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Sample records for sodium starch glycolate

  1. Thermal porosity analysis of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Faroongsarng, Damrongsak; Peck, Garnet E

    2003-12-30

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the applicability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on porosity analysis for cellulose and starch. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were allowed to sorb moisture in 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 40 degrees C for 24 hours. The pretreated samples were then subjected to DSC running temperature ranging from 25 degrees C to -50 degrees C at a cooling rate of 10 degrees C/min. The cooling traces of water crystallization, if present, were transformed to porosity distribution via capillary condensation using Kelvin's equation. The porosity analysis of CCS and SSG was also done using nitrogen adsorption as a reference method. It was found that sorbed water could not be frozen (in cases of 85% and 90% RH) until the moisture content exceeded a cutoff value (in cases of 95% and 100% RH). The nonfreezable moisture content was referred to tightly bound, plasticizing water, whereas the frozen one may be attributed to loosely bound water condensation in pore structure of CCS and SSG surfaces. Not only capillary condensation but also the tightly bound, nonfreezable monolayer water lying along the inner pores of the surface contributed to porosity determination. Good agreement with less than 5% deviation of mean pore size was observed when the results were compared with nitrogen adsorption. The narrower pore size distributions, however, were obtained because of the limitations of the technique. It was concluded that pore analysis by DSC could be successful. Further research needs to be done to account for limitations and to extend the applicability of the technique.

  2. A Study of Moisture Sorption and Dielectric Processes of Starch and Sodium Starch Glycolate : Theme: Formulation and Manufacturing of Solid Dosage Forms Guest Editors: Tony Zhou and Tonglei Li.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Huang, Rongying; Popov, Ivan; Feldman, Yuri; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the potential of combining the use of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric relaxation profiles of starch and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) to probe the location of moisture in dried and hydrated samples. Starch and SSG samples, dried and hydrated, were prepared. For hydrated samples, their moisture contents were determined. The samples were probed by dielectric spectroscopy using a frequency band of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz to investigate their moisture-related relaxation profiles. The moisture sorption and desorption isotherms of starch and SSG were generated using a vapor sorption analyzer, and modeled using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. A clear high frequency relaxation process was detected in both dried and hydrated starches, while for dried starch, an additional slower low frequency process was also detected. The high frequency relaxation processes in hydrated and dried starches were assigned to the coupled starch-hydrated water relaxation. The low frequency relaxation in dried starch was attributed to the local chain motions of the starch backbone. No relaxation process associated with water was detected in both hydrated and dried SSG within the frequency and temperature range used in this study. The moisture sorption isotherms of SSG suggest the presence of high energy free water, which could have masked the relaxation process of the bound water during dielectric measurements. The combined study of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric spectroscopy was shown to be beneficial and complementary in probing the effects of moisture on the relaxation processes of starch and SSG.

  3. Mechanistic understanding of the link between Sodium Starch Glycolate properties and the performance of tablets made by wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Wren, S A C; Alhusban, F; Barry, A R; Hughes, L P

    2017-08-30

    The impact of varying Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) grade and wet granulation intensity on the mechanism of disintegration and dissolution of mannitol-based Immediate Release (IR) placebo tablets was investigated. MRI and 1 H NMR provided mechanistic insight, and revealed a four-fold range in both tablet disintegration and dissolution rates. MRI was used to quantify the rates of change in tablet volumes and the data fitted to a hydration/erosion model. Reduced levels of cross-linking change SSG from a swelling to a gelling matrix. The tablet hydration and dissolution rates are related to the viscosity at the tablet-solution interface, with high viscosities limiting mass transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

    2005-03-23

    The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels.

  5. Correlation of Phosphorus Cross-Linking to Hydration Rates in Sodium Starch Glycolate Tablet Disintegrants Using MRI.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anuji; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Ilott, Andrew J; Good, David; Murphy, Denette; Mcnamara, Daniel; Jerschow, Alexej; Mantri, Rao V

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of tablet disintegrants is valuable in the development of pharmaceutical solid dosage formulations. In this study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to understand the hydration behavior of a series of commercial sodium starch glycolate (SSG) samples, providing robust estimates of tablet disintegration rate that could be correlated with physicochemical properties of the SSGs, such as the extent of phosphorus (P) cross-linking as obtained from infra-red spectroscopy. Furthermore, elemental analysis together with powder X-ray diffraction has been used to quantify the presence of carboxymethyl groups and salt impurities, which also contribute to the disintegration behavior. The utility of Fast Low Angle SHot magnetic resonance imaging has been demonstrated as an approach to rapidly acquire approximations of the volume of a disintegrating tablet and, together with a robust voxel analysis routine, extract tablet disintegration rates. In this manner, a complete characterization of a series of SSG grades from different sources has been performed, showing the variability in their physicochemical properties and demonstrating a correlation between their disintegration rates and intrinsic characteristics. The insights obtained will be a valuable aid in the choice of disintegrant source as well as in managing SSG variability to ensure robustness of drug products containing SSG. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Agitation in Alkalization Process on the Characteristics of Sodium Carboxymethyl Sago and Cassava Starches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titi, C. S.; Fachrudin, R.; Ruriani, E.; Yuliasih, I.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl starch (Sodium CMS) is a modified starch prepared by two successive processes, alkalization and etherification. Alkalization will change the activated hydroxyl group of starch to more reactive alkoxide (St-O-), and then carboxymethyl group will substitute the hydroxyl group into sodium CMS. This research investigated the effect of agitation (1000 rpm of stirring and 4000 rpm of homogenization) in alkalization process to the modification of native starch into sodium CMS. Cassava and sago starches were mixed with sodium hydroxide (1.8 and 1.9 moles per mole anhydrous glucose units). The combination of NaOH and homogenizing gave the highest degrees of substitution for cassava (DS 0.73) and sago (DS 0.55) starches. The sodium CMS characteristics (paste clarity, water and oil absorption capacities, solubility, swelling power) were a function of mixing method but not on the amount of NaOH used.

  7. Optimization Properties of Environmentally Friendly Paper Coating Based Starch-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galih Saputri, Diani; Khairuddin; Dwi Nurhayati, Nanik; Pham, Trinh

    2017-11-01

    The use of starch as biodegradable base material for packaging application was of great interest as an environmentally friendly alternative to the present use of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. However, starch tended to be brittle and had a lack of stability due to exposure to water. Several aproaches have been done to improve shellac properties including through chemical modification, mixing with polymers, clays, and plasticizers. The present study related to optimization of starch properties when mixing with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated on the paper. The aim was to obtain the temperature and mixing time between starch and PEG so produced composites with optimal barrier properties. The composites of PEG/starch 10 % w/w were prepared using solvent casting and coated on paper surface, and dried in the oven for 12 hours at 40°C. Water Vapour Transmitter Rate (WVTR) (Payne cup method) showed that 70°C was the optimum temperature when mixing time was 30 minutes. Moreover, it showed that the optimum mixing time was 30 minutes when mixing temperature was 80 and 70 °C. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) showed a strong interaction between PEG400 and starch.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  11. Sodium Bentonite-Based Fire Retardant Coatings Containing Starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sodium bentonite (SB) gel and foam coatings were tested for their ability to suppress the rate of heat increase at the surface of commercial lap siding. Starch was added to some treatments to determine whether it stabilized the coating and prevented vertical slumping. A commercial fire protection ge...

  12. PEG and Thickeners: A Critical Interaction Between Polyethylene Glycol Laxative and Starch-Based Thickeners.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Brian J; Craft, Garrett; Harmon, Julie P; Ilkevitch, Alina; Nicoghosian, Jenik; Sheyner, Inna; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians commonly encounter dysphagia and constipation in a skilled nursing population. Increasing the viscosity of liquids, usually with a starch- or xanthan gum-based thickener, serves as a key intervention for patients with dysphagia. We report a newly identified and potentially dangerous interaction between polyethylene glycol 3350 laxative (PEG) and starch-thickened liquids. A patient requiring nectar-thickened liquids became constipated, and medical staff prescribed PEG for constipation. His nurse observed that the thickened apple juice immediately thinned to near-water consistency when PEG was added. She obtained the same results with thickened water and coffee. We quantified this phenomenon by isothermal rotational rheology. Results confirmed a precipitous loss of thickening when PEG was added to starch-based thickeners but not with xanthan gum-based thickeners. Clinicians and front-line staff should be aware of this potentially critical interaction between PEG- and starch-based thickeners. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our preliminary data suggest that PEG may be compatible with xanthan gum-- based thickeners. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  14. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  16. Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

  17. Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes Versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS gra...

  18. Oxidized starch solutions for environmentally friendly aircraft deicers.

    PubMed

    Plahuta, Joseph M; Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Beutel, Mark W; Rentz, Jeremy A; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    Deicers currently used for aircraft deicing, including ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, pose significant threats to surface waters, as a result of high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Oxidized starch may provide a less toxic deicer with lower BOD. The freezing point depression of starch formulations oxidized using hydrogen peroxide and catalysts (i.e., catalyzed hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] propagations-CHP) was 28 degrees C, and viscosities similar to those of commercial deicers were achieved after post-treatment with granular activated carbon. The most effective oxidized starch formulation exerted a 5-day BOD up to 6 times lower than glycol deicers (103 versus 400 to 800 g O2/L). Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia for this formulation (48-hour lethal concentration, 50% [LC50] of 2.73 g/L) was greater than pure propylene glycol (13.1 g/ L), but lower than propylene glycol deicer formulations (1.02 g/L). Organic acids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as the primary constituents in the oxidized starch solution. The proposed deicing system would provide effective deicing while exerting minimal environmental effects (e.g., lower toxicity to aquatic organisms and lower BOD). Furthermore, these deicers could be made from waste starch, promoting sustainability.

  19. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  20. Reinforced cassava starch based edible film incorporated with essential oil and sodium bentonite nanoclay as food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Iamareerat, Butsadee; Singh, Manisha; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable packaging in food materials is a green technology based novel approach to replace the synthetic and conventional packaging systems. This study is aimed to formulate the biodegradable cassava starch based films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and sodium bentonite clay nanoparticles. The films were characterized for their application as a packaging material for meatballs. The cassava starch films incorporated with sodium bentonite and cinnamon oil showed significant antibacterial potential against all test bacteria; Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial effect of films increased significantly when the concentration of cinnamon oil was increased. The cassava starch film incorporated with 0.75% (w/w) sodium bentonite, 2% (w/w) glycerol and 2.5% (w/w) cinnamon oil was selected based on physical, mechanical and antibacterial potential to evaluate shelf life of meatballs. The meatballs stored at ambient temperature in cassava starch film incorporated with cinnamon oil and nanoclay, significantly inhibited the microbial growth till 96 h below the FDA limits (10 6  CFU/g) in foods compared to control films that exceeded above the limit within 48 h. Hence cassava starch based film incorporated with essential oils and clay nanoparticles can be an alternate approach as a packaging material for food industries to prolong the shelf life of products.

  1. Functional assessment of four types of disintegrants and their effect on the spironolactone release properties.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Guisao, Santiago; Ruge, Vanesa

    2012-12-01

    Spironolactone is a drug derived from sterols that exhibits an incomplete oral absorption due to its low water solubility and slow dissolution rate. In this study, formulations of spironolactone with four disintegrants named as croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose II (MCCII) were conducted. The effect of those disintegrants on the tensile strength, disintegration time and dissolution rate of spironolactone-based compacts was evaluated using a factorial design with three categorical factors (filler, lubricant, and disintegrant). The swelling values, water uptake and water sorption studies of these disintegrants all suggested that MCCII compacts disintegrate by a wicking mechanism similar to that of crospovidone, whereas a swelling mechanism was dominant for sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The disintegration time of MCCII and sodium starch glycolate remained unchanged with magnesium stearate. However, this lubricant delayed the disintegration time of crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium. MCCII presented the fastest disintegration time independent of the medium and lubricant employed. The water sorption ratio and swelling values determined sodium starch glycolate followed by croscarmellose sodium as the largest swelling materials, whereas crospovidone and MCCII where the least swelling disintegrants. The swelling property of sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium was strongly affected by the medium pH. The disintegration time of spironolactone compacts was faster when starch was used as a filler due to the formation of soft compacts. In this case, the type of filler employed rather than the disintegrant had a major effect on the disintegration and dissolution times of spironolactone.

  2. Development and evaluation of novel antihypertensive orodispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Hanif, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Rai M; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Samina; Sher, Muhammad; Afzal, Khurram; Mahmood, Asif; Shamim, Ayesha

    2017-09-01

    Objective of present study was to enhance patient compliance in pediatrics and geriatrics patients of Hypertension. To achieve this target, innovative orodispersible tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin was developed to produce instant action by rapidly disintegrating into oral cavity. Three different techniques like direct compression, effervescent and sublimation methods were used to prepare these tablets (Five batches of tablets by each method) by using two superdisintegrants like Sodium starch glycolate and pregelatinized starch alone and in combination. Pre-formulation studies including rheological analysis (Bulk density, tapped density, Angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio), compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), Post-compression and stability studies were also performed. Finally, results were statistically evaluated by the applying one way ANOVA test and mean. It was concluded that the formulation F8 containing Sodium starch glycolate 2% and pregelatinized starch 6% found best regarding disintegration time, wetting volume, wetting time, release studies etc. The order in which drug release was quicker is Pregelatinized starch plus Sodium starch glycolate > Pregelatinized starch > Sodium starch glycolate (primojel). It was concluded that sublimation method was the best among three methods used for orodispersible tablets formulations.

  3. Polyethylene glycol modified, cross-linked starch-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Cole, Adam J; David, Allan E; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J; Hill, Hannah L; Yang, Victor C

    2011-03-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, potentially enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140-190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines - A5/D5, 0.4% - A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37 °C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 h) and D20 (11.75 h) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 h). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC(0-∞). Sustained tumor exposure over 24 h was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that a polyethylene glycol modified, cross-linked starch-coated MNP is a promising platform for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure and physical properties of starch/poly vinyl alcohol/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Ali, Samer S; Tang, Xiaozhi; Alavi, Sajid; Faubion, Jon

    2011-12-14

    Nanocomposites of starch, poly vinyl alcohol (PVOH), and sodium montmorillonite (Na(+)MMT) were produced by solution mixing and cast into films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at the break (E%) of the films ranged from 11.60 to 22.35 MPa and 28.93-211.40%, respectively, while water vapor permeability (WVP) ranged from 0.718 to 1.430 g·mm/kPa·h·m(2). In general, an increase in Na(+)MMT content (0-20%) enhanced TS and decreased E% and WVP. Use of higher molecular weight PVOH increased both TS and E% and also decreased WVP. Mechanical properties were negatively affected, but water vapor barrier properties improved with increasing starch content (0-80%). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the nanostructure, and molecular conformations and interactions in the multicomponent nanocomposites were inferred from glass transition behavior. Interactions between starch and PVOH were strongest, followed by polymer/clay interactions. On the basis of this insight, a conceptual model was presented to explain the phenomena of intercalation and exfoliation in the starch/PVOH/Na(+)MMT nanocomposites.

  5. Antimicrobial agent-free hybrid cationic starch/sodium alginate polyelectrolyte films for food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Şen, Ferhat; Uzunsoy, İrem; Baştürk, Emre; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic starch was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using starch, cationic starch and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by TGA and DSC. Hydrophobicity of samples was determined by contact angle measurements. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM. Moreover, gel contents of samples were determined. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal, antimicrobial and surface properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Post-Compaction Evolution of Tensile Strength of Sodium Chloride-Starch Mixture Tablets.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Jovana; Zavaliangos, Antonios

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on the evolution of mechanical behavior of starch and sodium chloride (NaCl) mixture tablets after compaction. This type of mixture has attracted attention in the past because such tablets exhibit lower tensile strengths than the ones of its individual components. Here we demonstrate that the strengths of NaCl-starch mixtures and NaCl tablets evolve after compaction in an opposite way. When stored at relative humidity of 60%, NaCl tablets strengthen with time, whereas NaCl-starch mixtures weaken. To explain this behavior, we propose that in the NaCl-starch mixture, the presence of 2 materials with significantly different elastic moduli leads to creation of tensile stresses at the stiffer NaCl-NaCl contacts. Such tensile stresses lead to a reduction in strength of the compacted mixtures by negating a local dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism, which strengthens the NaCl-NaCl in pure NaCl tablet. This effect is proven by experimental results from NaCl specimens diametrically loaded during storage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p<0.05). SDS mainly extracted the surface components from starch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functionality of disintegrants and their mixtures in enabling fast disintegration of tablets by a quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Er, Patrick Xuan Hua; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-10-01

    Investigation of the effect of disintegrants on the disintegration time and hardness of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) was carried out using a quality by design (QbD) paradigm. Ascorbic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen, which have different water solubilities, were chosen as the drug models. Disintegration time and hardness of RDTs were determined and modeled by executing combined optimal design. The generated models were validated and used for further analysis. Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone were found to lengthen disintegration time when utilized at high concentrations. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone worked synergistically in aspirin RDTs to decrease disintegration time. Sodium starch glycolate-crospovidone mixtures, as well as croscarmellose sodium-crospovidone mixtures, also decreased disintegration time in ibuprofen RDTs at high compression pressures as compared to the disintegrants used alone. The use of sodium starch glycolate in RDTs with highly water soluble active ingredients like ascorbic acid slowed disintegration, while microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone drew water into the tablet rapidly and quickened disintegration. Graphical optimization analysis demonstrated that the RDTs with desired disintegration times and hardness can be formulated with a larger area of design space by combining disintegrants at difference compression pressures. QbD was an efficient and effective paradigm in understanding formulation and process parameters and building quality in to RDT formulated systems.

  9. Molecular structure, functionality and applications of oxidized starches: A review.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Nathan Levien; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra

    2017-04-15

    During oxidation, the hydroxyl groups of starch molecules are first oxidized to carbonyl groups, then to carboxyl groups. The contents of the carbonyl and carboxyl groups in a starch molecule therefore indicate the extent of starch oxidation. The mechanisms of starch oxidation with different oxidizing agents, including sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and sodium periodate, are described in this review. The effects of these oxidizing agents on the molecular, physicochemical, thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch are described as well. In addition, the main industrial applications of oxidized starches are presented. The present review is important for understanding the effects of oxidation on starch properties, and this information may facilitate the development of novel oxidized starches for both food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  11. Bile Acid Sodium Symporter BASS6 Can Transport Glycolate and Is Involved in Photorespiratory Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Badger, Murray

    2017-01-01

    Photorespiration is an energy-intensive process that recycles 2-phosphoglycolate, a toxic product of the Rubisco oxygenation reaction. The photorespiratory pathway is highly compartmentalized, involving the chloroplast, peroxisome, cytosol, and mitochondria. Though the soluble enzymes involved in photorespiration are well characterized, very few membrane transporters involved in photorespiration have been identified to date. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana plants containing a T-DNA disruption of the bile acid sodium symporter BASS6 show decreased photosynthesis and slower growth under ambient, but not elevated CO2. Exogenous expression of BASS6 complemented this photorespiration mutant phenotype. In addition, metabolite analysis and genetic complementation of glycolate transport in yeast showed that BASS6 was capable of glycolate transport. This is consistent with its involvement in the photorespiratory export of glycolate from Arabidopsis chloroplasts. An Arabidopsis double knockout line of both BASS6 and the glycolate/glycerate transporter PLGG1 (bass6, plgg1) showed an additive growth defect, an increase in glycolate accumulation, and reductions in photosynthetic rates compared with either single mutant. Our data indicate that BASS6 and PLGG1 partner in glycolate export from the chloroplast, whereas PLGG1 alone accounts for the import of glycerate. BASS6 and PLGG1 therefore balance the export of two glycolate molecules with the import of one glycerate molecule during photorespiration. PMID:28351992

  12. 21 CFR 184.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chlorinated water to form the chlorohydrin which is converted to the glycol by treatment with sodium carbonate solution. It is also prepared by heating glyercol with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycol by treatment with sodium carbonate solution. It is also prepared by heating glyercol with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 255...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycol by treatment with sodium carbonate solution. It is also prepared by heating glyercol with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 255...

