STS) are injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate the true costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards an incident/traveler-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was thus to utilize such a perspective, in order to make a best estimation of the true costs for injury incidents, related to STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed-method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research methods applied on four different sets of data, the hospital-based material (n=32), two sets of STS material (n=127), and interview-based material (n=1,000). The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e., 3.2 per 100,000 trips (ranging from 1.5-1.9 in STS taxis and 3.6-5.6 in STS special vehicles). However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic crashes, but to non-collision injury incidents involving elderly and frail passengers, easily sustaining injuries from minor to moderate external violence. Typically, this violence is affecting an older female STS user, while entering and exiting the vehicle. The true costs were estimated to be $35 million per annum or $2.6 per trip. Future injury prevention measures should thus focus on safety in entering and exiting procedures.

  11. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of G5 Mobile continuous glucose monitoring device compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose alone for people with type 1 diabetes from the Canadian societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaugule, Shraddha; Graham, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) alone in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDI) from the Canadian societal perspective. The IMS CORE Diabetes Model (v.9.0) was used to assess the long-term (50 years) cost-effectiveness of real-time CGM (G5 Mobile CGM System; Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) compared with SMBG alone for a cohort of adults with poorly-controlled T1DM. Treatment effects and baseline characteristics of patients were derived from the DIAMOND randomized controlled clinical trial; all other assumptions and costs were sourced from published research. The accuracy and clinical effectiveness of G5 Mobile CGM is the same as the G4 Platinum CGM used in the DIAMOND randomized clinical trial. Base case assumptions included (a) baseline HbA1c of 8.6%, (b) change in HbA1c of -1.0% for CGM users vs -0.4% for SMBG users, and (c) disutilities of -0.0142 for non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) and severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) not requiring medical intervention, and -0.047 for SHEs requiring medical resources. Treatment costs and outcomes were discounted at 1.5% per year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case G5 Mobile CGM vs SMBG was $33,789 CAD/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Sensitivity analyses showed that base case results were most sensitive to changes in percentage reduction in hypoglycemic events and disutilities associated with hypoglycemic events. The base case results were minimally impacted by changes in baseline HbA1c level, incorporation of indirect costs, changes in the discount rate, and baseline utility of patients. The results of this analysis demonstrate that G5 Mobile CGM is cost-effective within the population of adults with T1DM using MDI, assuming a Canadian willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 CAD per QALY.

  13. The societal impact value of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ``de facto`` risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 {times} 10{sup 7}) NR{sub i}{sup 4/3} where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity.

  14. Effects of nurse-led motivational interviewing of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in preparation of rehabilitation treatment (PREPARE) on societal participation, attendance level, and cost-effectiveness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence and drop-out are major problems in pain rehabilitation. For patients with various health problems, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising effects to tackle these problems. In chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of MI is however unknown. Therefore, a MI-based pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) addressing motivation, expectations, and beliefs has been developed to prepare eligible patients for rehabilitation treatment. Methods/design Study design: A parallel randomized controlled trial including two interventions: a motivational interviewing pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) and a usual care (UC) control arm. Follow-up will be 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Study population: One hundred and sixty (n = 80 per arm) patients with chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain visiting an outpatient rehabilitation department, who are eligible to participate in an outpatient cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation program. Intervention: MIP consists of two sessions to prepare and motivate the patient for pain rehabilitation treatment and its bio psychosocial approach. UC consists of information and education about the etiology and the general rehabilitation approach of chronic pain. Both the MIP and UC contain two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. Objective: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MIP compared to UC in terms of an increase in the long-term level of societal participation and decrease of drop-out during rehabilitation treatment. Main study endpoints: Primary outcome is the change in level of participation (according to the ICF-definition: ‘involvement in a life situation’) 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Secondary outcomes are adherence and treatment drop-out, disability, pain intensity, self-reported main complaints, (pain-specific) self-efficacy, motivation, and quality of life. Costs are calculated including the costs

  15. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R&D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about 30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about 23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about 50 million (of which NSF awards about 30 million and EPA about 6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  16. Societal Development and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the theories of three major writers on societal change: Chirot discusses the economic power struggles within and among core, peripheral, and semiperipheral societies, Toffler exposes a future in which major power shifts could have cataclysmic results, and Bruner emphasizes the importance of education to temper…

  17. Medical Education and Societal Expectations: Conflicts at the Clinical Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeway, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Three factors that will have major effects on the medical cost quality debate are: industrial and governmental policy in regard to health-related expenditures, an aging population, and societal attitudes towards competition in the health care system. Approaches to conflict resolution are offered. (MLW)

  18. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  19. Economic and societal dimensions of nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    te Kulve, Haico; Rip, Arie

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery systems which are expected to have significant impacts for health care. The economic and societal aspects are uncertain, even ambiguous, at this stage of development, and often not addressed, or only as part of the promises about present options. In our review we will report on assessments of actors regarding economic and societal aspects and, occasionally, of expected impacts. Topics discussed include: present and future markets of nano-enabled drug delivery, industry dynamics, regulation, cost-effectiveness, and broader ethical issues. We also include a brief discussion of anticipatory activities of actors who are concerned about these aspects. Performance of nano-enabled drug delivery, a necessary step to have future impacts at all, needs to be improved further, and in interaction with demands of users along the product value chain and with further stakeholder such as regulatory agencies and health insurers. When supported by analysis of societal embedding of new products and scenarios, this allows relevant societal and economic aspects to be taken into account at an early stage. A key issue in realizing impacts will be liability, and roles and responsibilities of technology developers and stakeholders more generally.

  20. Cultural Diversity, Economic Development and Societal Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B.; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V.; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or α diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or β diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on α and β cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic α diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For β diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious β diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability. PMID:17895970

  1. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  2. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  3. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed.

  4. Societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie W.; Mundzir, Ibnu; Patt, Anthony; Rosemary, Rizanna; Safrina, Lely; Mahdi, Saiful; Daly, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties in forecasting extreme events force an unavoidable tradeoff between false alarms and misses. The appropriate balance depends on the level of societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuations, but there has been little empirical research on this. Intuitively it may seem that an unnecessary evacuation would make people less likely to evacuate again in the future, but our study finds no support for this intuition. Using new quantitative (n=800) and qualitative evidence, we examine individual- and household-level evacuation decisions in response to the strong 11-Apr-2012 earthquake in Aceh, Indonesia. This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. In our sample, the vast majority of people (86%) evacuated in the 2012 earthquake, and nearly all (94%) say they would evacuate again if a similar earthquake happened in the future. Self-reported level of fear at the moment of the 2012 earthquake explains more of the variance in evacuation decisions and intentions than does a combination of perceived tsunami risk and perceived efficacy of evacuation modeled on protection motivation theory. These findings suggest that the appropriate balance between false alarms and misses may be highly context-specific. Investigating this in each context would make an important contribution to the effectiveness of early-warning systems.

  5. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    2011-08-01

    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  6. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Commentary: Societal Technology: A New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, John P.

    1980-01-01

    The role of technology throughout history and its relationship to science is discussed. The new frontier of societal technology is considered in terms of human behavior and misbehavior in the face of conflict. (SA)

  8. Commentary: Societal Technology: A New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, John P.

    1980-01-01

    The role of technology throughout history and its relationship to science is discussed. The new frontier of societal technology is considered in terms of human behavior and misbehavior in the face of conflict. (SA)

  9. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  10. Is the Societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2015-01-01

    Problem Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. Method This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003–2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. Results During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. Discussion The societal costs—total, mean, and median costs—of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. Impact on Industry To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector

  11. Societal Impacts of Climate Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Direct economic losses from weather and climate-sensitive perils in the US are on the rise averaging more than $10billion annually during the past 50 years, a very conservative estimate. Starting in the 1990s and continuing today, crop and property losses from climate extremes are escalating, especially those related to hurricanes/ tropical storms and floods. The pattern for hazard-related mortality is less clear. However, as the US lacks a comprehensive inventory or database of natural hazard losses, these figures are rough estimates. This paper examines the temporal and spatial pattern of losses from climate-sensitive hazards for the US over the past fifty years. It illustrates that how and what you measure matters in the loss calculus (dollars or deaths, insured versus uninsured losses, impacts, or costs, or extreme versus non extreme events). The paper also examines the geographic variability in losses and the differential burdens of climate hazard losses on people and places in the U.S. The paper concludes with two questions: How can the nation reduce losses from climate-sensitive hazards when we don't know how much and where such losses occur? Furthermore, how can policy makers and practitioners assess the effectiveness of any hazard or disaster risk reduction policy when we lack the fundamental baseline of losses against which to measure progress?

  12. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies-converging societal response research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  13. Minority Group Identification and Societal Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Donald L.

    Strong positive identification with a specific group is potentially both functional and dysfunctional for the solidarity of an encompassing larger social system. The impact of strong ethnic group identification upon societal integration is here explored by analyzing data obtained from 515 Negroes as part of the Cornell Studies in Intergroup…

  14. From Burdens to Benefits: The Societal Impact of PDL-Enriched, Efficacy-Enhanced Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Rosenlund, David; Copas, Aimee; Huddleston, T. Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Societies continue to absorb increased burdens in cost for helping citizens unable to achieve at optimal levels. Building on past research, we project educational benefits to offset current societal burdens through enhanced educator capabilities. Studies reviewed show participation in a high-impact professional development and learning solution…

  15. Under diagnosis of adult ADHD: cultural influences and societal burden.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Akehurst, Ron; Kooij, J J Sandra; Huss, Michael; Beusterien, Kathleen; Sasané, Rahul; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Hodgkins, Paul

    2012-07-01

    To explore the literature focusing on cultural influences in the diagnosis of adult ADHD and respective societal burden. A review of the literature over the past 10 years was performed using OVID. Although numerous articles focused on diagnosis and burden of adult ADHD, few focused on cultural factors influencing diagnosis. Like other mental health disorders, cultural and social perspectives contribute to our understanding of adult ADHD and may play a significant role in the diagnosis and varying acceptance of the condition. Moreover, adults with ADHD may underestimate the impact of ADHD symptoms, and in many cases have learned to compensate for ADHD related impairments by choosing lifestyles that help compensate for symptoms. Some adults with ADHD may appear to function well, however they may expend excessive amounts of energy to overcome impairments; and they may be distressed by ongoing symptoms such as restlessness, mood instability and low self-esteem. Research shows that ADHD can be detrimental to many areas of life including work, daily activities, social and family relationships and psychological and physical well-being. Patient-reported impairments in productivity due to poor time management, procrastination, and distractibility can translate into significant indirect costs and decreased quality of life. ADHD in adults is also associated with increased accidents, medical resource utilization, antisocial behaviour and drug alcohol abuse. The substantial societal burden of adult ADHD highlights the importance of providing a better understanding of the factors that contribute to accurate diagnosis and of improving the low recognition of the disorder in many world regions.

  16. Societal Literacy and the Status of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.; Kezis, Mindy

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of status of the aged to societal literacy in a sample of 122 cultures appears spurious because of effects of variables indexing societal complexity. Conclusions are: societal literacy has no independent effect on status of the aged; and the overall relationship between the two appears curvilinear. (Author)

  17. Systemic vasculitis: how little we know about their societal and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Baldini, Chiara; Talarico, Rosaria; D'Angiolella, Lucia; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to perform an evaluation of the state of the art of the economic and societal burden of systemic vasculitis (VAs). Due to the rarity of these diseases and their variable clinical picture, few data are available in the literature on their health economic issues, and only some papers have been published that marginally examine the problem. Since VAs are severe conditions with a high medical and societal impact and determine high healthcare resource consumption, studies able to define societal, quality of life and economic burden of these pathologies are needed. Policy makers, private and public organisations involved in the care of VAs need data to programme future investment or make cost-effectiveness analysis for introducing new drugs or protocols.

  18. Societal Impacts of Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J. L.

    2000-05-01

    Changes in solar electromagnetic radiation, which occur continuously and at all wavelengths of the spectrum, can have significant societal impacts on a wide range of time scales. Detection of climate change and ozone depletion requires reliable specification of solar-induced processes that mask or exacerbate anthropogenic effects. Living with, and mitigating, climate change and ozone depletion has significant economic, habitat and political impacts of international extent. As an example, taxes to restrict carbon emission may cause undue economic stress if the role of greenhouse gases in global warming is incorrectly diagnosed. Ignoring solar-induced ozone changes in the next century may lead to incorrect assessment of the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer by limiting the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Societal infrastructure depends in many ways on space-based technological assets. Communications and navigation for commerce, industry, science and defense rely on satellite signals transmitted through, and reflected by, electrons in the ionosphere. Electron densities change in response to solar flares, and by orders of magnitude in response to EUV and X-ray flux variations during the Sun's 11-year activity cycle. Spacecraft and space debris experience enhanced drag on their orbits when changing EUV radiation causes upper atmosphere densities to increase. Especially affected are spacecraft and debris in lower altitude orbits, such as Iridium-type communication satellites, and the International Space Station (ISS). Proper specification of solar-induced fluctuations in the neutral upper atmosphere can, for example, aid in tracking the ISS and surrounding space debris, reducing the chance of ISS damage from collisions, and maximizing its operations. Aspects of solar electromagnetic radiation variability will be briefly illustrated on a range of time scales, with specific identification of the societal impacts of different

  19. Adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.

  20. Making a case for employing a societal perspective in the evaluation of Medicaid prescription drug interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanjoy; Madhavan, S Suresh

    2008-01-01

    The choice of a perspective is among the most critical influences of the potential outcome of an economic evaluation, since it determines whose interest is relevant in any given analysis. For publicly funded programmes such as Medicaid, and now Medicare, it is important that economic evaluations are undertaken from a societal perspective because such evaluations inform decisions about allocation of healthcare resources. It has been argued that approaches other than the societal perspective selectively include specific costs, while ignoring other costs that are very much more 'real', and hence lack theoretical foundation in welfare economics. In view of the importance of perspectives in economic evaluations, this paper reviews 25 existing reports of economic evaluations of interventions involving prescription drugs in the Medicaid programme to examine the perspectives employed in such evaluations, based on the specific cost and benefit measurements. No explicit statement of the perspective employed was included in any of the articles selected for this review. Based on an analysis of the cost measures, none of the studies were found to have adopted a societal perspective in their evaluation. Most studies were from the perspective of Medicaid as the payer and as such did not include costs and benefits from outside the Medicaid system. Ten of the identified evaluations of interventions focused just on costs related to prescription drugs. Six studies included an evaluation of the impact of the intervention on overall programme costs along with the costs of prescription drugs. The nine remaining evaluations employed a broader approach to include related effects of the drug-benefit intervention on costs and utilization of other healthcare services such as physician, outpatient and inpatient services. This review emphasizes the importance of a societal approach in evaluating the effects of interventions in Medicaid and other publicly funded drug benefit programmes

  1. Multinational investigation of cross-societal cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dorrough, Angela Rachael; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-09-27

    In a globalized world, establishing successful cooperation between people from different nations is becoming increasingly important. We present results from a comprehensive investigation of cross-societal cooperation in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas involving population-representative samples from six countries and identify crucial facilitators of and obstacles to cooperation. In interactions involving mutual knowledge about only the other players' nationalities, we demonstrate that people hold strong and transnationally shared expectations (i.e., stereotypes) concerning the cooperation level of interaction partners from other countries. These expectations are the strongest determinants of participant cooperation. Paradoxically, however, they turn out to be incorrect stereotypes that even correlate negatively with reality. In addition to erroneous expectations, participants' cooperation behavior is driven by (shared) social preferences that vary according to the interaction partner's nationality. In the cross-societal context, these social preferences are influenced by differences in wealth and ingroup favoritism, as well as effects of specific country combinations but not by spatial distance between nations.

  2. Multinational investigation of cross-societal cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dorrough, Angela Rachael

    2016-01-01

    In a globalized world, establishing successful cooperation between people from different nations is becoming increasingly important. We present results from a comprehensive investigation of cross-societal cooperation in one-shot prisoner’s dilemmas involving population-representative samples from six countries and identify crucial facilitators of and obstacles to cooperation. In interactions involving mutual knowledge about only the other players’ nationalities, we demonstrate that people hold strong and transnationally shared expectations (i.e., stereotypes) concerning the cooperation level of interaction partners from other countries. These expectations are the strongest determinants of participant cooperation. Paradoxically, however, they turn out to be incorrect stereotypes that even correlate negatively with reality. In addition to erroneous expectations, participants’ cooperation behavior is driven by (shared) social preferences that vary according to the interaction partner’s nationality. In the cross-societal context, these social preferences are influenced by differences in wealth and ingroup favoritism, as well as effects of specific country combinations but not by spatial distance between nations. PMID:27621437

  3. Genetic Diversity and Societally Important Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A.; Kang, Jonathan T. L.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of genetic diversity within human populations varies in a way that reflects the sequence of migrations by which people spread throughout the world. Beyond its use in human evolutionary genetics, worldwide variation in genetic diversity sometimes can interact with social processes to produce differences among populations in their relationship to modern societal problems. We review the consequences of genetic diversity differences in the settings of familial identification in forensic genetic testing, match probabilities in bone marrow transplantation, and representation in genome-wide association studies of disease. In each of these three cases, the contribution of genetic diversity to social differences follows from population-genetic principles. For a fourth setting that is not similarly grounded, we reanalyze with expanded genetic data a report that genetic diversity differences influence global patterns of human economic development, finding no support for the claim. The four examples describe a limit to the importance of genetic diversity for explaining societal differences while illustrating a distinction that certain biologically based scenarios do require consideration of genetic diversity for solving problems to which populations have been differentially predisposed by the unique history of human migrations. PMID:26354973

  4. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on patients’ societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Methods Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Results Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants’ age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Conclusions Although patients’ satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients’ economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT. PMID:27275465

  5. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah; Molinari, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Studies on patients' societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants' age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Although patients' satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients' economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT.

  6. Ecological network analysis of China's societal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Li, Yating; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Shengsheng; Yang, Naijin

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled socioeconomic development has strong negative effects on the ecological environment, including pollution and the depletion and waste of natural resources. These serious consequences result from the high flows of materials and energy through a socioeconomic system produced by exchanges between the system and its surroundings, causing the disturbance of metabolic processes. In this paper, we developed an ecological network model for a societal system, and used China in 2006 as a case study to illustrate application of the model. We analyzed China's basic metabolic processes and used ecological network analysis to study the network relationships within the system. Basic components comprised the internal environment, five sectors (agriculture, exploitation, manufacturing, domestic, and recycling), and the external environment. We defined 21 pairs of ecological relationships in China's societal metabolic system (excluding self-mutualism within a component). Using utility and throughflow analysis, we found that exploitation, mutualism, and competition relationships accounted for 76.2, 14.3, and 9.5% of the total relationships, respectively. In our trophic level analysis, the components were divided into producers, consumers, and decomposers according to their positions in the system. Our analyses revealed ways to optimize the system's structure and adjust its functions, thereby promoting healthier socioeconomic development, and suggested ways to apply ecological network analysis in future socioeconomic research.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Societally Important Disparities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A; Kang, Jonathan T L

    2015-09-01

    The magnitude of genetic diversity within human populations varies in a way that reflects the sequence of migrations by which people spread throughout the world. Beyond its use in human evolutionary genetics, worldwide variation in genetic diversity sometimes can interact with social processes to produce differences among populations in their relationship to modern societal problems. We review the consequences of genetic diversity differences in the settings of familial identification in forensic genetic testing, match probabilities in bone marrow transplantation, and representation in genome-wide association studies of disease. In each of these three cases, the contribution of genetic diversity to social differences follows from population-genetic principles. For a fourth setting that is not similarly grounded, we reanalyze with expanded genetic data a report that genetic diversity differences influence global patterns of human economic development, finding no support for the claim. The four examples describe a limit to the importance of genetic diversity for explaining societal differences while illustrating a distinction that certain biologically based scenarios do require consideration of genetic diversity for solving problems to which populations have been differentially predisposed by the unique history of human migrations. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Presenting evidence and summary measures to best inform societal decisions when comparing multiple strategies.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

    2011-07-01

    Multiple strategy comparisons in health technology assessment (HTA) are becoming increasingly important, with multiple alternative therapeutic actions, combinations of therapies and diagnostic and genetic testing alternatives. Comparison under uncertainty of incremental cost, effects and cost effectiveness across more than two strategies is conceptually and practically very different from that for two strategies, where all evidence can be summarized in a single bivariate distribution on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. Alternative methods for comparing multiple strategies in HTA have been developed in (i) presenting cost and effects on the cost-disutility plane and (ii) summarizing evidence with multiple strategy cost-effectiveness acceptability (CEA) and expected net loss (ENL) curves and frontiers. However, critical questions remain for the analyst and decision maker of how these techniques can be best employed across multiple strategies to (i) inform clinical and cost inference in presenting evidence, and (ii) summarize evidence of cost effectiveness to inform societal reimbursement decisions where preferences may be risk neutral or somewhat risk averse under the Arrow-Lind theorem. We critically consider how evidence across multiple strategies can be best presented and summarized to inform inference and societal reimbursement decisions, given currently available methods. In the process, we make a number of important original findings. First, in presenting evidence for multiple strategies, the joint distribution of costs and effects on the cost-disutility plane with associated flexible comparators varying across replicates for cost and effect axes ensure full cost and effect inference. Such inference is usually confounded on the cost-effectiveness plane with comparison relative to a fixed origin and axes. Second, in summarizing evidence for risk-neutral societal decision making, ENL curves and frontiers are shown to have advantages over the CEA frontier

  9. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  10. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  11. Applications and societal benefits of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

  12. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  13. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  14. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasen, Margaret; Leben, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous twelve-year, high quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2007, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, OSTM, will be launched with the wide-swath ocean altimeter on board. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data has many societal benefits and has proven invaluable in many practical applications including; a) Ocean forecasting systems; b) Climate research and forecasting; c) Ship routing; d) Fisheries management; e) Marine mammal habitat monitoring; f) Hurricane forecasting and tracking; g) Debris tracking; and h) Precision marine operations such as cable-laying and oil production. The data has been cited in nearly 2,000 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  15. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasen, Margaret; Leben, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous twelve-year, high quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2007, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, OSTM, will be launched with the wide-swath ocean altimeter on board. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data has many societal benefits and has proven invaluable in many practical applications including; a) Ocean forecasting systems; b) Climate research and forecasting; c) Ship routing; d) Fisheries management; e) Marine mammal habitat monitoring; f) Hurricane forecasting and tracking; g) Debris tracking; and h) Precision marine operations such as cable-laying and oil production. The data has been cited in nearly 2,000 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  16. The societal burden of blindness secondary to retinopathy of prematurity in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Dave, Hreem B; Gordillo, Luz; Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Monica S; Hubbard, G Baker; Olsen, Timothy W

    2012-10-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Lima, Peru. A cost-of-illness study (in US dollars) to determine the direct cost of treatment, the indirect lifetime cost of blindness, and the quality-adjusted life years. The direct cost of ROP-related treatment was determined by reviewing data retrospectively from a social security sector hospital. The indirect cost was determined using national economic data of Peru published by the Central Information Agency (CIA), including the per capita gross domestic product, the sex-adjusted income distribution, and years spent in the work force. Indirect costs per child that were avoided by treatment were calculated using the known natural history of ROP vs evidence-based treatment. For ROP-related neonatal blindness in Peru, we estimate the total indirect cost saving at $197,753 per child and the direct cost of laser treatment at $2496 per child. The societal lifetime cost saving per child is estimated at $195,257. The mean annual income per educated adult in Peru is $8000 and treating 1 child is equivalent to employing 24 educated Peruvians per year. The generational cost savings for society is approximately $516 million, or the equivalent of 64,500 educated Peruvian work years. The societal burden of blindness far exceeds the costs of treatment per child. Proper screening and treatment of ROP prevents blindness and leads to substantial cost savings for society. Public health policy in Peru and other middle-income countries should consider financial impact when allocating healthcare resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking soil systems to societal value systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Katharina; Daedlow, Katrin; Techen, Anja; Kaiser, David Brian

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable management of soils is needed to avoid soil degradation and to maintain soil functions. This requires the assessment of how human activities drive soil management, how soil management affect soil functions and soil degradation, which trade-offs occur and how they compromise sustainable development targets. In the frame of the German research programme "Soils as a sustainable resource for the bio-economy - BonaRes", we developed an enhanced approach of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impact-response) cycle which helps to assess these interrelations. Because not all soil functions can be maximized simultaneously in space and time and trade-offs are inevitable, it depends on the societal value system to decide which management practices and respective soil functional performances are valued sustainably. We analysed the applicability of three valuation concepts being prominent in research about social-ecological systems, namely resource efficiency, ecosystem services, and ethics and equity. The concept of resource efficiency is based in the life-cycle thinking and is often applied at the level of the farming systems and in the context of bio-economy strategies. It covers the use of natural (water, energy, nutrients, land) and economic resources. At the landscape level, the concept of ecosystem services is prominent. Here, the contribution of soils to the provisioning, regulating and cultural services of the natural ecosystems is considered. Ethical considerations include the intrinsic values of nature as well as issues of local and global equity between different societal groups, generations, and localities. The three concepts cover different problem dimensions and complexity levels of soil management and decision making. Alone, none of them are capable to discover complex questions of sustainable soil management and development. Rather, the exact spatial and temporal framing of the sustainability problem at stake determines which combination of the value

  18. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  19. Future societal issues in industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schuurbiers, Daan; Osseweijer, Patricia; Kinderlerer, Julian

    2007-09-01

    Three international stakeholder meetings were organized by The Netherlands-based "Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation" with the objective to identify the future societal issues in the field of industrial biotechnology and to develop a coordinated strategy for public dialogue. The meetings resulted in five unanimous recommendations: (i) that science, industry and the European Commission in conjunction with other stakeholders create a comprehensive roadmap towards a bio-based economy; (ii) that the European Commission initiate a series of round-table meetings to further articulate the views, interests and responsibilities of the relevant stakeholders and to define policy; (iii) that the development of new innovative communication activities is stimulated to increase public engagement and to discuss the ways that we do or do not want technologies to shape our common future; (iv) that further social studies are undertaken on public attitudes and behaviors to the bio-based economy and that novel methods are developed to assess public views of future technological developments; and (v) that the concept of sustainability is further operationalized and taken as a core value driving research and development and policy making.