  15. Impact of polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol/hydroxypropyl-guar and 0.1% sodium hyaluronate on postoperative discomfort following cataract extraction surgery: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Ntonti, Panagiota; Sideroudi, Haris; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Universal postoperative guidelines for cataract extraction surgery are yet to be introduced. Artificial tears are gaining popularity as an additional integral component of the postoperative regime. The primary objective of this study was to explore the impact of two prevalent artificial tear preparations on postoperative discomfort following cataract extraction surgery. A total of 180 patients that underwent cataract extraction surgery were randomly divided into three groups according to their postoperative regime: a) Study group 1 (SG1) received a fixed combination of tobramycin and dexamethasone (FCTD) quid for 3 weeks and, additionally polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol/hydroxypropyl-guar quid, for 6 weeks, b) Study group 2 (SG2) received FCTD quid for 3 weeks and, additionally 0.1% sodium hyaluronate provided in the COMOD® device quid, for 6 weeks, and, c) Control Group (CG) received only FCTD quid for 3 weeks. The following indexes were evaluated at three postoperative checkpoints: 1) Subjective discomfort index (SDI) derived from four direct 10-scale Likert-type questions that were addressed to the patient and pertained to: a) foreign body sensation (FBS), b) blinking discomfort (BD), c) stinging sensation (SS), d) tearing sensation (TS), 2) Tear break-up time (TBUT), 3) Central corneal thickness (CCT) and, 4) Central Corneal Sensitivity (CCS). Both groups showed increased CCT values at the first examination point and reduced CCS values at all examination points. Furthermore, both SGs had better TBUT times at all examination points compared to CG (CG: 8.86 ± 1.08, SG1: 9.59 ± 1.45, CG2: 9.45 ± 1.33, p  < 0.05). BD was significantly better in both SGs only at the 1 st week of examination, while SDI values were better until the 3 rd week and only borderline better at 6 th week. Lastly, no significant differences were detected between SGs, regarding all parameters, at all examination points. Polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol

  16. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning ofmore » glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.« less

  17. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  18. Synthesis of a novel superdisintegrant by starch derivatization with polysuccinimide and its application for the development of Ondansetron fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mozhgan; Hemmati, Salar; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Disintegrants are the key excipients administered in tablet formulations to boost the decomposition of the tablet into smaller pieces in the gastrointestinal environment, thereby increasing the available surface area and enhancing a more rapid release of the active ingredient. Polysuccinimide (PSI), a biodegradable polymer synthesized from aspartic acid, was reacted with starch and fully assessed by CHN, (1)H-NMR, and FTIR. PSI-grafted starch (PSI-St) was synthesized and applied as a disintegrant in the formulation of a rapidly disintegrating tablet of Ondansetron, a nausea and vomiting medicine. The tablet formulated with the newly developed superdisintegrant was evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate, and the results were compared with tablets formulated with an identical composition of test formulation differing only in type of disintegrant. Tablets prepared with starch and tablets prepared with sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Dissolution study results indicated that although the onset of disintegration action was faster for SSG than PSI-St, higher amounts of drug were released from tablets formulated from PSI-St than from those formulated from SSG during 10 min. It was concluded that the novel synthesized superdisintegrant has an appropriate potential for the application in the formulation of fast dissolving tablets.

  19. Synthesis of a novel superdisintegrant by starch derivatization with polysuccinimide and its application for the development of Ondansetron fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mozhgan; Hemmati, Salar; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-05-01

    Disintegrants are the key excipients administered in tablet formulations to boost the decomposition of the tablet into smaller pieces in the gastrointestinal environment, thereby increasing the available surface area and enhancing a more rapid release of the active ingredient. Polysuccinimide (PSI), a biodegradable polymer synthesized from aspartic acid, was reacted with starch and fully assessed by CHN, 1 H-NMR, and FTIR. PSI-grafted starch (PSI-St) was synthesized and applied as a disintegrant in the formulation of a rapidly disintegrating tablet of Ondansetron, a nausea and vomiting medicine. The tablet formulated with the newly developed superdisintegrant was evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate, and the results were compared with tablets formulated with an identical composition of test formulation differing only in type of disintegrant. Tablets prepared with starch and tablets prepared with sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Dissolution study results indicated that although the onset of disintegration action was faster for SSG than PSI-St, higher amounts of drug were released from tablets formulated from PSI-St than from those formulated from SSG during 10 min. It was concluded that the novel synthesized superdisintegrant has an appropriate potential for the application in the formulation of fast dissolving tablets.

  20. Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2013-07-01

    Few studies on starch modifications using different chemical agents are available in the literature, and no reports were found on the combined effect of oxidation and alkaline treatment of corn starch. Thus this work evaluated the physicochemical, pasting, morphological, cystallinity and thermal properties of chemically modified corn starch, after either the isolated or combined action of alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and oxidative (sodium hypochlorite) treatments. The highest values for the sum of carbonyl and carboxyl and enzymatic hydrolysis occurred in starches submitted to oxidative treatment at high active chlorine concentrations. The alkali treatment in isolation modified the pasting properties, reduced the paste temperature and increased the peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback of starches. Starch modified by the action of sodium hypochlorite and hydroxide in combination presented more severe damage on granule surfaces. The results show that corn starch modified by the combined action of oxidative and alkaline treatments should be studied more, especially at the concentration limit of sodium hydroxide where gelatinization occurs. Under these conditions the effect of oxidation can be more intense and thus allow the production of starches with different properties and an increase in their industrial applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking).

  2. Effect of microwave treatment on structure of binders based on sodium carboxymethyl starch: FT-IR, FT-Raman and XRD investigations.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-06-15

    The paper deals with the influence of the microwave treatment on sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and XRD analysis data of native potato starch and three different carboxymethyl starches (CMS-Na) with various degree of substitution (DS) before and after exposition to microwave radiation have been compared. FT-IR studies showed that polar groups present in CMS-Na structure take part in the formation of new hydrogen bonds network after water evaporation. However, these changes depend on DS value of the modified starch. The FT-Raman study confirmed that due to the impact on the samples by microwave, the changes of intensity in the characteristic bands associated with the crystalline regions in the sample were noticed. The X-ray diffraction data for microwave treated CMS-Na samples have been compared with the diffractograms of initial materials and analysis of XRD patterns confirmed that microwave-treated samples exhibit completely amorphous structure. Analysis of structural changes allows to state that the binding of sand grains in moulding sand with CMS-Na polymeric binder consists in the formation of hydrogen bonds networks (physical cross-linking). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyethylene Glycol Modified, Cross-Linked Starch Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Magnetic Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J.; Hill, Hannah L.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140–190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines – A5/D5, 0.4% – A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37°C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 hr) and D20 (11.75 hr) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 hr). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC0-∞ Sustained tumor exposure over 24 hours was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that both D5 and D20 are promising MNP platforms for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. PMID:21176955

  4. Haemoglobinuria caused by propylene glycol in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Potter, B. J.

    1958-01-01

    Haemoglobinuria occurred in sheep anaesthetized by an intravenous injection of pentobarbitone sodium containing propylene glycol: an equivalent dose failed to cause haemoglobinuria in rabbits. Intravenous injection of an aqueous solution of 20% propylene glycol caused haemoglobinaemia and haemoglobinuria in sheep. Neither distilled water nor 20% glycerol in water administered under identical conditions produced these effects. Haemoglobinuria occurred on some occasions when an aqueous 20% solution of propylene glycol was administered to sheep after an injection of saline: it never occurred when a solution of 20% propylene glycol prepared with physiological saline was injected. It is suggested that saline may protect against the haemolytic action of propylene glycol in sheep and that propylene glycol should be avoided as a menstruum for pharmaceutical preparations to be used for injection into the blood stream of these animals. PMID:13618540

  5. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  6. Development of oxidised and heat-moisture treated potato starch film.

    PubMed

    Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Klein, Bruna; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite oxidation and a heat-moisture treatment of potato starch on the physicochemical, pasting and textural properties of potato starches in addition to the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of potato starch films produced from these starches. The carbonyl contents, carboxyl contents, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and gel texture of the native, oxidised and heat-moisture treated (HMT) starches were evaluated. The films made of native, oxidised and HMT starches were characterised by thickness, water solubility, colour, opacity, mechanical properties and WVP. The oxidised and HMT starches had lower viscosity and swelling power compared to the native starch. The films produced from oxidised potato starch had decreased solubility, elongation and WVP values in addition to increased tensile strength compared to the native starch films. The HMT starch increased the tensile strength and WVP of the starch films compared to the native starch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of stimulation and hyperpolarization on non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in perfused axons of squid.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, C; Latorre, R

    1970-11-01

    1. The permeability for micro-injected [(3)H]ethylene glycol was measured in resting state and during stimulation at 100/sec in squid giant axons. No detectable changes during electrical activity were observed.2. The influxes of urethane, tritiated water, ethylene glycol, urea and sodium were measured in internally perfused squid axons. Ethylene glycol and urea influxes were determined simultaneously with sodium influxes. The electrical stimulation of the fibre produced an increase in the influx of sodium but did not alter the influxes of the non-electrolytes listed above.3. Experiments were done with the combined voltage clamp-perfusion technique. The influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were simultaneously measured in resting state and during maximum sodium current under stimulation at 10/sec. The influx of sodium increased in these conditions but the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant. In some experiments, the fibre was hyperpolarized to 10 or 20 mV, above the resting potential and the influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were measured. The sodium influx decreased to 60% at 20 mV above the resting potential whereas the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant.4. These results indicate that in the giant axons of the squid Dosidicus gigas, sodium and non-electrolytes fluxes are not coupled.

  8. Effect of stimulation and hyperpolarization on non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in perfused axons of squid

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Latorre, Ramón

    1970-01-01

    1. The permeability for micro-injected [3H]ethylene glycol was measured in resting state and during stimulation at 100/sec in squid giant axons. No detectable changes during electrical activity were observed. 2. The influxes of urethane, tritiated water, ethylene glycol, urea and sodium were measured in internally perfused squid axons. Ethylene glycol and urea influxes were determined simultaneously with sodium influxes. The electrical stimulation of the fibre produced an increase in the influx of sodium but did not alter the influxes of the non-electrolytes listed above. 3. Experiments were done with the combined voltage clamp—perfusion technique. The influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were simultaneously measured in resting state and during maximum sodium current under stimulation at 10/sec. The influx of sodium increased in these conditions but the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant. In some experiments, the fibre was hyperpolarized to 10 or 20 mV, above the resting potential and the influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were measured. The sodium influx decreased to 60% at 20 mV above the resting potential whereas the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant. 4. These results indicate that in the giant axons of the squid Dosidicus gigas, sodium and non-electrolytes fluxes are not coupled. PMID:5500991

  9. In Situ Formation of Polysulfonamide Supported Poly(ethylene glycol) Divinyl Ether Based Polymer Electrolyte toward Monolithic Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Huijie; Yue, Liping; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Hu, Pu; Ding, Guoliang; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-01-01

    Sodium ion battery is one of the promising rechargeable batteries due to the low-cost and abundant sodium sources. In this work, a monolithic sodium ion battery based on a Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode, MoS 2 layered anode, and polyether-based polymer electrolyte is reported. In addition, a new kind of polysulfonamide-supported poly(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether based polymer electrolyte is also demonstrated for monolithic sodium ion battery via in situ preparation. The resultant polymer electrolyte exhibits relatively high ionic conductivity (1.2 mS cm -1 ) at ambient temperature, wide electrochemical window (4.7 V), and favorable mechanical strength (25 MPa). Moreover, such a monolithic Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /MoS 2 sodium ion battery using this polymer electrolyte delivers outstanding rate capability (up to 10 C) and superior cyclic stability (84%) after 1000 cycles at 0.5 C. What is more essential, such a polymer electrolyte based soft-package monolithic sodium ion cell can still power a red light emitting diode lamp and run finite times without suffering from any internal short-circuit failures, even in the case of a bended and wrinkled state. Considering these aspects, this work no doubt provides a new approach for the design of a high-performance polymer electrolyte toward monolithic sodium ion battery with exceptional rate capability and high safety. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties.

  11. Effect of fat volume fraction, sodium caseinate, and starch on the optimization of the sensory properties of frankfurter sausages.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Dimitris; Ritzoulis, Christos; Tzivanos, Iakovos; Vlazakis, Eleuterios; Derlikis, Emmanuel; Patroklos, Vareltzis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of two important nonmeat constituents (starch and sodium caseinate) and fat content on the sensory perception of frankfurter sausages has been assessed for two mixture amounts (17% and 27%). A strong correlation among objective fattiness, elasticity, and chewiness has been established; these correlate negatively to consistency and hardness. This has been attributed to the protein gel disruption arising from local phase separations. Hedonic consistency, elasticity, and chewiness showed a very strong positive correlation to one another. Contour plots, based on responses of principal component axes, show that lard is important in increasing the objective sensory intensities of fattiness, chewiness, and elasticity, and for decreasing hardness and consistency. In higher lard proportions, caseinate and starch decrease the red color intensity and the acceptability of chewiness, elasticity, and consistency. Optimization of the component amounts was performed using response trace plots. After redundancy analysis, sensory and instrumental variables were found in very good mutual agreement; hardness was assessed as the most important mechanical variable, followed by chewiness.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl potato starch and its application in reactive dye printing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Gong, Honghong; Lü, Shaoyu; Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-11-01

    Carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized with a simple dry and multi-step method as a product of the reaction of native potato starch and monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The influence of the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to anhydroglucose unit, the volume of 95% (v/v) ethanol, the rotation rate of motor driven stirrer and the reaction time for degree of substitution (DS) were evaluated. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). FTIR spectrometry showed new bonds at 1618 and 1424 cm⁻¹ when native starch underwent carboxymethylation. SEM pictures showed that the smooth surface of native starch particles was mostly ruptured. XRD revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. The viscosity of the mixture paste of carboxymethyl starch and sodium alginate (SA) was measured using a rotational viscometer. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with SA. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace SA as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Soma; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Teraoka, Iwao

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into themore » outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.« less

  14. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment for granular cold water swelling starches.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jianli; Gao, Weidong

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the process optimization of ultrasonic assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment to prepare granular cold water swelling (GCWS) starches. In this work, three statistical approaches such as Plackett-Burman, steepest ascent path analysis and Box-Behnken design were successfully combined to investigate the effects of major treatment process variables including starch concentration, ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, ultrasonic power and treatment time, and drying operation, that is, vacuum degree and drying time on cold-water solubility. Results revealed that ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, applied power and ultrasonic treatment time were significant factors that affected the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. The maximum cold-water solubility was obtained when treated at 400W of applied power for 27.38min. Optimum volume fraction of ethanol and sodium hydroxide dosage were 66.85% and 53.76mL, respectively. The theoretical values (93.87%) and the observed values (93.87%) were in reasonably good agreement and the deviation was less than 1%. Verification and repeated trial results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment could be successfully used for the preparation of granular cold water swelling starches at room temperatures and had excellent improvement on the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of fat volume fraction, sodium caseinate, and starch on the optimization of the sensory properties of frankfurter sausages

    PubMed Central

    Petridis, Dimitris; Ritzoulis, Christos; Tzivanos, Iakovos; Vlazakis, Eleuterios; Derlikis, Emmanuel; Patroklos, Vareltzis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of two important nonmeat constituents (starch and sodium caseinate) and fat content on the sensory perception of frankfurter sausages has been assessed for two mixture amounts (17% and 27%). A strong correlation among objective fattiness, elasticity, and chewiness has been established; these correlate negatively to consistency and hardness. This has been attributed to the protein gel disruption arising from local phase separations. Hedonic consistency, elasticity, and chewiness showed a very strong positive correlation to one another. Contour plots, based on responses of principal component axes, show that lard is important in increasing the objective sensory intensities of fattiness, chewiness, and elasticity, and for decreasing hardness and consistency. In higher lard proportions, caseinate and starch decrease the red color intensity and the acceptability of chewiness, elasticity, and consistency. Optimization of the component amounts was performed using response trace plots. After redundancy analysis, sensory and instrumental variables were found in very good mutual agreement; hardness was assessed as the most important mechanical variable, followed by chewiness. PMID:24804012

  17. Experimental Design for Determination of Effects of Superdisintegrant Combinations on Liquisolid System Properties.

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Pavloková, Sylvie; Gajdziok, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The preparation of liquisolid systems presents a promising and innovative possibility for enhancing dissolution profiles and improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. This study aims to evaluate the differences in the properties of liquisolid systems containing combinations of 3 commercially used superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, and croscarmellose sodium). Multiple regression models and contour plots were used to study how the amount and the type of superdisintegrant used affected the quality parameters of liquisolid tablets. The results revealed that an increased amount of crospovidone in the mixture improves disintegration and wetting time and enhances drug release from the prepared liquisolid tablets. Moreover, it was observed that a binary blend of crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate improved tablet disintegration. Considering the obtained results, it could be stated that crospovidone showed the best properties to be used as superdisintegrant for the preparation of liquisolid systems containing rosuvastatin. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatically modified starch up-regulates expression of incretins and sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter in jejunum of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ertl, R; Grüll, D; Molnar, T; Zebeli, Q

    2017-07-01

    Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days. The enzymatic modification led to twice as many α-1,6-glycosidic bonds (~8%) in the amylopectin fraction in the EMS in comparison with the non-modified native waxy corn starch (4% α-1,6-glycosidic bonds). Linear discriminant analysis revealed distinct clustering of mucosal gene expression for EMS and CON diets in jejunum. Compared with the CON diet, the EMS intake up-regulated jejunal expression of sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) (P<0.05) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) (P=0.08), which may be related to greater luminal SCFA availability, whereas cecal gene expression was unaffected by diet. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression tended (P=0.07) to be down-regulated in pigs fed the EMS diet compared with pigs fed the CON diet, which may explain the trend (P=0.08) of 30% decrease in serum triglycerides in pigs fed the EMS diet. Furthermore, pigs fed the EMS diet had a 50% higher (P=0.03) serum urea concentration than pigs fed the CON diet potentially indicating an increased use of glucogenic amino acids for energy acquisition in these pigs. Present findings suggested the jejunum as the target site to influence the intestinal epithelium and altered lipid and

  19. Extrusion and characterization of thermoplastic starch sheets from "macho" banana.

    PubMed

    Alanís-López, P; Pérez-González, J; Rendón-Villalobos, R; Jiménez-Pérez, A; Solorza-Feria, J

    2011-08-01

    Starch isolated from macho banana was oxidized by using 2.5% and 3.5% (w/w) of sodium hypochlorite. Native and oxidized starches with glycerol were processed using a conical twin screw extruder to obtain thermoplastic laminates or sheets, which were partially characterized. Oxidized banana starches presented higher moisture and total starch but lower ash, protein, lipids, and apparent amylose content than the native starch. Micrographs of sheets from oxidized starches showed wrinkles and cavities presumably caused by the plasticizer, but with less free glycerol and unplasticized starch granules than those from native starch. Sheets from oxidized starch showed a notorious increase in all thermal parameters (To, Tp, and ΔH), mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, and elasticity), and solubility. Banana starch X-ray diffraction patterns corresponded to a mixture of the A- and B-type polymorphs, with apparently slightly higher crystallinity in oxidized specimens than in native starch. A similar trend was observed in the corresponding sheets. Due to the pollution problem caused by the conventional plastics, there has been a renewed interest in biodegradable sheets, because they may have the potential to replace conventional packaging materials. Banana starch might be an interesting raw material to be used as edible sheet, coating or in food packaging, and preservation, because it is biodegradable, cheap, innocuous, and abundant. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Improved Enumeration of Streptomyces spp. on a Starch Casein Salt Medium

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Shirley J.

    1977-01-01

    Well-formed Streptomyces colonies were counted more rapidly when a starch casein medium containing antibiotics was supplemented with either magnesium chloride or additional sodium chloride. Images PMID:848946

  1. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid state synthesis of starch-capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, A; Shaheen, Th I; El-Naggar, Mehrez E

    2016-06-01

    The present research addresses the establishment of a technique which is solely devoted to environmentally friendly one-pot green synthesis of dry highly stable powdered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using starch as both reductant and stabilizing agent in the presence of sodium hydroxide. It is believed that the sodium hydroxide can improve the reduction potential of starch. Thus when the alkali treated starch is submitted to addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3), the alkali treated starch induces the well-established dual role of starch; reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to AgNPs and capping the as-formed AgNPs to prevent them from further growth and agglomeration. Beside assessment of AgNPs formation, structural and morphological characteristics of AgNPs are investigated by making use of UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Research outputs signify (a) the absorbance around 410-420nm in the UV-vis spectra of AgNPs appears most, probably owing to the presence of nanosized silver particles and the intensity of this peak increases by increasing AgNO3 concentration; (b) that highly stable AgNPs with well-dispersed particle are successfully prepared using the present research-based innovation; (c) that the size of AgNPs does not exceed 30nm with sphere-like morphology even at the highest Ag(+) concentration employed during synthesis operation; (d) that the XRD and FT-IR confirm the successful preparation of pure AgNPs without noticeable impurities; (d) and that the one-pot synthesis of powdered AgNPs in large scale is clean and easily operated and easily transportation which may be applied as per demands of industries such as textile and painting industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Biodegradation of Ethylene Glycol by a Salt-Requiring Bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos F.; Taber, Willard A.; Zeitoun, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A gram-negative nonmotile rod which was capable of using 1,2-14C-ethylene glycol as a sole carbon source for growth was isolated from a brine pond, Great Salt Lake, Utah. The bacterium (ATCC 27042) required at least 0.85% NaCl for growth and, although the chloride ion was replaceable by sulfate ion, the sodium ion was not replaceable by potassium ion. The maximal concentration of salt tolerated for growth was approximately 12%. The bacterium was oxidase-negative when N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine was used and weakly positive when N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine was used. It grows on many sugars but does not ferment them, it does not have an exogenous vitamin requirement, and it possesses a guanine plus cytosine ratio of 64.3%. Incorporation of ethylene glycol carbon into cell and respired CO2 was quantitated by use of radioactive ethylene glycol and a force-aerated fermentor. Glucose suppressed ethylene glycol metabolism. Cells grown on ethylene and propylene glycol respired ethylene glycol in a Warburg respirometer more rapidly than cells grown on glucose. Spectrophotometric evidence was obtained for oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate by a dialyzed cell extract. PMID:4568254

  4. Comparison of biodegradation of poly(ethylene glycol)s and poly(propylene glycol)s.

    PubMed

    Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Tomasz; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Łukaszewski, Zenon

    2006-07-01

    The biodegradation of poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) and poly(propylene glycol)s (PPGs), both being major by-products of non-ionic surfactants biodegradation, was studied under the conditions of the River Water Die-Away Test. PEGs were isolated from a water matrix using solid-phase extraction with graphitized carbon black sorbent, then derivatized with phenyl isocyanate and determined by HPLC with UV detection. PPGs were isolated from a water matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform, then derivatized with naphthyl isocyanate and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The primary biodegradation of both PEGs and PPGs reached approximately 99% during the test. The tests show different biodegradation pathways of PEG and PPG. During PEG biodegradation, their chains are shortened leading to the formation of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. During PPG biodegradation, no short-chained biodegradation products were found.

  5. Poly(ethylene glycol)/chitosan/sodium glycerophosphate gel replaced the joint capsule with slow-release lubricant after joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailin; Ren, Shanshan; Li, Xing; Guo, Junde; Dong, Guangneng; Li, Jianhui; Gao, Li

    2018-08-01

    Body fluid is normally the only lubricant after joint replacement surgery, but wear problems have occurred because body fluid has poor lubrication ability. However, traditional lubricant would be diluted by body fluids and then absorbed by the human body. Therefore, an injectable gel with the ability to slow-release lubricant was designed to replace the joint capsule. The proposed gel, poly(ethylene glycol)/chitosan/sodium glycerophosphate (PEG/CS/GP) composite gel was then tested. The tribology results showed that the PEG/CS/GP gel had excellent slow-release properties, especially under pressure, and the PEG played an important role in improving the gel's rheological and mechanical properties. Moreover, this study revealed that the release solution had a good lubrication effect because the PEG and GP could crosslink via the hydrogen bond effect.

  6. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch by one-step acid hydrolysis and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Liu, Wenjie; Xiao, Junhua; Zhao, Xing; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yiqiang

    2017-10-01

    Dialdehyde starch was prepared by one-step synthesis of acid hydrolysis and oxidation, using corn starch as the raw material, sodium periodate (NaIO 4 ) as the oxidant, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the acid solution. The prepared dialdehyde starch was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results confirmed that oxidation occurred between the starch and NaIO 4 . The acid hydrolysis reaction reduced the molecular weight of starch and effectively improved the aldehyde group contents (92.7%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated that the average particle size decreased after acid hydrolysis and oxidation reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) analysis demonstrated that the crystallinity of the obtained dialdehyde starch showed a downward trend and a decelerated thermal decomposition rate. The starch after acid hydrolysis and oxidation exhibited lower hot paste viscosity and higher reactivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Calcium modified edible Canna (Canna edulis L) starch for controlled released matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, A. P.; Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, T. A.; Darusman, F.; Gadri, A.

    2017-07-01

    Canna edulis L starch was modified with calcium chloride in order to form controlled released matrix. Present study aim to analyze modified starch characteristic. Four different formulation of ondansetron granules was used to provide dissolution profile of controlled released, two formula consisted of 15% and 30% modified starch, one formula utilized matrix reference standards and the last granules was negative control. Methocel-hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was used as controlled released matrix reference standards in the third formula. Calcium starch was synthesized in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form gelatinized mass and calcium chloride as the cross linking agent. Physicochemical and dissolution properties of modified starch for controlled released application were investigated. Modified starch has higher swelling index, water solubility and compressibility index. Three of four different formulation of granules provide dissolution profile of controlled released. The profiles indicate granules which employed calcium Canna edulis L starch as matrix are able to resemble controlled drug released profile of matrix reference, however their bigger detain ability lead to lower bioavailability.

  8. Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-04-15

    Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  10. Some physicochemical and rheological properties of starch isolated from avocado seeds.

    PubMed

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; González-Mondragón, Edith; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2016-05-01

    Seeds from avocado (Persea americana Miller) fruit are a waste byproduct of fruit processing. Starch from avocado seed is a potential alternative starch source. Two different extraction solvents were used to isolate starch from avocado seeds, functional and rheological characteristics measured for these starches, and comparisons made to maize starch. Avocado seed powder was suspended in a solution containing 2 mM Tris, 7.5 mM NaCl and 80 mM NaHSO3 (solvent A) or sodium bisulphite solution (1500 ppm SO2, solvent B). Solvent type had no influence (p>0.05) on starch properties. Amylose content was 15-16%. Gelatinization temperature range was 56-74 °C, peak temperature was 65.7 °C, and transition enthalpy was 11.4-11.6J/g. At 90 °C, solubility was 19-20%, swelling power 28-30 g water/g starch, and water absorption capacity was 22-24 g water/g starch. Pasting properties were initial temperature 72 °C; maximum viscosity 380-390 BU; breakdown -2 BU; consistency 200 BU; and setback 198 BU. Avocado seed starch dispersions (5% w/v) were characterized as viscoelastic systems, with G'>G″. Avocado seed starch has potential applications as a thickening and gelling agent in food systems, as a vehicle in pharmaceutical systems and an ingredient in biodegradable polymers for food packaging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Development and characterization of enteric-coated immediate-release pellets of aceclofenac by extrusion/spheronization technique using kappa-carrageenan as a pelletizing agent.

    PubMed

    Kilor, Vaishali A; Sapkal, Nidhi P; Awari, Jasmine G; Shewale, Bharti D

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare immediate-release enteric-coated pellets of aceclofenac, a poorly soluble nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has a gastrointestinal intolerance as its serious side effect. Formulation of enteric-coated pellets with improved solubility of aceclofenac could address both of these problems. To achieve these goals, pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization method using pelletizing agents that can contribute to the faster disintegration and thereby improve the solubility of the drug. Different disintegrants like beta-cyclodextrin, kollidon CL, Ac-Di-Sol, and sodium starch glycolate were tried in order to further improve disintegration time. The pellets were characterized for drug content, particle size distribution, flow properties, infrared spectroscopy, surface morphology, disintegration rate, and dissolution profile. The formulations, which showed best disintegration and dissolution profiles, were coated with Eudragit L100-55, an enteric-coated polymer which does not dissolve at gastric pH but dissolves at intestinal pH, releasing the drug immediately in the dissolution medium. The optimized enteric-coated formulation containing 20% kappa-carrageenan, lactose, and sodium starch glycolate as a disintegrant did inhibit the release of the drug for 2 h in 0.1 N HCl, whereas 87% of the drug was released within 45 min. The improvement was substantial when it was compared with solubility of pure drug under the same conditions. Thus, dissolution profiles suggested that combination of kappa-carrageenan and sodium starch glycolate resulted into fast-disintegrating, immediate-release pellets, overcoming the bioavailability problem of the poorly soluble drug, aceclofenac, and enteric coating of these pellets avoids the exposure of aceclofenac to ulcer-prone areas of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Effect of a small amount of sodium carbonate on konjac glucomannan-induced changes in thermal behavior of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Winkworth-Smith, Charles G; Wang, Yu; Liang, Jianfen; Foster, Tim J; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2014-12-19

    The effects of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on thermal behavior of wheat starch have been studied in the presence of low concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.1-0.2 wt% of starch). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows the visualization of the starch gelatinization process and granule remnants in starch pastes. Heating the starch dispersion in KGM-Na2CO3 solution significantly delays granule swelling and inhibits amylose leaching, whereas Na2CO3 alone, at the same concentration, has little effect. Na2CO3 assists KGM in producing the extremely high viscosity of starch paste, attributing to a less remarkable breakdown of viscosity in subsequent heating, and protecting starch granules against crystallite melting. The distinct partially networked film around the surface of starch granules is evident in the CLSM images. We propose that Na2CO3 could trigger the formation of complexes between KGM and starch polymers, which exerts a protective effect on granular structure and modifying gelatinization characteristics of the mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New perspectives of starch: Synthesis and in vitro assessment of novel thiolated mucoadhesive derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jelkmann, Max; Bonengel, Sonja; Menzel, Claudia; Markovic, Svetislav; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel thiolated starch polymer with improved mucoadhesive properties by conjugation of cysteamine to starch as a natural polymer of restricted mucoadhesive properties. Aldehyde substructures were integrated into starch via oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols by increasing amounts of sodium periodate followed by covalent attachment of cysteamine to oxidized starch via reductive amination. Thiol groups were quantified via Ellman's reaction and their impact on mucoadhesion was analyzed by rheological investigations, the rotating cylinder method and tensile studies on porcine mucosa. The total amount of immobilized thiol groups revealed a correlation between degree of oxidation and thiolation. Modified starch demonstrated an up to 1.66-fold increase in water uptake in comparison to native starch. Modification of starch resulted in greatly improved cohesive properties and improvement in mucoadhesion. Rheological investigations revealed a 2- to 4-fold rise in viscosity of mucus. Tensile studies revealed a linear correlation between degree of oxidation/thiolation and enhancement of maximum detachment force and total work adhesion. In terms of these results, thiolated starch is a new, promising, polymer in the field of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  15. Crystallization of toxic glycol solvates of rifampin from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Caira, Mino R; Li, Jinjing; Strydom, Schalk J; Bourne, Susan A; Liebenberg, Wilna

    2011-06-06

    This study was initiated when it was suspected that syringe blockage experienced upon administration of a compounded rifampin suspension was caused by the recrystallization of toxic glycol solvates of the drug. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and gas chromatography were used to identify the ethylene glycol in the solvate crystals recovered from the suspension. Controlled crystallization and solubility studies were used to determine the ease with which toxic glycol solvates crystallized from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with either ethylene or diethylene glycol. The single crystal structures of two distinct ethylene glycol solvates of rifampin were solved while thermal analysis, GC analysis and solubility studies confirmed that diethylene glycol solvates of the drug also crystallized. Controlled crystallization studies showed that crystallization of the rifampin solvates from glycerin and propylene glycol depended on the level of contamination and changes in the solubility of the drug in the contaminated solvents. Although the exact source of the ethylene glycol found in the compounded rifampin suspension is not known, the results of this study show how important it is to ensure that the drug and excipients comply with pharmacopeial or FDA standards.

  16. Starch-based aerogels: airy materials from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerogels are a class of interesting low density porous materials prepared by replacing the water phase contained within a hydrogel with a gas phase while maintaining the three dimensional network structure of the gel. The investigation of starch and hydrocolloid-based aerogels has received attentio...

  17. Role of Orthophosphate and Other Factors in the Regulation of Starch Formation in Leaves and Isolated Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Hans W.; Chon, Chong Ja; Maronde, Dorothea; Herold, Alice; Stankovic, Zivko S.; Walker, David A.; Kraminer, Anna; Kirk, Martha R.; Heber, Ulrich

    1977-01-01

    Starch synthesis in leaves was increased by phosphate starvation or by treatments which decreased cytoplasmic orthophosphate levels (such as mannose feeding). Usually less than 30% of the total carbon fixed during CO2 assimilation was incorporated into starch in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), spinach beet (Beta vulgaris), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. In isolated spinach chloroplasts, formation of starch from CO2 was usually less than in leaves. In the absence of significant levels of 3-phosphoglycerate, concentrations of phosphate as low as 1 mm (in the medium) or 10 mm (in the stroma) almost completely inhibited starch synthesis. The inhibitory action of phosphate could be overcome by 3-phosphoglycerate. The controlling factor of starch synthesis appeared to be the ratio of phosphoglycerate to orthophosphate rather than the stromal hexose monophosphate concentration, and it is suggested that this control is exerted via the phosphate translocator and the known allosteric regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Starch synthesis was also favored by the presence of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and by high light and high temperature. Oxygen was inhibitory, probably owing to carbon drain into glycolate. Starch formation by intact chloroplasts could not be promoted by added glucose or glucose 6-phosphate. Starch mobilization in the dark was promoted by orthophosphate and phosphate-dependent mobilization was inhibited by phosphoglycerate. The principal products of starch breakdown in the presence of phosphate were the transport metabolites dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Formation of these compounds from starch was stimulated by ATP or oxaloacetate. In a phosphate-independent reaction, starch was also converted to neutral products such as maltose and glucose. The rates of phosphate-dependent starch degradation phosphorolysis were very much higher than those of starch hydrolysis for which there was no phosphate requirement. PMID:16660011

  18. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  19. Preparation of acetylated waxy, normal, and high-amylose maize starches with intermediate degrees of substitution in aqueous solution and their properties.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2012-09-19

    Acetylated waxy, normal, and high-amylose maize starches with intermediate degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared in aqueous solution with 20% (w/w) sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The level of DS was in the order high-amylose maize starch > waxy maize starch > normal maize starch. Settling volume indicated that during the early reaction, normal maize starch swelled to a lesser extent compared with waxy and high-amylose maize starches. The settling volume of all three starches increased initially but decreased after long reaction time. Aggregation of granules was observed as DS increased. The A-type X-ray diffraction pattern of acetylated normal and waxy maize starches weakened as DS increased, whereas the diffraction peaks disappeared in acetylated high-amylose starch when DS was 0.95. Low DS promoted the swelling of the starches in water, but at high DS, the starches became more hydrophobic and the peak viscosity of acetylated starches decreased.

  20. Effects of curing conditions on the structure of sodium carboxymethyl starch/mineral matrix system: FT-IR investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-04-24

    Strength properties of the microwave cured molding sands containing binders in a form of the aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) are higher than the same molding composition cured by conventional heating. Finding the reason of this effect was the main purpose in this study. Structural changes caused by both physical curing methods of molding sands systems containing mineral matrix (silica sand) and polymer water-soluble binder (CMS-Na) were compared. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, that the activation of the polar groups in the polymer macromolecules structure as well as silanol groups on the mineral matrix surfaces was occurred in the microwave radiation. Binding process in microwave-cured samples was an effect of formation the hydrogen bonds network between hydroxyl and/or carbonyl groups present in polymer and silanol groups present in mineral matrix. FT-IR studies of structural changes in conventional and microwave cured samples confirm that participation of hydrogen bonds is greater after microwave curing than conventional heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Carboxymethyl starch/montmorillonite composite microparticles: Properties and controlled release of isoproturon.

    PubMed

    Wilpiszewska, Katarzyna; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Paździoch, Waldemar

    2016-01-20

    Preparation of novel high substituted carboxymethyl starch-based microparticles containing sodium montmorillonite (MMT) by crosslinking with Al(3+) was described. For preparing nanocomposite granules carboxymethyl starch (CMS) from native potato starch as well as CMS from amylopectin has been used. The hydrophilic CMS/MMT composite systems were used for herbicide, i.e. isoproturon encapsulation (ca. 75% encapsulation efficiency). The herbicide release rate from CMS/MMT composites in water was significantly reduced when compared to commercial isoproturon: 95% released after ca. 700 h and ca. 24h, respectively. Leaching in soil from composite systems was relatively slower than release in water. After a series of eight irrigations leached about 10% of isoproturon loaded. The CMS/MMT carriers could reduce the potential leaching of herbicide and beneficially reduce pollution of the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compositional and physicochemical factors governing the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG embedded in starch-protein based edible films

    PubMed Central

    Soukoulis, Christos; Singh, Poonam; Macnaughtan, William; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic incorporation in edible films and coatings has been shown recently to be an efficient strategy for the delivery of probiotics in foods. In the present work, the impact of the compositional, physicochemical and structural properties of binary starch-protein edible films on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG viability and stability was evaluated. Native rice and corn starch, as well as bovine skin gelatine, sodium caseinate and soy protein concentrate were used for the fabrication of the probiotic edible films. Starch and protein type both impacted the structural, mechanical, optical and thermal properties of the films, and the process loss of L. rhamnosus GG during evaporation-dehydration was significantly lower in the presence of proteins (0.91–1.07 log CFU/g) compared to solely starch based systems (1.71 log CFU/g). A synergistic action between rice starch and proteins was detected when monitoring the viability of L. rhamnosus GG over four weeks at fridge and room temperature conditions. In particular, a 3- to 7-fold increase in the viability of L. rhamnosus GG was observed in the presence of proteins, with sodium caseinate – rice starch based films offering the most enhanced stability. The film's shelf-life (as calculated using the FAO/WHO (2011) basis of 6 log viable CFU/g) ranged between 27-96 and 15–24 days for systems stored at fridge or room temperature conditions respectively. PMID:26726280

  3. Changes During Recovery from Sodium Deficiency in Atriplex

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, P. F.; Jackman, Margaret E.

    1966-01-01

    Although the concentration of sodium in leaves of Atriplex plants increased rapidly after receiving sodium, no growth response was detectable for about 6 days. It was found that respiration rate increased to its maximum within 3 days. Chlorophyll content also increased from an early stage, whereas the concentrations of sugars and starch did not increase, and ratios of soluble to total nitrogen did not decrease until later. The respiratory response appears to be specific to sodium as different salts of sodium caused similar responses, and no other univalent cation substituted for sodium. In addition, both growth response and respiration rate tended towards their maxima with the same concentration of applied sodium. The rate of anaerobic CO2 production increased when sodium was fed to leaves, suggesting that the effect of sodium is in the glycolytic sequence. PMID:16656296

  4. Effect of a small amount of sodium carbonate on konjac glucomannan-induced changes in wheat starch gel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Dan; Winkworth-Smith, Charles G; Foster, Tim J; Nirasawa, Satoru; Tatsumi, Eizo; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2015-02-13

    Wheat starch gels were produced with konjac glucomannan (KGM) and low concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.1-0.2 wt% of starch) using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). The gelling properties of wheat starch in varying ratios of KGM and Na2CO3 were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A small amount of Na2CO3 resulted in gels with increased elasticity whereas structural ordering during retrogradation was insignificantly affected. Comparison of CLSM images of composite gels revealed that Na2CO3 at 0.2 wt% of starch allowed the formation of fiber-like extensions around scattered swollen granules by KGM and amylose interaction, making swollen granules disperse within the micro phase, which was not typical in CLSM images of gels in the absence of Na2CO3. Dynamic storage modulus and dynamic power law exponent were substantially higher than those observed for the same concentration of KGM in the presence of Na2CO3, supporting the hypothesis that Na2CO3 could promote strong interchain associations between KGM and starch components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of osmotic pressure of culture solutions with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    LAGERWERFF, J V; OGATA, G; EAGLE, H E

    1961-05-12

    Experiments with kidney beans indicate that Carbowax polyethylene glycol, molecular weight 20,000, upon purification, may be used as an agent to control the osmotic pressure of plant nutrient solutions without the hazard of interference with normal metabolic processes. With the sodium electrode and the thermocouple psychrometer, interaction between ions and Carbowax is shown to lead to a slight dissociation of the latter.