  20. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  1. Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

  2. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  3. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  4. Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Andrew P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2017-01-01

    Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of ‘contexts’, including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences. The goal of this special issue, and this introductory paper, is to promote and expand this nascent integration. We first develop predictions as to which human contexts might cause the strongest and most consistent directional selection, the greatest changes in evolutionary potential, the greatest genetic (as opposed to plastic) changes and the greatest effects on evolutionary diversification. We then develop predictions as to the contexts where human-induced evolutionary changes might have the strongest effects on the population dynamics of the focal evolving species, the structure of their communities, the functions of their ecosystems and the benefits and costs for human societies. These qualitative predictions are intended as a rallying point for broader and more detailed future discussions of how human influences shape evolution, and how that evolution then influences species traits, biodiversity, ecosystems and humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences’. PMID:27920373

  5. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  6. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  7. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  8. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  9. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    PubMed

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  10. Societal issues as Mars mission impediments: planetary protection and contamination concerns.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1995-03-01

    Societal and non-scientific factors represent potentially significant impediments for future Mars missions, especially in areas involving planetary protection. This paper analyzes public concerns about forward contamination to Mars and back contamination to Earth, evaluates major areas where lack of information may lead to uncontrollable impacts on future missions, and concludes that NASA should adopt a strategy that actively plans both the generation and subsequent management of planetary protection information to ensure that key audiences obtain needed information in a timely manner. Delay or avoidance in dealing with societal issues early in mission planning will increase the likelihood of public opposition, cost increases and missed launch windows. While this analysis of social and non-scientific considerations focuses on future Mars missions, the findings are also relevant for RTG launches, nuclear propulsion and other NASA activities perceived to have health, safety or environmental implications.

  11. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

  12. Eliciting societal preferences of reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun-Hong; Park, Sun-Kyeong; Byun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2017-08-01

    In order to look beyond the cost-effectiveness analysis, this study used a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), which reflects societal values with regard to reimbursement decisions. This study aims to elicit societal preferences of the reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs from public and healthcare professionals. Eight criteria were defined based on a literature review and focus group sessions: disease severity, disease population size, pediatrics targets, unmet needs, innovation, clinical benefits, cost-effectiveness, and budget impacts. Using quota sampling and purposive sampling, 300 participants from the Korean public and 30 healthcare professionals were selected for the survey. Preferences were elicited using an analytic hierarchy process. Both groups rated clinical benefits the highest, followed by cost-effectiveness and disease severity, but differed with regard to disease population size and unmet needs. Innovation was the least preferred criteria. Clinical benefits and other social values should be reflected appropriately with cost-effectiveness in healthcare coverage. MCDA can be used to assess decision priorities for complicated health policy decisions, including reimbursement decisions. It is a promising method for making logical and transparent drug reimbursement decisions that consider a broad range of factors, which are perceived as important by relevant stakeholders.

  13. A note on the depreciation of the societal perspective in economic evaluation of health care.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, M

    1995-07-01

    It is common in cost-effectiveness analyses of health care to only include health care costs, with the argument that some fictive 'health care budget' should be used to maximize the health effects. This paper provides a criticism of the 'health care budget' approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of health care. It is argued that the approach is ad hoc and lacks theoretical foundation. The approach is also inconsistent with using a fixed budget as the decision rule for cost-effectiveness analysis. That is the case unless only costs that fall into a single annual actual budget are included in the analysis, which would mean that any cost paid by the patients should be excluded as well as any future cost changes and all costs that fall on other budgets. Furthermore the prices facing the budget holder should be used, rather than opportunity costs. It is concluded that the 'health care budget' perspective should be abandoned and the societal perspective reinstated in economic evaluation of health care.

  14. Markets, distribution, and exchange after societal cataclysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, R.A.; Henry, S.; Rayner, S.; Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI . Dept. of Sociology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    The report identifies constraints and opportunities for the restoration of economic exchange following nuclear war. Four survival scenarios are postulated based on high or low levels of damage to (1) institutions that signal trading opportunities, reduce transaction costs, and regulate and enforce contracts, and (2) resources that are used to create and define wealth. The four scenarios are best case, worst case, resource abundance, and an institution intensive case. Three kinds of literature were reviewed, (1) the economics literature on formal markets, (2) the sociological literature on informal markets, and (3) the economic anthropology literature on pre-capitalist and pre-industrial exchange. From this corpus a set of non-market and market exchange structures are derived and rendered as rules vectors describing their operation. Each of the four survival scenarios is expounded as a subset of the possible exchange structures that is logically compatible with the constraints defining that scenario. 242 refs.

  15. Union of Science and Societal Objectives: Why Did CLARREO Resonate with NRC Decadal Survey Priorities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. G.; Dykema, J. A.; Gero, J.; Leroy, S. S.; Revercomb, H. E.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey prioritization process for the Earth sciences involved eight criteria: (1) Contribution to the most important scientific questions facing Earth sciences today (scientific merit, discovery, exploration). (2) Contribution to applications and policy making (societal benefits). (3) Contribution to long-term observational record of the Earth. (4) Ability to complement other observational systems, including national and international plans. (5) Affordability (cost considerations, either total costs for mission or costs per year). (6) Degree of readiness (technical, resources, people). (7) Risk mitigation and strategic redundancy (backup of other critical systems). (8) Significant contribution to more than one thematic application or scientific discipline. CLARREO addresses key societal objectives closely related to key scientific questions that include: (1) the essential responsibility to present and future generations to put in place a benchmark climate record that is global, accurate in perpetuity, tested against independent strategies that reveal systematic errors, and pinned to international standards; (2) the development of an operational climate forecast that is tested and trusted through a disciplined strategy using state-of-the-art observations with mathematically rigorous techniques to systematically improve those forecasts to establish credibility. The means by which these objectives are addressed by CLARREO are presented.

  16. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    PubMed

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Estimating the Societal Benefits of THA After Accounting for Work Status and Productivity: A Markov Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Lane; Zhang, Qian; Austin, Matthew S; Demiralp, Berna; Fehring, Thomas K; Feng, Chaoling; Mather, Richard C; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Saavoss, Asha; Springer, Bryan D; Yates, Adolph J

    2016-12-01

    Demand for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is high and expected to continue to grow during the next decade. Although much of this growth includes working-aged patients, cost-effectiveness studies on THA have not fully incorporated the productivity effects from surgery. We asked: (1) What is the expected effect of THA on patients' employment and earnings? (2) How does accounting for these effects influence the cost-effectiveness of THA relative to nonsurgical treatment? Taking a societal perspective, we used a Markov model to assess the overall cost-effectiveness of THA compared with nonsurgical treatment. We estimated direct medical costs using Medicare claims data and indirect costs (employment status and worker earnings) using regression models and nonparametric simulations. For direct costs, we estimated average spending 1 year before and after surgery. Spending estimates included physician and related services, hospital inpatient and outpatient care, and postacute care. For indirect costs, we estimated the relationship between functional status and productivity, using data from the National Health Interview Survey and regression analysis. Using regression coefficients and patient survey data, we ran a nonparametric simulation to estimate productivity (probability of working multiplied by earnings if working minus the value of missed work days) before and after THA. We used the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry to obtain revision rates because it contained osteoarthritis-specific THA revision rates by age and gender, which were unavailable in other registry reports. Other model assumptions were extracted from a previously published cost-effectiveness analysis that included a comprehensive literature review. We incorporated all parameter estimates into Markov models to assess THA effects on quality-adjusted life years and lifetime costs. We conducted threshold and sensitivity analyses on direct costs, indirect costs, and revision

  18. Measurement of costs.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2008-06-01

    Costing plays an important role in health economics, particularly economic evaluation. However, there are some controversial issues: concepts, methods and reference values. Hence, it is pivotal to standardize can be con costing methods and use these as national guidelines to produce comparable studies. This report is divided perspectives. into 3 parts: theoretical issues, international guidelines comparison, and recommendations for the Thai technology assessment guidelines. Each section is composed of three general costing steps: identification, appropriate, measuring and valuation. It is recommended to measure economic or opportunity cost mainly in societal perspective. Cost category is composed of direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs. The level of reliability of each kind of costing source data is provided. Valuation of resource use based on national government, standard cost menu is recommended for national policy making. The recommendations on cost measurement are appropriate for the Thai context and in the current situation.

  19. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  1. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  2. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating the economic costs and benefits of each

  3. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure StrategyU. S. Ocean Research in 2030

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to

  4. Individual Empowerment. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Marlon; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.

    These student materials are designed to accompany the Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Page numbers are consistent with the numbering in that guide. The guide's nine units deal with the following topics: (1) job acquisition (sources of employment, job application, completing the application form, resume, job interview, follow-up…

  7. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

  8. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  9. Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  10. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  11. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  12. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  13. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  14. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

  15. Individual Empowerment. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Marlon; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  16. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Occupational Orientation. [Revised Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.

    This competency-based instructional guide on the economic and societal factors involved in finding and holding a job was developed for Occupational Orientation programs in Texas with the aim of giving students the practical information and understanding they need to participate successfully in the world of work. It includes nine instructional…

  17. Societal constraints related to environmental remediation and decommissioning programmes.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; Martell, Meritxell; Zeleznik, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-06-20

    The decisions related to decommissioning or environmental remediation projects (D/ER) cannot be isolated from the socio-political and cultural environment. Experiences of the IAEA Member States point out the importance of giving due attention to the societal aspects in project planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: i) to systematically review societal constraints that some organisations in different IAEA Member States encounter when implementing D/ER programmes, ii) to identify different approaches to overcome these constraints and iii) to collect examples of existing practices related to the integration of societal aspects in D/ER programmes worldwide. The research was conducted in the context of the IAEA project Constraints to Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation (CIDER). The research results show that societal constraints arise mostly as a result of the different perceptions, attitudes, opinions and concerns of stakeholders towards the risks and benefits of D/ER programmes and due to the lack of stakeholder involvement in planning. There are different approaches to address these constraints, however all approaches have common points: early involvement, respect for different views, mutual understanding and learning. These results are relevant for all on-going and planned D/ER programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Societal Complexity and Familial Complexity: Evidence for the Curvilinear Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser; Winch, Robert F.

    1972-01-01

    The hypothesis is supported that the most extended, complex familial systems should be found among societies in an intermediate range of societal complexity, particularly among settled agricultural peoples. Among the simple hunting-gathering groups and in modern industrial states is found the nuclear family system: small, independent, nonextended…

  19. Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Spanish Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.; And Others

    This document is the Spanish language version of the student materials component designed to accompany the Economic and Societal Factors Instructional Guide. Page numbers are consistent with the numbering in that guide. The guide's nine units deal with the following topics: (1) job acquisition (sources of employment, job application, completing…

  20. Societal and Professional Forces Affecting Graduate Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskin, Lawrence H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of societal and professional forces on the future of graduate dental education are examined. Some factors analyzed include: professional developments, paraprofessional changes, public initiatives, and government policy and legislation. The creation of a balanced and flexible dental care delivery system is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  1. Societal Boundaries on Cybernetic Action or Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Rosalind; Steg, Doreen E.

    This paper discusses the development, application, and implications of a statistical technique--a concordance index--for measuring the restrictions and constrictions (legal and societal) which inhibit individual decision making and adapting behavior. It was found that as sophistication sets in there will be less and less tolerance of these…

  2. Examining the Societal Impacts of Nanotechnology through Simulation: NANO SCENARIO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth; Toprac, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  3. Teaching about Societal Issues in Science Classrooms. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest reviews information in the science education literature on teaching about societal issues in science classes. Reasons for including a discussion of social issues in science classrooms are given, and instructional approaches for teaching about science and society are presented. Several Internet resources related to teaching about…

  4. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, J. S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  5. Major National Societal Trends Likely to Affect the Marin Community Colleges through the Year 2000. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Nancy E.

    Societal trends likely to affect the Marin Community Colleges (MCC) through the year 2000 are examined in this study of college planning for the next 5 years. Following information on the background, significance, and procedures of the study, a review is presented of six publications, selected for their particular relevance to the community…

  6. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IV: Framework for Societal Structures: the Societal Systems.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a community/society is organized into 13 Societal Systems under the umbrella of an overall Coordination and Control System. This organization facilitates descriptions of a community/society or a component of a community for assessment at any designated time across the Temporal Phases of a disaster. Such assessments provide a picture of the functional status of one or more Systems that comprise a community. Since no system operates in isolation from the other systems, information of the concomitant status of several Societal Systems is crucial to gaining a complete understanding of compromised functions, as well as the effects and side effects of any intervention directed at restoring the functional state of the affected community or risk-reduction interventions of a community-at-risk. The 13 Societal Systems include: (1) Public Health; (2) Medical Care; (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supply; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structures; (9) Logistics and Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12) Economy; and (13) Education. Many functions and sub-functions of the Systems overlap, or share some common sub-functions with other systems. For the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign functions and sub-functions to only one of the Societal Systems.

  7. Hydrogen Vehicles: Impacts of DOE Technical Targets on Market Acceptance and Societal Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Dong, Jing; Greene, David L

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen vehicles (H2V), including H2 internal combustion engine, fuel cell and fuel cell plugin hybrid, could greatly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The U.S. Department of Energy has adopted targets for vehicle component technologies to address key technical barriers towidespread commercialization of H2Vs. This study estimates the market acceptance of H2Vs and the resulting societal benefits and subsidy in 41 scenarios that reflect a wide range of progress in meeting these technical targets. Important results include: (1) H2Vs could reach 20e70% market shares by 2050, depending on progress in achieving the technical targets.With a basic hydrogen infrastructure (w5% hydrogen availability), the H2V market share is estimated to be 2e8%. Fuel cell and hydrogen costs are the most important factors affecting the long-term market shares of H2Vs. (2) Meeting all technical targets on time could result in about an 80% cut in petroleumuse and a 62% (or 72% with aggressive electricity de-carbonization) reduction in GHG in 2050. (3) The required hydrogen infrastructure subsidy is estimated to range from $22 to $47 billion and the vehicle subsidy from $4 to $17 billion. (4) Long-term H2V market shares, societal benefits and hydrogen subsidies appear to be highly robust against delay in one target, if all other targets are met on time. R&D diversification could provide insurance for greater societal benefits. (5) Both H2Vs and plug-in electric vehicles could exceed 50% market shares by 2050, if all targets are met on time. The overlapping technology, the fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, appears attractive both in the short and long runs, but for different reasons.

  8. Costs of caring for children with an intellectual developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Genereaux, Dallas; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Birch, Patricia H

    2015-10-01

    Caring for a child with intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) is expensive for the medical system, for the family, and for society in general. Whereas the health care costs of IDD have been described, the societal and parental costs of IDD have been less well documented. Our goal was to estimate the out-of-pocket costs to parents, and the non-health system costs to society, of raising a child with IDD. We used an online retrospective survey, previously developed by our group, to collect parental and societal costs to families of 80 children who presented with IDD of unknown etiology in British Columbia, Canada. Median annual parental costs of caring for 80 children with IDD was CAD$44,570 (range CAD$2245-$225,777). The largest contributors to parental costs were income loss and caregiving time costs. Median annual societal costs (excluding health system costs) were CAD$27,428 (range CAD$0-$119,188). In school age children, the largest contributor to societal costs was a per child school subsidy. Both parental and societal costs increased with increasing IDD severity. Parental costs were not adequately compensated by government benefits received. Although medical care is universally available through Canadian provincial health systems and social assistance is provided to the families of children with IDD, parents continue to bear a substantial financial burden beyond that associated with raising an unaffected child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  10. Innovative and responsible governance of nanotechnology for societal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roco, Mihail C.; Harthorn, Barbara; Guston, David; Shapira, Philip

    2011-09-01

    Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology, protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for the next decade are presented based on an international study with input from over 35 countries.

  11. Societal attitudes influence performance on the Cognistat Judgment subtest.

    PubMed

    Fouty, H Edward; Guzman, Daniel; Ailes, Erica L; Brown, Katelyn D; Lugar, Samantha D; Briceno, Karen Y; Santiago, Amaris J

    2016-01-01

    The Cognistat is a widely used screening instrument for assessing cognitive functioning. However, the manualized scoring guidelines for one of the questions in the Judgment subtest appear insensitive to responses when examinees answer in light of current societal attitudes. Penalization of examinees is likely to lead to an underestimation of functional ability and a decrease in test validity. Suggestions for correcting this issue are presented.

  12. Client relations in South Asia: programmatic and societal determinants.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R; Koblinsky, M A; Phillips, J F

    1986-01-01

    Client relations constitute a neglected area of research in family planning. Findings from studies in northern India and Bangladesh reveal considerable variation in both the quantity and quality of contacts in programs that function under roughly comparable socioeconomic conditions. Client relations are determined by a complex set of forces in which both programmatic factors and conditions pertaining to the societal environment play a key role. Worker-client exchanges have a net, incremental effect on contraceptive use.

  13. Promoting happiness: the malleability of individual and societal subjective wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Kuykendall, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to enhance the subjective wellbeing of individuals and societies? If so, what are the mental health interventions and economic mechanisms by which subjective wellbeing could be enhanced? We address these questions in our review of the literature on subjective wellbeing. Research now shows that although subjective wellbeing is heritable and stable, it can change substantially over time. Long-term changes can be affected by positive or negative life events; subjective wellbeing interventions have also proved to be effective for boosting wellbeing for as long as six months. At the societal level, economic factors matter for the subjective wellbeing of citizens. Economic wealth is shown to be a predictor of societal wellbeing across countries and over time. Also, high unemployment severely lowers the wellbeing of individuals and has spillover effects on other societal members, such as the employed. Given the weight of evidence, we are optimistic that subjective wellbeing can be enhanced. For practitioners, policy makers, and economists interested in the wellbeing of individuals, we propose that these findings have implications for mental health practice and economic policies. Future research and methodological issues are discussed.

  14. Diabetes in China: a societal solution for a personal challenge.

    PubMed

    Chan, Juliana C N; Zhang, Yuying; Ning, Guang

    2014-12-01

    China has a large burden of diabetes: in 2013, one in four people with diabetes worldwide were in China, where 11·6% of adults had diabetes and 50·1% had prediabetes. Many were undiagnosed, untreated, or uncontrolled. This epidemic is the result of rapid societal transition that has led to an obesogenic environment against a backdrop of traditional lifestyle and periods of famine, which together puts Chinese people at high risk of diabetes and multiple morbidities. Societal determinants including social disparity and psychosocial stress interact with factors such as low-grade infection, environmental pollution, care fragmentation, health illiteracy, suboptimal self-care, and insufficient community support to give rise to diverse subphenotypes and consequences, notably renal dysfunction and cancer. In the China National Plan for Non-Communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment (2012-15), the Chinese Government proposed use of public measures, multisectoral collaborations, and social mobilisation to create a health-enabling environment and to reform the health-care system. While awaiting results from these long-term strategies, we advocate the use of a targeted and proactive approach to identify people at high risk of diabetes for prevention, and of private-public-community partnerships that make integrated care more accessible and sustainable, focusing on registry, empowerment, and community support. The multifaceted nature of the societal and personal challenge of diabetes requires a multidimensional solution for prevention in order to reduce the growing disease burden.

  15. The environmental, economic and societal consequences of inadequate nitrogen pollution controls.

    PubMed

    Randall, C W

    2004-01-01

    Because adequate nutrient controls were not established in the USA and other countries when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economic and societal impacts. The root problem is that political policies and processes have permitted municipalities, developers, industries and farmers to expand and operate without paying the full cost of their activities. Their expanded activities have occurred at the expense and displacement of those who rely on the productivity and recreational value of our estuarine and coastal waters. Some governments have developed remedial nutrient control programs, but most of them have been poorly conceived, under funded and inadequately enforced, resulting in small increments of progress that tend to be lost because of inadequate land use and immigration controls. It is proposed that establishment of comprehensive nutrient controls is needed throughout the world to preserve and protect estuarine and coastal waters, and to protect or re-establish fisheries, for both economic and societal stability. Nitrogen is the key nutrient for the establishment of control strategies. It is recommended that nutrient recovery from wastewaters and controlled reuse of both water and nutrients be widely implemented as a part of nutrient control strategies.

  16. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions about Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Gemma E.; Samuel, Gabrielle N.

    2016-01-01

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we…

  17. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions about Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Gemma E.; Samuel, Gabrielle N.

    2016-01-01

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we…

  18. When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

  19. When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The goal of weather prediction is to provide information people and organizations can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance societal benefits, including protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life. In economic terms, the benefit of the investment in public weather forecasts and warnings is substantial: the estimated annualized benefit is about $31.5 billion, compared to the $5.1 billion cost of generating the information. Between 1980 and 2009, 96 weather disasters in the United States each caused at least $1 billion in damages, with total losses exceeding $700 billion. Between 1999 and 2008, there were an average of 629 direct weather fatalities per year. The annual impacts of adverse weather on the national highway system and roads are staggering: 1.5 million weather-related crashes with 7,400 deaths, more than 700,000 injuries, and $42 billion in economic losses.

  20. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  1. Patient and Societal Value Functions for the Testing Morbidities Index

    PubMed Central

    Swan, John Shannon; Kong, Chung Yin; Lee, Janie M.; Akinyemi, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Lee, Pablo; Vavinskiy, Sergey; Williams, Olubunmi; Zoltick, Emilie S.; Donelan, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed preference-based and summated scale scoring for the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI) classification, which addresses short-term effects on quality of life from diagnostic testing before, during and after a testing procedure. Methods The two TMI value functions utilize multiattribute value techniques; one is patient-based and the other has a societal perspective. 206 breast biopsy patients and 466 (societal) subjects informed the models. Due to a lack of standard short-term methods for this application, we utilized the visual analog scale (VAS). Waiting trade-off (WTO) tolls provided an additional option for linear transformation of the TMI. We randomized participants to one of three surveys: the first derived weights for generic testing morbidity attributes and levels of severity with the VAS; a second developed VAS values and WTO tolls for linear transformation of the TMI to a death-healthy scale; the third addressed initial validation in a specific test (breast biopsy). 188 patients and 425 community subjects participated in initial validation, comparing direct VAS and WTO values to the TMI. Alternative TMI scoring as a non-preference summated scale was included, given evidence of construct and content validity. Results The patient model can use an additive function, while the societal model is multiplicative. Direct VAS and the VAS-scaled TMI were correlated across modeling groups (r=0.45 to 0.62) and agreement was comparable to the value function validation of the Health Utilities Index 2. Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) calculations showed a range of 0.07–0.10 in patients and 0.11–0.17 in subjects. MAD for direct WTO tolls compared to the WTO-scaled TMI varied closely around one quality-adjusted life day. Conclusions The TMI shows initial promise in measuring short-term testing-related health states. PMID:23689044

  2. Non-medical costs of colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kempiński, Radosław; Michałowicz, Jerzy; Poniewierka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Europe and North America. Colonoscopy done every 10 years beginning at age 50 is the preferred method of screening. In Poland and some other countries examinations are offered to subjects free of charge. However, as well as direct medical costs there are direct non-medical costs, which include the cost of transportation and costs related to caregivers’ time, and indirect costs, which are costs related to patients’ time. These costs essentially augment the total societal costs of colonoscopy. PMID:25396000

  3. Societal Statistics by virtue of the Statistical Drake Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    The Drake equation, first proposed by Frank D. Drake in 1961, is the foundational equation of SETI. It yields an estimate of the number N of extraterrestrial communicating civilizations in the Galaxy given by the product N=Ns×fp×ne×fl×fi×fc×fL, where: Ns is the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; fp is the fraction of stars that have planetary systems; ne is the number of planets in a given system that are ecologically suitable for life; fl is the fraction of otherwise suitable planets on which life actually arises; fi is the fraction of inhabited planets on which an intelligent form of life evolves; fc is the fraction of planets inhabited by intelligent beings on which a communicative technical civilization develops; and fL is the fraction of planetary lifetime graced by a technical civilization. The first three terms may be called "the astrophysical terms" in the Drake equation since their numerical value is provided by astrophysical considerations. The fourth term, fl, may be called "the origin-of-life term" and entails biology. The last three terms may be called "the societal terms" inasmuch as their respective numerical values are provided by anthropology, telecommunication science and "futuristic science", respectively. In this paper, we seek to provide a statistical estimate of the three societal terms in the Drake equation basing our calculations on the Statistical Drake Equation first proposed by this author at the 2008 IAC. In that paper the author extended the simple 7-factor product so as to embody Statistics. He proved that, no matter which probability distribution may be assigned to each factor, if the number of factors tends to infinity, then the random variable N follows the lognormal distribution (central limit theorem of Statistics). This author also proved at the 2009 IAC that the Dole (1964) [7] equation, yielding the number of Habitable Planets for Man in the Galaxy, has the same mathematical structure as the Drake equation. So the

  4. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Societal Interactions in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing Hypothesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    activity by p53-independent induction of p21WAF1/CIP1. Cancer Res 2005;65:3364–73. 36. Lee B, Kim CH, Moon SK. Honokiol causes the p21WAF1-mediated G...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0041 TITLE: Societal Interactions in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing...in Ovarian Cancer Metastases: A Quorum Sensing Hypothesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0041 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Carrie

  6. Neuroethics: the ethical, legal, and societal impact of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience raise a host of new questions concerning the ways in which neuroscience can and should be used. These advances also challenge our intuitions about the nature of humans as moral and spiritual beings. Neuroethics is the new field that grapples with these issues. The present article surveys a number of applications of neuroscience to such diverse arenas as marketing, criminal justice, the military, and worker productivity. The ethical, legal, and societal effects of these applications are discussed. Less practical, but perhaps ultimately more consequential, is the impact of neuroscience on our worldview and our understanding of the human person.

  7. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  8. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  9. Societal impact of synthetic biology: responsible research and innovation (RRI).

    PubMed

    Gregorowius, Daniel; Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2016-11-30

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field at the interface between biology and engineering, which has generated many expectations for beneficial biomedical and biotechnological applications. At the same time, however, it has also raised concerns about risks or the aim of producing new forms of living organisms. Researchers from different disciplines as well as policymakers and the general public have expressed the need for a form of technology assessment that not only deals with technical aspects, but also includes societal and ethical issues. A recent and very influential model of technology assessment that tries to implement these aims is known as RRI (Responsible Research and Innovation). In this paper, we introduce this model and its historical precursor strategies. Based on the societal and ethical issues which are presented in the current literature, we discuss challenges and opportunities of applying the RRI model for the assessment of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Defining and measuring the costs of the HIV epidemic to business firms.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1994-01-01

    Most published estimates of the costs of the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been developed from the societal perspective, attempting to measure the burden of the epidemic to society in this country. Although societal cost analysis is well-developed, relatively little is known about many of the factors influencing the costs of the epidemic to business firms. The business community may bear a substantial portion of those costs in the form of health-related benefits provided to workers. Other effects of the epidemic in the workplace are related to fears and stigma associated with the illness. The author compares frameworks for analyzing the costs of the epidemic to the business community and to society. Societal costs include direct costs, the resources used in providing health care, and indirect costs, the resources lost to society as a result of the epidemic. Costs to business include illness-based employment costs, legal or administrative costs, prevention costs, perception-based employment costs, care giver costs, and nonmonetary costs. Not all societal costs are borne by business, and businesses may incur costs that are not traditionally measured from the societal perspective. PMID:8190854

  11. Silver nanoparticles: technological advances, societal impacts, and metrological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements. PMID:28271059

  13. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  14. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations.