  6. Partial purification of penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli in poly(ethylene glycol)-sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J C; Fonseca, L P; Ramalho, M T; Cabral, J M

    1999-10-29

    Studies on the partition and purification of penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli osmotic shock extract were performed in poly(ethylene glycol)-sodium citrate systems. Partition coefficient behavior of the enzyme and total protein are similar to those described in other reports, increasing with pH and tie line length and decreasing with PEG molecular weight. However, some selectivity could be attained with PEG 1000 systems and long tie line at pH 6.9. Under these conditions 2.6-fold purification with 83% yield were achieved. Influence of pH on partition shows that is the composition of the system and not the net charge of the enzyme that determines the behaviour in these conditions. Addition of NaCl to PEG 3350 systems significantly increases the partition of the enzyme. Although protein partition also increased, purification conditions were possible with 1.5 M NaCl where 5.7-fold purification and 85% yield was obtained. This was possible due to the higher hydrophobicity of the enzyme compared to that of most contaminants proteins.

  7. Single dose intratympanic mesna application inhibits propylene glycol induced cholesteatoma formation.

    PubMed

    Ismi, O; Karabulut, Y Y; Bal, K K; Vayisoglu, Y; Unal, M

    2017-03-01

    Mesna (i.e. sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; C2H5NaO3S2) has been used in otological surgery such as cholesteatoma dissection and tympanic membrane lateralisation in atelectatic ears. However, this study aimed to investigate its effect on cholesteatoma formation. A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals. The right and left ears of control animals were treated with saline (saline control group; n = 10 ears) and propylene glycol plus saline (propylene glycol control group; n = 10 ears), respectively. In the mesna group, both ears were treated with propylene glycol plus mesna (n = 20 ears). On days 1, 8 and 15, the saline control group had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml saline and the propylene glycol control and mesna groups had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml 100 per cent propylene glycol. On day 22, the propylene glycol control group had a single intratympanic injection of 0.2 ml saline and the mesna group had a single intratympanic injection of 10 per cent mesna. Animals were killed 12 weeks after the last injection and the temporal bones were sent for histopathological evaluation. The cholesteatoma formation rate was 88 per cent in the propylene glycol control group, but was significantly lower in the mesna group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in granulation tissue formation (p = 0.498), cyst formation in the bulla (p = 0.381), fibrosis (p = 0.072) and epithelial hyperplasia (p = 0.081) among experimental groups. Intratympanic propylene glycol administration is an effective method of promoting experimental cholesteatoma formation. Administration of a single dose of intratympanic mesna inhibited cholesteatoma formation in an animal model.

  8. In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Conway, P L; Brown, I L; Evans, A J

    1999-11-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (<66,000). It was concluded that Bifidobacterium spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch.

  9. In Vitro Utilization of Amylopectin and High-Amylose Maize (Amylomaize) Starch Granules by Human Colonic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Conway, Patricia Lynne; Brown, Ian Lewis; Evans, Anthony John

    1999-01-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (Mr) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (<66,000). It was concluded that Bifidobacterium spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch. PMID:10543795

  10. Physicochemical properties and micro-structural characteristics in starch from kudzu root as affected by cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Boru; Dang, Leping; Zhang, Xiao; Fang, Wenzhi; Hou, Mengna; Liu, Tiankuo; Wang, Zhanzhong

    2017-03-15

    Kudzu starch was cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) at different temperatures, time and of STMP concentrations in this work. The cross-linked starches (CLSs) were fractionated further into cross-linked amylose and amylopectin in order to compare the effect of cross-linking on the microstructure. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM), CLSs displayed the resemble appearance of spherical and polygonal shapes like NS. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that amylose of native starch (A), NS and CLS displayed a combination of A-type and B-type structure, while that was not found in amylose of cross-linked starch (CLA). The deconvoluted fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) indicated that crystal structure of kudzu starch was losing with the proceeding of cross-linking reaction. The CLSs exhibited a higher retrogradation and freeze-thaw stability than NS. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in sedimentation, transparency, swelling power and solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A new approach in compatibilization of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch (PLA/TPS) blends.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Azizi, Hamed; Karrabi, Mohammad; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2016-06-25

    In this study, a new compatibilizer was synthesized to improve the compatibility of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch blends. The compatibilizer was based on maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene glycol grafted starch (mPEG-g-St), and was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and back titration techniques. The results indicated successful accomplishment of the designed reactions and formation of a starch cored structure with many connections to m-PEG chains. To assess the performance of synthesized compatibilizer, several PLA/TPS blends were prepared using an internal mixer. Consequently, their morphology, dynamic-mechanical behavior, crystallization and mechanical properties were studied. The compatibilizer enhanced interfacial adhesion, possibly due to interaction between free end carboxylic acid groups of compatibilizer and active groups of TPS and PLA phases. In addition, biodegradability of the samples was evaluated by various methods consisting of weight loss, FTIR-ATR analysis and morphology. The results revealed no considerable effect of compatibilizer on biodegradability of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  13. Influence of resistant starch and slowly digestible starch on rice texture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice, comprised mainly of starch, serves as a significant source of caloric energy world-wide, therefore differences in starch digestibility are important to human health. Rice starch consists of three forms based on digestibility, rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of granule swelling on starch saccharification by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Cai, Liming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-08-13

    The effects of granule swelling on enzymatic saccharification of normal corn starch by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme were investigated. After swelling, Km values for the saccharification of granular starch decreased compared with native granular starch, indicating that granule swelling caused granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme to have higher affinity for starch granules. The partial swelling of starch granules enhanced starch saccharification. Furthermore, the enhancement at an earlier stage of enzymatic reaction was much more significant than that at later stages. For granular starch pretreated at 67.5 °C for 30 min, conversions to glucose after incubation with the enzyme at 32 °C for 4 and 24 h were approximately 3-fold and 26% higher than for native granular starch, respectively. As a result, proper heat pretreatment of granular starch before simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has great potential to facilitate industrial production of ethanol by use of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

  16. Investigation of selected potential environmental contaminants: ethylene glycol, propylene glycols and butylene glycols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.M.

    1979-05-01

    This report reviews aspects of production, use, environmental exposure and biological effects of ethylene glycol, two isomers of propylene glycol (1,2- and 1,3-propanediol) and four isomers of butylene glycol (1,3-, 1,4-, 2,3-, and 1,2- butanediol). Annual production of ethylene glycol is about 3.7 billion pounds for use primarily in antifreeze and polyester fiber. About 0.5 billion pounds of 1,2-propanediol are produced per year for use in polyester resins, food, pharmaceuticals, and cellophane. Annual domestic demand for 1,4-butanediol is about 0.2 billion pounds for use in the production of tetra-hydrofuran and acetylenic chemicals. The other title glycols are of less importancemore » commercially. The major source of environmental contamination by ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol is likely from the disposal of spent antifreeze and de-icing fluids. However, limited monitoring data make it difficult to adequately assess environmental exposure to the glycols. The glycols are capable of being degraded by a variety of acclimated and unacclimated soil, water, and sewage microorganisms. In humans, ethylene glycol intoxication, usually as a result of accidental ingestion of antifreeze, may result in nausea, hypertension, tachycardia, cardiopulmonary failure, renal impairment, coma and death. 1,2-Propanediol is a GRAS food additive of low toxicity. 1,3-Butanediol has been studied as a source of dietary energy. Few studies are available on 1,2-, 2,3- and 1,4-butanediol or on 1,3-propanediol.« less

  17. Degradation of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycols by methanogenic consortia.

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, D F; Tiedje, J M

    1983-01-01

    Methanogenic enrichments capable of degrading polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol were obtained from sewage sludge. Ethanol, acetate, methane, and (in the case of polyethylene glycols) ethylene glycol were detected as products. The sequence of product formation suggested that the ethylene oxide unit [HO-(CH2-CH2-O-)xH] was dismutated to acetate and ethanol; ethanol was subsequently oxidized to acetate by a syntrophic association that produced methane. The rates of degradation for ethylene, diethylene, and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 400, 1,000, and 20,000, respectively, were inversely related to the number of ethylene oxide monomers per molecule and ranged from 0.84 to 0.13 mM ethylene oxide units degraded per h. The enrichments were shown to best metabolize glycols close to the molecular weight of the substrate on which they were enriched. The anaerobic degradation of polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20,000) may be important in the light of the general resistance of polyethylene glycols to aerobic degradation. PMID:6614903

  18. Effect of dry heating and ionic gum on the physicochemical and release properties of starch from Dioscorea.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Deepika; Pandey, Anima; Hermenean, Anca; Yáñez-Gascón, Maria Josefa; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2017-02-01

    To meet the ever increasing industrial demand for excipients with desirable properties, modified starch is regarded as an alternative to it. With this in mind, the present study focuses on the modification of starches of Dioscorea from Jharkhand (India) using dry heat treatment with and without ionic gum. Modified starches were prepared using sodium alginate (1% w/w). Native and modified starches were subjected to heat treatment at 130°C for 2h and 4h. The effect of heating and ionic gum on the properties of Dioscorea starch was investigated. The amylose content, water holding capacity, micromeritic properties, swelling power, solubility and morphology of starches were evaluated. Dry heat treatment of starches without gum showed an increment in water-holding capacity after two-hours heating, but no such increment was found after four-hours heating. Oil binding capacity of starches modified with gum varied from 62% to 78%. Strongest effect of heat treatment occurred on the morphology of starches and thereby modified starches showed distorted surface morphology. Amylose content (21.09-21.89%) found to be decreased with the addition of gum which lead to decrease in paste clarity. Starches heated with gum at high-temperature resulted in restrict swelling and slight increase in solubility. Micromeritic properties of the modified starches showed the good flow properties. Further, the modified starches were investigated for in-vitro release studies and that the thermally modified derivatives can be a good prospect in slow release formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple and highly effective method for slow-freezing human pluripotent stem cells using dimethyl sulfoxide, hydroxyethyl starch and ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Nishishita, Naoki; Muramatsu, Marie; Yamamoto, Takako; Takenaka, Chiemi; Kawamata, Shin; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification and slow-freezing methods have been used for the cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Vitrification requires considerable skill and post-thaw recovery is low. Furthermore, it is not suitable for cryopreservation of large numbers of hPSCs. While slow-freezing methods for hPSCs are easy to perform, they are usually preceded by a complicated cell dissociation process that yields poor post-thaw survival. To develop a robust and easy slow-freezing method for hPSCs, several different cryopreservation cocktails were prepared by modifying a commercially available freezing medium (CP-1™) containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline. The new freezing media were examined for their cryopreservation efficacy in combination with several different cell detachment methods. hPSCs in cryopreservation medium were slowly cooled in a conventional -80°C freezer and thawed rapidly. hPSC colonies were dissociated with several proteases. Ten percent of the colonies were passaged without cryopreservation and another 10% were cryopreserved, and then the recovery ratio was determined by comparing the number of Alkaline Phosphatase-positive colonies after thawing at day 5 with those passaged without cryopreservation at day 5. We found that cell detachment with Pronase/EDTA followed by cryopreservation using 6% HES, 5% DMSO, and 5% ethylene glycol (EG) in saline (termed CP-5E) achieved post-thaw recoveries over 80%. In summary, we have developed a new cryopreservation medium free of animal products for slow-freezing. This easy and robust cryopreservation method could be used widely for basic research and for clinical application.

  20. A Simple and Highly Effective Method for Slow-Freezing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Hydroxyethyl Starch and Ethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Nishishita, Naoki; Muramatsu, Marie; Yamamoto, Takako; Takenaka, Chiemi; Kawamata, Shin; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Nishikawa, Shin-ichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification and slow-freezing methods have been used for the cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Vitrification requires considerable skill and post-thaw recovery is low. Furthermore, it is not suitable for cryopreservation of large numbers of hPSCs. While slow-freezing methods for hPSCs are easy to perform, they are usually preceded by a complicated cell dissociation process that yields poor post-thaw survival. To develop a robust and easy slow-freezing method for hPSCs, several different cryopreservation cocktails were prepared by modifying a commercially available freezing medium (CP-1™) containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline. The new freezing media were examined for their cryopreservation efficacy in combination with several different cell detachment methods. hPSCs in cryopreservation medium were slowly cooled in a conventional −80°C freezer and thawed rapidly. hPSC colonies were dissociated with several proteases. Ten percent of the colonies were passaged without cryopreservation and another 10% were cryopreserved, and then the recovery ratio was determined by comparing the number of Alkaline Phosphatase-positive colonies after thawing at day 5 with those passaged without cryopreservation at day 5. We found that cell detachment with Pronase/EDTA followed by cryopreservation using 6% HES, 5% DMSO, and 5% ethylene glycol (EG) in saline (termed CP-5E) achieved post-thaw recoveries over 80%. In summary, we have developed a new cryopreservation medium free of animal products for slow-freezing. This easy and robust cryopreservation method could be used widely for basic research and for clinical application. PMID:24533137

  1. Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from pumpkin compared with potato and corn starches.

    PubMed

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the selected physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches and compared with the properties of potato and corn starches used as control samples. Pumpkin starches could be used in the food industry as a free gluten starch. Better thermal and rheological properties could contribute to reduce the costs of food production. The syneresis of pumpkin starches was similar to that of potato starch but much lower than that for corn starch. Pasting temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower by 17-21.7°C and their final viscosities were over 1000cP higher than corn paste, but were close to the values obtained for potato starch. The thermodynamic characteristic showed that the transformation temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower than those measured for control starches. A level of retrogradation was much lower in pumpkin starch pastes (32-48%) than was in the case of corn (59%) or potato (77%) starches. The pumpkin starches gels were characterized by a much greater hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, than potato or corn starches gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of mineral elements on physicochemical properties of oxidised starches and generation of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Sławomir; Fortuna, Teresa; Królikowska, Karolina; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Labanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enrichment of oxidised starches with mineral compounds on their physicochemical properties and capability for free radical generation. Potato and spelt wheat starches were oxidised with sodium hypochlorite and, afterwards, modified with ions of potassium, magnesium and iron. The modified starches were analysed for: content of mineral elements, colour parameters (L*a*b*), water binding capacity solubility in water at temperature of 50 and 80 °C, and susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase. In addition, thermodynamic characteristics of gelatinisation was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the number and character of thermally generated free radicals was assayed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Based on the results achieved, it was concluded that the quantity of incorporated minerals and changes in the assayed physicochemical parameters depended not only on the botanical type of starch but also on the type of the incorporated mineral element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo sodium concentration continuously monitored with fluorescent sensors.

    PubMed

    Dubach, J Matthew; Lim, Edward; Zhang, Ning; Francis, Kevin P; Clark, Heather

    2011-02-01

    Sodium balance is vital to maintaining normal physiological function. Imbalances can occur in a variety of diseases, during certain surgical operations or during rigorous exercise. There is currently no method to continuously monitor sodium concentration in patients who may be susceptible to hyponatremia. Our approach was to design sodium specific fluorescent sensors capable of measuring physiological fluctuations in sodium concentration. The sensors are submicron plasticized polymer particles containing sodium recognition components that are coated with biocompatible poly(ethylene) glycol. Here, the sensors were brought up in saline and placed in the subcutaneous area of the skin of mice by simple injection. The fluorescence was monitored in real time using a whole animal imager to track changes in sodium concentrations. This technology could be used to monitor certain disease states or warn against dangerously low levels of sodium during exercise.

  4. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch.

    PubMed

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-11-04

    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Simultaneous Abolition of Three Starch Hydrolases Blocks Transient Starch Breakdown in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic α-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and provide evidence that all three enzymes can act directly at the starch granule surface. The isa3 mutant has a starch excess phenotype, reflecting impaired starch breakdown. In contrast, removal of AMY3, LDA, or both enzymes together has no impact on starch degradation. However, removal of AMY3 or LDA in addition to ISA3 enhances the starch excess phenotype. In plants lacking all three enzymes, starch breakdown is effectively blocked, and starch accumulates to the highest levels observed so far. This provides indirect evidence that the heteromultimeric debranching enzyme ISA1-ISA2 is not involved in starch breakdown. However, we illustrate that ISA1-ISA2 can hydrolyze small soluble branched glucans that accumulate when ISA3 and LDA are missing, albeit at a slow rate. Starch accumulation in the mutants correlates inversely with plant growth. PMID:23019330

  7. Engineering starch accumulation by manipulation of phosphate metabolism of starch.

    PubMed

    Weise, Sean E; Aung, Kimberly; Jarou, Zach J; Mehrshahi, Payam; Li, Ziru; Hardy, Anna C; Carr, David J; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-06-01

    A new understanding of leaf starch degradation has emerged in the last 10 years. It has been shown that starch phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical components of this process. Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (and phosphoglucan, water dikinase) adds phosphate to starch, and phosphoglucan phosphatase (SEX4) removes these phosphates. To explore the use of this metabolism to manipulate starch accumulation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were engineered by introducing RNAi constructs designed to reduce expression of AtGWD and AtSEX4. The timing of starch build-up was altered with ethanol-inducible and senescence-induced gene promoters. Ethanol induction of RNAi lines reduced transcript for AtGWD and AtSEX4 by 50%. The transgenic lines had seven times more starch than wild type at the end of the dark period but similar growth rates and total biomass. Elevated leaf starch content in maize leaves was engineered by making an RNAi construct against a gene in maize that appeared to be homologous to AtGWD. The RNAi construct was expressed using the constitutive ubiquitin promoter. Leaf starch content at the end of a night period in engineered maize plants was 20-fold higher than in untransformed plants with no impact on total plant biomass. We conclude that plants can be engineered to accumulate starch in the leaves with little impact on vegetative biomass. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Equations for obtaining melting points for the ternary system ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their application to cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Woods, E J; Zieger, M A; Gao, D Y; Critser, J K

    1999-06-01

    The present study describes the H(2)O-NaCl-ethylene glycol ternary system by using a differential scanning calorimeter to measure melting points (T(m)) of four different ratios (R) of ethylene glycol to NaCl and then devising equations to fit the experimental measurements. Ultimately an equation is derived which characterizes the liquidus surface above the eutectic for any R value in the system. This study focuses on ethylene glycol in part because of recent evidence indicating it may be less toxic to pancreatic islets than Me(2)SO, which is currently used routinely for islet cryopreservation. The resulting physical data and previously determined information regarding the osmotic characteristics of canine pancreatic islets are combined in a mathematical model to describe the volumetric response to equilibrium-rate freezing in varying initial concentrations of ethylene glycol. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Design starch: stochastic modeling of starch granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Raguin, Adélaïde; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-08-15

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages. The net difference in the distribution of chain lengths and the branching pattern of amylose (mainly linear), compared with amylopectin (racemose structure), leads to different physico-chemical properties. Amylose is an amorphous and soluble polysaccharide, whereas amylopectin is insoluble and exhibits a highly organized structure of densely packed double helices formed between neighboring linear chains. Contrarily to starch degradation that has been investigated since the early 20th century, starch production is still poorly understood. Most enzymes involved in starch growth (elongation, branching, debranching, and partial hydrolysis) are now identified. However, their specific action, their interplay (cooperative or competitive), and their kinetic properties are still largely unknown. After reviewing recent results on starch structure and starch growth and degradation enzymatic activity, we discuss recent results and current challenges for growing polysaccharides on granular surface. Finally, we highlight the importance of novel stochastic models to support the analysis of recent and complex experimental results, and to address how macroscopic properties emerge from enzymatic activity and structural rearrangements. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Starch blockers--their effect on calorie absorption from a high-starch meal.

    PubMed

    Bo-Linn, G W; Santa Ana, C A; Morawski, S G; Fordtran, J S

    1982-12-02

    It has been known for more than 25 years that certain plant foods, such as kidney beans and wheat, contain a substance that inhibits the activity of salivary and pancreatic amylase. More recently, this antiamylase has been purified and marketed for use in weight control under the generic name "starch blockers." Although this approach to weight control is highly popular, it has never been shown whether starch-blocker tablets actually reduce the absorption of calories from starch. Using a one-day calorie-balance technique and a high-starch (100 g) meal (spaghetti, tomato sauce, and bread), we measured the excretion of fecal calories after normal subjects had taken either placebo or starch-blocker tablets. If the starch-blocker tablets had prevented the digestion of starch, fecal calorie excretion should have increased by 400 kcal. However, fecal calorie excretion was the same on the two test days (mean +/- S.E.M., 80 +/- 4 as compared with 78 +/- 2). We conclude that starch-blocker tablets do not inhibit the digestion and absorption of starch calories in human beings.

  11. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-08

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a novel potato starch derivative with cationic acetylcholine groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Ni, Boli; Lü, Shaoyu; Cui, Dapeng; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Han, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A novel substance, cationic acetylcholine potato starch (CAPS), was developed for the first time. The synthesis process had three steps: first, carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized under sodium hydroxide alkaline condition and in isopropyl alcohol organic media; second, bromocholine chloride (BCC) was synthesized with sulphuric acid as a catalytic agent; finally, CAPS was synthesized by the reaction of CMPS with BCC in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF). The degree of substitution (DS) of CAPS was determined by ammonia gas-sensing electrode and elemental analysis. CAPS was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  15. 2D SnO2 Nanosheets: Synthesis, Characterization, Structures, and Excellent Sensing Performance to Ethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenjin; Li, Yuehua; Ren, Xingping; Zhao, Yinping; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Heyun

    2018-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D)SnO2 nanosheets were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide in a mixed solvent of absolute ethanol and deionized water at a lower temperature of 130 °C. The characterization results of the morphology, microstructure, and surface properties of the as-prepared products demonstrated that SnO2 nanosheets with a tetragonal rutile structure, were composed of oriented SnO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 6–12 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FETEM) results demonstrated that the dominant exposed surface of the SnO2 nanoparticles was (101), but not (110). The growth and formation was supposed to follow the oriented attachment mechanism. The SnO2 nanosheets exhibited an excellent sensing response toward ethylene glycol at a lower optimal operating voltage of 3.4 V. The response to 400 ppm ethylene glycol reaches 395 at 3.4 V. Even under the low concentration of 5, 10, and 20 ppm, the sensor exhibited a high response of 6.9, 7.8, and 12.0 to ethylene glycol, respectively. The response of the SnO2 nanosheets exhibited a linear dependence on the ethylene glycol concentration from 5 to 1000 ppm. The excellent sensing performance was attributed to the present SnO2 nanoparticles with small size close to the Debye length, the larger specific surface, the high-energy exposed facets of the (101) surface, and the synergistic effects of the SnO2 nanoparticles of the nanosheets. PMID:29462938

  16. Protective Effect of Propolis in Proteinuria, Crystaluria, Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Ethylene Glycol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    El Menyiy, Nawal; Al Waili, Noori; Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Hamza; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2016-10-01

    Propolis is a natural honeybee product with wide biological activities and potential therapeutic properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate the protective effect of propolis extract on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by ethylene glycol in rats. Five groups of rats were used. Group 1 received drinking water, group 2 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water, group 3 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water along with cystone 500 mg/kg/body weight (bw) daily, group 4 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water along with propolis extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg/bw daily, and group 5 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water along with propolis extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg/bw daily. The treatment continued for a total of 30 d. Urinalyses for pH, crystals, protein, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes, and renal and liver function tests were performed. Ethylene-glycol increased urinary pH, urinary volume, and urinary calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and protein excretion. It decreased creatinine clearance and magnesium and caused crystaluria. Treatment with propolis extract or cystone normalized the level of magnesium, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride. Propolis is more potent than cystone. Propolis extract alleviates urinary protein excretion and ameliorates the deterioration of liver and kidney function caused by ethylene glycol. Propolis extract has a potential protective effect against ethylene glycol induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity and has a potential to treat and prevent urinary calculus, crystaluria and proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Edible Laminate Layers in Intermediate Moisture Food Rations to Inhibit Moisture Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    methylcellulose, propylene glycol, citric acid, modified starch , white beeswax Water resistant coating on one side Watson, Inc. Dual-sided HPMC moisture...barrier film Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, citric acid, modified starch , white beeswax Water resistant coating on both sides...Moisture Barrier (BWMB) film #1 Pullulan*, beeswax, glycerin, propylene glycol, starch , polysorbate 80 Water soluble Watson, Inc. Pullulan BWMB film

  18. Association behaviors of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide with double hydrophilic block co-polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamate sodium).

    PubMed

    Han, Yuchun; Xia, Lin; Zhu, Linyi; Zhang, Shusheng; Li, Zhibo; Wang, Yilin

    2012-10-30

    The association behaviors of single-chain surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) with double hydrophilic block co-polymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(sodium glutamate) (PEG(113)-PGlu(50) or PEG(113)-PGlu(100)) were investigated using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, ζ potential, and particle size measurements. The electrostatic interaction between DTAB and the oppositely charged carboxylate groups of PEG-PGlu induces the formation of super-amphiphiles, which further self-assemble into ordered aggregates. Dependent upon the charge ratios between DTAB and the glutamic acid residue of the co-polymer, the mixture solutions can change from transparent to opalescent without precipitation. Dependent upon the chain length of the PGlu block, the mixture of DTAB and PEG-PGlu diblocks can form two different aggregates at their corresponding electroneutral point. Spherical and rod-like aggregates are formed in the PEG(113)-PGlu(50)/DTAB mixture, while the vesicular aggregates are observed in the PEG(113)-PGlu(100)/DTAB mixture solution. Because the PEG(113)-PGlu(100)/DTAB super-amphiphile has more hydrophobic components than that of the PEG(113)-PGlu(50)/DTAB super-amphiphile, the former prefers forming the ordered aggregates with higher curvature, such as spherical and rod aggregates, but the latter prefers forming vesicular aggregates with lower curvature.

  19. Skin deposition and permeation of finasteride in vitro: effects of propylene glycol, ethanol and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Limpongsa, Ekapol; Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2014-08-27

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of propylene glycol (PG), ethanol (EtOH) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on the in vitro deposition and permeation of finasteride (FNS). A side-by-side diffusion cell mounted with a pig ear skin and a saturated solution of FNS in PG (10, 20% v/v), EtOH (10, 20% v/v) or SLS (0.5, 1% w/v) vehicles were used. Incorporation of PG, EtOH or SLS caused a significant increase in FNS solubility both in the solution and on the skin with SLS > EtOH > PG. The results obtained from skin deposition studies showed that the FNS deposition rate and time increased in the same order as that of the solubility. The deposition kinetics of FNS solubilized in PG, EtOH and SLS vehicles followed either zero-order, square-root-of-time or pseudo-first-order kinetic models depending on the type and concentration of the enhancer. The permeation studies demonstrated that FNS permeation fluxes were enhanced only by EtOH vehicles. These results suggest that PG and SLS could be used as deposition enhancers, while EtOH could be the effective permeation enhancer of FNS. The obtained results can be used as the considerable insights for formulating the topical and transdermal products of FNS.

  20. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of non-crystalline granular starch and corresponding carboxymethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xiaomin; Xie, Qiutao; Tao, Han; Wang, Wu; Chen, Han-Qing

    2017-10-01

    Native corn starch slurried in 50% ethanol solution was treated at 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 85°C, respectively. The resultant starches were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The Maltese cross of ethanol-heating treated starch gradually weaken with increasing temperature and completely disappeared at 85°C. SEM data indicated the treated granular exhibited a rougher surface with more pores and grooves than native starch granular, but the shape of the treated starch was still intact. DSC and XRD data confirmed ethanol-heating treated starch changed from crystalline to non-crystalline structure at 85°C. The highest degree of substitution (DS) and corresponding reaction efficiency (RE) for the carboxymethylation of native starch were 0.66 and 36.7%, respectively, while the corresponding DS and RE for non-crystalline granular starches increased by 0.29 and 16.1% at the same reaction condition, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  3. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. Results: All vehicles

  4. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. All vehicles exhibited bactericidal activity at

  5. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    PubMed

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Starch-Branching Enzymes Preferentially Associated with A-Type Starch Granules in Wheat Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mingsheng; Gao, Ming; Båga, Monica; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N.

    2000-01-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 μm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 μm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 μm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 μm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution. PMID:10982441

  7. Effect of roasted pea flour/starch and encapsulated pea starch incorporation on the in vitro starch digestibility of pea breads.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang

    2018-04-15

    Oven or microwave roasting and alginate encapsulation of pea flour and starch to produce novel pea ingredients for enrichment of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in pea bread were investigated. Pea flour treated either by oven roasting (160°C, 30min) or by microwave roasting (1.1kW, 6min) effectively retained its low starch digestibility similar to its native form (∼25% SDS; ∼60% RS). When oven roasting was applied to pea starch, SDS content increased triply compared to the fully boiled counterpart. Alginate encapsulation effectively controlled carbohydrate release to simulated gastric, intestinal and colonic fluids, and thus largely enriched the SDS and RS fractions in starch. Pea bread containing up to 37.5% of encapsulated roasted MPS pea starch not only provided high SDS and RS fractions (23.9% SDS and 30.2% RS) compared to a white bread control (0.2% SDS and 2.5% RS), but also provided an acceptable palatability. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the effect of the concentration of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and acrylic acid toward the properties of Dioscorea hispida-starch-based hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashri, Airul; Lazim, Azwan

    2014-09-01

    The research investigated the effects of acrylic acid (monomer) and N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA (crosslinker) toward the percentage of gel content, swelling ratio and ionic strength of a starch-based hydrogel. Starch grafted on poly (sodium acrylate), St-g-PAANa hydrogel was prepared by incorporating starch extracted from Dioscorea hispida in NaOH/aqueous solution using different composition of acrylic acid (AA) and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in the presence of potassium persulfate (KPS) as chemical initiator. The highest gel content was observed at 1:30 ratio of starch to AA and 0.10 M of MBA. Results showed the highest swelling ratio was observed at 1:15 ratio of starch to acrylic acid and 0.02 M of MBA solution. The same results also gave the highest swelling ratio for the ionic strength study. The FTIR analysis was also conducted in order to confirm the grafting of AA onto starch backbone.

  9. Starch as a source, starch as a sink: the bifunctional role of starch in carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Gregory J; Mehrpouyan, Sahar; Minow, Mark A A; Patterson, Jenelle A; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J

    2017-07-20

    Starch commands a central role in the carbon budget of the majority of plants on earth, and its biological role changes during development and in response to the environment. Throughout the life of a plant, starch plays a dual role in carbon allocation, acting as both a source, releasing carbon reserves in leaves for growth and development, and as a sink, either as a dedicated starch store in its own right (in seeds and tubers), or as a temporary reserve of carbon contributing to sink strength, in organs such as flowers, fruits, and developing non-starchy seeds. The presence of starch in tissues and organs thus has a profound impact on the physiology of the growing plant as its synthesis and degradation governs the availability of free sugars, which in turn control various growth and developmental processes. This review attempts to summarize the large body of information currently available on starch metabolism and its relationship to wider aspects of carbon metabolism and plant nutrition. It highlights gaps in our knowledge and points to research areas that show promise for bioengineering and manipulation of starch metabolism in order to achieve more desirable phenotypes such as increased yield or plant biomass. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of lactose-sodium starch glycolate and lactose-croscarmellose sodium binary tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashikin Yaakub, Nur; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Tahir, Suraya Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The focus of this study is to elucidate the effects of adding super disintegrants (SSG and Acdisol) to a filler (lactose) in terms of the compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of the formed binary tablets. The tablets were formed in a uniaxial die compaction process with compaction pressures ranging from 37.7MPa to 150.7 MPa. Consequently, the findings indicated that the increasing of the compaction pressure and the percentage mass composition of the super disintegrants would led to the increased in the strength of the tablets as well as their plastic energies, where this was more apparent for the case of the binary lactose/Acdisol tablets. In addition, as the compaction pressure increased, the maximum ejection pressure required to eject the tablet from the die cavity also increased. In contrast, a decreased in the maximum ejection pressure was observed as the composition of both super disintegrants increased in the lactose-super disintegrant binary tablets. In conclusion, the addition of super disintegrant; SSG with lactose and Acdisol with lactose; would enhanced the mechanical strength of lactose based tablets especially for the case of acdisol-lactose binary tablets in the experimental conditions adopted in this current work.

  11. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10518 - Diethylene glycol, polymer with diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether- and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethylene glycol, polymer with... Substances § 721.10518 Diethylene glycol, polymer with diisocyanatoalkane, polyethylene glycol monomethyl... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as diethylene glycol, polymer with...

  13. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH Is Required for Localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to Starch Granules and for Normal Amylose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Seung, David; Soyk, Sebastian; Coiro, Mario; Maier, Benjamin A.; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin) or linear (amylose). The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS) is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST) is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM). We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is exclusively involved

  14. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  15. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating.

  16. Ethylene glycol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  17. Spray-dried high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch: impact of α-amylase on drug-release profile.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Teresa; Zaraa, Sarra; Leclair, Grégoire

    2016-11-01

    Spray-dried high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (SD HASCA) is a promising pharmaceutical excipient for sustained-release (SR) matrix tablets produced by direct compression. The presence of α-amylase in the gastrointestinal tract and the variations of the gastric residence time of non-disintegrating dosage forms may affect the presystemic metabolism of this excipient and, consequently, the drug-release profile from formulations produced with SD HASCA. In this study, the influence of α-amylase and the residence time in acidic conditions on the drug-release profile was evaluated for a once-daily acetaminophen formulation (Acetaminophen SR) and a once-daily tramadol hydrochloride formulation (Tramadol SR). Both formulations were based on SD HASCA. α-Amylase concentrations ranging from 0 IU/L to 20000 IU/L did not significantly affect the drug-release profiles of acetaminophen and tramadol hydrochloride from SD HASCA tablets (f2 > 50) for all but only one of the studied conditions (f2 = 47). Moreover, the drug-release properties from both SD HASCA formulations were not significantly different when the residence time in acidic medium was 1 h or 3 h. An increase in α-amylase concentration led to an increase in the importance of polymer erosion as the main mechanism of drug-release instead of drug diffusion, for both formulations and both residence times, even if release profiles remained comparable. As such, it is expected that α-amylase concentration and residence time in the stomach will not clinically affect the performance of both SD HASCA SR formulations, even if the mechanism of release itself may be affected.

  18. Mapping and comparative proteomic analysis of the starch biosynthetic pathway in rice by 2D PAGE/MS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tao-Shan; Liu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Yu-Ling; Li, Chao-Yi; Wang, Arthur Z; Chien, Min-Wei; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2017-11-01

    Our results not only provide a comprehensive overview of the starch biosynthetic pathway in the developing endosperm but also reveal some important protein markers that regulate the synthesis of starch. In human diets, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important source of starch, a substantial amount of which is accumulated in developing endosperm. A better understanding of the complicated pathways involved in starch biosynthesis is needed to improve the yield and quality of rice and other cereal crops through breeding. One pure line rice mutant, SA0419, was induced from a wild-type rice, TNG67, by sodium azide mutagenesis; therefore, TNG67 and SA0419 share the same genetic background. SA0419 is, however, a unique glutinous rice with a lower amylose content (8%) than that of TNG67 (20%), and the grains of SA0419 develop earlier and faster than those of TNG67. In this study, we used a comparative proteomic analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins that may explain the differences in starch biosynthesis and the characteristics of TNG67 and SA0419. A gel-based proteomic approach was applied to profile the expressed proteome in the developing endosperm of these two rice varieties by nano-LC/MS/MS. Several over-expressed proteins were found in SA0419, such as plastidial ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), starch branching enzymes (SBE) and starch debranching enzyme (SDBE), with those proteins mainly being involved in the pathways of starch metabolism and PPDK-mediated gluconeogenesis. Those over-expressed enzymes may contribute to the relatively early development, similar starch accumulation and rapid grain filling of SA0419 as compared with TNG67. This study provides a detailed biochemical description of starch biosynthesis and related information regarding a unique starch mutant that may assist future

  19. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  20. Starch--value addition by modification.

    PubMed

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  1. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Citric Acid and Sodium Carbonate with Deicers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at −20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at −20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  4. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of physicochemical and functional properties of flour and starch extract in different methods from Africa locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sankhon, Abdoulaye; Amadou, Issoufou; Yao, Wei-Rong; Wang, Heya; Qian, He; Sangare, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    African locust bean tree is an important food tree for both human and livestock such as husks and pods. It plays a very vital role in the rural areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, mineral characteristics and functional properties of flour and starch extract produced from Parkia biglobosa seeds, using different methods. Three different methods were used for starch extraction in other to get the Starch yield (%),composition analysis for; moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of flour and starch extracts from Parkia biglobosa were determined on dry basis (db), by AACC method, color and PH value measurements was carried out using color flex spectrocolorimeter, and the official method of AOAC respectively. Pasting properties was determined and X-ray powder starch diffraction was used to examine the crystalline property of flour and starch extract. Gelatinization characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility were also determined, test results were processed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Flour showed higher (P < 0.05), moisture content, fat, carbohydrate, amylopectine, and protein content than starch, while amylose content of this starch was higher (P<0.05). Phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and potassium minerals content were higher in flour than starch. Pasting properties, gelatinisation, color, pH values, water and oil absorption capacity content of the flour were found to be higher than that of starch. The pasting characteristics showed a decrease of viscosity, final viscosity, set back value, breakdown, and pasting temperature of flour when compared to that of starch. From our results, we speculate that flour from native Parkia biglobosa grown in Guinea under controlled environmental conditions could be considered as an ideal RS material, whereas the extract Parkia starch could be an ideal SDS material. Therefore, these may offer an interesting alternative for food developers, depending on their characteristics

  6. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  7. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch.

  8. Starch Spherulites Prepared by a Combination of Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis of Normal Corn Starch.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yaqian; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-06-13

    This paper describes a new method to prepare spherulites from normal corn starch by a combination of enzymatic (mixtures of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase) and acid hydrolysis followed by recrystallization of the hydrolyzed products. The resulting spherulites contained a higher proportion of chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 6-12 and a lower proportion of chains with DP of 25-36, compared to those of native starch. The spherulites had an even particle size of about 2 μm and a typical B-type crystallinity. The amounts of long- and short-range molecular order of double helices in starch spherulites were larger, but the quality of starch crystallites was poorer, compared to that of native starch. This study showed an efficient method for preparing starch spherulites with uniform granule morphology and small particle size from normal corn starch. The ratios of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase in enzymatic hydrolysis had little effect on the structure of the starch spherulites.

  9. Plasma modification of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interdiction of hypoglycemia in diabetic children by multiparticulate dosage form with controlled glucose release.

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš; Sabadková, Dana; Neumann, David; Pavloková, Sylvie; Kopecká, Pavlína; Muselík, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Patients tend to evade the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes by excessive carbohydrate intake. Glucose pellets with delayed release in the time of the maximum effect of insulin can not only prevent hypoglycemia but also eliminate the preventive carbohydrate intake. The pellets can be administered in a mixture with semisolid food. The cores containing glucose in combination with osmotically active agents (croscarmellose sodium, carmellose sodium, polyethylene glycol, or carboxymethyl starch) were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and coated with 15% water ethylcellulose dispersion (Surelease® B NF) in Wurster column (Medipo, Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic) into four coating levels (12.5, 25, 35, and 50%). Mean particle size is 0.63-0.73 for cores and 0.82-0.98 for coated pellets. Cores and coated pellets have excellent or good flow properties according to Hausner ratio and Carr index. Aspect ratio ranges from 1.78 to 2.17 for cores and from 1.73 to 2.31 for coated pellets. Dissolution was performed using pH-independent method and method with continual change of pH. The suitable pH-independent release was achieved in the samples containing carboxymethyl starch or polyethylene glycol. Glucose release is enabled by a membrane rupture caused by core swelling. It can be, therefore, assumed that the glucose release profile will not be affected by food or transit time.