  15. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  16. Data to Decisions: Valuing the Societal Benefit of Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, F.; Kain, D.

    2016-12-01

    The March 10-11, 2016 GEOValue workshop on "Data to Decisions" was aimed at creating a framework for identification and implementation of best practices that capture the societal value of geospatial information for both public and private uses. The end-to-end information flow starts with the earth observation and data acquisition systems, includes the full range of processes from geospatial information to decisions support systems, and concludes with the end user. Case studies, which will be described in this presentation, were identified for a range of applications. The goal was to demonstrate and compare approaches to valuation of geospatial information and forge a path forward for research that leads to standards of practice.

  17. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  18. Illuminating a neglected clinical issue: societal costs of interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2012-07-01

    To determine the degree to which patients with high levels of trait dependency or dependent personality disorder (DPD) engage in behaviors that harm themselves and others (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse). Six domains of literature were reviewed: (a) dependency as a risk factor for physical illness; (b) health care utilization and expenditures; (c) global and domain-specific functional impairment; (d) violence toward others; (e) victimization by others; and (f) self-harm. High levels of trait dependency and DPD are associated with elevated risk for physical illness, partner and child abuse, and suicidality, as well as with high levels of functional impairment and increased health care expenditure. Contrary to clinical lore, trait dependency and DPD are associated with behaviors that lead to myriad negative consequences for the dependent person, those close to them, and society as a whole. These patterns have noteworthy implications for assessment and treatment of dependent patients and suggest that DPD should be included as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Invisible Wounds of War: Quantifying the Societal Costs of Psychological and Cognitive Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-12

    Depression also affects conditions associated with aging, including osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes , certain cancers, periodontal disease , and...linked to increased morbidity. With respect to physical health, cardiovascular diseases are the most frequently studied morbidity outcome among...persons with psychiatric disorders. Both PTSD and depression have been linked to higher rates of heart disease in military and civilian populations

  20. The humanistic, economic and societal burden of herpes zoster in Europe: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gater, Adam; Uhart, Mathieu; McCool, Rachael; Préaud, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-27

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" is common in persons aged 50 years or over. HZ is characterised by a painful dermatological rash which typically resolves in approximately one month. Persistent pain for months or years after rash onset, however, is a common complication of HZ; referred to as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Both HZ and PHN have a significant impact on patients' lives, with considerable implications for healthcare systems and wider society. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive documentation and critical appraisal of published data concerning the humanistic, economic and societal burden of HZ in Europe. Systematic literature searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, EconLit, HEED and CRD databases. Searches were conducted in July 2014 and restricted to articles published in the past 20 years. Articles were selected for full review by two independent researchers in accordance with predefined eligibility criteria. From a review of 1619 abstracts, 53 eligible articles, were identified which reported data concerning healthcare resource use (n = 38), direct costs (n = 20), indirect costs (n = 16), total costs (n = 10) and impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (n = 21). Findings highlight that PHN is associated with greater impairments in HRQoL and higher costs of management than HZ. For both HZ and PHN, pain severity is a significant predictor of impact on individuals, healthcare systems and society. While the incidence of HZ and PHN increase with age, age does not appear to be a key driver of overall costs for HZ and PHN. Specifically, while direct costs (e.g. GP, specialists, medications, hospitalisations) tend to be higher for older patients, indirect costs (e.g. work time missed) are higher for younger patients. Available evidence highlights that HZ and PHN result in significant humanistic and economic burden for patients, healthcare systems and wider societies. A tendency to focus upon healthcare resource use

  1. Development of an Updated Societal-Risk Goal for Nuclear Power Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Bier; Michael Corradini; Robert Youngblood; Caleb Roh; Shuji Liu

    2014-07-01

    This report briefly summarizes work done in FY 2013 on the subject LDRD. The working hypothesis is that societal disruption should be addressed in a safety goal. This is motivated by the point that the Fukushima disaster resulted in very little public dose, but enormous societal disruption; a goal that addressed societal disruption would fill a perceived gap in the US NRC safety goal structure. This year's work entailed analyzing the consequences of postulated accidents at various reactor sites in the US, specifically with a view to quantifying the number of people relocated and the duration of their relocation, to see whether this makes sense as a measure of societal disruption.

  2. The personal, societal, and economic burden of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China: implications for antipsychotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Liu, Li; Stensland, Michael D; Xue, Hai Bo; Treuer, Tamas; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2013-01-01

    Background This article describes the personal, societal, and economic burden attributable to schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China and highlights the potential for effective outpatient treatment to reduce this burden given recent changes in the Chinese health care system. The importance of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the burden of schizophrenia is also examined. Methods Published research on the burden, disability, management, and economic costs of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China was examined in the context of the larger body of global research. Research written in English or Chinese and published before June 2012 was identified using PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Med database searches. The contribution of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the risk for relapse and hospitalization and improving patients’ functioning is described. Results Schizophrenia imposes a substantial burden on Chinese society, with indirect costs accounting for the majority of the total cost. Functional impairment is high, leading to lost wages and work impairment. In the People’s Republic of China, schizophrenia is the most common diagnosis among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ongoing changes in the Chinese health care system may reduce some barriers to effective relapse prevention in schizophrenia and potentially reduce hospitalizations. The use of antipsychotics for acute episodes and maintenance treatment has been shown to decrease symptom severity and reduce the risk for relapse and hospitalization. However, discontinuing antipsychotic medication appears common and is a strong predictor of relapse. Cost-effectiveness research in the People’s Republic of China is needed to examine the potential gains from improved outpatient antipsychotic treatment. Conclusion Schizophrenia is a very costly mental illness in terms of personal, economic, and societal burden, both in the People’s Republic of China and globally. When treated

  3. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sado, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Ataru; Koreki, Akihiro; Knapp, Martin; Kissane, Lee Andrew; Mimura, Masaru; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disorder that produces considerable burdens due to its often relapsing/remitting or chronic longitudinal course. This burden is felt not only by patients themselves, but also by their families and health care systems. Although the societal burden caused by this disorder has been evaluated in several countries, the magnitude of the societal cost of schizophrenia in Japan has never been estimated. The aim of this study is to clarify the societal burden of schizophrenia by estimating the cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008. Methods: A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the cost of schizophrenia. The total cost of schizophrenia was calculated as the sum of the direct, morbidity, and mortality costs. Schizophrenia was defined as disorders coded as F20.0–F20.9 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10. The data required to estimate the total cost was collected from publicly available statistics or previously reported studies. Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion). While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion), the morbidity and mortality costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion) and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion), respectively. Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders, the direct cost accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. Furthermore, absolute costs arising from unemployment were larger, while the prevalence rate was smaller, than the corresponding results for depression or anxiety in Japan. PMID:23785238

  4. Societal views on NICE, cancer drugs fund and value-based pricing criteria for prioritising medicines: a cross-sectional survey of 4118 adults in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Linley, Warren G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2013-08-01

    The criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for accepting higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for some medicines over others, and the recent introduction of the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England, are assumed to reflect societal preferences for National Health Service resource allocation. Robust empirical evidence to this effect is lacking. To explore societal preferences for these and other criteria, including those proposed for rewarding new medicines under the future value-based pricing (VBP) system, we conducted a choice-based experiment in 4118 UK adults via web-based surveys. Preferences were determined by asking respondents to allocate fixed funds between different patient and disease types reflecting nine specific prioritisation criteria. Respondents supported the criteria proposed under the VBP system (for severe diseases, address unmet needs, are innovative--provided they offered substantial health benefits, and have wider societal benefits) but did not support the end-of-life premium or the prioritisation of children or disadvantaged populations as specified by NICE, nor the special funding status for treatments of rare diseases, nor the CDF. Policies introduced on the basis of perceived--and not actual--societal values may lead to inappropriate resource allocation decisions with the potential for significant population health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

    2005-12-01

    Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very

  6. Empowering Graduate Students to Lead on Interdisciplinary Societal Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Challenging societal problems that cannot be solved by one method or one discipline alone, like epidemic preparedness, mental health, and climate change, demand leadership and the ability to work across disciplines from those with specialized expertise. Teaching leadership at the graduate school level is a challenge that many schools are striving to meet, through mechanisms like project-based courses, leadership skill development workshops, and others. We argue that some of the most valuable but most difficult leadership skills to learn are those that require cultural norms that are fundamentally different from those traditionally encountered in graduate school. These include the ability to make informed decisions based on limited knowledge and resources, the need to make choices in the face of uncertainty, and the recognition that one ultimately bears responsibility for the outcomes. These skills are also among the most important for students planning on nonacademic careers. Acquiring such skills requires a focus on learning-by-doing and a culture of graduate student empowerment. This submission focuses on the experience of students in a student-centered, interdisciplinary, cross-campus leadership program called Emerging Leaders in Science and Society (ELISS), hosted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ELISS establishes the expectation that students act as leaders, which in itself reframes leadership as an achievable goal. A major finding from two years of experience with ELISS is the critical importance of establishing cultures of trust and empowerment at the graduate level in order to foster development of transferable skills. ELISS graduate students specifically focus on interdisciplinary collaboration (the 13 2015 fellows come from 13 academic disciplines); stakeholder engagement, primarily focused on outreach to both traditional and nontraditional experts in our communities outside of academia; and solution-generating rather

  7. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of

  8. The Societal Dimension in German Science Education--From Tradition towards Selected Cases and Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Stuckey, Marc; Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the theory and practice of societal-oriented science education in the past and present of German science teaching. Starting from a quite unique German justification for more thorough societal-oriented science education and some historical reflections a model for socio-scientific issues-based science teaching will be presented.…

  9. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  10. Societal and Economic Engagement of Universities in Finland: An Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritsila, Jari; Nieminen, Mika; Sotarauta, Markku; Lahtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the work of an expert team invited by the Ministry of Education of Finland to develop criteria and an evaluation framework for societal and economic engagement for use in university performance management. The paper maps out possible indicators for the societal and economic engagement of universities in the light of national…

  11. The Societal Dimension in German Science Education--From Tradition towards Selected Cases and Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Stuckey, Marc; Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the theory and practice of societal-oriented science education in the past and present of German science teaching. Starting from a quite unique German justification for more thorough societal-oriented science education and some historical reflections a model for socio-scientific issues-based science teaching will be presented.…

  12. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  13. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  14. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  15. Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hong-biao

    2013-01-01

    Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

  16. Globalization of water, water solidarity, and societal resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2010-12-01

    In arid and semiarid regions the availability of freshwater resources has historically limited food production and population growth. Although international trade developed early in the history of civilization, until recently the growth of human populations has been constrained for most part by the availability of local resources as well as by other cultural and health-related factors. More recently, the global trade of massive amounts of food has allowed population growth to exceed in some dryland regions the limits posed by the local water budget. Here we show how the uncontrolled trade of food products and of water virtually embedded in these commodities reduces the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Globalization of virtual water may prevent in the short term malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, but in the long run leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failures. We propose a system of water solidarity as an alternative model of global allocation and redistribution of water resources, which limits the effects of drought-induced famine while maintaining societal resilience.

  17. Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2010-07-01

    Most food production depends, directly or indirectly, on freshwater resources. In the absence of importation of food commodities, population growth is constrained by the availability of local resources—including water—as well as by cultural and health-related factors. The global trade of massive amounts of food makes societies less reliant on locally available water resources, thereby allowing some populations to exceed the limits posed by their local water budget. Thus, international trade implies a virtual transfer of water resources from areas of food production to importing regions. While it is recognized that in the short term this globalization of (virtual) water resources may prevent malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, its long-term effects on the coupled human-natural system remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a minimalist modeling framework to investigate the effect of the uncontrolled trade of food products on the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Our results suggest that in the long run the globalization of water resources reduces the societal resilience with respect to water limitations in that it leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failure.

  18. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  20. Societal Adaptation to Decadal Climate Variability in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Mehta, Vikram M.; Olsen, J. Rolf; von Storch, Hans; Varady, Robert G.; Hayes, Michael J.; Wilhite, Donald

    2007-10-01

    CRCES Workshop on Societal Impacts of Decadal Climate Variability in the United States, 26-28 April 2007, Waikoloa, Hawaii The search for evidence of decadal climatic variability (DCV) has a very long history. In the past decade, a research community has coalesced around a series of roughly biennial workshops that have emphasized description of past DCV events; their causes and their ``teleconnections'' responsible for droughts, floods, and warm and cold spells around the world; and recently, the predictability of DCV events. Researchers studying climate change put great emphasis on prospective impacts, but the DCV community has yet to do so. To begin rectifying this deficiency, a short but ambitious workshop was convened in Waikoloa, near Kona, Hawaii, from 26-28 April 2007. This workshop, sponsored by the Center for Research on the Changing Earth System (CRCES), NOAA, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, brought together climatologists and sectoral specialists representing agriculture, water resources, economics, the insurance industry, and developing country interests.

  1. Societal services after traumatic spinal cord injury in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Camilla; Levi, Richard; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Seiger, Ake

    2003-05-01

    Societal services after traumatic spinal cord injury in Sweden were investigated, including self-rated levels of satisfaction with the application process and resource allocation. Survey of an incidence population. Thirty-four persons of a total regional incidence population (n = 48) with traumatic spinal cord injury. Structured interviews using a standardized questionnaire. About 25 separate services were identified being available for persons with traumatic spinal cord injury. The average number of applications per person was 5 (range 0-11). The most common service was "transportation service". Of the applications, 17% were partially or totally rejected. Most subjects received information about available services from a social worker. For 13 available services at least 1 subject claimed ignorance about its existence. In Sweden, significant resources are allocated for allowing independence and financial compensation for individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. However, this support system sometimes also results in frustration and disappointment. Insufficient information and co-ordination are reported as weaknesses. The persons' efforts to acquire knowledge of how the system works take time which could be better used for rehabilitation and full integration into the community.

  2. Surveillance for isocyanate asthma: a model based cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wild, D; Redlich, C; Paltiel, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Because logistical and financial obstacles impede using large prospective cohort studies, surveillance decisions in occupational settings must often be made without evidence of relative benefits and costs. Using the example of isocyanate induced asthma, the most commonly reported immune mediated occupational asthma, the authors developed a model based approach to evaluate the costs and benefits of surveillance from both an employer and a societal perspective. Methods: The authors used a mathematical simulation model of isocyanate asthma to compare annual surveillance to passive case finding. Outcome measures included symptom free days (SFD), quality adjusted life years (QALY), direct costs, productivity losses, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio (CER), measured from the employer and the societal perspectives. Input data were obtained from a variety of published sources. Results: For 100 000 exposed workers, surveillance resulted in 683 fewer cases of disability over 10 years. Surveillance conferred benefits at an incremental cost of $24,000/QALY (employer perspective; $13.33/SFD) and was cost saving from the societal perspective. Results were sensitive to assumptions about sensitisation rate, removal rates, and time to diagnosis, but not to assumptions about therapy costs and disability rates. Conclusions: Baseline results placed the CER for surveillance for isocyanate asthma within the acceptable range. Costs from the societal and employer perspective differed substantially with a more attractive CER from the societal perspective, suggesting opportunities for employer/societal cost sharing. The analysis demonstrates the value of a model based approach to evaluate the cost effectiveness of surveillance programmes for isocyanate asthma, and to inform shared decision making among clinicians, patients, employers, and society. Such a modeling approach may be applicable to surveillance programmes for other work related conditions. PMID:16234399

  3. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions About Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Gemma E; Samuel, Gabrielle N

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we discuss the characteristics of two different impact assessment extremes - the "quality-focused" evaluation and "societal impact-focused" evaluation. We show the wide range of evaluator views about impact, and that these views could be conceptually reflected in a range of different positions along a conceptual evaluation scale. We describe the characteristics of these extremes in detail, and discuss the different beliefs evaluators had which could influence where they positioned themselves along the scale. These decisions, we argue, when considered together, form a dominant definition of societal impact that influences the direction of its evaluation by the panel.

  4. Direct costs of ankylosing spondylitis and its determinants: an analysis among three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, A; van der Heijde, D; Landewe, R; Guillemin, F; Rutten-van, M; Dougados, M; Mielants, H; de Vlam, K; van der Tempel, H; Boesen, S; Spoorenberg, A; Schouten, H; van der Linden, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess direct costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To determine which variables, including country, predict costs. Methods: 216 patients with AS from the Netherlands, France, and Belgium participated in a two year observational study and filled in bimonthly economic questionnaires. Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country-specific tariffs). Predictors of costs were assessed using Cox's regression analysis. Results: 209 patients provided sufficient data for cost analysis. Mean annual societal direct costs for each patient were €2640, of which 82% were direct healthcare costs. In univariate analysis costs were higher in the Netherlands than in Belgium, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline differences in patients' characteristics among countries. Longer disease duration, lower education, worse physical function, and higher disease activity were predictors of costs. Mean annual direct costs from a financial perspective were €2122, €1402, and €941 per patient in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium, respectively. For each country, costs from a financial perspective were significantly lower than costs from a societal perspective. Conclusion: Direct costs for AS are substantial in three European countries but not significantly different after adjusting for baseline characteristics among countries. Worse physical function and higher disease activity are important determinants of costs, suggesting better disease control might reduce the costs of AS. The difference in costs from a societal and financial perspective emphasises the importance of an economic analysis. PMID:12860728

  5. Potential societal and economic impacts of wastewater nutrient removal and recycling.

    PubMed

    Randall, C W

    2003-01-01

    Because adequate nutrient controls were not established when there were past opportunities to do so, nutrient pollution of estuaries and coastal waters has resulted in the impairment of ecosystems and major reductions or collapse of fisheries at numerous sites around the world, resulting in major economical and societal impacts. The root of the problem is that the political policies and processes have permitted municipalities, developers, industries and farmers to expand and operate without paying the full cost of their activities, and this has been done at the expense of those who rely on the productivity and recreational value of our estuarine and coastal waters. Some governments have developed remedial nutrient control programs, but most of them have been under funded and inadequately enforced, resulting in small increments of progress that tend to be lost because of inadequate land use and immigration controls. It is believed that nutrient recovery and controlled reuse can provide a major tool for the control of nutrient pollution and should be widely implemented. Plans are currently being developed to promote widespread use of nutrient recovery and reuse in the Chesapeake Bay region of the USA. An example of phosphorus reuse is presented.

  6. The biomarker-based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. 1-ethical and societal issues.

    PubMed

    Porteri, Corinna; Albanese, Emiliano; Scerri, Charles; Carrillo, Maria C; Snyder, Heather M; Martensson, Birgitta; Baker, Mark; Giacobini, Ezio; Boccardi, Marina; Winblad, Bengt; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Hurst, Samia

    2017-04-01

    There is great interest in the use of biomarkers to assist in the timely identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild symptoms. However, the inclusion of AD biomarkers in clinical criteria poses socioethical challenges. The Geneva Task Force for the Roadmap of Alzheimer's Biomarkers was established to deliver a systematic strategic research agenda (aka roadmap) to promote efficient and effective validation of AD biomarkers and to foster their uptake in clinical practice. In this article, we summarize the workshop discussion of the Geneva Task Force "ethical and societal issues" working group, which comprised bioethicists, clinicians, health economists, and representatives of those affected by AD. The working group identified the following key issues that need to be included in the roadmap: improving access to services through timely diagnosis, the need for a diagnostic research protocol before moving to clinical routine, recruitment in diagnostic research protocols in the absence of effective therapy, respect for the autonomy of the individual with mild cognitive impairment in information and consent process and the right not to know biomarkers results, need for counseling programs, disclosure of the diagnosis in a structured environment and the involvement of family members, health policies including the individuals' views and the protection of their interests, and the economic costs for society.

  7. Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  8. Morality and the limits of societal values in health care allocation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca L; Siegel, Andrew W

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we consider whether there is a clear moral justification for the proposal that societal value preferences (SVPs) should be included in Cost Effectiveness Analyses (CEA) of health care resource allocations. We argue, first, that proponents of the use of SVPs need to be clear about the relationship between these values and moral principles. In particular, once moral principles are accepted as ruling out some SVPs (such as those that are irrational or revealing prejudice), an account is required of why we need to appeal to SVPs rather than moral principles to determine a just division of health care resources. Secondly, we consider whether an independent moral justification might underwrite the use of SVPs. In various places in the literature the notions of representation, presumed consent and democratic decision making appear to be invoked as candidates for fulfilling this justificatory role. We discuss some problems with each of these justifications in the hope of eliciting a more comprehensive proposal from the proponents of SVPs. We conclude that, although a number of interesting proposals have been made, no compelling justification for including SVPs in CEA has yet been systematically articulated.

  9. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  10. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  11. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  12. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  13. AMISR in the Africa: Scientific and Societal Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Much of our understanding of equatorial electrodynamics is primarily based on observations from the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observatory (JRO), the only ISR in the equatorial region. The JRO is located in the American sector that is characterized by the large off-set in the magnetic to geodectic equators and the shift of the magnetic equator from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere. In the African sector, the geomagnetic and geodetic equators are approximately parallel, separated by at most 10 degrees. Data from satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, C/NOFS, DMSP) have indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. For example, ionospheric bubbles have been observed to be much deeper and to occur more frequently in the African sector. It has also been reported that ionospheric depletions more frequently rise to higher altitudes (up to 1000+ km) in the African sector than those in other longitude sectors. However, these observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in Africa. Thus, the causes or driving mechanisms of the unique density irregularities, bubbles, and depletions in the African sector remain unresolved. To address these issues, the U.S. National Science Foundation recently sponsored a workshop that held at Boston College to consider the possibility of relocating an Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) to Ethiopia. Adding the ISR to the recently growing number of ground-based space science instruments on the continent, such as GPS, magnetometers, VHF, and Ionosonde, would be of significant scientific benefit and have a huge societal impact on the African space science community in particular and the science and engineering fields in general. The primary purpose of this workshop was to define the science goals motivating such a move and to examine the technical and

  14. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    PubMed

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level.

  15. Changing Societal and Lifestyle Factors and Breastfeeding Patterns Over Time.

    PubMed

    Logan, Chad; Zittel, Tatjana; Striebel, Stefanie; Reister, Frank; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2016-05-01

    Breastfeeding is an important determinant of early infant immune function and potentially future health. Although numerous studies have reported rising breastfeeding initiation rates and duration, few longitudinally investigated the impact of shifting societal and lifestyle factors on breastfeeding patterns in developed nations. The Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS) and Ulm SPATZ Health Study (SPATZ) cohorts consist of newborns and their mothers recruited, respectively, from 2000 to 2001 and 2012 to 2013 at the University Medical Center Ulm, Germany. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate crude and mutually adjusted hazard ratios for study effect (time trend) and individual risk factors on noninitiation and duration of predominant and total breastfeeding. Compared with UBCS mothers, SPATZ mothers had lower cessation rates of both predominant breastfeeding by 4 months and total breastfeeding by 6 months: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.79 (0.67-0.93) and 0.71 (0.60-0.82), respectively. However, this crude time trend was limited to mothers with higher educational achievement. Similar time trend effects were observed among less educated mothers only after adjustment for early cessation risk factors. Mutually adjusted hazard ratios for individual risk factors were similar in both studies: low education, high BMI, smoking within 6 weeks of delivery, and cesarean delivery were associated with early breastfeeding cessation beginning at 6 weeks. In addition, actively abstaining from drinking alcohol was associated with lower rates of early cessation. Our results suggest widening socioeconomic disparity in breastfeeding and potentially subsequent child health, which may require new targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C.; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B.; Hartgerink, Chris. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  17. The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Waldner, François; Jacques, Damien C; Masuzzo, Paola; Collister, Lauren B; Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates surrounding Open Access to the scholarly literature are multifaceted and complicated by disparate and often polarised viewpoints from engaged stakeholders. At the current stage, Open Access has become such a global issue that it is critical for all involved in scholarly publishing, including policymakers, publishers, research funders, governments, learned societies, librarians, and academic communities, to be well-informed on the history, benefits, and pitfalls of Open Access. In spite of this, there is a general lack of consensus regarding the potential pros and cons of Open Access at multiple levels. This review aims to be a resource for current knowledge on the impacts of Open Access by synthesizing important research in three major areas: academic, economic and societal. While there is clearly much scope for additional research, several key trends are identified, including a broad citation advantage for researchers who publish openly, as well as additional benefits to the non-academic dissemination of their work. The economic impact of Open Access is less well-understood, although it is clear that access to the research literature is key for innovative enterprises, and a range of governmental and non-governmental services. Furthermore, Open Access has the potential to save both publishers and research funders considerable amounts of financial resources, and can provide some economic benefits to traditionally subscription-based journals. The societal impact of Open Access is strong, in particular for advancing citizen science initiatives, and leveling the playing field for researchers in developing countries. Open Access supersedes all potential alternative modes of access to the scholarly literature through enabling unrestricted re-use, and long-term stability independent of financial constraints of traditional publishers that impede knowledge sharing. However, Open Access has the potential to become unsustainable for research communities if

  18. Extending life for people with a terminal illness: a moral right and an expensive death? Exploring societal perspectives.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Neil; Baker, Rachel M; Mason, Helen; Williamson, Laura; van Exel, Job; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-07

    Many publicly-funded health systems apply cost-benefit frameworks in response to the moral dilemma of how best to allocate scarce healthcare resources. However, implementation of recommendations based on costs and benefit calculations and subsequent challenges have led to 'special cases' with certain types of health benefits considered more valuable than others. Recent debate and research has focused on the relative value of life extensions for people with terminal illnesses. This research investigates societal perspectives in relation to this issue, in the UK. Q methodology was used to elicit societal perspectives from a purposively selected sample of data-rich respondents. Participants ranked 49 statements of opinion (developed for this study), onto a grid, according to level of agreement. These 'Q sorts' were followed by brief interviews. Factor analysis was used to identify shared points of view (patterns of similarity between individuals' Q sorts). Analysis produced a three factor solution. These rich, shared accounts can be broadly summarised as: i) 'A population perspective - value for money, no special cases', ii) 'Life is precious - valuing life-extension and patient choice', iii) 'Valuing wider benefits and opportunity cost - the quality of life and death'. From the factor descriptions it is clear that the main philosophical positions that have long dominated debates on the just allocation of resources have a basis in public opinion. The existence of certain moral positions in the views of society does not ethically imply, and pragmatically cannot mean, that all are translated into policy. Our findings highlight normative tensions and the importance of critically engaging with these normative issues (in addition to the current focus on a procedural justice approach to health policy). Future research should focus on i) the extent to which these perspectives are supported in society, ii) how respondents' perspectives relate to specific resource allocation

  19. Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.