  11. Distribution of branches in whole starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-05-21

    An earlier study explored the possibility of analyzing the distribution of branches directly in native, whole starch without isolating the amylopectin component. The aim of this study was to explore if this approach can be extended to include starch mutants. Whole starches from du1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with amylose content of ∼30-40% were characterized and compared with the wild type of the common genetic background W64A. Clusters were produced from whole starch by hydrolysis with α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their compositions of building blocks and chains were analyzed further by complete α-amylolysis and by debranching, respectively, whereafter the products were subjected to gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. The size and structure of the clusters were compared with those of their isolated amylopectin component. Whereas the whole starch of the wild type sample had a branched structure similar to that of its amylopectin component, the results showed that the du1 mutation resulted in more singly branched building blocks in the whole starch compared to the isolated amylopectin. This suggested that amylose and/or intermediate materials in whole du1 starches likely contributed to the composition of branches. This study explored an alternative procedure to characterize the composition of branches in the whole starch without fractionating the components.

  12. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    PubMed

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Margaret A.; Joyce, Nigel I.; Genet, Russell A.; Cooper, Rebecca D.; Murray, Sarah R.; Noble, Alasdair D.; Butler, Ruth C.; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p < 0.001) were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD), starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) and the starch synthase III (SSIII) genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato. PMID:25806042

  15. Resistant starch type V formation in brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch with different lipids/fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okumus, Bahar Nur; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Kahraman, Kevser; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch and investigate the formation of amylose-lipid complexes (Resistant Starch Type V) by the addition of different lipids/fatty acids (10%, w/w) to both raw and cooked starch samples. Resistant starch content (measured by the official method of AACCI (Method 32-40), using the resistant starch assay kit) of raw brown lentil starch (BLS) increased significantly by the additions of lipids/fatty acids, starch sample complexed with HSO (hydrogenated sunflower oil) (14.1±0.4%) being the highest. For the cooked starch/lipid complexes, more profound effect was evident (22.2-67.7%). Peak, breakdown and trough viscosity values of the amylose-lipid complexed starches were significantly lower than that of BLS (p<0.05), while significant decreases in the setback and final viscosities were only detected in oil samples, but not in fatty acids. Each lipid in concern exerted different effects on the digestibility of starch and amylose-lipid complex formation while having no substantial differential effects on the thermal properties of starch depicted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Amylose-lipid complex formation with suitable fatty acids/lipids seems a promising way of increasing resistant starch content of food formulations. Although the applications being quite uncommon yet, brown lentil seems to have potential both as a starch and also as a resistant starch source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  17. Physical characterisation of high amylose maize starch and acylated high amylose maize starches.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ya-Mei; Hoobin, Pamela; Ying, DanYang; Burgar, Iko; Gooley, Paul R; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2015-03-06

    The particle size, water sorption properties and molecular mobility of high amylose maize starch (HAMS) and high amylose maize starch acylated with acetate (HAMSA), propionate (HAMSP) and butyrate (HAMSB) were investigated. Acylation increased the mean particle size (D(4,3)) and lowered the specific gravity (G) of the starch granules with an inverse relationship between the length of the fatty acid chain and particle size. Acylation of HAMS with fatty acids lowered the monolayer moisture content with the trend being HAMSBstarch granules by NMR spectroscopy with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CMPG) experiments showed that T2 long was reduced in acylated starches and that drying and storage of the starch granules further reduced T2 long. Analysis of the Free Induction Decay (FID) focussing on the short components of T2 (correlated to the solid matrix), indicated that drying and subsequent storage resulted in alterations of starch at 0.33a(w) and that these changes were reduced with acylation. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of heated starch dispersions by bacterial α-amylase was increased by acylation (HAMSstarch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  19. Novel bone wax based on poly(ethylene glycol)-calcium phosphate cement mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Theresa; Schamel, Martha; Kübler, Alexander C; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Classic bone wax is associated with drawbacks such as the risk of infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. Here, we developed a novel self-setting bone wax on the basis of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC), to overcome the problems that are linked to the use of conventional beeswax systems. Amounts of up to 10 wt.% of pregelatinized starch were additionally supplemented as hemostatic agent. After exposure to a humid environment, the PEG phase dissolved and was exchanged by penetrating water that interacted with the HA precursor (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/monetite) to form highly porous, nanocrystalline HA via a dissolution/precipitation reaction. Simultaneously, pregelatinized starch could gel and supply the bone wax with liquid sealing features. The novel bone wax formulation was found to be cohesive, malleable and after hardening under aqueous conditions, it had a mechanical performance (∼2.5 MPa compressive strength) that is comparable to that of cancellous bone. It withstood systolic blood pressure conditions for several days and showed antibacterial properties for almost one week, even though 60% of the incorporated drug vancomycin hydrochloride was already released after 8h of deposition by diffusion controlled processes. The study investigated the development of alternative bone waxes on the basis of a hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system. Conventional bone waxes are composed of non-biodegradable beeswax/vaseline mixtures that are often linked to infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. We combined the usage of bioresorbable polymers, the supplementation with hemostatic agents and the incorporation of a mineral component to overcome those drawbacks. Self-setting CPC precursors (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), monetite) were embedded in a resorbable matrix of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and supplemented with pregelatinized starch. This

  20. Bacterial Utilization of Ether Glycols

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Edward L.; Payne, W. J.

    1962-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of using oligo- and polyethylene glycols and ether alcohols as sole sources of carbon for aerobic growth was isolated. The effects of substituent groups added to the ether bonds on the acceptability of the compounds as substrates were studied. Mechanisms for the incorporation of two-carbon compounds were demonstrated by the observation that acetate, glyoxylate, ethylene glycol, and a number of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates served as growth substrates in minimal media. The rate of oxidation of the short-chained ethylene glycols by adapted resting cells varied directly with increasing numbers of two-carbon units in the chains from one to four. The amount of oxygen consumed per carbon atom of oligo- and polyethylene glycols was 100% of theoretical, but only 67% of theoretical for ethylene glycol. Resting cells oxidized oligo- and polyethylene glycols with 2 to 600 two-carbon units in the chains. Longer chained polyethylene glycols (up to 6,000) were oxidized at a very slow rate by these cells. Dehydrogenation of triethylene glycol by adapted cells was observed, coupling the reaction with methylene blue reduction. PMID:13945208

  1. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  2. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  3. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  4. Thermal performance of ethylene glycol based nanofluids in an electronic heat sink.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Suresh, S

    2014-03-01

    Heat transfer in electronic devices such as micro processors and power converters is much essential to keep these devices cool for the better functioning of the systems. Air cooled heat sinks are not able to remove the high heat flux produced by the today's electronic components. Liquids work better than air in removing heat. Thermal conductivity which is the most essential property of any heat transfer fluid can be enhanced by adding nano scale solid particles which possess higher thermal conductivity than the liquids. In this work the convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the water/ethylene glycol mixture based nanofluids consisting of Al2O3, CuO nanoparticles with a volume concentration of 0.1% are studied experimentally in a rectangular channel heat sink. The nano particles are characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope and the nannofluids are prepared by using an ultrasonic vibrator and Sodium Lauryl Salt surfactant. The experimental results showed that nanofluids of 0.1% volume concentration give higher convective heat transfer coefficient values than the plain water/ethylene glycol mixture which is prepared in the volume ratio of 70:30. There is no much penalty in the pressure drop values due to the inclusion of nano particles in the water/ethylene glycol mixture.

  5. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices for oral, sustained drug-release: formulation aspects and in vitro drug-release evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brouillet, F; Bataille, B; Cartilier, L

    2008-05-22

    High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), produced by spray-drying (SD), was previously shown to have interesting properties as a promising pharmaceutical sustained drug-release tablet excipient for direct compression, including ease of manufacture and high crushing strength. This study describes the effects of some important formulation parameters, such as compression force (CF), tablet weight (TW), drug-loading and electrolyte particle size, on acetaminophen-release performances from sustained drug-release matrix tablets based on HASCA. An interesting linear relationship between TW and release time was observed for a typical formulation of the system consisting of 40% (w/w) acetaminophen as model drug and 27.5% NaCl as model electrolyte dry-mixed with HASCA. Application of the Peppas and Sahlin model gave a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in drug-release from the HASCA matrix system, which is mainly controlled by surface gel layer formation. Indeed, augmenting TW increased the contribution of the diffusion mechanism. CFs ranging from 1 to 2.5 tonnes/cm(2) had no significant influence on the release properties of tablets weighing 400 or 600 mg. NaCl particle size did not affect the acetaminophen-release profile. Finally, these results prove that the new SD process developed for HASCA manufacture is suitable for obtaining similar-quality HASCA in terms of release and compression performances.

  6. Morphological, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Starches from Maize Mutants Deficient in Starch Synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Li, Guantian

    2016-08-31

    Morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were studied and compared with the wild type. SSIII deficiency reduced granule size of the starches from 16.7 to ∼11 μm (volume-weighted mean). Thermal analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the enthalpy change of starch during gelatinization. Steady shear analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the consistency coefficient and yield stress during steady shearing, whereas additional deficiency in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) increased these values. Dynamic oscillatory analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased G' at 90 °C during heating and increased it when the paste was cooled to 25 °C at 40 Hz during a frequency sweep. Additional GBSS deficiency further decreased the G'. Structural and compositional bases responsible for these changes in physical properties of the starches are discussed. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and some physicochemical properties of maize starch.

  7. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  8. Five-year review of a UK 24 hour testing service for plasma ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Ford, Loretta T; Berg, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    We present a 5-year review of our UK service for plasma ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol determination in cases of acute poisoning. Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol have been measured on all samples received for screening for toxicity by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection over a five-year period. A detailed audit of the results has been undertaken. In this period, we received 811 requests, 56% were for first-time screening and 44% repeat analysis where a positive sample has already been received. Of the first-time screen samples, 33.5% screened positive for glycol poisoning. The mean positive ethylene glycol concentration was 1204 mg/L (range 31 to 8666 mg/L). Diethylene glycol was present in 14% of ethylene glycol positive samples but never found alone. The data presented here suggest it is not essential to measure diethylene glycol since its inclusion is rarely likely to change patient management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We

  10. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gradually Decreasing Starch Branching Enzyme Expression Is Responsible for the Formation of Heterogeneous Starch Granules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan; Chen, Zichun

    2018-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm is mainly occupied by homogeneous polygonal starch from inside to outside. However, morphologically different (heterogeneous) starches have been identified in some rice mutants. How these heterogeneous starches form remains unknown. A high-amylose rice line (TRS) generated through the antisense inhibition of starch branching synthase I (SBEI) and SBEIIb contains four heterogeneous starches: polygonal, aggregate, elongated, and hollow starch; these starches are regionally distributed in the endosperm from inside to outside. Here, we investigated the relationship between SBE dosage and the morphological architecture of heterogeneous starches in TRS endosperm from the view of the molecular structure of starch. The results indicated that their molecular structures underwent regular changes, including gradually increasing true amylose content but decreasing amylopectin content and gradually increasing the ratio of amylopectin long chain but decreasing the ratio of amylopectin short chain. Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) amounts in the four heterogeneous starches were not significantly different from each other, but SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb showed a gradually decreasing trend. Further immunostaining analysis revealed that the gradually decreasing SBEs acting on the formation of the four heterogeneous granules were mainly due to the spatial distribution of the three SBEs in the endosperm. It was suggested that the decreased amylopectin in starch might remove steric hindrance and provide extra space for abundant amylose accumulation when the GBSSI amount was not elevated. Furthermore, extra amylose coupled with altered amylopectin structure possibly led to morphological changes in heterogeneous granules. PMID:29133372

  12. Potential of using multiscale kenaf fibers as reinforcing filler in cassava starch-kenaf biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Siti Yasmine Zanariah; Ahmad, Ishak; Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Dufresne, Alain

    2013-02-15

    Biodegradable materials made from cassava starch and kenaf fibers were prepared using a solution casting method. Kenaf fibers were treated with NaOH, bleached with sodium chlorite and acetic buffer solution, and subsequently acid hydrolyzed to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by mixing starch and glycerol/sorbitol with various filler compositions (0-10 wt%). X-ray diffraction revealed that fiber crystallinity increased after each stage of treatment. Morphological observations and size reductions of the extracted cellulose and CNCs were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different treatments and filler contents of the biocomposites were evaluated through mechanical tests. Results showed that the tensile strengths and moduli of the biocomposites increased after each treatment and the optimum filler content was 6%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental toxicity and structure/activity correlates of glycols and glycol ethers.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Gabel, B E; Larson, J

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has selected numerous glycol ethers for testing in routine laboratory mammals to ascertain the magnitude of their ability to injure the conceptus. From the lists available of ongoing and projected NTP test chemicals, a series of glycol ethers was selected for examination in vitro in the hydra assay. Also tested were additional chemicals of similar molecular configuration and/or composition. This short-term screening test placed the 14 glycols and glycol ethers tested into a rank order sequence according to their degree of hazard potential to developmental biology, i.e., their ability to interfere with the developmental events characteristic of all ontogenic systems. They were ranked according to the difference between the lowest dose or concentration overtly toxic to adults (A) and the lowest concentration interfering with development (D) of the artificial embryo of reaggregated adult hydra cells and the A/D ratio. Published data from mammalian studies were available for a few of the test chemicals, and in each instance the hydra assay was in direct agreement with the outcomes reported of the more elaborate and standard animal tests. Ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether were shown by both standard evaluations in mammals, and by the hydra assay, to disrupt embryos only at or very near to their respective adult toxic doses, whereas the mono-ethyl ether perturbed development at approximately one-fifth of the lowest dose overtly toxic to adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1. A FIGURE 1. B FIGURE 1. C PMID:6499797

  14. Cecropia peltata Accumulates Starch or Soluble Glycogen by Differentially Regulating Starch Biosynthetic Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2013-01-01

    The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches—factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans. PMID:23632447

  15. Propylene glycol intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    Claus, Melissa A; Jandrey, Karl E; Poppenga, Robert H

    2011-12-01

    To describe the clinical course, treatment, and outcome of a dog with propylene glycol intoxication. An adult castrated male Australian cattle dog presented to an emergency clinic for an acute onset of ataxia and disorientation after roaming a construction site unsupervised. He tested positive for ethylene glycol using a point-of-care test kit. Treatment for ethylene glycol intoxication included intermittent intravenous boluses of 20% ethanol and hemodialysis. Predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were submitted to the toxicology lab to assess for both ethylene and propylene glycol. The patient tested negative for ethylene glycol and positive for propylene glycol at 1100 mg/dL predialysis and 23 mg/dL postdialysis. The dog made a full recovery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of documented propylene glycol intoxication in a dog, as well as the first report to describe hemodialysis as treatment for propylene glycol intoxication in a dog. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  16. Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; McNally, Marian; Rossiter, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high.

  17. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Starch, inulin and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents affect the quality and stability of jussara pulp microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ellen Cristina Quirino; Calado, Verônica Maria de Araújo; Monteiro, Mariana; Finotelli, Priscilla Vanessa; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel

    2016-10-20

    The influence of encapsulating carbohydrates (EC) with varying properties on the technological and functional properties of jussara pulp microparticles produced by spray drying were evaluated using experimental design. Microparticles produced with sodium octenyl succinate (OSA) starch at 0.5 core to EC ratio and with mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin at 1.0 and 2.0 core to EC ratio showed darker color, and higher anthocyanins contents and antioxidant activity. Seven microparticles showing high water solubility and desirable surface morphology. Hygroscopicity (10.7% and 11.5%) and wettability (41s and 43s) were improved when OSA starch and mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin were used. The anthocyanins contents and color of the microparticles did not change when exposed to light at 50°C for 38days. Finally, microparticles produced at 1.0 core to EC ratio with 2/3 OSA starch, 1/6 inulin and 1/6 maltodextrin were selected. These microparticles may be applied as colorant in numerous foods, whilst adding prebiotic fiber and anthocyanins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders.

  20. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  1. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  3. Mechanical Retention and Waterproof Properties of Bacterial Cellulose-Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-wei; Xu, Ying-juan; Li, Xin; Huang, Chao-ming; Huang, Kuo-shien; Wang, Chuen-kai; Yeh, Jen-taut

    2015-01-01

    The waterproof and strength retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC)-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). After modification with SHMP, the tensile strength (σf) and impact strength (Is) values of initial and conditioned BC-reinforced TPS, modified with varying amounts of SHMP(TPS100BC0.02SHMPx), and their blends with poly(lactic acid)((TPS100BC0.02SHMPx)75PLA25) specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as SHMP content approached 10 parts per hundred parts of TPS resin (phr), while their moisture content and elongation at break (ɛf) was reduced to a minimal value as SHMP contents approached 10 phr. The σf, Is and ɛf retention values of a (TPS100BC0.02SHMP10)75PLA25 specimen conditioned for 56 days are 52%, 50% and 3 times its initial σf, Is and ɛf values, respectively, which are 32.5 times, 8.9 times and 40% of those of a corresponding conditioned TPS100BC0.02 specimen, respectively. As evidenced by FTIR analyses of TPS100BC0.02SHMPx specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the phosphate groups of SHMP molecules. New melting endotherms and diffraction peaks of VH-type crystals were found on DSC thermograms and WAXD patterns of TPS or TPS100BC0.02 specimens conditioned for 7 days, while no new melting endotherm or diffraction peak was found for TPS100BC0.02SHMPx and/or (TPS100BC0.02SHMPx)75PLA25 specimens conditioned for less than 14 and 28 days, respectively.

  4. Engineering yeasts for raw starch conversion.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, W H; Bloom, M; Viktor, M J

    2012-09-01

    Next to cellulose, starch is the most abundant hexose polymer in plants, an import food and feed source and a preferred substrate for the production of many industrial products. Efficient starch hydrolysis requires the activities of both α-1,4 and α-1,6-debranching hydrolases, such as endo-amylases, exo-amylases, debranching enzymes, and transferases. Although amylases are widely distributed in nature, only about 10 % of amylolytic enzymes are able to hydrolyse raw or unmodified starch, with a combination of α-amylases and glucoamylases as minimum requirement for the complete hydrolysis of raw starch. The cost-effective conversion of raw starch for the production of biofuels and other important by-products requires the expression of starch-hydrolysing enzymes in a fermenting yeast strain to achieve liquefaction, hydrolysis, and fermentation (Consolidated Bioprocessing, CBP) by a single organism. The status of engineering amylolytic activities into Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermentative host is highlighted and progress as well as challenges towards a true CBP organism for raw starch is discussed. Conversion of raw starch by yeast secreting or displaying α-amylases and glucoamylases on their surface has been demonstrated, although not at high starch loading or conversion rates that will be economically viable on industrial scale. Once efficient conversion of raw starch can be demonstrated at commercial level, engineering of yeast to utilize alternative substrates and produce alternative chemicals as part of a sustainable biorefinery can be pursued to ensure the rightful place of starch converting yeasts in the envisaged bio-economy of the future.

  5. Inhibition of buckwheat starch digestion by the formation of starch/bile salt complexes: possibility of its occurrence in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2011-06-08

    During the digestion of starch in foods, starch is mixed with bile in the duodenum. Because fatty acids and some kinds of polyphenols could bind to starch, it was postulated that bile salts might also bind to starch. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of bile and bile salts on starch/iodine complex formation and pancreatin-induced starch digestion. Bile suppressed starch/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced starch digestion slightly in control buckwheat starch, but did so significantly in buckwheat starch from which fatty acids and polyphenols had been extracted. Such significant suppression and inhibition by bile were also observed in a reagent soluble starch. The effects of cholate and taurocholate on the starch/iodine complex formation and the pancreatin-induced starch digestion were essentially the same as those of bile. Bile, cholate, and taurocholate suppressed amylose/iodine complex formation more significantly than amylopectin/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced amylose digestion more effectively than the digestion of amylopectin. It is concluded from the results that bile salts could bind to starch, especially amylose, the helical structures of which were not occupied by other molecules such as fatty acids and polyphenols, and that the binding resulted in the inhibition of starch digestion by pancreatin. The conclusion suggests that the function of bile salts can be discussed from the point of not only lipid digestion but also starch digestion.