    2006-12-01

    -term Prediction Research and Transition (SpoRT) Center, generates 24 hour-forecasts twice daily utilizing the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF). Originally aimed at forecasts for the United States, the SPoRT team extended their work to cover the Mesoamerican region. Following testing at the RPC the system was installed in Panama and is currently producing forecasts that are used by tour guides, boat captains on river and ocean fishing tours, and cruise ship captains. This capability fits perfectly with NASA's goals since an existing project was modified, at minimal cost, to provide societal benefits to the population of a different geographic region. On June 30, 2006 several new applications matured and the inventory of decision support products was significantly expanded. As a result the SERVIR website was reorganized to reflect the changes. The degree of change was sufficient for the developers to designate it as a new release of SERVIR. The applications include a Real-Time Image Viewer, a customized version of NASA World Wind for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR- VIZ (developed by IAGT) and the SERVIR Data Portal (developed by the Water Center of the Humid Tropics Latin America and the Caribbean). The success of the SERVIR project is reflected by its choice by NASA as the decision support system for the Ecological Forecasting National Application. The SERVIR model is also under consideration for other regions of the globe. Potential areas for development are Africa, South America and the Caribbean.

  20. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  1. Leadership, governance and management in dental education - new societal challenges.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M

    2008-02-01

    Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and

  2. 4. The transectional structure of society: the basic societal functions.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a society is organised into 13 basic societal functions (BSFs) within an overall Coordination and Control system. This organisation facilitates transectional descriptions of society or a component of a society for assessment at any given time across the longitudinal phases of a disaster. An assessment results in a picture or description of function(s) limited to the point in time of the assessment. Together with simultaneous assessments of the functional status of all, some, or one of the other BSFs, such assessments deliver a transectional picture of the situation of a society. Since no function operates in isolation from the other functions, information of the concomitant status of several BSFs is crucial to gain a better understanding of functional losses and of the effects and side effects of an intervention. The 13 BSFs include: (1) Public Health (dominantly preventive); (2) Medical Care (dominantly curative); (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supplies; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structure; (9) Logistics And Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12); Economy; and (13) Education. These BSFs relate with each other through the Coordination and Control function. Many functions of the BSFs and their respective subfunctions and elements overlap (they share some common subfunctions and elements). However, for the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign subfunctions and elements to only one of the BSFs. Just as in the practice of clinical medicine, the sum of assessments provides the transectional description of the status of each of these BSFs at a given time. From this information, compared to the pre-event description of the society, interventions are selected that are likely to meet the defined objectives and their overarching goal(s), and respective plans are developed and implemented. The effects of each

  3. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    PubMed

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  4. Predicted fire behavior and societal benefits in three eastern Sierra Nevada vegetation types

    Treesearch

    C.A. Dicus; K. Delfino; D.R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    We investigated potential fire behavior and various societal benefits (air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, and carbon storage) provided by woodlands of pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus californica), shrublands of Great Basin sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa...

  5. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  6. The global costs of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Martin; Mangalore, Roshni; Simon, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease associated with a significant and long-lasting health, social, and financial burden, not only for patients but also for families, other caregivers, and the wider society. Many national and local studies have sought to estimate the societal burden of the illness--or some components of it--in monetary terms. Findings vary. We systematically reviewed the literature to locate all existing international estimates to date. Sixty-two relevant studies were found and summarized. Within- and between-country differences were analyzed descriptively. Despite the wide diversity of data sets and methods applied, all cost-of-illness estimates highlight the heavy societal burden of schizophrenia. Such information helps us to understand the health, health care, economic, and policy importance of schizophrenia, and to better interpret and explain the large within- and across-country differences that exist.

  7. Societal integration and age-standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989.

    PubMed

    Fernquist, R M; Cutright, P

    1998-01-01

    Gender-specific age-standardized suicide rates for 21 developed countries over seven 5-year periods (1955-59...1985-89) form the two dependent variables. Durkheim's theory of societal integration is the framework used to generate the independent variables, although several recent theories are also examined. The results from a MGLS multiple regression analysis of both male and female rates provide overwhelming support for a multidimensional theory of societal integration and suicide, as first suggested by Durkheim.

  8. An economic analysis of using rhBMP-2 for lumbar fusion in Germany, France and UK from a societal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Amit; Franke, Jörg; Cuche, Matthieu; Schnettler, Reinhard; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) can replace autogenous bone grafting in single-level lumbar interbody fusion. Its use is associated with a higher initial price for the intervention; 2,970€ in Germany, 2,950€ in France and 2,266€ (£1,790) in UK. The aim of this study was to calculate the financial impact of rhBMP-2 treatment in Germany, UK and France from a societal perspective with a two-year time horizon. Based on clinical findings of a previously published study with a pooled data analysis, a health economic model was developed to estimate potential cost savings derived from reduced surgery time and secondary treatment costs, and faster return-to-work time associated with rhBMP-2 use compared with autogenous bone grafting. Country-specific costs are reported in 2008 Euros. From a societal perspective, overall savings from the use of rhBMP-2 in ALIF surgery compared with autograft are 8,483€, 9,191€ and 8,783€ per case for Germany, France and UK, respectively. In all the three countries savings offset the upfront price for rhBMP-2. The savings are mainly achieved by reduced productivity loss due to faster return-to-work time for patients treated with rhBMP-2. Use of rhBMP-2 in anterior lumbar fusion is a net cost-saving treatment from a societal perspective for Germany, France and UK. Improved clinical outcome for the patient combined with better health-economic outcome for the society support rhBMP-2 as a valuable alternative compared with autograft. PMID:19301041

  9. An economic analysis of using rhBMP-2 for lumbar fusion in Germany, France and UK from a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Chhabra, Amit; Franke, Jörg; Cuche, Matthieu; Schnettler, Reinhard; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2009-06-01

    Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) can replace autogenous bone grafting in single-level lumbar interbody fusion. Its use is associated with a higher initial price for the intervention; 2,970 euros in Germany, 2,950 euros in France and 2,266 euros (1,790 pounds sterling) in UK. The aim of this study was to calculate the financial impact of rhBMP-2 treatment in Germany, UK and France from a societal perspective with a two-year time horizon. Based on clinical findings of a previously published study with a pooled data analysis, a health economic model was developed to estimate potential cost savings derived from reduced surgery time and secondary treatment costs, and faster return-to-work time associated with rhBMP-2 use compared with autogenous bone grafting. Country-specific costs are reported in 2008 Euros. From a societal perspective, overall savings from the use of rhBMP-2 in ALIF surgery compared with autograft are 8,483 euros, 9,191 euros and 8,783 euros per case for Germany, France and UK, respectively. In all the three countries savings offset the upfront price for rhBMP-2. The savings are mainly achieved by reduced productivity loss due to faster return-to-work time for patients treated with rhBMP-2. Use of rhBMP-2 in anterior lumbar fusion is a net cost-saving treatment from a societal perspective for Germany, France and UK. Improved clinical outcome for the patient combined with better health-economic outcome for the society support rhBMP-2 as a valuable alternative compared with autograft.

  10. "Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be": Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy.

    PubMed

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2008-12-01

    A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is "societal alignment", defined as "strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company". This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become "societally aligned" by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be "changing", however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public "expectations" largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such "alignment" initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal.

  11. Interaction between renewable energy markets and carbon markets: Optimal policies to meet societal goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Ghita Levenstein

    The problem this dissertation addresses is that separate and evolving public policy debates are currently shaping renewable markets and carbon markets without attention to how each market affects the other, yet the markets have overlapping goals with respect to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Without a better understanding of the roles, limitations, and interactions of these two markets, the larger environmental and economic societal goals that they are meant to achieve may not be fully realized. This research focuses on the electricity sector in the United States because federal regulations do not exist for renewable or carbon markets and thus the rules concerning the interaction between these markets have yet to be defined. The methodology for developing final recommendations consisted of an extensive review of relevant literature and analysis of case studies in which these markets overlap. The methodology also included the use of economic reasoning and analysis to aide in evaluating assumptions and projections about the effect a greenhouse gas ("GHG") cap and trade market may have on renewable energy markets. Finally, tools and concepts from the Policy Sciences tradition were used throughout the dissertation to frame and organize the discussion. Findings are generally that while a GHG cap and trade program will reduce emissions below what would have occurred otherwise, the design of the program will determine the extent to which overall emissions reductions can take place. Furthermore, renewable energy markets could be negatively affected by a GHG cap and trade program if generation from renewables does not reduce emissions below a cap. This dissertation concludes with recommendations for policymakers, so policies defining these markets can accurately reflect intended goals including: decreasing emissions, increasing renewables, and keeping electricity costs low.

  12. Parental and societal values for the risks and benefits of childhood combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gidengil, Courtney; Lieu, Tracy A; Payne, Katherine; Rusinak, Donna; Messonnier, Mark; Prosser, Lisa A

    2012-05-14

    New combination vaccines reduce the number of injections needed for immunization. However, possible drawbacks include higher prices, extra doses of vaccine antigens and increased minor adverse events. Our objective was to measure parental and societal values for attributes of childhood combination vaccines. We conducted a discrete choice experiment using an online survey of adults administered by Knowledge Networks. Values were measured for attributes of combination vaccines for a hypothetical child aged 6 months: (1) number of injections, (2) extra dose of hepatitis B vaccine, (3) 20% higher chance of fever, (4) community-level immunization coverage of 2-year-olds of 90% or 80%, and (5) cost per visit. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to analyze the value of different attributes and generate a marginal willingness-to-pay for a change in attribute level. The response rate was 64% (N=558). Most respondents were parents (63%) and most respondents agreed that combination vaccines were safe (77%). Respondents were willing to pay $7.68 to avoid an injection (compared to $9.94 when looking at parents only). However, respondents were willing to pay $41.57 to avoid higher risk of fever after one set of immunizations (10% versus 30%) and $65.42 for higher immunization coverage rates. These results were very similar for parents only. There was no significant preference to avoid an extra dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Respondents were willing to pay larger amounts to avoid increased risk of minor adverse events and to increase community-level immunization coverage than to avoid injections. These values should be taken into account when determining the risks and benefits of combination vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for blunt cerebrovascular injuries is cost-effective.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Deborah; Brasel, Karen J; Neideen, Todd; Weigelt, John A

    2011-05-01

    Screening for blunt carotid and vertebral injury (BCVI) is increasing without a clear understanding of whether the chosen screening approach is cost-effective. We hypothesized that screening for BCVI using computed tomography angiography (CTA) was cost-effective in populations at high risk for BCVI. A decision analysis was performed modeling current BCVI screening approaches: no screening, duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography, angiography, and CTA. Treatment options included antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, stents for pseudoaneurysm, and no treatment. Probability estimates for incidence of injury and stroke, sensitivity and specificity of the screening modality, and type of treatment were taken from published data. Average wholesale price and medicare reimbursement costs were used. Two populations were analyzed; high-risk and overall blunt trauma populations. Two perspectives were taken; societal (including lifetime stroke costs) and institutional (ignoring lifetime stroke costs). In the high-risk population, from a societal perspective, CTA has the lowest cost and stroke rate; $3,727 per patient screened with a 1% stroke rate. No treatment has the highest cost and stroke rate. From an institutional perspective, no screening is the least costly option but has an 11% stroke rate. Duplex ultrasound is the most cost-effective screening modality; $8,940 per stroke prevented. From the societal perspective, CTA is the most cost-effective screening strategy for patients at high risk for BCVI. From an institutional perspective, CTA prevents the most strokes at a reasonable cost.

  14. A cost-utility analysis of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berghout, Caspar C; Zevalkink, Jolien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable and growing body of research about the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatment, relatively little attention has been paid to economic evaluations, particularly with reference to the broader range of societal effects. In this cost-utility study, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of psychoanalysis versus psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Incremental costs and effects were estimated by means of cross-sectional measurements in a cohort design (psychoanalysis, n = 78; psychoanalytic psychotherapy, n = 104). Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for each treatment strategy using the SF-6D. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective (treatment costs plus other societal costs) and discounted at 4 percent. Psychoanalysis was more costly than psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but also more effective from a health-related quality of life perspective. The ICER--that is, the extra costs to gain one additional QALY by delivering psychoanalysis instead of psychoanalytic psychotherapy--was estimated at 52,384 euros per QALY gained. Our findings show that the cost-utility ratio of psychoanalysis relative to psychoanalytic psychotherapy is within an acceptable range. More research is needed to find out whether cost-utility ratios vary with different types of patients. We also encourage cost-utility analyses comparing psychoanalytic treatment to other forms of (long-term) treatment.

  15. Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

  16. Cost of dementia in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Eliane; Marti, Michael; Werner, Sarah; Sommer, Heini

    2010-09-10

    The aim of this study was (a) to estimate the cost of dementia in Switzerland, (b) to compare the average annual cost for people with dementia who live at home and those living in an institution and (c) to analyse how the average cost per person with dementia who lives at home increases with the severity of dementia. This prevalence-based cost-of-illness study from a societal perspective combined top-down and bottom-up approaches and included both direct and indirect costs of dementia. Cost estimations were based on Swiss national statistics and surveys, as well as international reviews and expert interviews. The total annual cost of dementia amounted up to CHF 6.3 billion for the year 2007. Together, institutional and informal care accounted for over 90% of the cost. The average annual cost was estimated at CHF 55'300 per person with dementia who lives at home and at CHF 68'900 per person who lives in an institution. The cost per person living at home with severe dementia was nearly five times the cost per person with mild dementia. The present study indicates that dementia imposes a considerable economic burden on Swiss society. The cost of dementia is dominated by the costs of care. Diagnosis and treatment related costs are minor. These findings are consistent with contemporary international studies on the subject. The contribution of informal caregivers is substantial since they account for 44% of the total cost of dementia (based on market cost valuation). Given demographic developments in Switzerland, healthcare decision making should have an interest in securing this potential for the future.

  17. Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in

  18. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Bron, Wichertje A.; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the newsworthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  19. Economic costs of rotavirus gastroenteritis and cost-effectiveness of vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, Richard D; Antil, Lynn; Dreibelbis, Robert; Podewils, Laura Jean; Bresee, Joseph S; Parashar, Umesh D

    2009-11-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We evaluated the economic burden of rotavirus and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination from the health care perspective. Estimates were based on existing epidemiological data, cost estimates, vaccine coverage, and efficacy data, as well as hypothetical vaccine prices. Outcome measures included health care and societal costs of rotavirus and benefits and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of vaccination. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of estimate uncertainty. Treatment costs increased with income level, and health burden decreased; however, burden varied across regions. On the basis of current vaccination coverage and timing, rotavirus vaccination would annually prevent 228,000 deaths, 13.7 million hospital visits, and 8.7 million disability-adjusted life-years, saving $188 million in treatment costs and $243 million in societal costs. At $5 per dose, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in low-, lower-middle-, and upper-middle-income countries was $88, $291, and $329 per disability-adjusted life-year averted, respectively, and $3,015, $9,951 and $11,296 per life saved, respectively. Vaccination would prevent approximately 45% of deaths and approximately 58% of associated medical visits and costs. Vaccination is a cost-effective strategy to reduce the health and economic burden of rotavirus. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination depends mostly on vaccine price and reaching children at highest risk of mortality.

  20. Minimal intervention prosthodontics: current knowledge and societal implications.

    PubMed

    Bowley, John

    2002-01-01

    Minimal intervention prosthodontics can be considered a treatment option for a country's overall dental health care plan. Prosthodontics can cover a range of increasingly aggressive treatment interventions depending on the severity and progression of the disease. The 'shortened dental arch' concept is a minimal treatment intervention approach that has been advocated for a wide range of partially edentulous patients. This concept favors limited prosthodontic intervention to achieve patient-perceived acceptable function levels in the presence of multiple missing teeth. The implementation of minimal interventions should be balanced by considering risk-to-benefit ratios, as well as the consequences of nonintervention of low-level prosthodontic interventions. The 'nonintervention' approach and low-level prosthodontic interventions have inherent consequences and well-documented risks; professional ethics dictate that a practitioner present these risks as well as the known benefits of all treatment options. Developing countries are under significant pressure to effectively utilize limited resources, increase skilled human resources, provide advanced levels of care to very large numbers of patients and plan for the future dental health care of their society. Many developing countries are prime candidates for inadvertent abuse and misappropriation of prosthodontic materials, treatment modalities and human resources in trying to provide cost-effective prosthodontic care. A developing country can learn from the mistakes that developed countries have made in the past and use the evidence from these experiences to plan for a better future state of dental health for their society.

  1. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Drosinis, Paul; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; McKellips, Fanny; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Design Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Setting Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Population Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Main outcome measures Costs included (1) delivery costs; (2) specialist remuneration; (3) costs associated with traditional (face-to-face) referrals initiated as a result of eConsult. Potential savings included (1) costs of traditional referrals avoided; (2) indirect patient savings through avoided travel and lost wages/productivity. Net potential societal cost savings were estimated by subtracting total costs from total potential savings. Results A total of 3487 eConsults were completed during the study period. In 40% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was originally contemplated but avoided as result of eConsult. In 3% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was not originally contemplated but was prompted as a result of the eConsult. From the societal perspective, total costs were estimated at $207 787 and total potential savings were $246 516. eConsult led to a net societal saving of $38 729 or $11 per eConsult. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate potential cost savings from the societal perspective, as patients avoided the travel costs and lost wages/productivity associated with face-to-face specialist visits. Greater savings are expected once we account for other costs such as avoided tests and visits and potential improved health outcomes associated with shorter wait times. Our findings are valuable for healthcare delivery decision-makers as they seek solutions to improve care in a patient-centred and efficient manner. PMID:27338880

  2. Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.

    Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

  3. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  4. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  5. Improving Societal Resilience Through Enhanced Reconnection Speed of Damaged Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodák, Rostislav; Bíl, Michal

    2017-04-01

    Road networks rank among the foundations of civilization. They enable people, services and goods to be transported to arbitrary places at any time. Its functioning can be impacted by various events, not only by natural hazards and their combinations. This can lead to the concurrent interruption of a number of roads and even cut-off parts of the network from vital services. The impact of these events can be reduced by various measures, but cannot be fully eliminated. We are aware of the fact that extreme events which result in road network break up will occur regardless of the ongoing process of hazard reduction using, for example, the improvement of the structural robustness of roads. The next problem is that many of the events are unpredictable and thus the needed costs of the improvement can easily spiral out of control. We therefore focus on the speed of the recovery process which can be optimized. This means that the time during which the damaged network is reconnected again will be as short as possible. The result of the optimization procedure is a sequence of road links which represent the routes of the repair units. The optimization process is, however, highly nontrivial because of the large number of possible routes for repair units. This prevents anyone from finding an optimal solution. We consequently introduce an approach based on the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm which is able to suggest an almost optimal solution under various constraints which can be established by the administrator of the network. We will also demonstrate its results and variability with several case examples.

  6. Future Costs, Fixed Healthcare Budgets, and the Decision Rules of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter; Meltzer, David; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Life-saving medical technologies result in additional demand for health care due to increased life expectancy. However, most economic evaluations do not include all medical costs that may result from this additional demand in health care and include only future costs of related illnesses. Although there has been much debate regarding the question to which extent future costs should be included from a societal perspective, the appropriate role of future medical costs in the widely adopted but more narrow healthcare perspective has been neglected. Using a theoretical model, we demonstrate that optimal decision rules for cost-effectiveness analyses assuming fixed healthcare budgets dictate that future costs of both related and unrelated medical care should be included. Practical relevance of including the costs of future unrelated medical care is illustrated using the example of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Our findings suggest that guidelines should prescribe inclusion of these costs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density

  8. [Burnout of general practitioners in Belgium: societal consequences and paths to solutions].

    PubMed

    Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M

    2011-09-01

    The definition of burn-out the most often cited and proposed by Maslach and Jackson, clarifies the three cardinal symptoms affecting doctors, namely, emotional exhaustion, with depersonalization of their patients and reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment. The causes of this phenomenon are relatively well-known: individual psychological factors, stressful factors intrinsic to the medical practice and finally extrinsic factors related to the professional environment and its organization. The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of burnout within the population of Belgian family physicians and to understand both individual and societal consequences. About the method. This is a literature review using databases Medline, Cochrane Library, and the American Psychological Association from 2000 to 2011 with the keywords: primary health care, family practice, burnout, emotional exhaustion, psychological stressors, distress, fatigue, depersonalization, substance and alcohol abuse, depression, well-being, quality of life, job satisfaction, professional efficiency, patient care, physician-patient relations, medical errors, quality of health care, pharmaceutical/health expenditure/statistics-numerical data, obstacles to prevention, health system assessment, medical demography. Selecting of the most relevant articles through the reading of abstracts and then full text reading of 49 selected articles. In conclusion, the exact prevalence of burn-out amongst Belgian general practitioners is not known. From some works, it is estimated that about half of them would be achieved at least in terms of emotional exhaustion. The symptoms related to burn-out are potentially serious: ea depression, alcohol and tobacco abuse and cardiovascular complications. There are also arguments demonstrating the fact that this disorder amongst general practitioners influences negatively the quality of care, their cost, but also medical demography of primary care with as a

  9. Piecing Together the Puzzle: Development of the Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Luci N.; Bulgrin, Amanda; Morgan, Betsy L.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the prevalence of autism creates a need for a reliable and valid measure of attitudes towards autism. The current study describes the development of a brief 16-item measure of Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) that exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between expert and general…

  10. The Teaching and Societal Services Nexus: Academics' Experiences in Three Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmén, Magnus; Ljungberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perception of academics regarding how their experiences from societal interaction (third mission) inform their teaching and vice versa. We report on a phone survey of Swedish academics in three engineering-related disciplines. The findings show that there is a perceived positive and bidirectional relationship…

  11. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  12. Measuring societal effects of transdisciplinary research projects: design and application of an evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Walter, Alexander I; Helgenberger, Sebastian; Wiek, Arnim; Scholz, Roland W

    2007-11-01

    Most Transdisciplinary Research (TdR) projects combine scientific research with the building of decision making capacity for the involved stakeholders. These projects usually deal with complex, societally relevant, real-world problems. This paper focuses on TdR projects, which integrate the knowledge of researchers and stakeholders in a collaborative transdisciplinary process through structured methods of mutual learning. Previous research on the evaluation of TdR has insufficiently explored the intended effects of transdisciplinary processes on the real world (societal effects). We developed an evaluation framework for assessing the societal effects of transdisciplinary processes. Outputs (measured as procedural and product-related involvement of the stakeholders), impacts (intermediate effects connecting outputs and outcomes) and outcomes (enhanced decision making capacity) are distinguished as three types of societal effects. Our model links outputs and outcomes of transdisciplinary processes via the impacts using a mediating variables approach. We applied this model in an ex post evaluation of a transdisciplinary process. 84 out of 188 agents participated in a survey. The results show significant mediation effects of the two impacts "network building" and "transformation knowledge". These results indicate an influence of a transdisciplinary process on the decision making capacity of stakeholders, especially through social network building and the generation of knowledge relevant for action.

  13. Societal Duty and Resource Allocation for Persons with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gerben; Batavia, Andrew I.

    1989-01-01

    The article considers eight values and factors that enter into decisions regarding resource allocation for persons with brain injury including the quality of life, moral culpability of the brain-injured person, the social contribution of the person, allocation of family and societal responsibilities, justice, the nature of health care, and…

  14. Education, Technology and Connectedness. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Veronika; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  15. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  16. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  17. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SGEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from the SGEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  18. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  19. Personal Values and Attitudes towards Societal and Environmental Accountability: A Study of MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Asit

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote corporate societal and environmental accountability (SEA) should be informed by an understanding of stakeholders' attitudes toward enhanced accountability standards. However, little is known regarding current attitudes on this subject or the determinants of these attitudes. To address this issue, this study examines the…

  20. Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

  1. Adolescents' Conceptions of National Wealth Distribution: Connections with Perceived Societal Fairness and Academic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenio, William F.; Willems, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study examined mostly lower-middle-income Latino (37%) and African American (33%) adolescents' (N = 90, M[subscript age] = 15.90) conceptions of how U.S. wealth is and ought to be distributed, and whether these judgments are related to adolescents' views about societal and legal fairness and their immediate academic plans. Individually…

  2. Adolescents' conceptions of national wealth distribution: Connections with perceived societal fairness and academic plans.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William F; Willems, Chris

    2017-03-01

    This study examined mostly lower-middle-income Latino (37%) and African American (33%) adolescents' (N = 90, Mage = 15.90) conceptions of how U.S. wealth is and ought to be distributed, and whether these judgments are related to adolescents' views about societal and legal fairness and their immediate academic plans. Individually administered multipart interviews assessed conceptions regarding (a) actual and ideal U.S. wealth distribution and related "Rawlsian" judgments, (b) social system and legal fairness, and (c) adolescents' near-term life goals. Overall, adolescents underestimated actual levels of U.S. wealth inequality while also preferring a more egalitarian distribution than was believed to exist. Adolescents' wealth-related reasoning was mostly unrelated to other societal or personal judgments, whereas societal and legal fairness judgments were related to personal academic plans. Although adolescents had generally negative views of societal and legal fairness, having more positive fairness conceptions was related to a greater emphasis on academic plans. Compared with their younger peers, older adolescents preferred somewhat more wealth inequality for motivational and economic reasons and preferred living in a society with some inequality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

  4. NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  5. Structural Determinants of the Divorce Rate: A Cross-Societal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from a sample of 66 countries were analyzed to investigate 4 hypothesized societal-level correlates of the divorce rate: socioeconomic development, female labor participation, the sex ratio, and dominant religion. Regression analyses revealed that all factors except religion had a significant effect on the crude divorce rate. Theoretical…

  6. Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

  7. Education, Technology and Connectedness. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Veronika; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  8. Societal Duty and Resource Allocation for Persons with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gerben; Batavia, Andrew I.