  6. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation

    PubMed Central

    Malinova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5–7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology. PMID:29155859

  7. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5-7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology.

  8. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  10. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  11. Highly exfoliated eco-friendly thermoplastic starch (TPS)/poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay nanocomposites using unmodified nanoclay.

    PubMed

    B, Ayana; Suin, Supratim; Khatua, B B

    2014-09-22

    Highly exfoliated, biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS)/polylactic acid (PLA)/sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) nanocomposites were prepared by an eco-friendly approach, involving in-situ gelatinization of potato starch in presence of dispersed nanoclay followed by melt mixing with PLA. The morphological analysis revealed that the NaMMT was selectively dispersed into the TPS in a highly delaminated manner. An increase in mechanical as well as thermomechanical properties was evident in the presence of PLA and more influenced in the presence of clay. The water absorption was significantly decreased in the presence of PLA (∼8%) itself and both PLA and clay (∼8-12%) in the nanocomposites. The improved mechanical properties along with its biodegradability might lead to a new green material in the area of packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of Glucan Primers in the Absence of Starch Synthase 4 Disrupts Starch Granule Initiation in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Jen; Stettler, Michaela; Streb, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaf chloroplasts typically contain five to seven semicrystalline starch granules. It is not understood how the synthesis of each granule is initiated or how starch granule number is determined within each chloroplast. An Arabidopsis mutant lacking the glucosyl-transferase, STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4) is impaired in its ability to initiate starch granules; its chloroplasts rarely contain more than one large granule, and the plants have a pale appearance and reduced growth. Here we report that the chloroplastic α-amylase AMY3, a starch-degrading enzyme, interferes with granule initiation in the ss4 mutant background. The amy3 single mutant is similar in phenotype to the wild type under normal growth conditions, with comparable numbers of starch granules per chloroplast. Interestingly, the ss4 mutant displays a pleiotropic reduction in the activity of AMY3. Remarkably, complete abolition of AMY3 (in the amy3 ss4 double mutant) increases the number of starch granules produced in each chloroplast, suppresses the pale phenotype of ss4, and nearly restores normal growth. The amy3 mutation also restores starch synthesis in the ss3 ss4 double mutant, which lacks STARCH SYNTHASE 3 (SS3) in addition to SS4. The ss3 ss4 line is unable to initiate any starch granules and is thus starchless. We suggest that SS4 plays a key role in granule initiation, allowing it to proceed in a way that avoids premature degradation of primers by starch hydrolases, such as AMY3. PMID:27458017

  13. Preparation and characterization of intelligent starch/PVA films for simultaneous colorimetric indication and antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Han; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Liyun; Li, Yuan

    2017-02-10

    We have developed an intelligent starch/poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) film that is capable of monitoring pH changes and inhibiting undesired microbial growth in foods. Starch and PVA polymers in the film were doubly cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate and boric acid to improve their water-resistance and mechanical strength. Anthocyanins (ANT) and limonene (LIM) were used to achieve simultaneous colorimetric indication and antimicrobial activity. Firstly, the characterization of surface morphology using SEM confirmed that the starch-PVA-ANT-LIM film possessed a smooth surface. Secondly, the results of the mechanical strength test showed that starch-PVA-ANT-LIM possesses the highest mechanical strength. Additionally, there was a distinguishable change of colors as the film was immersed in solutions of pH ranging from 1.0 to 14.0. Moreover, the film showed excellent antimicrobial activity for three typical undesired microorganisms in foods, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, and Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the film exhibited good color indication and antimicrobial activity on pasteurized milk. The results suggest that the intelligent film reported here shows good capability for both alerting and inhibiting food spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 172.858 - Propylene glycol alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol alginate. 172.858 Section 172.858... Propylene glycol alginate. The food additive propylene glycol alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-37-2) may be used... the act: (1) The name of the additive, “propylene glycol alginate” or “propylene glycol ester of...

  15. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    PubMed

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  16. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch.

  17. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  18. Quinoa starch: Structure, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has gained popularity worldwide largely due to the attractive nutritional profile. It also has much potential for food security due to the great genetic diversity. Starch is the main component of quinoa grain and makes up to 70% of the dry matter. The starch plays a crucial role in functional properties of quinoa and related food products. The starch granules are rather small (∼1-3μm) with relatively low amylose contents as compared with most of the other starches. Quinoa amylopectin has significant amounts of short chains and super-long chains. These unique features have generated research interest in using the starch for food and other applications such as creating Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the isolation, composition, granular and molecular structures, physicochemical properties, modifications, and applications of quinoa starch. It becomes obvious that this starch has great potential for food and nonfood applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  20. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  1. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-62,282] National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Page Employment, Island... Adjustment Assistance on December 13, 2007, applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company...

  2. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    PubMed Central

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E; Zeeman, Samuel C; Smith, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf development, and in ss4 mutants carrying mutations or transgenes that affect starch turnover or chloroplast volume. We found that immature ss4 leaves have no starch granules, but accumulate high concentrations of the starch synthase substrate ADPglucose. Granule numbers are partially restored by elevating the capacity for glucan synthesis (via expression of bacterial glycogen synthase) or by increasing the volumes of individual chloroplasts (via introduction of arc mutations). However, these granules are abnormal in distribution, size and shape. SS4 is an essential component of a mechanism that coordinates granule formation with chloroplast division during leaf expansion and determines the abundance and the flattened, discoid shape of leaf starch granules. PMID:23952675

  3. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Stefan W.; Lynch, Kieran M.; Arendt, Elke K.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products. PMID:28383504

  5. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-04-06

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  6. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of sodium acetate trihydrate-ethylene glycol composite phase change materials with enhanced thermophysical properties for thermal comfort and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2017-07-12

    The heat packs using phase change materials (PCMs) are designed for possible applications such as body comfort and medical applications under adverse situations. The development and performance of such heat packs rely on thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, suitable heat releasing temperature, degree of supercooling, effective heat releasing time, crystallite size, stability against spontaneous nucleation in metastable supercooled liquid state and thermal stability during heating and cooling cycles. Such PCMs are rare and the available PCMs do not exhibit such properties simultaneously to meet the desired requirements. The present work reports a facile approach for the design and development of ethylene glycol (EG) and aqueous sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) based composite phase change materials, showing these properties simultaneously. The addition of 2-3 wt% EG in aqueous SAT enhances the softness of SAT crystallites, its degree of supercooling and most importantly the effective heat releasing time by ~10% with respect to aqueous SAT material. In addition, the maximum heat releasing temperature of aqueous SAT has been tailored from 56.5 °C to 55 °C, 54.9 °C, 53.5 °C, 51.8 °C and 43.2 °C using 2%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10 wt% EG respectively, making the aqueous SAT-EG composite PCMs suitable for desired thermal applications.

  8. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  9. Branching patterns in leaf starches from Arabidopsis mutants deficient in diverse starch synthases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Szydlowski, Nicolas; d'Hulst, Christophe; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2015-01-12

    This is the first report on the cluster structure of transitory starch from Arabidopsis leaves. In addition to wild type, the molecular structures of leaf starch from mutants deficient in starch synthases (SS) including single enzyme mutants ss1-, ss2-, or ss3-, and also double mutants ss1-ss2- and ss1-ss3- were characterized. The mutations resulted in increased amylose content. Clusters from whole starch were isolated by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The clusters were then further hydrolyzed with concentrated α-amylase of B. amyloliquefaciens to produce building blocks (α-limit dextrins). Structures of the clusters and their building blocks were characterized by chromatography of samples before and after debranching treatment. While the mutations increased the size of clusters, the reasons were different as reflected by the composition of their unit chains and building blocks. In general, all mutants contained more of a-chains that preferentially increased the number of small building blocks with only two chains. The clusters of the double mutant ss1-ss3- were very large and possessed also more of large building blocks with four or more chains. The results from transitory starch are compared with those from agriculturally important crops in the context that to what extent the Arabidopsis can be a true biotechnological reflection for starch modifications through genetic means. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol by a Salt-Requiring Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, William H.; Taber, Willard A.

    1981-01-01

    Bacterium T-52, cultured on ethylene glycol, readily oxidized glycolate and glyoxylate and exhibited elevated activities of ethylene glycol dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase. Labeled glyoxylate was identified in reaction mixtures containing [14C]-ethylene glycol, but no glycolate was detected. The most likely pathway of ethylene glycol catabolism by bacterium T-52 is sequential oxidation to glycolate and glyoxylate. PMID:16345810

  11. Validation of polyethylene glycol 3350 as a poorly absorbable marker for intestinal perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Schiller, L R; Santa Ana, C A; Porter, J; Fordtran, J S

    1997-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used as a poorly absorbable marker in intestinal perfusion studies, but there is controversy about the absorbability of PEG, particularly when glucose-sodium cotransport is occurring. Total intestinal perfusion studies were done in five normal humans using three solutions containing 1 g/liter PEG 3350 and designed to produce low rates of water absorption, high rates of water absorption, or high rates of glucose-sodium cotransport. Water absorption rates were calculated by traditional nonabsorbable marker equations and by a novel balance technique in which absorption was taken as the difference between the volumes of solution infused and recovered during steady-state conditions. Effluent PEG recovery was 99 +/- 4%, 109 +/- 2%, and 104 +/- 6% of the amount infused with each solution. Water absorption rates measured by use of PEG concentrations were similar to those calculated by the balance technique (r = 0.99). The complete recovery of PEG confirms the poor absorbability of PEG 3350, and the excellent agreement between techniques validates PEG as a poorly absorbed marker, even when glucose-sodium cotransport is occurring.

  12. Effect of molecular weight of starch on the properties of cassava starch microspheres prepared in aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiping; Li, Bing-Zheng; Gao, Qunyu

    2017-12-01

    Starch microspheres (SMs) were fabricated in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). A series of starch samples with different molecular weight were prepared by acid hydrolysis, and the effect of molecular weight of starch on the fabrication of SMs were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the morphologies of SMs varied with starch molecular weight, and spherical SMs with sharp contours were obtained while using starch samples with weight-average molecular weight (M¯w)≤1.057×10 5 g/mol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that crystalline structure of SMs were different from that of native cassava starch, and the relative crystallinity of SMs increased with the molecular weight of starch decreasing. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed peak gelatinization temperature (T p ) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) of SMs increased with decreased M¯wof starch. Stability tests indicated that the SMs were stable under acid environment, but not stable under α-amylase hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Amyloplast Membrane Protein SUBSTANDARD STARCH GRAIN6 Controls Starch Grain Size in Rice Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ryo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kusano, Miyako; Tomita, Katsura; Kondo, Hideki; Nishimura, Hideki; Crofts, Naoko; Fujita, Naoko; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose. Starch is organized into starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. The SG size differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. There is limited information on genetic factors regulating SG sizes. In this study, we report the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant substandard starch grain6 (ssg6), which develops enlarged SGs in endosperm. Enlarged SGs are observed starting at 3 d after flowering. During endosperm development, a number of smaller SGs appear and coexist with enlarged SGs in the same cells. The ssg6 mutation also affects SG morphologies in pollen. The SSG6 gene was identified by map-based cloning and microarray analysis. SSG6 encodes a protein homologous to aminotransferase. SSG6 differs from other rice homologs in that it has a transmembrane domain. SSG6-green fluorescent protein is localized in the amyloplast membrane surrounding SGs in rice endosperm, pollen, and pericarp. The results of this study suggest that SSG6 is a novel protein that controls SG size. SSG6 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and applications. PMID:26792122

  14. The effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on the partition coefficient of benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone).

    PubMed

    Mbah, C J

    2007-01-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related deleterious effects. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on dermal absorption of oxybenzone by studying their effects on its partition coefficient. The partition coefficient was evaluated in a chloroform-water system at room temperature. It was found that glycerol and propylene glycol decreased the partition coefficient of oxybenzone, while an increase in partition coefficient was observed with polyethylene glycol 400. The findings suggest that polyethylene glycol 400 in contrast to glycerol and propylene glycol has the potential of increasing the vehicle-skin partition coefficient of oxybenzone when cosmetic products containing such an UV absorber are topically applied to the skin.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is...

  16. 21 CFR 172.858 - Propylene glycol alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol alginate. 172.858 Section 172.858... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.858 Propylene glycol alginate. The food additive propylene glycol... information required by the act: (1) The name of the additive, “propylene glycol alginate” or “propylene...

  17. 21 CFR 172.858 - Propylene glycol alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol alginate. 172.858 Section 172.858... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.858 Propylene glycol alginate. The food additive propylene glycol... information required by the act: (1) The name of the additive, “propylene glycol alginate” or “propylene...

  18. Conjugation of cell-penetrating peptides with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles improves ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aimee; Vega, Estefania; Pérez, Yolanda; Gómara, María J; García, María Luisa; Haro, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a peptide for ocular delivery (POD) and human immunodeficiency virus transactivator were conjugated with biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG)-nanoparticles (NPs) in an attempt to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method following two different pathways. One involved preparation of PLGA NPs followed by PEG and peptide conjugation (PLGA-NPs-PEG-peptide); the other involved self-assembly of PLGA-PEG and the PLGA-PEG-peptide copolymer followed by NP formulation. The conjugation of the PEG and the peptide was confirmed by a colorimetric test and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Flurbiprofen was used as an example of an anti-inflammatory drug. The physicochemical properties of the resulting NPs (morphology, in vitro release, cell viability, and ocular tolerance) were studied. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in rabbit eyes after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate. Of the formulations developed, the PLGA-PEG-POD NPs were the smaller particles and exhibited greater entrapment efficiency and more sustained release. The positive charge on the surface of these NPs, due to the conjugation with the positively charged peptide, facilitated penetration into the corneal epithelium, resulting in more effective prevention of ocular inflammation. The in vitro toxicity of the NPs developed was very low; no ocular irritation in vitro (hen’s egg test–chorioallantoic membrane assay) or in vivo (Draize test) was detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLGA-PEG-POD NPs are promising vehicles for ocular drug delivery. PMID:25670897

  19. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  20. THE SYNTHESIS OF THE STARCH GRANULE.

    PubMed

    Smith, A. M.; Denyer, K.; Martin, C.

    1997-06-01

    This review describes and discusses the implications of recent discoveries about how starch polymers are synthesized and organized to form a starch granule. Three issues are highlighted. 1. The role and importance of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the generation of ADPglucose as the substrate for polymer synthesis. 2. The contributions of isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, starch synthase, and debranching enzyme to the synthesis and ordered packing of amylopectin molecules. 3. The requirements for and regulation of the synthesis of amylose.

  1. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  2. Structure of New Zealand sweetpotato starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Xie, Qian

    2018-05-15

    New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison. The results revealed a degree of diversity in amylose composition, unit and internal chain composition, granule size distribution, and degree of crystallinity among the 7 sweetpotato starches. All the sweetpotato starches showed C A -type polymorph. The sweetpotato amylopectins have intermediate amounts of both short and long internal unit chains among amylopectins of different botanical sources. The differences in the structure of sweetpotato starches suggest differences in physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. The Mechanism of Starch Over-Accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii High-Starch Mutants Identified by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kwang M.; Jung, Sera; Lee, Beom S.; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jo, Yeong D.; Choi, Hong-Il; Kang, Si-Yong; Chung, Gook-H.; Jeong, Won-Joong; Ahn, Joon-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway. Interestingly, transcript levels of phosphoglucose isomerase 1 (PGI1), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 1 and 2 (FBA1 and FBA2) were down-regulated in all mutants; PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 act on downstream of glucose 6-phosphate conversion in glycolytic pathway. Therefore, down-regulations of PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 may lead to accumulation of upstream metabolites, notably glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in induction of PGM1 expression through feed-forward regulation and that PGM1 overexpression caused starch over-accumulation in mutants. These results suggest that PGI1, FBA1, FBA2, and PGM1 correlate with each other in terms of coordinated transcriptional regulation and play central roles for starch over-accumulation in C. reinhardtii. PMID:28588557

  9. ¹³C solid-state NMR analysis of the most common pharmaceutical excipients used in solid drug formulations Part II: CP kinetics and relaxation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika; Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-04-15

    Excipients used in the solid drug formulations differ in their NMR relaxation and (13)C cross-polarization (CP) kinetics parameters. Therefore, experimental parameters like contact time of cross-polarization and repetition time have a major impact on the registered solid state NMR spectra and in consequence on the results of the NMR analysis. In this work the CP kinetics and relaxation of the most common pharmaceutical excipients: anhydrous α-lactose, α-lactose monohydrate, mannitol, sucrose, sorbitol, sodium starch glycolate type A and B, starch of different origin, microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, sodium alginate, magnesium stearate, sodium laurilsulfate and Kollidon(®) were analyzed. The studied excipients differ significantly in their optimum repetition time (from 5 s to 1200 s) and T(1ρ)(I) parameters (from 2 ms to 73 ms). The practical use of those differences in the excipients composition analysis was demonstrated on the example of commercially available tablets containing indapamide as an API. The information presented in this article will help to choose the correct acquisition parameters and also will save the time and effort needed for their optimization in the NMR analysis of the solid drug formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ¹³C solid-state NMR analysis of the most common pharmaceutical excipients used in solid drug formulations, Part I: Chemical shifts assignment.

    PubMed

    Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika Agnieszka; Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-04-15

    Solid-state NMR is an excellent and useful method for analyzing solid-state forms of drugs. In the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the solid dosage forms many of the signals originate from the excipients and should be distinguished from those of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In this work the most common pharmaceutical excipients used in the solid drug formulations: anhydrous α-lactose, α-lactose monohydrate, mannitol, sucrose, sorbitol, sodium starch glycolate type A and B, starch of different origin, microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, sodium alginate, magnesium stearate, sodium laurilsulfate and Kollidon(®) were analyzed. Their (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra were recorded and the signals were assigned, employing the results (R(2): 0.948-0.998) of GIPAW calculations and theoretical chemical shifts. The (13)C ssNMR spectra for some of the studied excipients have not been published before while for the other signals in the spectra they were not properly assigned or the assignments were not correct. The results summarize and complement the data on the (13)C ssNMR analysis of the most common pharmaceutical excipients and are essential for further NMR studies of API-excipient interactions in the pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1666 Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1666 Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1666 Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. Starch-Branching Enzyme IIa Is Required for Proper Diurnal Cycling of Starch in Leaves of Maize1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Laurens, Lieve; Shi, Zi; Xia, Huan; Smith, Alison M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Starch-branching enzyme (SBE), a glucosyl transferase, is required for the highly regular pattern of α-1,6 bonds in the amylopectin component of starch. In the absence of SBEIIa, as shown previously in the sbe2a mutant of maize (Zea mays), leaf starch has drastically reduced branching and the leaves exhibit a severe senescence-like phenotype. Detailed characterization of the maize sbe2a mutant revealed that SBEIIa is the primary active branching enzyme in the leaf and that in its absence plant growth is affected. Both seedling and mature sbe2a mutant leaves do not properly degrade starch during the night, resulting in hyperaccumulation. In mature sbe2a leaves, starch hyperaccumulation is greatest in visibly senescing regions but also observed in green tissue and is correlated to a drastic reduction in photosynthesis within the leaf. Starch granules from sbe2a leaves observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are larger, irregular, and amorphous as compared with the highly regular, discoid starch granules observed in wild-type leaves. This appears to trigger premature senescence, as shown by an increased expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in senescence and programmed cell death processes. Together, these results indicate that SBEIIa is required for the proper diurnal cycling of transitory starch within the leaf and suggest that SBEIIa is necessary in producing an amylopectin structure amenable to degradation by starch metabolism enzymes. PMID:21508184

  16. Starch digestibility: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Bello-Perez, Luis A; Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Tovar, Juscelino

    2018-02-10

    In the last century, starch present in foods was considered to be completely digested. However, during the 1980s, studies on starch digestion started to show that besides digestible starch, which could be rapidly or slowly hydrolysed, there was a variable fraction that resisted hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. That fraction was named resistant starch (RS) and it encompasses those forms of starch that are not accessible to human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota, producing short-chain fatty acids. RS has been classified into five types, depending on the mechanism governing its resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Early research on RS was focused on the methods to determine its content in foods and its physiological effects, including fermentability in the large intestine. Later on, due to the interest of the food industry, methods to increase the RS content of isolated starches were developed. Nowadays, the influence of RS on the gut microbiota is a relevant research topic owing to its potential health-related benefits. This review summarizes over 30 years of investigation on starch digestibility, its relationship with human health, the methods to produce RS and its impact on the microbiome. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Bromide-free TEMPO-mediated oxidation of primary alcohol groups in starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Bragd, P L; Besemer, A C; van Bekkum, H

    2000-09-22

    TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation of potato starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MGP) was performed in the absence of sodium bromide (NaBr) as co-catalyst, solely using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as the primary oxidant. The low reaction rate associated with a bromide-free process was increased by performing the oxidation at increased temperatures. The reaction proceeded stoichiometrically and with high selectivity and with only minor depolymerisation, provided that temperature and pH were kept < or = 20 degrees C and < 9.0, respectively. At 20 degrees C and pH 8.5, the reaction rate was comparable to that of a corresponding oxidation catalysed by NaBr at 2 degrees C. Consequently, this is a simple approach to raise the TEMPO/NaOCl reaction rate under bromide-free conditions while still maintaining good product properties. At higher oxidation temperatures (> or = 25 degrees C) and under more alkaline conditions (pH > or = 9.0) degradation of the starch skeleton occurred. Simultaneously, side-reactions of the nitrosonium ion lowered the yield of the oxidation. Despite the absence of the NaBr catalyst, the reaction rate-controlling step was found to be the oxidation of the primary hydroxyl groups with the nitrosonium ion. The reaction was first-order in MGP and in TEMPO.