    1989-01-01

    The article considers eight values and factors that enter into decisions regarding resource allocation for persons with brain injury including the quality of life, moral culpability of the brain-injured person, the social contribution of the person, allocation of family and societal responsibilities, justice, the nature of health care, and…

  9. Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

  10. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    PubMed

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  11. Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

  12. The Teaching and Societal Services Nexus: Academics' Experiences in Three Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmén, Magnus; Ljungberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perception of academics regarding how their experiences from societal interaction (third mission) inform their teaching and vice versa. We report on a phone survey of Swedish academics in three engineering-related disciplines. The findings show that there is a perceived positive and bidirectional relationship…

  13. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  14. Personal Values and Attitudes towards Societal and Environmental Accountability: A Study of MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Asit

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote corporate societal and environmental accountability (SEA) should be informed by an understanding of stakeholders' attitudes toward enhanced accountability standards. However, little is known regarding current attitudes on this subject or the determinants of these attitudes. To address this issue, this study examines the…

  15. Barriers to Considering Ethical and Societal Implications of Research: Perceptions of Life Scientists

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Boyce, Angie M.; Ladd, Jennifer M.; Cho, Mildred

    2012-01-01

    Background As part of an empirical study investigating how life scientists think about ethical and societal implications of their work, and about life science research in general, we sought to elucidate barriers that scientists might face in considering such implications. Method Between 2005 and 2007, we conducted a study consisting of phone interviews, focus groups, and a national survey of life scientists at biomedical research institutions. The study population included graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty, clinical instructors, and research staff. We analyzed data through qualitative and quantitative methods. Results In analyzing the data, we found that life scientists do, in fact, face barriers to considering ethical and societal implications of research. We categorized these barriers as falling into four broad domains: (1) lack of awareness of ethical and societal implications; (2) lack of relevance of such concerns to their specific research; (3) self-confidence in their ability to resolve such concerns; and (4) aspects of the daily practice of science itself. Conclusions Life science researchers experience elements inherent in their training and in the conduct of science as barriers to thinking about ethical and societal implications related to their work. These findings suggest areas in which research ethics educators, bioethicists, and the scientific community can focus their efforts to improve social and ethical accountability in research. PMID:22866239

  16. APPLICATION OF BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE TO SOCIETAL DECISIONS: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BASED ON BEST AVAILABLE SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    MOGHISSI, A ALAN; LOVE, BETTY R; STRAJA, SORIN R

    2007-06-30

    This grant covered several areas of significant societal interest. It included an evaluation of the validity of scientific claims; developed an approach for stakeholder participation; and demonstrated the validity of the developed methods through the performance of a number of independent peer reviews.

  17. Non-Annotated Bibliography on Societal and Educational Futures: Classroom Resources and Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glines, Don, Comp.

    Over 300 sources of information on societal and educational futures are collected in this bibliographic catalog of materials suitable for use in elementary and secondary schools. The materials are grouped into three sections. The first section cites 218 print media sources, including books, games, reference guides, publishers, and authors. Some of…

  18. Piecing Together the Puzzle: Development of the Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Luci N.; Bulgrin, Amanda; Morgan, Betsy L.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the prevalence of autism creates a need for a reliable and valid measure of attitudes towards autism. The current study describes the development of a brief 16-item measure of Societal Attitudes towards Autism (SATA) that exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between expert and general…

  19. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  20. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  1. NANO SCENARIO: Role-Playing to Appreciate the Societal Effects of Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Leslie; Keating, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a university-sponsored experiential-based simulation, the NANO SCENARIO, to increase the public's awareness and affect attitudes on the societal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology by bringing together diverse stakeholders' perspectives in a participatory learning environment. Nanotechnology has the potential for…

  2. Teaching Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology to Engineering Students through Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rosalyn W.; Schummer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of…

  3. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

    2014-04-01

    The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions.

  4. Citizens of the Academic Community? A Societal Perspective on Leadership in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Richard; Gosling, Jonathan; O'Brien, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a societal perspective on academic leadership by exploring the preoccupations of academics as citizens rather than as employees, managers or individuals. It uses a listening post methodology to ask "what is it like to be a citizen of an academic institution in contemporary Britain?" Three listening posts, comprising…

  5. Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

  6. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  7. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  8. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  9. The how and why of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bron, Wichertje A; Mulder, Sara

    2014-05-01

    In the scientific community, the importance of communication to society is often underestimated. Scientists and scientific organisations often lack the skills to organise such communication effectively. The Dutch citizen science phenology network Nature's Calendar has been successful in communicating to the general public via numerous newspaper articles, television appearances, presentations, websites and social media. We refer to these publications as societal publications. Due to active communication to mass media, we frequently reach millions of people. This communication helped us to involve thousands of volunteers in recording the timing of phenological events like the start of flowering, leaf unfolding and bird migration, but also several health-related events like hay fever symptoms and tick bites. In this paper, we analyse and present our experiences with the Nature's Calendar project regarding societal publications. Based on this analysis, we explain the importance of societal publications for citizen science projects and scientists in general, and we show how scientists can increase the news worthiness of scientific information and what factors and activities can increase the chances of media paying attention to this news. We show that societal publications help phenological networks by facilitating the recruitment, retention and instruction of observers. Furthermore, they stimulate the generation of new ideas and partners that lead to an increase in knowledge, awareness and behavioural change of the general public or specific stakeholders. They make projects, and scientists involved, better known to the public and increase their credibility and authority. Societal publications can catalyse the production of new publications, thereby enforcing the previous mentioned points.

  10. Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Agent-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and providing measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. Agent-based modeling has been shown to provide a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these agent based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' agent-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from extreme weather across these and other cases provides evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.

  11. A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

    2008-01-01

    This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

  12. A Comparison of Thailand and New Zealand Students' Ideas about Energy Related to Technological and Societal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuenyong, Chokchai; Jones, Alister; Yutakom, Naruemon

    2008-01-01

    This study is a cross-cultural comparison between the ideas of 49 Thai Grade 9 students and the 30 New Zealand Grade 9 students (approximately 15 years old), about energy related to technological and societal issues. Students' ideas were explored using the Questionnaire for exploring Students' ideas about Energy, Technological, and Societal issues…

  13. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  14. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  15. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Johanna; Stanisic, Sanja; Kaier, Klaus; Hagist, Christian; Gultyaev, Dmitry; Walzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Methods Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working fulltime and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work. Conclusion This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. PMID:23071397

  16. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  17. The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Serena P; Riviere, Cynthia; Leger, Paul; Severe, Patrice; Atwood, Sidney; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Pape, Jean W; Schackman, Bruce R

    2008-02-14

    We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to patients with AIDS in Haiti. We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

  18. Cost effectiveness of Elidel in the management of patients with atopic dermatitis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Douglas; Barbeau, Martin

    2004-01-01

    With increasing pressure on health care resources, it is necessary to demonstrate that new treatments are both effective and cost effective. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of pimecrolimus (Elidel) compared to usual therapy in the treatment of both adults and children with atopic eczema in Canada. Analysis was performed using a decision model which estimated the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from both a societal and health care perspective. For children, Elidel leads an incremental cost per QALY of 38,000 dollars from a societal perspective. For adults, the incremental cost per QALY was 35,000 dollars. Elidel will lead to an overall increase in costs but with an improvement in clinical outcomes. The cost effectiveness ratios for Elidel were consistently below 50,000 dollars per QALY gained. Given previous funding decisions in Canada, Elidel may be considered a cost-effective use of health care resources.

  19. Future Low Temperature Plasma Science and Technology: Attacking Major Societal Problems by Building on a Tradition of Scientific Rigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasma (LTP) science is unequivocally one of the most prolific areas for varied applications in modern technology. For example, plasma etching technology is essential for reliably and rapidly patterning nanometer scale features over areas approaching one square meter with relatively inexpensive equipment. This technology enabled the telecommunication and information processing revolution that has transformed human society. I explore two concepts in this talk. The first is that the firm scientific understanding of LTP is and has been the enabling feature of these established technological applications. And the second is that LTP technology is poised to contribute to several emerging societal challenges. Beyond the important, ongoing applications of LTP science to problems of materials processing related to energy generation (e.g. thin film solar cell manufacture), there are novel and less well known potential applications in food and agriculture, infection control and medicine. In some cases, the potentially low cost nature of the applications in so compelling that they can be thought of as examples of frugal innovation. Supported in part by NSF and DoE.

  20. The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Coffee-Borden, Brandon; Anton, Paul; Moore, Christopher; Valorose, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Most of the studies of the return on investment in early childhood education have focused on the big payoffs in reduced public and societal costs associated with child welfare, public assistance, crime and incarceration, and benefits related to increased education and earnings. Several studies focus specifically on costs and benefits within the…

  1. The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten. [Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Coffee-Borden, Brandon; Anton, Paul; Moore, Christopher; Valorose, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This summary presents highlights of "The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten" [ED511612]. A number of studies document the long-term public and societal benefits of early childhood education, including the reduced costs associated with child welfare, public assistance, crime and incarceration, and…

  2. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites: Understanding Patterns among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Todd, Nathan R.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites (PCRW), which refer to consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. Extending research that identified 5 distinct constellations of costs of racism (L. B. Spanierman, V. P. Poteat, A. M.…

  3. Longitudinal Examination of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites across the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites, which refer to the consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. We examined how White students' affective costs of racism (i.e., White empathy, guilt, and fear) changed…

  4. Longitudinal Examination of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites across the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites, which refer to the consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. We examined how White students' affective costs of racism (i.e., White empathy, guilt, and fear) changed…

  5. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites: Understanding Patterns among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Todd, Nathan R.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites (PCRW), which refer to consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. Extending research that identified 5 distinct constellations of costs of racism (L. B. Spanierman, V. P. Poteat, A. M.…

  6. Media use and children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Beidas, Rinad S; Babyar, Heather M; Kendall, Philip C

    2008-07-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be associated with elevated perceptions of personal vulnerability to world threats (i.e., crime, terrorism, earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods). An interactive model of television use and child anxiety in accounting for children's personal threat perceptions was supported, in which the strength of television consumption in predicting children's personal threat perceptions was greater for children with greater anxiety. Relationships were found neither between children's Internet use and threat perceptions nor between media use and perceptions of societal threat.

  7. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite. [antenna coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a cooperative experimental program of the United States and Canadian governments. The CTS uses a high-power transponder at the frequencies of 14/12 GHz for two-way television and voice communication. The United States and Canada have agreed to share equally in the use of CTS. The U.S. program includes a variety of societal experiments. The ground stations for these experiments are located from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The satellite communications capabilities and the antenna coverage for the U.S. are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the U.S. societal experiments in the areas of education, health care, and community and special services; nine separate experiments are discussed.

  8. Societal organization and human water use: tipping points in socio-hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Murugesu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Societies in water scarce basins have often evolved along a river network. Often settlements appear in isolated parts along a network, grow into larger entities over time, connect with each other and start sharing a common identity. How these settlements get interconnected, for e.g. via trade, determine the 'organization' of the society that the settlements are part of. Using a semi-synthetic case study in Western India, this paper demonstrates a set of conditions that may trigger emergence of diverse spatial patterns of societal organization in water scarce basins. It shows that the emergence of diverse spatial patterns of basin scale socio-hydrology depend on how water is valued along the river network. These conditions in effect define thresholds, which when crossed lead to appearance of different spatial patterns of societal organization.

  9. Barriers to addressing the societal determinants of health: public health units and poverty in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2003-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health concepts, actual public health practice for the most part remains wedded to downstream strategies focussed on behaviour change. In Canada's largest province this has led to the implementation of a heart health promotion approach focussed on diet, activity and tobacco use. This is so despite increasing evidence that these approaches are generally ineffective, particularly for those at greatest risk. In addition, these strategies appear to divert public and governmental attention away from addressing the broader societal determinants of health. Examples of Ontario public health units that have begun to address societal determinants of health provide a counterbalance to the dominant paradigm that frames health as an individual responsibility. These new approaches focus attention upon the health-threatening effects of governments' regressive social and economic policies in a manner consistent with the best principles of health promotion.

  10. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andy; Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-12-01

    Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years.

  11. Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development: a comparison of four cultures.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children's play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development.

  12. Measures of societal risk and their potential use in civil aviation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Mark E T; Fulton, Neale; Westcott, Mark

    2008-12-01

    This article seeks to clarify the conceptual foundations of measures of societal risk, to investigate how such measures may be used validly in commonly encountered policy contexts, and to explore the application of these measures in the field of civil aviation. The article begins by examining standard measures of societal and individual risk (SR and IR), with attention given to ethical as well as analytical considerations. A comprehensive technical analysis of SR is provided, encompassing scalar risk measures, barrier functions, and a utility-based formulation, and clarifications are offered with respect to the treatment of SR in recent publications. The policy context for SR measures is shown to be critically important, and an extension to a hierarchical setting is developed. The prospects for applying SR to civil aviation are then considered, and some technical and conceptual issues are identified. SR appears to be a useful analytical tool in this context, provided that careful attention is given to these issues.

  13. Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO2 nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO2 containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

  14. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years. PMID:25553271

  15. Gauging the societal impacts of natural disasters using a capability approach.

    PubMed

    Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2010-07-01

    There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals' capabilities. The DII can be interpreted as the disaster impact per capita. Capabilities are dimensions of individual well-being and refer to the genuine opportunities individuals have to achieve valuable states and activities (such as being adequately nourished or being mobile). After discussing the steps required to construct the DII, this article computes and compares the DIIs for two earthquakes of similar magnitude in two societies at different levels of development and of two disasters (earthquake and wind storm) in the same society.

  16. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    PubMed

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2017-07-01

    Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and treatment are

  17. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  18. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested.

  19. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways

  20. Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-02-01

    In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

  1. Who Should Bear the Cost of Convenience? A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Comparing External Beam and Brachytherapy Radiotherapy Techniques for Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, M; Merino, T; Keller, B; Pignol, J-P

    2017-03-01

    Standard treatment for early breast cancer includes whole breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Recently, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been proposed for well-selected patients. A cost and cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out comparing WBI with two APBI techniques. An activity-based costing method was used to determine the treatment cost from a societal perspective of WBI, high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) and permanent breast seed implants (PBSI). A Markov model comparing the three techniques was developed with downstream costs, utilities and probabilities adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for a wide range of variables, including treatment costs, patient costs, utilities and probability of developing recurrences. Overall, HDR was the most expensive ($14 400), followed by PBSI ($8700), with WBI proving the least expensive ($6200). The least costly method to the health care system was WBI, whereas PBSI and HDR were less costly for the patient. Under cost-effectiveness analyses, downstream costs added about $10 000 to the total societal cost of the treatment. As the outcomes are very similar between techniques, WBI dominated under cost-effectiveness analyses. WBI was found to be the most cost-effective radiotherapy technique for early breast cancer. However, both APBI techniques were less costly to the patient. Although innovation may increase costs for the health care system it can provide cost savings for the patient in addition to convenience. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of Costs in Dementia in a Longitudinal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Stuhldreher, Nina; Bachmann, Cadja; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Heser, Kathrin; Jessen, Frank; Köhler, Mirjam; Luppa, Melanie; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Scherer, Martin; Werle, Jochen; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; Maier, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse predictors of costs in dementia from a societal perspective in a longitudinal setting. Method Healthcare resource use and costs were assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire in four waves at 6-month intervals in a sample of dementia patients (N = 175). Sociodemographic data, dementia severity and comorbidity at baseline, cognitive impairment and impairment in basic and instrumental activities of daily living were also recorded. Linear mixed regression models with random intercepts for individuals were used to analyse predictors of total and sector-specific costs. Results Impairment in activities of daily living significantly predicted total costs in dementia patients, with associations between basic activities of daily living and formal care costs on the one and instrumental activities of daily living and informal care costs on the other hand. Nursing home residence was associated with lower total costs than residence in the community. There was no effect of cognition on total or sector-specific costs. Conclusion Cognitive deficits in dementia are associated with costs only via their effect on the patients' capacity for activities of daily living. Transition into a nursing home may reduce total costs from a societal perspective, owing to the fact that a high amount of informal care required by severely demented patients prior to transition into a nursing home may cause higher costs than inpatient nursing care. PMID:23875017

  3. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  4. Epidemiological characteristics and societal burden of varicella zoster virus in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Varicella and herpes zoster are both caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection or reactivation and may lead to complications associated with a (severe) societal burden. Because the epidemiology of VZV-related diseases in the Netherlands remains largely unknown or incomplete, the main objective of this study was to study the primary care incidence, associated complications and health care resource use. Methods We investigated the incidence of VZV complications in the Dutch general practitioner (GP) practices and pharmacies in a retrospective population-based cohort study (2004–2008) based on longitudinal GP data including free text fields, hospital referral and discharge letters from approximately 165,000 patients. Results The average annual incidence of varicella GP-consultations was 51.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 44.4-58.7) overall; 465.5 per 10,000 for 0–1 year-olds; 610.8 per 10,000 for 1–4 year-olds; 153.5 per 10,000 for 5–9 year-olds; 8,3 per 10,000 for >10 year olds. When only ICPC coded diagnoses were analyzed the incidence was 27% lower. The proportion of complications among varicella patients was 34.9%. Most frequently complications were upper respiratory tract infections. Almost half of the varicella patients received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 1.7%. The average annual incidence of herpes zoster GP-consultations was 47.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 40.6-54.4). The incidence increased with age; 32.8 per 10,000 for <60 year-olds; 93.1 per 10,000 for 60–64 year-olds and 113.2 per 10,000 for >65 year olds. When estimating herpes zoster incidence only on ICPC coded information, the incidence was 28% lower. The complication rate of herpes zoster was 32.9%. Post herpetic neuralgia was seen most often. Of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster 67.8% received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 3.5%. Conclusions For varicella the highest incidence of GP-consultations was found in 1

  5. The influence of world societal forces on social tolerance. A time comparative study of prejudices in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Hadler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia.

  6. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

  7. Assessing and Responding to the Risks of Global and Societal Changes in the MENA Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Interactions and feedbacks between rapidly increasing multiple pressures on water, energy and food security drive social-ecological systems at multiple scales towards critical thresholds in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA Region). The MENA Region is expected to experience significantly above-global-mean changes in climatic conditions and has been designated as one of the global "climate change hot spots" (Giorgi, F., 2006). The MENA region is also characterized by one of the highest rates of population growth on Earth, having seen a 3.7-fold increase in population between 1950 to 2000. The region is expected to continue to see a roughly doubling of its population until 2050 (Population Reference Bureau, 2001). Significant gender inequalities and an extremely high rate of youth unemployment are repercussions of such developments that exacerbate the societal pressures and tensions in the region. In addition, the events of the "Arab Spring", have resulted in major political, economic and societal transitions and have frequently been accompanied by significant armed struggles within and between countries of the MENA Region. These developments and the still ongoing conflicts in parts of the region render this region to one of the global "political, societal and humanitarian hot-spots". Responding to these challenges requires integrated science and a close relationship between policy makers and stakeholders, a need that Future Earth (www.futureearth.org) has been designed to respond to. In order to address the requirements of nation states and local communities, Future Earth has adopted a regional governance structure. This has resulted in the establishment of the Future Earth MENA Regional Center at the Cyprus Institute (FEMRC) in Nicosia, Cyprus, as one of five Regional Centers worldwide. One of the major challenges in establishing a regional Future-Earth-related research agenda lies in a comprehensive assessments of the

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization Strategies in High-Risk Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Devin M; Miller, Andy O; Henry, Michael W; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K

    2017-09-01

    The risk of prosthetic joint infection increases with Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The cost-effectiveness of decolonization is controversial. We evaluated cost-effectiveness decolonization protocols in high-risk arthroplasty patients. An analytical model evaluated risk under 3 protocols: 4 swabs, 2 swabs, and nasal swab alone. These were compared to no-screening and universal decolonization strategies. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from the hospital, patient, and societal perspective. Under base case conditions, universal decolonization and 4-swab strategies were most effective. The 2-swab and universal decolonization strategy were most cost-effective from patient and societal perspectives. From the hospital perspective, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy (much less costly and more effective). S aureus decolonization may be cost-effective for reducing prosthetic joint infections in high-risk patients. These results may have important implications for treatment of patients and for cost containment in a bundled payment system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Our Solar System 2050: Advancing the Science, Technology, and Societal Relevance of Planetary Exploration Through Public Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, A. P.; Bowman, C. D.; Buquo, L. E.; Conrad, P. G.; Davis, R. M.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Pirtle, Z. T.; Skytland, N. G.; Tahu, G. J.; Thaller, M. L.; Viotti, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    We show how citizen science, crowdsourcing, prize competitions, and other modalities can expand public participation and prove valuable for enhancing the science, technology, and societal relevance of planetary exploration over the next few decades.

  10. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Julia K; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14-7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98-6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48-3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31-3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90-1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52-882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system.

  11. Self-concept clarity buffers the impact of societal threat to safety on right-wing authoritarianism.

    PubMed

    Russo, Silvia; Manzi, Claudia; Roccato, Michele

    2016-09-16

    Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.

  12. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  13. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  14. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  15. High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Delamontagne, R Georges

    2010-11-11

    This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies.

  16. “Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

  17. The costs and benefits of enhanced depression care to employers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Philip S; Patrick, Amanda; Avorn, Jerry; Azocar, Francisca; Ludman, Evette; McCulloch, Joyce; Simon, Gregory; Kessler, Ronald

    2006-12-01

    Although outreach and enhanced treatment interventions improve depression outcomes, uptake has been poor in part because purchasers lack information on their return on investment. To estimate the costs and benefits of enhanced depression care for workers from the societal and employer-purchaser perspectives. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses using state-transition Markov models. Simulated movements between health states were based on probabilities drawn from the clinical literature. Hypothetical cohort of 40-year-old workers. Intervention Enhanced depression care consisting of a depression screen and care management for those depressed vs usual care. Our base-case cost-effectiveness analysis was from the societal perspective; costs and quality-adjusted life-years were used to compute the incremental cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to usual care. A secondary cost-benefit analysis from the employer's perspective tracked monetary costs and monetary benefits accruing to employers during a 5-year time horizon. From the societal perspective, screening and depression care management for workers result in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $19 976 per quality-adjusted life-year relative to usual care. These results are consistent with recent primary care effectiveness trials and within the range for medical interventions usually covered by employer-sponsored insurance. From the employer's perspective, enhanced depression care yields a net cumulative benefit of $2895 after 5 years. In 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, these findings were robust to a variety of assumptions. If these results can be replicated in effectiveness trials directly assessing effects on work outcomes, they suggest that enhanced treatment quality programs for depression are cost-beneficial to purchasers.

  18. A cost-minimization analysis of an RCT of three retention methods.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman; Lilja-Karlander, Eva; Petrén, Sofia

    2014-08-01

    There are few cost evaluation studies of orthodontic retention treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the costs in a randomized controlled trial of three retention methods during 2 years of retention treatment. To determine which alternative has the lower cost, a cost-minimization analysis (CMA) was undertaken, based on that the outcome of the treatment alternatives was equivalent. The study comprised 75 patients in 3 groups consisting of 25 each. The first group had a vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) in the maxilla and a cuspid retainer in the mandible (group V-CTC), the second group had a VFR in the maxilla combined with stripping of the incisors and cuspids in the mandible (group V-S), and the third group had a prefabricated positioner (group P). Direct cost (premises, staff salaries, material and laboratory costs) and indirect costs (loss of time at school) were calculated. Societal costs were defined as the sum of direct and indirect costs. The societal costs/patient for scheduled appointments for 2 years of retention treatment in group V-CTC were €497, group V-S €451 and group P €420. Societal costs for unscheduled appointments in group V-CTC were €807 and in group V-S €303. In group P, there were no unscheduled appointments. After 2 years of retention in compliant patients, the cuspid retainer was the least cost-effective retention appliance. The CMA showed that for a clinically similar result, there were differences in societal costs, but treatment decisions should always be performed on an individual basis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  20. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  1. Advances in understanding societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of life and property damage from future tsunamis can be reduced if officials develop risk-reduction strategies and education programs that address how at-risk populations and communities are specifically vulnerable to tsunamis. Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, information concerning societal vulnerability to tsunamis in the U.S. was largely limited to state-level summaries of the number of residents within one kilometer of the coast. Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey has furthered the Nation’s understanding of societal vulnerability to tsunamis with several studies that describe the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of at-risk populations in tsunami-hazard zones. Community-level assessments have been completed in Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington to document variations in the number and types of people, businesses, and critical facilities in tsunami-prone areas. A method using midresolution satellite imagery was developed to identify community variations in the amount of developed land in tsunami-prone areas. Factor analysis and geospatial analysis were integrated to model variations in demographic sensitivity to tsunamis. Public workshops have been held to examine community sensitivity, adaptive capacity and post-tsunami recovery. Results demonstrate that social vulnerability to tsunamis varies throughout a community or region and that certain areas are likely to suffer disproportionately due to differences in pre-tsunami socioeconomic conditions and other demographic attributes. This presentation will summarize advances in understanding societal vulnerability in the U.S. to tsunamis since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as discuss opportunities and needs for further work.

  2. Beyond Climate and Weather Science: Expanding the Forecasting Family to Serve Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to "anticipate" the future is what makes information from the Earth sciences valuable to society - whether it is the prediction of severe weather or the future availability of water resources in response to climate change. An improved ability to anticipate or forecast has the potential to serve society by simultaneously improving our ability to (1) promote economic vitality, (2) enable environmental stewardship, (3) protect life and property, as well as (4) improve our fundamental knowledge of the earth system. The potential is enormous, yet many appear ready to move quickly toward specific mitigation and adaptation strategies assuming that the science is settled. Five important weakness must be addressed first: (1) the formation of a true "climate services" function and capability, (2) the deliberate investment in expanding the family of forecasting elements to incorporate a broader array of environmental factors and impacts, (3) the investment in the sciences that connect climate to society, (4) a deliberate focus on the problems associated with scale, in particular the difference between the scale of predictive models and the scale associated with societal decisions, and (5) the evolution from climate services and model predictions to the equivalent of "environmental intelligence centers." The objective is to bring the discipline of forecasting to a broader array of environmental challenges. Assessments of the potential impacts of global climate change on societal sectors such as water, human health, and agriculture provide good examples of this challenge. We have the potential to move from a largely reactive mode in addressing adverse health outcomes, for example, to one in which the ties between climate, land cover, infectious disease vectors, and human health are used to forecast and predict adverse human health conditions. The potential exists for a revolution in forecasting, that entrains a much broader set of societal needs and solutions. The

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Morcellation Hysterectomy for Myomas.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Pietro; Einerson, Brett D; Miller, Emily S; Milad, Magdy P

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of eliminating morcellation in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Not applicable. A theoretical cohort of women undergoing hysterectomy for myoma disease large enough to require morcellation. None. None. A decision analysis model was constructed using probabilities, costs, and utility data from published sources. A cost-effectiveness analysis analyzing both quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cases of disseminated cancer was performed to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of eliminating morcellation as a tool in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas. Costs and utilities were discounted using standard methodology. The base case included health care system costs and costs incurred by the patient for surgery-related disability. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of various assumptions. The cost to prevent 1 case of disseminated cancer was $10 540 832. A strategy of nonmorcellation hysterectomy via laparotomy costed more ($30 359.92 vs $20 853.15) and yielded more QALYs (21.284 vs 21.280) relative to morcellation hysterectomy. The ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy compared with morcellation hysterectomy was $2 184 172 per QALY. Health care costs (prolonged hospitalizations) and costs to patients of prolonged time away from work were the primary drivers of cost differential between the 2 strategies. Even when the incidence of occult sarcoma in leiomyoma surgery was ranged to twice that reported in the literature (.98%), the ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy was $644 393.30. Eliminating morcellation hysterectomy as a treatment for myomas is not cost-effective under a wide variety of probability and cost assumptions. Performing laparotomy for all patients who might otherwise be candidates for morcellation hysterectomy is a costly policy from a societal perspective. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Cost-utility of universal hepatitis A vaccination in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bauch, C T; Anonychuk, A M; Pham, B Z; Gilca, V; Duval, B; Krahn, M D

    2007-12-12

    Hepatitis A (HA) vaccination in Canada is currently targeted toward high-risk groups. The cost-effectiveness and expected health outcomes of universal vaccination relative to targeted vaccination in low-incidence countries such as Canada are currently unknown. Here, we conducted a cost-utility analysis for this situation, with Canada as the study population. We included vaccine costs, time costs, infection costs, and public health costs. We assessed a range of possible universal vaccination strategies over an 80-year time horizon using multiple cost perspectives. A dynamic model was used to account for herd immunity. Aggregate health gains from switching to universal vaccination are modest (10-30 QALYs per year). However, a "9+9" strategy that replaces two doses of monovalent hepatitis B (HB) vaccine at 9/10 years (universally administered in most provinces) with two doses of bivalent HA/HB vaccine is cost-saving from the societal perspective. At a willingness to pay threshold of $50,000/QALY, mean net benefit is +49.4 QALYs (S.D. 12.6) from the societal perspective and +3.8 QALYS (S.D. 3.0) from the payer perspective for the "9+9" strategy. Net benefit from the payer perspective is sensitive to the marginal cost of HA/HB vaccine relative to HB vaccine. Similar conclusions may apply in other countries with low incidence and a targeted vaccination policy.

  5. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  6. Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.

    PubMed

    Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues.

  7. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  8. Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

    2014-11-01

    Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Being who I am: effective teaching, learning, student support, and societal change through LGBQ faculty freedom.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Janice M; Allen, Katherine R

    2014-01-01

    Framed within the context of a heterosexist society in which not all sexual minority faculty feel professionally and/or personally safe stepping out of the classroom closet, this qualitative study examines the phenomenon of non-heterosexual faculty disclosing their sexual orientation to students in their classrooms. Findings demonstrate the depth and magnitude of impact the disclosure has on teaching, learning, student support, and societal change. Overarching is that faculty do not necessarily view the experience as "coming out in the classroom," but rather as "being who I am" in terms of freedom to present an authentic self, if so desired, to students.

  10. Linking Earth Observations and Models to Societal Information Needs: The Case of Coastal Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzanga, B. A.; Plag, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal flooding is expected to increase in many areas due to sea level rise (SLR). Many societal applications such as emergency planning and designing public services depend on information on how the flooding spectrum may change as a result of SLR. To identify the societal information needs a conceptual model is needed that identifies the key stakeholders, applications, and information and observation needs. In the context of the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), which is implemented by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), the Socio-Economic and Environmental Information Needs Knowledge Base (SEE-IN KB) is developed as part of the GEOSS Knowledge Base. A core function of the SEE-IN KB is to facilitate the linkage of societal information needs to observations, models, information and knowledge. To achieve this, the SEE-IN KB collects information on objects such as user types, observational requirements, societal goals, models, and datasets. Comprehensive information concerning the interconnections between instances of these objects is used to capture the connectivity and to establish a conceptual model as a network of networks. The captured connectivity can be used in searches to allow users to discover products and services for their information needs, and providers to search for users and applications benefiting from their products. It also allows to answer "What if?" questions and supports knowledge creation. We have used the SEE-IN KB to develop a conceptual model capturing the stakeholders in coastal flooding and their information needs, and to link these elements to objects. We show how the knowledge base enables the transition of scientific data to useable information by connecting individuals such as city managers to flood maps. Within the knowledge base, these same users can request information that improves their ability to make specific planning decisions. These needs are linked to entities within research

  11. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  12. The costs of breast cancer prior to and following diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Broekx, Steven; Den Hond, Elly; Torfs, Rudi; Remacle, Anne; Mertens, Raf; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Neven, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Simoens, Steven

    2011-08-01

    This retrospective incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis aims to quantify the costs associated with female breast cancer in Flanders for the year prior to diagnosis and for each of the 5 years following diagnosis. A bottom-up analysis from the societal perspective included direct health care costs and indirect costs of productivity loss due to morbidity and premature mortality. A case-control study design compared total costs of breast cancer patients with costs of an equivalent standardised population with a view to calculating the additional costs that can be attributed to breast cancer. Total average costs of breast cancer amounted to 107,456 per patient over 6 years. Total costs consisted of productivity loss costs (89% of costs) and health care costs (11% of costs). Health care costs did not vary with age at diagnosis. Health care costs of breast cancer patients converged with those of the general population at 5 years following diagnosis. Patients with advanced breast cancer stadia had higher health care costs. Cost estimates provided by this analysis can be used to determine priorities for, and inform, future research on breast cancer. In particular, attention needs to be focussed on decreasing productivity loss from breast cancer.

  13. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Schreuder, Michiel F; Henriet, Stefanie S; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Joore, Manuela A

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling.

  14. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children

    PubMed Central

    Martial, Lisa C.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Henriet, Stefanie S.; Brüggemann, Roger J. M.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling. PMID:27941974

  15. Relation between severity of Alzheimer's disease and costs of caring

    PubMed Central

    Hux, M J; O'Brien, B J; Iskedjian, M; Goeree, R; Gagnon, M; Gauthier, S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) were used to examine the relation between severity of Alzheimer's disease, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and costs of caring. METHODS: The CSHA was a community-based survey of the prevalence of dementia, including subtypes such as Alzheimer's disease, among elderly Canadians. Survey subjects with a diagnosis of possible or probable Alzheimer's disease were grouped into disease severity levels of mild (MMSE score 21-26), mild to moderate (MMSE score 15-20), moderate (MMSE score 10-14) and severe (MMSE score below 10). Components of care available from the CSHA were use of nursing home care, use of medications, use of community support services by caregivers and unpaid caregiver time. Costs were calculated from a societal perspective and are expressed in 1996 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: The annual societal cost of care per patient increased significantly with severity of Alzheimer's disease. The cost per patient was estimated to be $9451 for mild disease, $16,054 for mild to moderate disease, $25,724 for moderate disease and $36,794 for severe disease. Institutionalization was the largest component of cost, accounting for as much as 84% of the cost for people with severe disease. For subjects living in the community, unpaid caregiver time and use of community services were the greatest components of cost and increased with disease severity. INTERPRETATION: The societal cost of care of Alzheimer's disease increases drastically with increasing disease severity. Institutionalization is responsible for the largest cost component. PMID:9757169

  16. Relation between severity of Alzheimer's disease and costs of caring.

    PubMed

    Hux, M J; O'Brien, B J; Iskedjian, M; Goeree, R; Gagnon, M; Gauthier, S

    1998-09-08

    Data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) were used to examine the relation between severity of Alzheimer's disease, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and costs of caring. The CSHA was a community-based survey of the prevalence of dementia, including subtypes such as Alzheimer's disease, among elderly Canadians. Survey subjects with a diagnosis of possible or probable Alzheimer's disease were grouped into disease severity levels of mild (MMSE score 21-26), mild to moderate (MMSE score 15-20), moderate (MMSE score 10-14) and severe (MMSE score below 10). Components of care available from the CSHA were use of nursing home care, use of medications, use of community support services by caregivers and unpaid caregiver time. Costs were calculated from a societal perspective and are expressed in 1996 Canadian dollars. The annual societal cost of care per patient increased significantly with severity of Alzheimer's disease. The cost per patient was estimated to be $9451 for mild disease, $16,054 for mild to moderate disease, $25,724 for moderate disease and $36,794 for severe disease. Institutionalization was the largest component of cost, accounting for as much as 84% of the cost for people with severe disease. For subjects living in the community, unpaid caregiver time and use of community services were the greatest components of cost and increased with disease severity. The societal cost of care of Alzheimer's disease increases drastically with increasing disease severity. Institutionalization is responsible for the largest cost component.

  17. [Indirect costs in health technology assessment].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.

  18. The Costs of Higher Education: How Much Do Colleges and Universities Spend per Student and How Much Should They Spend?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The question of what American colleges and universities should spend to educate their students is addressed. Both societal and institutional factors that determine the costs of colleges' educating their students and longitudinal changes in the unit cost of higher education are examined. The following issues are considered: long-term trends in unit…

  19. Scientific and societal considerations in selecting assessment endpoints for environmental decision making.

    PubMed

    Strange, Elizabeth M; Lipton, Joshua; Beltman, Douglas; Snyder, Blaine D

    2002-03-08

    It is sometimes argued that, from an ecological point of view, population-, community-, and ecosystem-level endpoints are more relevant than individual-level endpoints for assessing the risks posed by human activities to the sustainability of natural resources. Yet society values amenities provided by natural resources that are not necessarily evaluated or protected by assessment tools that focus on higher levels of biological organization. For example, human-caused stressors can adversely affect recreational opportunities that are valued by society even in the absence of detectable population-level reductions in biota. If protective measures are not initiated until effects at higher levels of biological organization are apparent, natural resources that are ecologically important or highly valued by the public may not be adequately protected. Thus, environmental decision makers should consider both scientific and societal factors in selecting endpoints for ecological risk assessments. At the same time, it is important to clearly distinguish the role of scientists, which is to evaluate ecological effects, from the role of policy makers, which is to determine how to address the uncertainty in scientific assessment in making environmental decisions and to judge what effects are adverse based on societal values and policy goals.

  20. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Christopher L; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance.

  1. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance. PMID:28052080

  2. Biological and societal dimensions of lead poisoning in birds in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Anderson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of spent lead shot was known to cause mortality in wild waterfowl in the US a century before the implementation of nontoxic shot regulations began in 1972. The biological foundation for this transition was strongly supported by both field observations and structured scientific investigations. Despite the overwhelming evidence, various societal factors forestalled the full transition to nontoxic shot for waterfowl hunting until 1991. Now, nearly 20 years later, these same factors weigh heavily in current debates about nontoxic shot requirements for hunting other game birds, requiring nontoxic bullets for big game hunting in California Condor range and for restricting the use of small lead sinkers and jig heads for sport-fishing. As with waterfowl, a strong science-based foundation is requisite for further transitions to nontoxic ammunition and fishing weights. Our experiences have taught us that the societal aspects of this transition are as important as the biological components and must be adequately addressed before alternatives to toxic lead ammunition, fishing weights, and other materials will be accepted as an investment in wildlife conservation.

  3. Optimizing societal benefit using a systems engineering approach for implementation of the GEOSS space segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim

    2008-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

  4. Optimizing societal benefit using a systems engineering approach for implementation of the GEOSS space segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

  5. Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2010-04-01

    There are two distinct subtypes of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals: homosexual and nonhomosexual. The relative prevalence of these two subtypes varies dramatically between countries, but no explanation of this variability has yet been proposed. This study examined the hypothesis that the prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism, relative to homosexual MtF transsexualism, would be higher in individualistic countries than in collectivistic countries. I analyzed data from 22 studies of MtF transsexualism, conducted in 16 countries, examining the association between percentage of nonhomosexual participants and Hofstede's (Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2001) Individualism Index (IDV). IDV accounted for 77% of observed variance in the percentage of nonhomosexual MtF participants (r = 0.88, p < .0001). Controlling for differences in national wealth and in Hofstede's other indices of societal values (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity) did not significantly change the ability of IDV to account for variance in the percentage of nonhomosexual participants. The factors that contribute to the observed association between societal individualism and the relative prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism remain to be determined, but a greater tolerance within individualistic countries for socially disruptive gender transitions by nonhomosexual gender dysphoric men, and the availability within many collectivistic countries of socially approved transgender roles for pervasively feminine homosexual gender dysphoric men, are plausible contributors.

  6. Instrument for the measurement of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs.

    PubMed

    Green, D

    1990-02-01

    Due to the importance of the relation between attitudes and the experimentation with and use of drugs among adolescents, an instrument was developed composed of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs. A pilot study was carried out on the basis of which a questionnaire containing 63 items was constructed. This questionnaire was given to the research sample of 566 Israeli high school students aged 15-17. Three criteria were used to determine the final version of the instrument, which contains 55 items. Factor analysis revealed seven factors: curiosity and willingness to use drugs, social concern, individual freedom, attribution of positive characteristics to drugs, perceived harmfulness of drugs, perceived characteristics of drug users, and legalization of drugs. Reliability of the factors ranges from alpha = 0.64 to alpha = 0.88; reliability of the entire questionnaire is alpha = 0.89. A short version of the questionnaire consisting of 27 items (alpha = 0.80) was developed for special populations. These findings suggest that the Green Individual and Societal Attitudes Toward Drugs Questionnaire can be employed as a diagnostic tool to identify potential drug experimenters, and as a planning and evaluation measure to preventive drug educational programs.

  7. Life is Getting Better: Societal Evolution and Fit with Human Nature.

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2010-05-01

    Human society has changed much over the last centuries and this process of 'modernization' has profoundly affected the lives of individuals; currently we live quite different lives from those forefathers lived only five generations ago. There is difference of opinion as to whether we live better now than before and consequently there is also disagreement as to whether we should continue modernizing or rather try to slow the process down. Quality-of-life in a society can be measured by how long and happy its inhabitants live. Using these indicators I assess whether societal modernization has made life better or worse. Firstly I examine findings of present day survey research. I start with a cross-sectional analysis of 143 nations in the years 2000-2008 and find that people live longer and happier in today's most modern societies. Secondly I examine trends in modern nations over the last decade and find that happiness and longevity have increased in most cases. Thirdly I consider the long-term and review findings from historical anthropology, which show that we lived better in the early hunter-gatherer society than in the later agrarian society. Together these data suggest that societal evolution has worked out differently for the quality of human life, first negatively, in the change from a hunter-gatherer existence to agriculture, and next positively, in the more recent transformation from an agrarian to an industrial society. We live now longer and happier than ever before.

  8. Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

  9. Role of liability preferences in societal technology choices: results of a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.; Braid, B.

    1985-01-01

    At the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Steve Rayner presented a paper that challenged the conventional wisdom of risk management research. In that paper, he argued that resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough.'' Adopting the fairness question as the concern of risk management would imply that the process of technology choice explicitly recognize the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. This paper discusses a recent empirical pilot study which explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of nuclear power. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted to examine whether or not preferred principles for liability distributions were consistent with those suggested by the cultural characteristics of the constituency. The results suggest that for this type of societal technology choice, violation of these preferred principles may be a major source of the conflict between different constituencies. Additionally, the study contributes towards the development of a new approach in risk management that combines the cultural model of risk perceptions with the decision-theoretic approaches found in economics and psychology.

  10. Infusing the Core Curriculum with Societally Relevant Issues and Preparing Faculty to Work with Diverse Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellito, L. J.; Straw, B.; Sexton, J. M.; Hoyt, W.

    2016-12-01

    The way we teach our courses has an impact on student experience, and ultimately, student interest and persistence in geoscience majors and career paths. With that in mind, the primary goal of the InTeGrate implementation program in the University of Northern Colorado Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science is to promote retention in the Earth Science major through interventions that impact student classroom experience. We used two approaches to accomplish this. 1) We developed interdisciplinary curricular activities that are based on societally-relevant issues, engage students in problem-solving, and that prompt students to consider the relationships between science, society, and sustainability. We implemented these activities in core earth science courses and in a general education scientific writing course. 2) Our Earth and Atmospheric Science faculty participated in diversity and equity awareness training. In this presentation, we share our initial assessment of the effectiveness of new curricular activities and the effectiveness of a workshop developed for faculty that promotes awareness of teaching styles and behaviors that promote inclusion of students traditionally underrepresented in the sciences. Our results suggest that incorporating a societally-relevant component to activities improves student interest in the material and provides them with experience in interdisciplinary analysis and problem solving. The implementation of sustainability issues into a general education scientific writing course has a demonstrated impact on student perception of climate change and sustainability. Faculty report that they are more aware of teaching styles that promote inclusion of students traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  11. Optimizing Societal Benefit using a Systems Engineering Approach for Implementation of the GEOSS Space Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Sandford, Stephen P.; Cecil, L DeWayne; Stover, Shelley; Keith, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is driving a paradigm shift in the Earth Observation community, refocusing Earth observing systems on GEO Societal Benefit Areas (SBA). Over the short history of space-based Earth observing systems most decisions have been made based on improving our scientific understanding of the Earth with the implicit assumption that this would serve society well in the long run. The space agencies responsible for developing the satellites used for global Earth observations are typically science driven. The innovation of GEO is the call for investments by space agencies to be driven by global societal needs. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an analysis focused on the observational requirements of the GEO Energy SBA. The analysis was performed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) which is responsible for facilitating the development of implementation plans that have the maximum potential for success while optimizing the benefit to society. The analysis utilizes a new taxonomy for organizing requirements, assesses the current gaps in spacebased measurements and missions, assesses the impact of the current and planned space-based missions, and presents a set of recommendations.

  12. Economic costs of Oxford House inpatient treatment and incarceration: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Olson, Bradley D; Viola, Judah; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I; Ferrari, Joseph R; Rabin-Belyaev, Olga

    2006-01-01

    The Oxford House model for substance abuse recovery has potential economic advantages associated with the low cost of opening up and maintaining the settings. In the present study, annual program costs per person were estimated for Oxford House based on federal loan information and data collected from Oxford House Inc. In addition, annual treatment and incarceration costs were approximated based on participant data prior to Oxford House residence in conjunction with normative costs for these settings. Societal costs associated with the Oxford House program were relatively low, whereas estimated costs associated with inpatient and incarceration history were high. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of systemic treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German health care setting.

    PubMed

    Küster, Denise; Nast, Alexander; Gerdes, Sascha; Weberschock, Tobias; Wozel, Gottfried; Gutknecht, Mandy; Schmitt, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Systemic treatments of moderate-to-severe psoriasis differ substantially in terms of effectiveness and costs. Comprehensive economic-evaluations of all systemic treatments for psoriasis from a societal perspective are missing. The objective of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness all systemic treatments approved for moderate-to-severe psoriasis from a societal perspective, by including all cost categories. An incremental cost-effectiveness-analysis was performed for all systemic treatments for psoriasis, currently recommended by the German S3-Guideline i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, fumaric acid esters, and retinoids, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. We used a Markov model with time-dependent transition probabilities and a time horizon of 2 years to investigate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Both direct and indirect costs were considered to reflect the societal perspective. Effectiveness outcome was PASI-75 response. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored the effect of treatment duration, discount rate, effectiveness, and the perspective (societal vs. healthcare system) on the findings. According to the base-case analysis a cost-effective treatment pathway for moderate-to-severe psoriasis starts with methotrexate, followed by ustekinumab 90 mg and infliximab, if methotrexate does not achieve or maintain PASI-75 response. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the general robustness of these findings with methotrexate being most cost-effective. However, from a third-party-payer perspective (without indirect cost) conventional therapies were generally more cost-effective than biologics. From a value-based healthcare perspective, methotrexate should be the systemic treatment of first choice, ustekinumab 90 mg second choice and infliximab third choice for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. From a societal perspective, the other treatments are less efficient according to our model. From a third

  14. The cost of outpatient pneumonia in children <5 years of age in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Temple, Beth; Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Ratu, Felisita Tupou; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona Mary

    2012-02-01

    Pneumonia is the most common reason for visiting an outpatient facility among children <5 years old in Fiji. The objective of this study is to describe for the first time the costs associated with an episode of outpatient pneumonia in Fiji, in terms of cost both to the government health sector and to the household. Costs were estimated for 400 clinically diagnosed pneumonia cases from two outpatient facilities, one in the capital, Suva, and one in a peri-urban and rural area, Nausori. Household expenses relating to transport costs, treatment costs and indirect costs were determined primarily through structured interview with the caregiver. Unit costs were collected from a variety of sources. Patient-specific costs were summarised as average costs per facility. The overall average societal cost associated with an episode of outpatient pneumonia was $18.98, ranging from $14.33 in Nausori to $23.67 in Suva. Household expenses represent a significant proportion of the societal cost (29% in Nausori and 45% in Suva), with transport costs the most important household cost item. Health sector expenses were dominated by personnel costs at both sites. Both the average total household expenses and the average total health sector expenses were significantly greater in Suva than Nausori. A single episode of outpatient pneumonia represents a significant cost both to the government health sector and to affected households. Given the high incidence of this disease in Fiji, this places a considerable burden on society. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: Association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) report widespread pain, fatigue, and other functional limitations. This study aimed to provide an assessment of the burden of illness associated with FM in France and its association with disease severity and core domains as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) for FM. Methods This cross-sectional, observational study recruited patients with a prior diagnosis of FM from 18 community-based physician offices in France. Patients completed questions about FM impact (Fibromyalgia-Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), core symptoms (defined by OMERACT), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), current overall health status (rated on a scale from 0 to 100), productivity, treatment satisfaction, and out-of-pocket expenses related to FM. Site staff recorded patients' treatment and health resource use based on medical record review. Costs were extrapolated from 4-week patient-reported data and 3-month clinical case report form data and calculated in 2008 Euros using a societal perspective. Tests of significance used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's Exact test where P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Eighty-eight patients (mean 55.2 y; female:male 74:14) were recruited. The majority of patients (84.1%) were prescribed medications for FM. Patients mainly described medications as a little/not at all effective (40.0%) or somewhat effective (52.9%). Current Overall Health rating was 52.9 (± 17.8) and FIQ total score was 54.8 (± 17.3). FIQ total score was used to define FM severity, and 17 patients scored 0- < 39 (mild FM), 33 patients 39- < 59 (moderate FM), and 38 scored 59-100 (severe FM). As FM severity level worsened, patients had poorer overall health status and perceived their prescription medications to be less effective. Average cost/FM patient was higher for severe (€10,087) vs. moderate (€6,633) or mild FM (€5,473); however, the difference was not significant. Conclusions In a sample

  16. Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Serge; Schaefer, Caroline; Knight, Tyler; Hufstader, Meghan; Chandran, Arthi B; Zlateva, Gergana

    2012-02-17

    Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) report widespread pain, fatigue, and other functional limitations. This study aimed to provide an assessment of the burden of illness associated with FM in France and its association with disease severity and core domains as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) for FM. This cross-sectional, observational study recruited patients with a prior diagnosis of FM from 18 community-based physician offices in France. Patients completed questions about FM impact (Fibromyalgia-Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), core symptoms (defined by OMERACT), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), current overall health status (rated on a scale from 0 to 100), productivity, treatment satisfaction, and out-of-pocket expenses related to FM. Site staff recorded patients' treatment and health resource use based on medical record review. Costs were extrapolated from 4-week patient-reported data and 3-month clinical case report form data and calculated in 2008 Euros using a societal perspective. Tests of significance used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's Exact test where P < 0.05 was considered significant. Eighty-eight patients (mean 55.2 y; female:male 74:14) were recruited. The majority of patients (84.1%) were prescribed medications for FM. Patients mainly described medications as a little/not at all effective (40.0%) or somewhat effective (52.9%). Current Overall Health rating was 52.9 (± 17.8) and FIQ total score was 54.8 (± 17.3). FIQ total score was used to define FM severity, and 17 patients scored 0- < 39 (mild FM), 33 patients 39- < 59 (moderate FM), and 38 scored 59-100 (severe FM). As FM severity level worsened, patients had poorer overall health status and perceived their prescription medications to be less effective. Average cost/FM patient was higher for severe (€10,087) vs. moderate (€6,633) or mild FM (€5,473); however, the difference was not significant. In a sample of 88 patients with FM from France, we

  17. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. Design Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. Results More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. Conclusion More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways. PMID:19898651

  18. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. DESIGN: Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. RESULTS: More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. CONCLUSION: More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways.

  19. Cost in Cost-Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Just to make sure we’re all talking about the same thing, I will run down the steps involved in conducting a cost -effectiveness study. The problem...systems, and forecasts of the costs of developing and producing the systems. Industry works closely with the prospective buying military departments...separate from the buying military department. These estimates are now done by the OSD Cost Analysis Improvement Group, a part of the OSD Staff

  20. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  1. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  2. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  3. A global assessment of the societal impacts of glacier outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Tweed, Fiona S.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier outburst floods are sudden releases of large amounts of water from a glacier. They are a pervasive natural hazard worldwide. They have an association with climate primarily via glacier mass balance and their impacts on society partly depend on population pressure and land use. Given the ongoing changes in climate and land use and population distributions there is therefore an urgent need to discriminate the spatio-temporal patterning of glacier outburst floods and their impacts. This study presents data compiled from 20 countries and comprising 1348 glacier floods spanning 10 centuries. Societal impacts were assessed using a relative damage index based on recorded deaths, evacuations, and property and infrastructure destruction and disruption. These floods originated from 332 sites; 70% were from ice-dammed lakes and 36% had recorded societal impact. The number of floods recorded has apparently reduced since the mid-1990s in all major world regions. Two thirds of sites that have produced > 5 floods (n = 32) have floods occurring progressively earlier in the year. Glacier floods have directly caused at least: 7 deaths in Iceland, 393 deaths in the European Alps, 5745 deaths in South America and 6300 deaths in central Asia. Peru, Nepal and India have experienced fewer floods yet higher levels of damage. One in five sites in the European Alps has produced floods that have damaged farmland, destroyed homes and damaged bridges; 10% of sites in South America have produced glacier floods that have killed people and damaged infrastructure; 15% of sites in central Asia have produced floods that have inundated farmland, destroyed homes, damaged roads and damaged infrastructure. Overall, Bhutan and Nepal have the greatest national-level economic consequences of glacier flood impacts. We recommend that accurate, full and standardised monitoring, recording and reporting of glacier floods is essential if spatio-temporal patterns in glacier flood occurrence, magnitude and

  4. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  5. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  6. Cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Andersson, Gerhard; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent and associated with a substantial societal economic burden, primarily due to high costs of productivity loss. Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is an effective treatment for SAD and the most established in clinical practice. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated efficacy in several trials in recent years. No study has however investigated the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective, i.e. an analysis where both direct and indirect costs are included. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective using a prospective design. We conducted a randomized controlled trial where participants with SAD were randomized to ICBT (n=64) or CBGT (n=62). Economic data were assessed at pre-treatment, immediately following treatment and six months after treatment. Results showed that the gross total costs were significantly reduced at six-month follow-up, compared to pre-treatment in both treatment conditions. As both treatments were equivalent in reducing social anxiety and gross total costs, ICBT was more cost-effective due to lower intervention costs. We conclude that ICBT can be more cost-effective than CBGT in the treatment of SAD and that both treatments reduce societal costs for SAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Costs and quality of life of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T Y; Tam, L-S; Lee, V W-Y; Hwang, W W; Li, T K; Lee, K K; Li, E K

    2008-09-01

    To assess the annual direct, indirect and total societal costs, quality of life (QoL) of AS in a Chinese population in Hong Kong and determine the cost determinants. A retrospective, non-randomized, cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of 145 patients with AS in Hong Kong. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, work status and out-of-pocket expenses. Health resources consumption was recorded by chart review. Functional impairment and disease activity were measured using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), respectively. Patients' QoL was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). The mean age of the patients was 40 yrs with mean disease duration of 10 yrs. The mean BASDAI score was 4.7 and BASFI score was 3.3. Annual total costs averaged USD 9120. Direct costs accounted for 38% of the total costs while indirect costs accounted for 62%. Costs of technical examinations represented the largest proportion of total cost. Patients with AS reported significantly impaired QoL. Functional impairment became the major cost driver of direct costs and total costs. There is a substantial societal cost related to the treatment of AS in Hong Kong. Functional impairment is the most important cost driver. Treatments that reduce functional impairment may be effective to decrease the costs of AS and improve the patient's QoL, and ease the pressure on the healthcare system.

  8. National differences in predictors of suicide among young and elderly citizens: linking societal predictors to psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wesley C H; Bond, Michael Harris

    2006-01-01

    Suicide is usually conceptualized as arising either because of social phenomena or individual dynamics. In this study, these approaches were combined by analyzing suicide rates of younger people aged 15-24 and elderly aged 65-74 from 54 nations using societal variables in conjunction with psychological measures of citizen characteristics as mediators. A mediated analysis showed that psychological citizen factors, like home satisfaction and happiness, mediated the impact of societal variables, like the sex ratio, in predicting suicide rates. We found different psychological and societal predictors for young and elderly suicides, with elderly suicide rates being much more predictable. An age-responsive Durkheimian framework focusing on the dynamics of social integration at different ages was used to interpret these results.

  9. How do young people in Cambodia perceive the impact of societal attitudes, media and religion on suicidal behaviour?

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin

    2016-03-01

    Young people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in societal transitions with rapidly changing norms face an increased risk of suicide. This study explores how young people in Cambodia understand the impact on suicidal behaviour from societal attitudes, media and religion. Focus group discussions were held with school students from a suburban area. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Participants perceived the prevailing suicide-stigmatizing societal attitudes, the double-edged media and suicide-ambiguity in Buddhist religion as challenging. Globalization was recognized as contradicting with traditional Cambodian norms and values. Suicide prevention programmes should take into consideration the complex picture of suicide that young people are exposed to. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Tectono-Magmatic Investigations with Societal Implications: Progress on the Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Saria, E.; Jones, J. R.; Daniels, M. D.; Mencin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Cross-domain collaborations amongst geoscientists and technologists become necessary when the scientific and societal needs surpass current cyberinfrastructure and data access mechanisms. For example, characterizing magma movement and fault-slip in real-time on and around active volcanoes is crucial for volcanic hazards and risk assessment. The necessary real-time positioning sensors are available, however the technological capacity for import, export, and analysis are in the early phases of development. Here, we present progress on the new, multi-national Tanzania Volcano Observatory (TZVOLCANO) initiated in June 2016. The observatory currently utilizes the pilot EarthCube cyberinfrastructure "Cloud-hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences" (CHORDS) to visualize near-real time positioning data (http://tzvolcano.chordsrt.com/) that are accessible through the UNAVCO real-time archive. Our work aligns with the "resilience to disasters" and "holistic disaster risk management at all levels" targets of Sustainable Development Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities.

  11. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  12. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  13. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Puterbaugh, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests. PMID:27429800

  14. Societal transformation in response to global environmental change: A review of emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Feola, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The study of societal transformation in response to environmental change has become established, yet little consensus exists regarding the conceptual basis of transformation. This paper aims to provide structure to the dialog on transformation, and to reflect on the challenges of social research in this area. Concepts of transformation are identified through a literature review, and examined using four analytical criteria. It is found that the term 'transformation' is frequently used merely as a metaphor. When transformation is not used as a metaphor, eight concepts are most frequently employed. They differ with respect to (i) system conceptualization, (ii) notions of social consciousness (deliberate/emergent), and (iii) outcome (prescriptive/descriptive). Problem-based research tends to adopt concepts of deliberate transformation with prescriptive outcome, while concepts of emergent transformation with no prescriptive outcome tend to inform descriptive-analytical research. Dialog around the complementarities of different concepts and their empirical testing are priorities for future research.

  15. Possible relation of suicide rates of elderly with societal crime: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-02-01

    There are few studies examining the relationship between elderly suicides and societal crime. Therefore, a cross-national study examining the relationship between suicide rates of elderly persons and the percentage of the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken by using cross-national data from the World Health Organisation and United Nations databases. The main finding was a negative correlation between suicide rates in elderly men age 75+ years and women in both the elderly age-bands with the percentage of the population victimised by the crime of robbery. The findings were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides by elderly persons are suggested to examine the relationship of suicides by elderly and experience of being victimised by crime.

  16. Societal effects of hearing aid fitting among the moderately hearing impaired.

    PubMed

    Joore, Manuela A; Brunenberg, Danielle E M; Chenault, Michelene N; Anteunis, Lucien J C

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing aid fitting from a societal viewpoint, rather than the more traditional patient perspective. The effects of hearing aid fitting on generic quality of life (EuroQol), social functioning (SF36), auditory disability, productivity at paid and unpaid labour, and medical consumption, were assessed in a prospective study among 80 moderately hearing-impaired first-time hearing aid applicants. The study showed that hearing aid fitting solved problems with paid employment, but did not seem to affect unpaid work. Use of medical services remained relatively stable after first-time hearing aid fitting. The Amsterdam Inventory proved to be a useful questionnaire to assess the effects on hearing disability. No effects of hearing aid fitting on generic quality of life could be determined with the EuroQol, while hearing aid fitting did lead to an improvement in one aspect of generic quality of life; namely social functioning.

  17. A priority paper for the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus; Ganguli-Mitra, Agomoni; Torgersen, Helge; Kelle, Alexander; Deplazes, Anna; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2009-12-01

    As synthetic biology develops into a promising science and engineering field, we need to have clear ideas and priorities regarding its safety, security, ethical and public dialogue implications. Based on an extensive literature search, interviews with scientists, social scientists, a 4 week long public e-forum, and consultation with several stakeholders from science, industry and civil society organisations, we compiled a list of priority topics regarding societal issues of synthetic biology for the years ahead. The points presented here are intended to encourage all stakeholders to engage in the prioritisation of these issues and to participate in a continuous dialogue, with the ultimate goal of providing a basis for a multi-stakeholder governance in synthetic biology. Here we show possible ways to solve the challenges to synthetic biology in the field of safety, security, ethics and the science-public interface.

  18. The changing face of work in the United States: implications for individual, institutional, and societal survival.

    PubMed

    Sue, D W; Parham, T A; Santiago, G B

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the world of work are posing major challenges to workers, institutions, and society. Not only has the nature of work been affected by the changing work environment, increased global competition, and technological revolutions, but the characteristics of the workforce can only be described as revolutionary. Societal forces have resulted in what the authors call the "changing complexion of the workforce", the "feminization of the workforce", and the "graying of the workforce". Traditional theories of work motivation, employer-employee relations, and the role of psychology must also evolve to accommodate this challenge. The collision of these structural and demographic forces has resulted in major upheaval in society and the world of work. The authors discuss implications of these changes and urge psychologists to use their accumulated knowledge and wisdom to positively impact social policy for the greater good of people, institutions, and society.

  19. Societal impact of bilirubin-induced hearing impairment in resource-limited nations.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2015-02-01

    Infants with bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) are characterized by several developmental disabilities including auditory impairments. This paper explores the societal impact of bilirubin-induced auditory impairments, inclusive of hearing impairments and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders, on these infants, their families, and on the community in resource-limited countries (per capita income of US$6,000 or less). Auditory impairments have substantial emotional, social, and economic impact on the affected infants, their families and communities. The burden is exacerbated by widespread poverty, unfavorable community attitudes towards disabilities, and lack of requisite health, educational, and social services. Curtailing the incidence of avoidable severe hyperbilirubinemia through proactive and effective management of infants at risk or with severe hyperbilirubinemia is necessary at all levels of healthcare delivery. Early detection and intervention for unavoidable auditory impairments should be widely promoted to provide improved developmental trajectories for the affected infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Plant and soil nematodes: societal impact and focus for the future.

    PubMed

    Barker, K R; Hussey, R S; Krusberg, L R; Bird, G W; Dunn, R A; Ferris, H; Ferris, V R; Freckman, D W; Gabriel, C J; Grewal, P S; Macguidwin, A E; Riddle, D L; Roberts, P A; Schmitt, D P

    1994-06-01

    Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology.

  2. Plant and Soil Nematodes: Societal Impact and Focus for the Future.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, K. R.; Hussey, R. S.; Krusberg, L. R.; Bird, G. W.; Dunn, R. A.; Ferris, H.; Ferris, V. R.; Freckman, D. W.; Gabriel, C. J.; Grewal, P. S.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Riddle, D. L.; Roberts, P. A.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology. PMID:19279875

  3. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Drosinis, Paul; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; McKellips, Fanny; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2016-06-23

    This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Costs included (1) delivery costs; (2) specialist remuneration; (3) costs associated with traditional (face-to-face) referrals initiated as a result of eConsult. Potential savings included (1) costs of traditional referrals avoided; (2) indirect patient savings through avoided travel and lost wages/productivity. Net potential societal cost savings were estimated by subtracting total costs from total potential savings. A total of 3487 eConsults were completed during the study period. In 40% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was originally contemplated but avoided as result of eConsult. In 3% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was not originally contemplated but was prompted as a result of the eConsult. From the societal perspective, total costs were estimated at $207 787 and total potential savings were $246 516. eConsult led to a net societal saving of $38 729 or $11 per eConsult. Our findings demonstrate potential cost savings from the societal perspective, as patients avoided the travel costs and lost wages/productivity associated with face-to-face specialist visits. Greater savings are expected once we account for other costs such as avoided tests and visits and potential improved health outcomes associated with shorter wait times. Our findings are valuable for healthcare delivery decision-makers as they seek solutions to improve care in a patient-centred and efficient manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided

  6. Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals’ clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quénec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michaël; Lacasse, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a

  7. Workers are people too: societal aspects of occupational health disparities--an ecosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2010-02-01

    Workers are people too. What else is new? This seemingly self-evident proposition, however, takes on new meaning when considering the challenging and deeply important issue of occupational health disparities--the topic that is the focus of 12 articles in this special issue of the American Journal of Industrial Medicine. In this commentary, I highlight some of the myriad ways that societal determinants of health intertwine with each and every aspect of occupation-related health inequities, as analyzed from an ecosocial perspective. The engagement extends from basic surveillance to etiologic research, from conceptualization and measurement of variables to analysis and interpretation of data, from causal inference to preventive action, and from the political economy of work to the political economy of health. A basic point is that who is employed (or not) in what kinds of jobs, with what kinds of exposures, what kinds of treatment, and what kinds of job stability, benefits, and pay-as well as what evidence exists about these conditions and what action is taken to address them-depends on societal context. At issue are diverse aspects of people's social location within their societies, in relation to their jointly experienced-and embodied-realities of socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, nationality, nativity, immigration and citizen status, age, gender, and sexuality, among others. Reviewing the papers' findings, I discuss the scientific and real-world action challenges they pose. Recommendations include better conceptualization and measurement of socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity and also use of the health and human rights framework to further the public health mission of ensuring the conditions that enable people-including workers-to live healthy and dignified lives.

  8. Anti-Profit Beliefs: How People Neglect the Societal Benefits of Profit.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Amit; Dana, Jason; Baron, Jonathan

    2017-07-20

    Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U.S. firms and industries. Study 3 shows that hypothetical organizations are seen as doing more harm when they are labeled "for-profit" rather than "non-profit," while Study 4 shows that increasing harm to society is viewed as a strategy for increasing a hypothetical firm's long-run profitability. Studies 5-7 demonstrate that carefully prompting subjects to consider the long run incentives of profit can attenuate anti-profit beliefs, while prompting short run thinking does nothing relative to a control. Together, these results suggest that the default view of profits is zero-sum. While people readily grasp how profit can incentivize firms to engage in practices that harm others, they neglect how it can incentivize firms to engage in practices that benefit others. Accordingly, people's stereotypes of profit-seeking firms are excessively negative. Even in one of the most market-oriented societies in history, people doubt the contributions of profit-seeking industry to societal progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Societal challenges-oriented data-rich undergraduate teaching resources for geoscience classrooms and field courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Crosby, B. T.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Crosby, C. J.; Shervais, K.

    2016-12-01

    The NSF-funded GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI) project is developing modules for use in introductory and majors-level courses that emphasize a broad range of geodetic data and quantitative skills applied to societally important issues of climate change, natural hazards, and water resources (serc.carleton.edu/getsi). The modules fill gaps in existing undergraduate curricula, which seldom include geodetic methods. Published modules are "Ice mass and sea level changes", "Imaging active tectonics with LiDAR and InSAR", "Measuring water resources with GPS, gravity, and traditional methods", "Surface process hazards", and "GPS, strain, and earthquakes". The GETSI Field Collection features geodetic field techniques. The field-oriented module "Analyzing high resolution topography with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and structure from motion (SfM)" is already published and "High precision positioning with static and kinematic GPS" will be published in 2017. Modules are 1-3 weeks long and include student exercises, data analysis, and extensive supporting materials. For field modules, prepared data sets are provided for courses that cannot collect field data directly. All modules were designed and developed by teams of faculty and content experts and underwent rigorous review and classroom testing. Collaborating institutions are UNAVCO (which runs NSF's Geodetic Facility), Indiana University, Mt San Antonio College, and Idaho State University. Science Education Resource Center (SERC) is providing assessment and evaluation expertise. If future funding is successful, the topic range will be expanded (e.g., volcanic hazards, more water resources, and ecological applications of geodesy). Funding to date has been provided by NSF's TUES (Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM) and IUSE (Improving Undergraduate STEM Education).

  10. Improving Societal Benefit Areas from Applications Enhanced by the Joint Polar Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    Applications of satellite data are paramount to transform science and technology to product and services which are used in critical decision making for societal benefits. For the satellite community, good representations of technology are the satellite sensors, while science provides the instrument calibration and derived geophysical parameters. Weather forecasting is an application of the science and technology provided by remote sensing satellites. The Joint Polar Satellite System, which includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) provides formidable science and technology to support many applications and includes support to 1) weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are used to forecast weather events out to 7 days - nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites; 2) environmental monitoring -data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color; and 3) climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be presented along with how the data and applications support a large number of societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS).

  11. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion (indicated by chronic low back pain and localized pathology) were randomized 3 months after their spinal fusion. Validated pain- and disability index scales were applied at baseline and at 2 years postoperative. Costs were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. The probability of the behavioural approach being cost-effective was close to 1 given pain as the prioritized effect measure, and 0.8 to 0.6 (dependent on willingness to pay per effect unit) given disability as the prioritized effect measure. The probability of the exercise therapy approach being cost-effective was modest due to inferior effectiveness. Results proved robust to relevant sensitivity analysis although a differentiated cost-effectiveness ratio between males and females was suspected. In conclusion, a simple behavioural extension, of setting up group meetings for patients, to a regimen with a strict physiotherapeutic focus was found cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency and guidance of a traditional physiotherapeutic regimen was unlikely in present trial setting.

  12. Retrospective Assessment of Cost Savings From Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D.; Berry, Robert J.; Tilford, J. Mick; Kucik, James E.; Waitzman, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although fortification of food with folic acid has been calculated to be cost saving in the U.S., updated estimates are needed. This analysis calculates new estimates from the societal perspective of net cost savings per year associated with mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products in the U.S. that was implemented during 1997–1998. Methods Estimates of annual numbers of live-born spina bifida cases in 1995–1996 relative to 1999–2011 based on birth defects surveillance data were combined during 2015 with published estimates of the present value of lifetime direct costs updated in 2014 U.S. dollars for a live-born infant with spina bifida to estimate avoided direct costs and net cost savings. Results The fortification mandate is estimated to have reduced the annual number of U.S. live-born spina bifida cases by 767, with a lower-bound estimate of 614. The present value of mean direct lifetime cost per infant with spina bifida is estimated to be $791,900, or $577,000 excluding caregiving costs. Using a best estimate of numbers of avoided live-born spina bifida cases, fortification is estimated to reduce the present value of total direct costs for each year's birth cohort by $603 million more than the cost of fortification. A lower-bound estimate of cost savings using conservative assumptions, including the upper-bound estimate of fortification cost, is $299 million. Conclusions The estimates of cost savings are larger than previously reported, even using conservative assumptions. The analysis can also inform assessments of folic acid fortification in other countries. PMID:26790341

  13. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  14. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels; Le Lay, Agathe; Hemels, Michiel E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS < or = 12 and treatment costs. Analyses were conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives. The human capital approach was used to estimate societal cost of lost productivity. Costs were reported in 2004 DDK. The expected overall 6-month remission rate was higher for escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.

  15. Societal perspective on access to publicly subsidised medicines: A cross sectional survey of 3080 adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Lesley; Salkeld, Glenn; Kelly, Patrick; Lipworth, Wendy; Hughes, Dyfrig A.; Stockler, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Around the world government agencies responsible for the selection and reimbursement of prescribed medicines and other health technologies are considering how best to bring community preferences into their decision making. In particular, community views about the distribution or equity of funding across the population. These official committees and agencies often have access to the best available and latest evidence on clinical effectiveness, safety and cost from large clinical trials and population-based studies. All too often they do not have access to high quality evidence about community views. We therefore, conducted a large and representative population-based survey in Australia to determine what community members think about the factors that do and should influence government spending on prescribed medicines. Methods A choice-based survey was designed to elicit the importance of individual criteria when considering the equity of government spending on prescribed medicines. A representative sample of 3080 adult Australians completed the survey by allocating a hypothetical budget to different combinations of money spent on two patient populations. Societal preferences were inferred from absolute majority responses i.e. populations with more than 50% of respondents’ allocation for a particular allocation criterion. Results This study shows that, all else being equal, severity of disease, diseases for which there is no alternative treatment available on the government formulary, diseases that affect patients who are not financially well off, and life-style unrelated diseases are supported by the public as resource allocation criteria. Where ‘all else is not equal’, participants allocated more resources to the patient population that gained considerable improvement in health and fewer resources to those that gained little improvement in health. This result held under all scenarios except for ‘end-of-life treatments’. Responses to cost (and

  16. The Cost-Effectiveness of New York City’s Safe Routes to School Program

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Michael; DiMaggio, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a package of roadway modifications in New York City funded under the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program. Methods. We used a Markov model to estimate long-term impacts of SRTS on injury reduction and the associated savings in medical costs, lifelong disability, and death. Model inputs included societal costs (in 2013 US dollars) and observed spatiotemporal changes in injury rates associated with New York City’s implementation of SRTS relative to control intersections. Structural changes to roadways were assumed to last 50 years before further investment is required. Therefore, costs were discounted over 50 consecutive cohorts of modified roadway users under SRTS. Results. SRTS was associated with an overall net societal benefit of $230 million and 2055 quality-adjusted life years gained in New York City. Conclusions. SRTS reduces injuries and saves money over the long run. PMID:24832430

  17. Parent-Offspring Value Transmission in a Societal Context: Suggestions for a Utopian Research Design--With Empirical Underpinnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnke, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Puts intrafamilial value transmission into a societal context, using data from a study of university student-parents triads to show why a unified research approach is necessary. All conservation values were more important to the parents than the offspring, while the reverse was found for self-transcendence versus self-enhancement values. (SM)

  18. USGEO National Earth Observation Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Earth Observing Systems to Societal Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The second National Civil Earth Observation Assessment identifies the inputs and relative contributions of the portfolio of observing systems currently relied upon by Federal agencies to meet key Earth observing objectives. The Assessment employs a hierarchical value-tree framework that traces the pathways through which Earth observing systems contribute value across 13 societal benefit areas, utilizing multiple levels to provide logical traceability. This presentation describes the methods used to construct societal benefit area value-trees that include key objectives and the information products, services, and research derived from Earth observations that help satisfy them. It describes the methods for weighting nodes at multiple levels of each value-tree and the expert elicitation process for assessing the relative contributions of Earth observing systems to the development of information products, services, and research. The methodology employed in the Assessment is especially useful at assessing the interdependence and relative contributions of multiple Earth observing systems on the development of blended information products and tracing information pathways from direct observations through intermediate products, such as models, to end-products used to improve decision-making. This presentation will highlight case study examples from the 13 societal benefit areas (agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy and mineral resources, human health, ocean and costal resources, space weather, transportation, water resources weather, and reference measurements) to demonstrate tractability from Earth observing systems, through information products and research that satisfy key objectives, to societal benefit.

  19. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  20. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  1. The Evolution of English Language Teaching during Societal Transition in Finland--A Mutual Relationship or a Distinctive Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaatinen, Riitta; Saarivirta, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the evolution of English language teaching in Finland and looks into the connections of the societal and educational changes in the country as explanatory factors in the process. The results of the study show that the language teaching methodology and the status of foreign languages in Finland are clearly connected to the…

  2. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  3. Societal Culture and the Changing Role of School Principals in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakavets, Natallia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of societal and cultural factors on the practices and perceptions of school principals in Kazakhstan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical data collected in Kazakhstan over two years in the course of an international, collaborative, multi-stranded project. Findings:…

  4. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  5. The Use of Engineering Design Scenarios to Assess Student Knowledge of Global, Societal, Economic, and Environmental Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on…

  6. Societal Culture and the Changing Role of School Principals in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakavets, Natallia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of societal and cultural factors on the practices and perceptions of school principals in Kazakhstan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical data collected in Kazakhstan over two years in the course of an international, collaborative, multi-stranded project. Findings:…

  7. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  8. The Use of Engineering Design Scenarios to Assess Student Knowledge of Global, Societal, Economic, and Environmental Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on…

  9. STAPOL: A Simulation of the Impact of Policy, Values, and Technological and Societal Developments upon the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Dennis; Feller, Richard

    The Institute for the Future has been conducting research in technological and societal forecasting, social indicators, value change, and simulation gaming. This paper describes an effort to bring together parts of that research into a simulation game ("State Policy," or STAPOL) for analysis of the impact of government policy, social values, and…

  10. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  11. Cost-effectiveness Assessment of Cardiac Interventions: Determining a Socially Acceptable Cost Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Zhang, Zugui; Weiss, Sandra A; Weintraub, William S

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a vital good for which there is an infinite demand. However, societal resources are finite and need to be distributed efficiently to avoid waste. Thus, the relative value of an intervention – cost compared to its effectiveness- needs to be taken into consideration when deciding which interventions to adopt. Cost-effectiveness analysis provides the crucial information which guides these decisions. As the field of medicine and indeed cardiology move forward with innovations which are effective but often expensive, it becomes imperative to employ these cost-effectiveness analytic tools, not with the intention of denying vital health services but to ascertain what the society willing to pay for. PMID:26136831

  12. The Finnish experience to save asthma costs by improving care in 1987-2013.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari; Herse, Fredrik; Karjalainen, Jussi; Klaukka, Timo; Linna, Miika; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Selroos, Olof; Reissell, Eeva

    2017-02-01

    The Finnish National Asthma Program 1994-2004 markedly improved asthma care in the 1990s. We evaluated the changes in costs during 26 years from 1987 to 2013. Direct and indirect costs were calculated by using data from national registries. Costs from both the societal and patient perspectives were included. The costs were based on patients with persistent, physician-diagnosed asthma verified by lung function measurements. We constructed minimum and maximum scenarios to assess the effect of improved asthma care on total costs. The number of patients with persistent asthma in the national drug reimbursement register increased from 83,000 to 247,583. Improved asthma control reduced health care use and disability, resulting in major cost savings. Despite a 3-fold increase in patients, the total costs decreased by 14%, from €222 million to €191 million. Costs for medication and primary care visits increased, but overall annual costs per patient decreased by 72%, from €2656 to €749. The theoretical total cost savings for 2013, comparing actual with predicted costs, were between €120 and €475 million, depending on the scenario used. The Finnish Asthma Program resulted in significant cost savings at both the societal and patient levels during a 26-year period. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Personal genome testing: test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues.

    PubMed

    Bunnik, Eline M; Schermer, Maartje H N; Janssens, A Cecile J W

    2011-06-14

    As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Consideration

  14. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal

  15. Tracing the indirect societal impacts of biomedical research: development and piloting of a technique based on citations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Teresa H; Hanney, Steve

    There is growing interest in assessing the societal impacts of research such as informing health policies and clinical practice, and contributing to improved health. Bibliometric approaches have long been used to assess knowledge outputs, but can they also help evaluate societal impacts? We aimed to see how far the societal impacts could be traced by identifying key research articles in the psychiatry/neuroscience area and exploring their societal impact through analysing several generations of citing papers. Informed by a literature review of citation categorisation, we developed a prototype template to qualitatively assess a reference's importance to the citing paper and tested it on 96 papers. We refined the template for a pilot study to assess the importance of citations, including self-cites, to four key research articles. We then similarly assessed citations to those citing papers for which the key article was Central i.e. it was very important to the message of the citing article. We applied a filter of three or more citation occasions in order to focus on the citing articles where the reference was most likely to be Central. We found the reference was Central for 4.4 % of citing research articles overall and ten times more frequently if the article contained three or more citation occasions. We created a citation stream of influence for each key paper across up to five generations of citations. We searched the Web of Science for citations to all Central papers and identified societal impacts, including international clinical guidelines citing papers across the generations.

  16. Rationale for cost-effective laboratory medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A

    1994-01-01

    There is virtually universal consensus that the health care system in the United States is too expensive and that costs need to be limited. Similar to health care costs in general, clinical laboratory expenditures have increased rapidly as a result of increased utilization and inflationary trends within the national economy. Economic constraints require that a compromise be reached between individual welfare and limited societal resources. Public pressure and changing health care needs have precipitated both subtle and radical laboratory changes to more effectively use allocated resources. Responsibility for excessive laboratory use can be assigned primarily to the following four groups: practicing physicians, physicians in training, patients, and the clinical laboratory. The strategies to contain escalating health care costs have ranged from individualized physician education programs to government intervention. Laboratories have responded to the fiscal restraints imposed by prospective payment systems by attempting to reduce operational costs without adversely impacting quality. Although cost containment directed at misutilization and overutilization of existing services has conserved resources, to date, an effective cost control mechanism has yet to be identified and successfully implemented on a grand enough scale to significantly impact health care expenditures in the United States. PMID:8055467

  17. Acceptable cost for the patient and society.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Georgina M; Adamson, G David; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    2013-08-01

    Alongside the debate around clinical, scientific, and ethical aspects of assisted reproductive technology (ART), there exists a parallel debate around the economics of ART treatment and what is the most appropriate funding framework for providing safe, equitable, and cost-effective treatment. The cost of ART treatment from a patient perspective exhibits striking differences worldwide due to the costliness of underlying health care systems and the level of public and third-party subsidization. These relative cost differences affect not only who can afford to access ART treatment but how ART is practiced in terms of embryo transfer practices; in turn significantly impacting the health outcomes and costs of caring for ART conceived children. Although empirical evidence indicates that ART treatment is "good value money" from a societal and patient perspective, the challenge remains to communicate this to policy makers, primarily because fertility treatments are not easily accommodated by traditional health economic methods. Furthermore, with global demand for ART treatment likely to increase, it is important that future funding decisions are informed by what has been learned about how costs and economic incentives influence equity of access and clinical practice. In this review we provide an international perspective on the costs and consequences of ART and summarize key economic considerations from the perspective of ART patients, providers, and society as a whole in the coming decade. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Burden of epilepsy: a prevalence-based cost of illness study of direct, indirect and intangible costs for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Xia, Li; Pan, Song-Qing; Xiong, Tao; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to gauge the burden of epilepsy in China from a societal perspective by estimating the direct, indirect and intangible costs. Patients with epilepsy and controls were enrolled from two tertiary hospitals in China. Patients were asked to complete a Cost-of-Illness (COI), Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) questionnaires, two utility elicitation instruments and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Healthy controls only completed WTP questionnaire, and utility instruments. Univariate analyses were performed to investigate the differences in cost on the basis of different variables, while multivariate analysis was undertaken to explore the predictors of cost/cost component. In total, 141 epilepsy patients and 323 healthy controls were recruited. The median total cost, direct cost and indirect cost due to epilepsy were US$949.29, 501.34 and 276.72, respectively. Particularly, cost of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) (US$394.53) followed by cost of investigations (US$59.34), cost of inpatient and outpatient care (US$9.62) accounted for the majority of the direct medical costs. While patients' (US$103.77) and caregivers' productivity costs (US$103.77) constituted the major component of indirect cost. The intangible costs in terms of WTP value (US$266.07 vs. 88.22) and utility (EQ-5D, 0.828 vs. 0.923; QWB-SA, 0.657 vs. 0.802) were both substantially higher compared to the healthy subjects. Epilepsy is a cost intensive disease in China. According to the prognostic groups, drug-resistant epilepsy generated the highest total cost whereas patients in seizure remission had the lowest cost. AED is the most costly component of direct medical cost probably due to 83% of patients being treated by new generation of AEDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  20. The Needs of the Highly Able and the Needs of Society: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Talent Differentiation and Its Significance to Gifted Education and Issues of Societal Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    Does gifted education affect societal inequality, and does societal inequality suppress and/or distort the development of high ability? Drawing from several academic disciplines and current political discourse, a differentiated use of terms used to describe the highly able is explored in this article. A social evolutionary framework is proposed as…

  1. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Treesearch

    Tina Simonèiè; Thomas A. Spies; Robert L. Deal; Andrej Bonèina

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal...

  2. Improving value measurement in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ubel, P A; Nord, E; Gold, M; Menzel, P; Prades, J L; Richardson, J

    2000-09-01

    Before cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can fulfill its promise as a tool to guide health care allocation decisions, the method of incorporating societal values into CEA may need to be improved. The study design was a declarative exposition of potential fallacies in the theoretical underpinnings of CEA. Two values held by many people-preferences for giving priority to severely ill patients and preferences to avoid discrimination against people who have limited treatment potential because of disability or chronic illness-that are not currently incorporated into CEA are discussed. Traditional CEA, through the measurement of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is constrained because of a "QALY trap." If, for example, saving the life of a person with paraplegia is equally valuable as saving the life of a person without paraplegia, then current QALY methods force us to conclude that curing paraplegia brings no benefit. Basing cost-effectiveness measurement on societal values rather than QALYs may allow us to better capture public rationing preferences, thereby escaping the QALY trap. CEA can accommodate a wider range of such societal values about fairness in its measurements by amending its methodology.

  3. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  4. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  5. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  6. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  7. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission contributions to hydrology and societal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D.; Huffman, G. J.; Skofronick Jackson, G.

    2016-12-01

    Too much or too little rain can serve as a tipping point for triggering catastrophic flooding and landslides or widespread drought. Knowing when, where and how much rain is falling globally is vital to understanding how vulnerable areas may be more or less impacted by these disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission provides near real-time precipitation data worldwide that is used by a broad range of end users, from tropical cyclone forecasters to agricultural modelers to researchers evaluating the spread of diseases. The GPM constellation provides merged, multi-satellite data products at three latencies that are critical for research and societal applications around the world. This presentation will outline current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society, including examples of end user applications within the tropical cyclone forecasting, disasters response, agricultural forecasting, and disease tracking communities, among others. The presentation will also introduce some of the new visualization and access tools developed by the GPM team.

  8. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pijnacker, Roan; Heusinkveld, Moniek; Enserink, Remko; Zuidema, Rody; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-02-26

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children experienced AGE (0.95 episodes/parent-year and 2.25 episodes/child-year). Healthcare utilization was 18.3% (children) and 8.6% (parents), with 1.6% children hospitalized. Work absenteeism was 55.6% (median 1.5 days) and day-care absenteeism was 26.2% (median 1 day). Besides chronic enteropathies, antacid use, non-breastfeeding, and toddling age, risk factors for childhood AGE were having developmental disabilities, parental occupation in healthcare, multiple siblings, single-parent families, and ≤ 12-month day-care attendance. Risk factors for parental AGE were female gender, having multiple or developmentally-disabled day-care-attending children, antimicrobial use, and poor food-handling practices. Parents of AGE-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold increased AGE risk. We concluded that AGE-causing agents spread widely in families with preschool children, causing high healthcare-seeking behaviours and productivity losses. Modifiable risk factors provide targets for AGE-reducing initiatives. Children may acquire some immunity to AGE after one year of day-care attendance.

  9. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  10. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  11. Statistically small effects of the Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Anthony G; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, and Banaji (2009; GPUB hereafter) reported an average predictive validity correlation of r̄ = .236 for Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures involving Black-White racial attitudes and stereotypes. Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013; OMBJT) reported a lower aggregate figure for correlations involving IAT measures (r̄ = .148). The difference between the estimates of the 2 reviews was due mostly to their use of different policies for including effect sizes. GPUB limited their study to findings that assessed theoretically expected attitude-behavior and stereotype-judgment correlations along with others that the authors expected to show positive correlations. OMBJT included a substantial minority of correlations for which there was no theoretical expectation of a predictive relationship. Regardless of inclusion policy, both meta-analyses estimated aggregate correlational effect sizes that were large enough to explain discriminatory impacts that are societally significant either because they can affect many people simultaneously or because they can repeatedly affect single persons. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Good governance and good health: The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic.

    PubMed

    Menon-Johansson, Anatole S

    2005-04-25

    BACKGROUND: Only governments sensitive to the demands of their citizens appropriately respond to needs of their nation. Based on Professor Amartya Sen's analysis of the link between famine and democracy, the following null hypothesis was tested: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is not associated with governance". METHODS: Governance has been divided by a recent World Bank paper into six dimensions. These include Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and the Control of Corruption. The 2002 adult HIV prevalence estimates were obtained from UNAIDS. Additional health and economic variables were collected from multiple sources to illustrate the development needs of countries. RESULTS: The null hypothesis was rejected for each dimension of governance for all 149 countries with UNAIDS HIV prevalence estimates. When these nations were divided into three groups, the median (range) HIV prevalence estimates remained constant at 0.7% (0.05 - 33.7%) and 0.75% (0.05% - 33.4%) for the lower and middle mean governance groups respectively despite improvements in other health and economic indices. The median HIV prevalence estimates in the higher mean governance group was 0.2% (0.05 - 38.8%). CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence is significantly associated with poor governance. International public health programs need to address societal structures in order to create strong foundations upon which effective healthcare interventions can be implemented.

  13. Infrastructure for collaborative science and societal applications in the Columbia River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, António M.; Seaton, Charles; Wilkin, Michael P.; Riseman, Sarah F.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Maier, David; Turner, Paul J.; Kärnä, Tuomas; Lopez, Jesse E.; Herfort, Lydie; Megler, V. M.; McNeil, Craig; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Spitz, Yvette H.; Simon, Holly M.

    2015-12-01

    To meet societal needs, modern estuarine science needs to be interdisciplinary and collaborative, combine discovery with hypotheses testing, and be responsive to issues facing both regional and global stakeholders. Such an approach is best conducted with the benefit of data-rich environments, where information from sensors and models is openly accessible within convenient timeframes. Here, we introduce the operational infrastructure of one such data-rich environment, a collaboratory created to support (a) interdisciplinary research in the Columbia River estuary by the multi-institutional team of investigators of the Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction and (b) the integration of scientific knowledge into regional decision making. Core components of the operational infrastructure are an observation network, a modeling system and a cyber-infrastructure, each of which is described. The observation network is anchored on an extensive array of long-term stations, many of them interdisciplinary, and is complemented by on-demand deployment of temporary stations and mobile platforms, often in coordinated field campaigns. The modeling system is based on finiteelement unstructured-grid codes and includes operational and process-oriented simulations of circulation, sediments and ecosystem processes. The flow of information is managed through a dedicated cyber-infrastructure, conversant with regional and national observing systems.

  14. Ecologising Societal Metabolism and Recycling of Phosphorus At Household and Neighbourhood Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, B.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    The pressures of humanity on a fragile water resource base, and the corresponding need for environmental and freshwater protection requires that human excreta and other societal wastes (solid and liquid) be recycled and used as a resource. The Bel- lagio principles underpin the basis for this new approach to environmental sanitation. There are two main concepts emanating from the Bellagio principles, which make the basis of this paper. Firstly, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) puts the household at the focal point of environmental sanitation planning and; sec- ondly, the Circular System of Resource Management (CSRM) that emphasises conser- vation, local recycling and reuse of resources. Recycling of Phosphorus (P) in urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) is used in this paper to assess the feasibility of these concepts. An inventory of annual P-fluxes based on characterisation of input goods, processes, transformation, output fluxes and storage was conducted for a high-density suburb in Harare, Zimbabwe where agriculture is already a major activity. Using systems thinking approach and material flow account- ing two compartments or subsystems are defined to enable accounting and analysis of P-bearing materials. The "household" (consumption/use and excretion/waste) and "agriculture" (soil-plant interaction). With a population of about 100 000 inhabitants, P inflows amount to about 26 600 kg/a and 1 900 kg/a as food/beverages and deter- gents respectively within the "household" subsystem. Storage is taken as negligible, whilst 85

  15. Individual, organizational, and societal empowerment: a study of the processes in a Nicaraguan agricultural cooperative.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, C J

    1995-10-01

    Defined and examined the personal (material and psychological), organizational, and societal goals of empowerment. This exploration of empowerment was primarily based on 7 months of participant observation in an agricultural cooperative in Nicaragua in 1989. The research focused on the perspectives of the participants, internal program functioning, and relations to local organizations and the national context. This study shows that some factors in the cooperative setting enhanced empowerment at each level, while others impeded its development. The cooperative met immediate needs, and provided social status and a degree of autonomy in society. Its structure allowed for broad participating in decision making and control. "Sense-making" and informal consciousness-raising processes facilitated psychological empowerment. These processes were hidden in apparent disorganization and thus not recognized by local service providers. Fears of speaking in meetings and the reluctance to face crises were intense and influential. Opinions and behavior of outsiders and the environmental context, although seemingly helpful, also had detrimental effects. Parallels are drawn to empowerment theory and findings from other populations.

  16. Societal Projection: Beliefs Concerning the Relationship between Development and Inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Thornton, Arland; Wang, Guangzhou; Lai, Qing

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the relationship between development and inequality at the societal level is perceived and evaluated by ordinary Chinese people. We hypothesize that because the Chinese have recently experienced rapid increases in both economic growth and social inequality, they tend to view economic development as a driving force of social inequality. To address this question, we conducted a social survey in 2006 in six Chinese provinces (n = 4,898). The survey data reveal that a large proportion of Chinese people have internalized a causal model in which they project high levels of inequality onto countries they view as more developed and low levels of inequality onto countries they see as less developed. However, results also show that a smaller proportion of Chinese believe in a negative relationship between development and inequality. Hence, the study reveals heterogeneity among ordinary Chinese in their perceptions of the causal relationship between development and inequality. Surprisingly, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics provide no explanatory power in explaining this heterogeneity. PMID:23017918

  17. VASA: Interactive Computational Steering of Large Asynchronous Simulation Pipelines for Societal Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sungahn; Zhao, Jieqiong; Xia, Jing; Afzal, Shehzad; Wang, Xiaoyu; Abram, Greg; Elmqvist, Niklas; Kne, Len; Van Riper, David; Gaither, Kelly; Kennedy, Shaun; Tolone, William; Ribarsky, William; Ebert, David S

    2014-12-01

    We present VASA, a visual analytics platform consisting of a desktop application, a component model, and a suite of distributed simulation components for modeling the impact of societal threats such as weather, food contamination, and traffic on critical infrastructure such as supply chains, road networks, and power grids. Each component encapsulates a high-fidelity simulation model that together form an asynchronous simulation pipeline: a system of systems of individual simulations with a common data and parameter exchange format. At the heart of VASA is the Workbench, a visual analytics application providing three distinct features: (1) low-fidelity approximations of the distributed simulation components using local simulation proxies to enable analysts to interactively configure a simulation run; (2) computational steering mechanisms to manage the execution of individual simulation components; and (3) spatiotemporal and interactive methods to explore the combined results of a simulation run. We showcase the utility of the platform using examples involving supply chains during a hurricane as well as food contamination in a fast food restaurant chain.

  18. Brief Communication: Likelihood of societal preparedness for global change: trend detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. M.; Rosner, A.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2013-07-01

    Anthropogenic influences on earth system processes are now pervasive, resulting in trends in river discharge, pollution levels, ocean levels, precipitation, temperature, wind, landslides, bird and plant populations and a myriad of other important natural hazards relating to earth system state variables. Thousands of trend detection studies have been published which report the statistical significance of observed trends. Unfortunately, such studies only concentrate on the null hypothesis of "no trend". Little or no attention is given to the power of such statistical trend tests, which would quantify the likelihood that we might ignore a trend if it really existed. The probability of missing the trend, if it exists, known as the type II error, informs us about the likelihood of whether or not society is prepared to accommodate and respond to such trends. We describe how the power or probability of detecting a trend if it exists, depends critically on our ability to develop improved multivariate deterministic and statistical methods for predicting future trends in earth system processes. Several other research and policy implications for improving our understanding of trend detection and our societal response to those trends are discussed.

  19. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, D.W.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Wuy, L.D.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

  20. Assessing societal vulnerability of U.S. Pacific Northwest communities to storm-induced coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Heather M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ruggerio, Peter; Allan, Jonathan; Corcoran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Progressive increases in storm intensities and extreme wave heights have been documented along the U.S. West Coast. Paired with global sea level rise and the potential for an increase in El Niño occurrences, these trends have substantial implications for the vulnerability of coastal communities to natural coastal hazards. Community vulnerability to hazards is characterized by the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of human-environmental systems that influence potential impacts. To demonstrate how societal vulnerability to coastal hazards varies with both physical and social factors, we compared community exposure and sensitivity to storm-induced coastal change scenarios in Tillamook (Oregon) and Pacific (Washington) Counties. While both are backed by low-lying coastal dunes, communities in these two counties have experienced different shoreline change histories and have chosen to use the adjacent land in different ways. Therefore, community vulnerability varies significantly between the two counties. Identifying the reasons for this variability can help land-use managers make decisions to increase community resilience and reduce vulnerability in spite of a changing climate.

  1. Societal values and policies may curtail preschool children's physical activity in child care centers.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Saelens, Brian E

    2012-02-01

    Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children's physical activity in child care centers. Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. We identified 3 main barriers to children's physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on "academics." Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children--safety and school readiness--may be hindering children's physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children's health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies.

  2. Component costs of foodborne illness: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McLinden, Taylor; Sargeant, Jan M; Thomas, M Kate; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Fazil, Aamir

    2014-05-26

    Governments require high-quality scientific evidence to prioritize resource allocation and the cost-of-illness (COI) methodology is one technique used to estimate the economic burden of a disease. However, variable cost inventories make it difficult to interpret and compare costs across multiple studies. A scoping review was conducted to identify the component costs and the respective data sources used for estimating the cost of foodborne illnesses in a population. This review was accomplished by: (1) identifying the research question and relevant literature, (2) selecting the literature, (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the results. All pertinent data were extracted at the level of detail reported in a study, and the component cost and source data were subsequently grouped into themes. Eighty-four studies were identified that described the cost of foodborne illness in humans. Most studies (80%) were published in the last two decades (1992-2012) in North America and Europe. The 10 most frequently estimated costs were due to illnesses caused by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. being the most commonly studied. Forty studies described both individual (direct and indirect) and societal level costs. The direct individual level component costs most often included were hospital services, physician personnel, and drug costs. The most commonly reported indirect individual level component cost was productivity losses due to sick leave from work. Prior estimates published in the literature were the most commonly used source of component cost data. Data sources were not provided or specifically linked to component costs in several studies. The results illustrated a highly variable depth and breadth of individual and societal level component costs, and a wide range of data sources being used. This scoping review can be used as evidence that there is a lack of standardization in cost inventories in the cost of foodborne illness literature

  3. Component costs of foodborne illness: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments require high-quality scientific evidence to prioritize resource allocation and the cost-of-illness (COI) methodology is one technique used to estimate the economic burden of a disease. However, variable cost inventories make it difficult to interpret and compare costs across multiple studies. Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify the component costs and the respective data sources used for estimating the cost of foodborne illnesses in a population. This review was accomplished by: (1) identifying the research question and relevant literature, (2) selecting the literature, (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the results. All pertinent data were extracted at the level of detail reported in a study, and the component cost and source data were subsequently grouped into themes. Results Eighty-four studies were identified that described the cost of foodborne illness in humans. Most studies (80%) were published in the last two decades (1992–2012) in North America and Europe. The 10 most frequently estimated costs were due to illnesses caused by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. being the most commonly studied. Forty studies described both individual (direct and indirect) and societal level costs. The direct individual level component costs most often included were hospital services, physician personnel, and drug costs. The most commonly reported indirect individual level component cost was productivity losses due to sick leave from work. Prior estimates published in the literature were the most commonly used source of component cost data. Data sources were not provided or specifically linked to component costs in several studies. Conclusions The results illustrated a highly variable depth and breadth of individual and societal level component costs, and a wide range of data sources being used. This scoping review can be used as evidence that there is a lack of standardization in cost inventories in

  4. Cost-effectiveness of gemifloxacin: results from the GLOBE study.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Michael T; Palmer, Cynthia S; Zodet, Marc; Kirsch, Jeff

    2002-07-15

    The cost-effectiveness of treatment with oral gemifloxacin versus oral clarithromycin for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) was evaluated. Economic outcomes were assessed for the Gemifloxacin Long-term Outcomes in Bronchitis Exacerbations study. This prospective double-blind, controlled, health outcomes study compared health, economic, and clinical outcomes after randomized treatment with either oral gemifloxacin or oral clarithromycin for AECB. Base case analysis was performed from the third-party payer's perspective and considered the costs of respiratory tract infection-related medical care. Analysis from the societal perspective also included costs of lost productivity. Treatment effectiveness was measured as the proportion of patients without recurrence requiring antimicrobial treatment following resolution of the initial AECB. Data sources included the outcomes study itself and standard U.S. cost sources. Compared with clarithromycin, gemifloxacin treatment resulted in significantly more patients without AECB recurrence requiring antimicrobial treatment after 26 weeks (73.8% versus 63.8%, p = 0.024). Fewer patients receiving gemifloxacin were hospitalized (5 of 214 patients versus 14 of 224 patients, p = 0.059), and they had less time off from usual activities (8.3 days versus 10.1 days). The mean direct cost per patient receiving gemifloxacin was $127 less than with clarithromycin ($247 versus $374, respectively); mean total costs (direct plus indirect) per patient were $329 less for patients receiving gemifloxacin ($1413 versus $1742). Gemifloxacin dominated clarithromycin in cost-effectiveness analysis. Bootstrap analysis indicated that the probability of gemifloxacin being both cost saving and more effective than clarithromycin is 88% from a payer's perspective and 84% from the societal perspective. Gemifloxacin was more cost-effective, improving AECB outcomes and producing substantial cost offsets compared with clarithromycin.

  5. Costs of Illness Due to Cholera, Costs of Immunization and Cost-Effectiveness of an Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaign in Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Reyburn, Rita; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J.; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as a supplementary tool to conventional prevention of cholera. Dukoral, a killed whole-cell two-dose OCV, was used in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in Zanzibar. Public and private costs of illness (COI) due to endemic cholera and costs of the mass vaccination campaign were estimated to assess the cost-effectiveness of OCV for this particular campaign from both the health care provider and the societal perspective. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and private COI were obtained from interviews with local experts, with patients from three outbreaks and from reports and record review. Cost data for the vaccination campaign were collected based on actual expenditure and planned budget data. A static cohort of 50,000 individuals was examined, including herd protection. Primary outcome measures were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) per death, per case and per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. One-way sensitivity and threshold analyses were conducted. The ICER was evaluated with regard to WHO criteria for cost-effectiveness. Base-case ICERs were USD 750,000 per death averted, USD 6,000 per case averted and USD 30,000 per DALY averted, without differences between the health care provider and the societal perspective. Threshold analyses using Shanchol and assuming high incidence and case-fatality rate indicated that the purchase price per course would have to be as low as USD 1.2 to render the mass vaccination campaign cost-effective from a health care provider perspective (societal perspective: USD 1.3). Conclusions/Significance Based on empirical and site-specific cost and effectiveness data from Zanzibar, the 2009 mass vaccination campaign was cost-ineffective mainly due to the relatively high OCV purchase price and a relatively low incidence. However, mass vaccination campaigns in Zanzibar to control endemic cholera may meet criteria for cost

  6. Cost-utility of exercise therapy in patients with hip osteoarthritis in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tan, S S; Teirlinck, C H; Dekker, J; Goossens, L M A; Bohnen, A M; Verhaar, J A N; van Es, P P; Koes, B W; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Luijsterburg, P A J; Koopmanschap, M A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness (CE) of exercise therapy (intervention group) compared to 'general practitioner (GP) care' (control group) in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. This cost-utility analysis was conducted with 120 GPs in the Netherlands from the societal and healthcare perspective. Data on direct medical costs, productivity costs and quality of life (QoL) was collected using standardised questionnaires which were sent to the patients at baseline and at 6, 13, 26, 39 and 52 weeks follow-up. All costs were based on Euro 2011 cost data. A total of 203 patients were included. The annual direct medical costs per patient were significantly lower for the intervention group (€ 1233) compared to the control group (€ 1331). The average annual societal costs per patient were lower in the intervention group (€ 2634 vs € 3241). Productivity costs were higher than direct medical costs. There was a very small adjusted difference in QoL of 0.006 in favour of the control group (95% CI: -0.04 to +0.02). Our study revealed that exercise therapy is probably cost saving, without the risk of noteworthy negative health effects. NTR1462. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Treatments for Heroin Dependence in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. Design We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants’ time were estimated using Malaysia’s minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Setting Muar, Malaysia. Participants 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003–2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Measurements Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Findings Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term. PMID:23226534

  8. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Muar, Malaysia. 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Utility Analysis of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients With Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Results From the PRECISE Study.

    PubMed

    Zucco, Furio; Ciampichini, Roberta; Lavano, Angelo; Costantini, Amedeo; De Rose, Marisa; Poli, Paolo; Fortini, Gianpaolo; Demartini, Laura; De Simone, Enrico; Menardo, Valentino; Cisotto, Piero; Meglio, Mario; Scalone, Luciana; Mantovani, Lorenzo G

    2015-06-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) refractory to conventional medical management (CMM). We conducted an observational, multicenter, longitudinal ambispective study, where patients with predominant leg pain refractory to CMM expecting to receive SCS+CMM were recruited in 9 Italian centers and followed up to 24 months after SCS. We collected data on clinical status (pain intensity, disability), Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) and on direct and indirect costs before (pre-SCS) and after (post-SCS) the SCS intervention. Costs were quantified in € 2009, adopting the National Health Service's (NHS), patient and societal perspectives. Benefits and costs pre-SCS versus post-SCS were compared to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost utility ratios. 80 patients (40% male, mean age 58 years) were recruited. Between baseline and 24 months post-SCS, clinical outcomes and HRQoL significantly improved. The EQ-5D utility index increased from 0.421 to 0.630 (p < 0.0001). Statistically significant improvement was first observed six months post-SCS. Societal costs increased from €6600 (pre-SCS) to €13,200 (post-SCS) per patient per year. Accordingly, the cost-utility acceptability curve suggested that if decision makers' willingness to pay per Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs) was €60,000, SCS implantation would be cost-effective in 80% and 85% of cases, according to the NHS's and societal point of views, respectively. Our results suggest that in clinical practice, SCS+CMM treatment of FBSS patients refractory to CMM provides good value for money. Further research is encouraged in the form of larger, long-term studies. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. Costs of dengue prevention and incremental cost of dengue outbreak control in Guantanamo, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Baly, Albe