  18. Relative toxicities of formulated glycol aircraft deicers and pure glycol products to duckweed (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene and propylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to both remove snow and ice from aircraft, and to retard the accumulation of those materials. Snow and ice often pile up at airports during the winter and are then flushed into the storm sewer system during warmer temperatures or rainfall. Some of this water containing deicers may enter waterbodies without prior treatment, While previous studies have investigated the effects of deicers on aquatic animals and algae, data are not available on the effects on aquatic macrophytes, Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulatedmore » mixtures used on aircraft; pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Duckweed (Lemna minor) fronds were exposed to various concentrations of pure and formulated glycol mixtures. The number of fronds at test termination and chlorophyll concentration (measured using a spectrophotometer) were the measured endpoints. Based upon glycol concentration, the formulated products were more toxic than the pure material. These results are consistent with results seen in other animal and plant studies.« less

  19. Molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-02-20

    Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14.6) and a high percentage of fingerprint A-chains (A fp ) (mean:10.4%). The average chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of quinoa amylopectin were 16.6, 10.6, and 5.00 glucosyl residues, respectively. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis revealed some inherent correlations among structural parameters and a similarity of different samples. Overall, quinoa amylopectins are structurally similar to that from starches with A-type polymorph such as oat and amaranth starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary-resistant starch and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M Denise

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings in animal models suggest that resistant starch is beneficial for both body weight regulation and glycaemic control. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence and recommendations in humans. When resistant starch replaces available carbohydrate in a meal, postprandial glycaemia is reduced. There are some data to suggest that resistant starch may affect glycaemia even when the available carbohydrate portion remains constant; however, there is inconsistency in the literature. Recent animal data suggest that chronic resistant starch feeding upregulates glucagon-like peptide 1 expression in the large bowel with concomitant increases in neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus, combining to result in weight loss and improvements in glycaemic control. However, to date there is no evidence for this in humans. Resistant starch may have a role in glycaemic control in healthy individuals and those with type 2 diabetes; however, there are limited interventional trials in humans to support this. There are no data concerning resistant starch feeding in human diabetes and as such no health recommendation can be made.

  1. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with themore » perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.« less

  2. The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J.

    2000-08-01

    Current textbooks deal only briefly with the chemistry of starch. A short review with 21 references is presented, describing the structure of starch and indicating the double helix structure of A-type and B-type starch. The structure of the starch granule is examined, pointing out the existence of growth rings of alternating crystalline and noncrystalline starch, with growing amylopectin molecules extending from the hilum (point of origin) to the surface of the starch granule. The swelling of starch granules in water, above the gelatinization temperature of about 60 °C, is discussed. The process of gelatinization involves unraveling of the starch helix and a manyfold increase in volume of the starch granule as water is imbibed and bound to the unraveled starch polymer by hydrogen bonding. Baking bread or pastries causes unraveling of the starch helix, and the process by which these products become stale corresponds primarily to the re-forming of the starch helix. The importance of this phenomenon in food science is discussed. The absorption of nonpolar linear molecules such as I2, or linear nonpolar portions of molecules such as n-butanol or fats and phospholipids, by the C-type helix of starch is examined. The way in which starch is structurally modified to retard staling is discussed in relation to food technology.

  3. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D. P.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Bibler, N. E.

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment tomore » meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  4. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  5. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  6. Influence of barley grain treated with alkaline compounds or organic extracts on ex vivo site and extent of digestion of starch.

    PubMed

    Naseroleslami, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Vakili, Seyed Alireza; Ebrahimi, Seyed Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Two e x vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effect of barley grain ( Nusrat cultivar ) treated with alkaline compounds (AC) including alum, ammonium, and sodium hydroxide or cation-exchanged organic extracts (OE) prepared from alfalfa hay, sugar beet pulp and Ulva Fasciata , on extent and digestion of starch. In the first study, the in vitro first order disappearance kinetic parameters of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch were estimated using a non-linear model (D (t) = D (i) · e (-k d · time) + I, where: D (t) = potentially digestible residues at any time, D (i) = potentially digestible fraction at any time, k d = fractional rate constant of digestion (/h), I = indigestible fraction at any time). In the second experiment, the ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, and starch were determined using in situ mobile nylon bag. Barley grains treated with alum and alfalfa extract had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.11 and 0.09/h) than others. Barley grain treated with OE had a higher constant rate of CP digestion and that of treated with AC had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.08 and 0.11/h) compared with those of the other treatments. The indigestible fraction of starch treated with alum and sugar beet pulp extract was higher than that of the control group (0.24 and 0.25 vs 0.21). Barley grain treated with AC and OE had significant CP disappearance in the rumen, post-rumen and total tract, and also starch disappearance for post-rumen and total tract compared with the untreated (p<0.001). This study demonstrated that AC and OE might have positive effects on the starch degradation of the barley grain. In addition, treating barley grain with alum and sugar beet pulp extract could change the site and extend digestion of protein and starch.

  7. Influence of barley grain treated with alkaline compounds or organic extracts on ex vivo site and extent of digestion of starch

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Seyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Objective Two ex vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effect of barley grain (Nusrat cultivar) treated with alkaline compounds (AC) including alum, ammonium, and sodium hydroxide or cation-exchanged organic extracts (OE) prepared from alfalfa hay, sugar beet pulp and Ulva Fasciata, on extent and digestion of starch. Methods In the first study, the in vitro first order disappearance kinetic parameters of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch were estimated using a non-linear model (D(t) = D(i) · e(−kd · time) + I, where: D(t) = potentially digestible residues at any time, D(i) = potentially digestible fraction at any time, kd = fractional rate constant of digestion (/h), I = indigestible fraction at any time). In the second experiment, the ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, and starch were determined using in situ mobile nylon bag. Results Barley grains treated with alum and alfalfa extract had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.11 and 0.09/h) than others. Barley grain treated with OE had a higher constant rate of CP digestion and that of treated with AC had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.08 and 0.11/h) compared with those of the other treatments. The indigestible fraction of starch treated with alum and sugar beet pulp extract was higher than that of the control group (0.24 and 0.25 vs 0.21). Barley grain treated with AC and OE had significant CP disappearance in the rumen, post-rumen and total tract, and also starch disappearance for post-rumen and total tract compared with the untreated (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated that AC and OE might have positive effects on the starch degradation of the barley grain. In addition, treating barley grain with alum and sugar beet pulp extract could change the site and extend digestion of protein and starch. PMID:28728361

  8. Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the production of cross-linked starch with high resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Kevser; Koksel, Hamit; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-05-01

    The optimum reaction conditions (temperature and pH) for the preparation of cross-linked (CL) corn and wheat starches with maximum resistant starch (RS) content were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the preliminary results, five levels were selected for reaction temperature (38-70 °C) and pH (10-12) in the main study. RS contents of the CL corn and wheat starch samples increased with increasing temperature and pH, and pH had a greater influence on RS content than had temperature. The maximum RS content (with a maximum p value of 0.4%) was obtained in wheat starch cross-linked at 38 °C and pH 12. In the case of CL corn starch, the optimum condition was 70 °C and pH 12. CL corn and wheat starch samples were also produced separately under the optimum conditions and their RS contents were 80.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These results were also in agreement with the values predicted by RSM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Platelet closure time in anesthetized Greyhounds with hemorrhagic shock treated with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride infusions.

    PubMed

    McBride, Duana; Hosgood, Giselle; Raisis, Anthea; Smart, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To measure platelet closure time (PCT) in dogs during controlled hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride. Experimental interventional study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Eleven healthy Greyhounds. Dogs were anesthetized and had 48 mL/kg of blood removed to induce hemorrhagic shock. Dogs received 20 mL/kg of HES 130/0.4 (n = 6) or 80 mL/kg of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl; n = 5) intravenously over 20 minutes. PCT was measured using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 with collagen and adenosine-diphosphate cartridges at: T0 = 60 minutes after induction of anesthesia prior to hemorrhage, T1 = during hemorrhagic shock, and T2 = 40 minutes after completion of fluid bolus. Packed cell volume and platelet count were concurrently measured. Hemorrhagic shock did not significantly change PCT, with no difference between T0 and T1. Both the HES 130/0.4 and 0.9% NaCl group had a significantly increased mean PCT at T2 of 91.4 seconds (95% CI 69.3-113.4) and 95.5 seconds (95% CI 78.2-112.8), respectively, compared to T1. The magnitude of change was significantly greater for the 0.9% NaCl group than the HES 130/0.4 group. There was no difference in the magnitude of change in PCV and platelet count between the 2 groups. The PCV and platelet count were >25% and >100,000/μL, respectively, in all dogs, except for dogs in the HES 130/0.4 group at T2 where platelet counts were <100,000/μL. Controlled hemorrhagic shock in Greyhounds under anesthesia did not cause a significant change in PCT. Both HES 130/0.4 and 0.9% NaCl administration after induction of shock increased PCT. These results do not support that HES 130/0.4 causes relevant platelet dysfunction beyond hemodilution. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  10. The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; Zhuang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared from lotus seed starch) on the proliferation of bifidobacteria were assessed by assessing the changes in optical density (OD), pH values, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and tolerance ability to gastrointestinal conditions. Significantly higher OD values were obtained from media containing LRS3 and P-LRS3, and especially in the medium containing P-LRS3, the OD value of which reached 1.36 when the concentration of the carbon source was 20 g L(-1). Additionally, the lag phase of bifidobacteria was 8 h in the medium with LRS3 or P-LRS3, whereas it was 16 h in the medium with GLU or HAMS. What is more, a higher content of butyric acid was obtained in the P-LRS3 medium. Compared with GLU and HAMS media, bifidobacteria had a higher tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions in LRS3 and P-LRS3 media. It shows that lotus seed resistant starch, especially P-LRS3, could stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The rough surface of resistant starch and the SCFAs produced during fermentation might influence the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  11. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus,more » CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.« less

  12. Studies on Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria after Anaerobic Fermentation of Starch by a Hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitate, Toshihiro; Fukatsu, Makoto; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Kohno, Hideki; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Jun; Asada, Yasuo

    In order to establish the sequential hydrogen production from waste starch using a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, basic studies were done. P. furiosus produced hydrogen and acetate by anaerobic fermentation at 90°C. A photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, was able to produce hydrogen from acetate under anaerobic and light conditions at 30°C. However, Rb. sphaeroides RV was not able to produce hydrogen from acetate in the presence of sodium chloride that was essential for the growth and hydrogen production of P. furiosus although it produced hydrogen from lactate at a reduced rate with 1% sodium chloride. A newly isolated strain, CST-8, from natural environment was, however, able to produce hydrogen from acetate, especially with 3 mM L-alanine and in the presence of 1% sodium chloride. The sequential hydrogen production with P. furiosus and salt-tolerant photosynthetic bacteria could be probable at least in the laboratory experiment scale.

  13. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  14. Effect of granular characteristics on pasting properties of starch blends.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jheng-Hua; Kao, Wen-Tsu; Tsai, You-Che; Chang, Yung-Ho

    2013-11-06

    Pasting and morphology properties of starch blends composed of waxy (waxy rice and waxy corn) and non-waxy (normal corn, tapioca and potato) starches at various ratios were investigated for elucidating effect of granular characteristics on pasting of blends. Pasting profiles of blends were between those of the component starches alone, while the changes varied with starch source. Results reveal obvious water competition during pasting for blends composed of waxy starch and highly swelling non-waxy (tapioca or potato) starch. On the contrary, starch blends composed of waxy starch and non-waxy (normal corn) starch with restricted swelling showed less water competition during pasting, and the pasting attributes could be estimated from those of the component starches following the mixing ratio. Results indicate that the pasting properties of starch blends composed of waxy and non-waxy starches depend on not only the mixing ratio, but also the granular characteristics of component starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructure, thermal properties and crystallinity of amadumbe starch nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mukurumbira, Agnes; Mariano, Marcos; Dufresne, Alain; Mellem, John J; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-09-01

    Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta), commonly known as taro is a tropical tuber that produces starch-rich underground corms. In this study, the physicochemical properties of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared by acid hydrolysis of amadumbe starches were investigated. Two varieties of amadumbe corms were used for starch extraction. Amadumbe starches produced substantially high yield (25%) of SNC's. These nanocrystals appeared as aggregated and individual particles and possessed square-like platelet morphology with size: 50-100nm. FTIR revealed high peak intensities corresponding to OH stretch, CH stretch and H 2 O bending vibrations for SNCs compared to their native starch counterparts. Both the native starch and SNC exhibited the A-type crystalline pattern. However, amadumbe SNCs showed higher degree of crystallinity and slightly reduced melting temperatures than their native starches. Amadumbe SNCs presented similar thermal decomposition property as their native starches. Amadumbe starch nanocrystals may have potential application in biocomposite films due to their square-like platelet morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Starch Granule-Associated Protein EARLY STARVATION1 Is Required for the Control of Starch Degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Feike, Doreen; Seung, David; Graf, Alexander; Bischof, Sylvain; Ellick, Tamaryn; Coiro, Mario; Soyk, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Lu, Kuan Jen; Trick, Martin; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    To uncover components of the mechanism that adjusts the rate of leaf starch degradation to the length of the night, we devised a screen for mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants in which starch reserves are prematurely exhausted. The mutation in one such mutant, named early starvation1 (esv1), eliminates a previously uncharacterized protein. Starch in mutant leaves is degraded rapidly and in a nonlinear fashion, so that reserves are exhausted 2 h prior to dawn. The ESV1 protein and a similar uncharacterized Arabidopsis protein (named Like ESV1 [LESV]) are located in the chloroplast stroma and are also bound into starch granules. The region of highest similarity between the two proteins contains a series of near-repeated motifs rich in tryptophan. Both proteins are conserved throughout starch-synthesizing organisms, from angiosperms and monocots to green algae. Analysis of transgenic plants lacking or overexpressing ESV1 or LESV, and of double mutants lacking ESV1 and another protein necessary for starch degradation, leads us to propose that these proteins function in the organization of the starch granule matrix. We argue that their misexpression affects starch degradation indirectly, by altering matrix organization and, thus, accessibility of starch polymers to starch-degrading enzymes. PMID:27207856

  17. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  18. Isolation of high quality RNA from cereal seeds containing high levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fang; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Cereals are an important source of food, feed and fuel with a rapidly increasing global demand. However, cereal seeds contain high levels of starch and polysaccharides, making the isolation of high quality RNA extremely difficult. To develop a novel method for extracting high quality total RNA from various starch- and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds, such as maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. We developed a modified sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/TRIzol method. The combined use of a Tris buffer (pH 9.0) and SDS before TRIzol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such a buffer. A high concentration of SDS was used separately, not only to promote cell lysis but also to effectively dissolve seed sample containing high levels of starch. Moreover, acid phenol saturated with 0.1  M citrate buffer (pH 4.3) was used to separate RNA from DNAs, proteins and high levels of starch. This rapid protocol was compared with other RNA isolation methods preferentially used for plants rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the extracted total RNA had good integrity without apparent DNA contamination. Furthermore, an A₂₆₀/₂₈₀ ratio of approximately 2.0, an A₂₆₀/₂₃₀ ratio of more than 2.0 and RIN values of more than 8.6 indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. The isolated RNA was suitable for subsequent molecular manipulations, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and real-time PCR. The study has described an easy, efficient and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Carboxymethyl starch mucoadhesive microspheres as gastroretentive dosage form.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2015-12-30

    Carboxymethyl starch microspheres (CMS-MS) were produced from carboxymethyl starch powder (CMS-P) with a degree of substitution (DS) from 0.1 to 1.5 in order to investigate the influence of DS on physicochemical, drug release and mucoadhesion properties as well as interactions with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) epithelial barrier models. Placebo and furosemide loaded CMS-MS were obtained by emulsion-crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). DS had an impact on increasing equilibrium water uptake and modulating drug release properties of the CMS-MS according to the surrounding pH. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of NCI-N87 gastric cell monolayers was not influenced in presence of CMS-MS, whereas that of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers decreased with increasing DS but recovered initial values at about 15h post-treatment. CMS-MS with increasing DS also enhanced furosemide permeability across both NCI-N87 and Caco-2 monolayers at pH gradients from 3.0 to 7.4. Mucoadhesion of CMS-MS on gastric mucosa (acidic condition) increased with the DS up to 55% for a DS of 1.0 but decreased on neutral intestinal mucosa to less than 10% with DS of 0.1. The drug release, permeability enhancement and mucoadhesive properties of the CMS-MS suggest CMS-MS with DS between 0.6 and 1.0 as suitable excipient for gastroretentive oral delivery dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The effect of starch-garlic powder ratio on degradation rate of Gadung starch bioplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairiza, L.; Mariana; Ramadhany, M.; Feviyussa, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioplastic is one of the solutions for environmental problems caused by plastics waste. Utilization of toxic gadung starch in the manufacturing of bioplastic would be as an alternative, due to gadung bulb has high starch content, and it is still not used optimally. This research aimed to learn about the using of gadung starch-mixed with garlic powder of making biodegradable plastic packaging. Also, to observe the duration of degradation, as a level of biodegradability of plastic film produced. The method used making this bioplastic was casting method. The variables used in this study were the ratios of starch and powdered garlic, were 10:0; 8:2; 6:4, and the concentration of garlic powder were 2%; 4%; 6%; and 8 %. The degradation test was done by soil burial test. The results of the soil burial test shown that the film was more rapidly degraded at ratio of 6: 4 compared to the ratio of 8: 2 and 10: 0. The results shown that bioplastic at the starch-garlic powder ratio of 10: 0 was decomposed in 21 days, at the the ratio of 8:2 was 15 days, while at the ratio of 6:4, the plastic film was degraded in the 11 days.

  2. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  3. Atomic force microscopy of starch systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-09-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) generates information on topography, adhesion, and elasticity of sample surface by touching with a tip. Under suitable experimental settings, AFM can image biopolymers of few nanometers. Starch is a major food and industrial component. AFM has been used to probe the morphology, properties, modifications, and interactions of starches from diverse botanical origins at both micro- and nano-structural levels. The structural information obtained by AFM supports the blocklet structure of the granules, and provides qualitative and quantitative basis for some physicochemical properties of diverse starch systems. It becomes evident that AFM can complement other microscopic techniques to provide novel structural insights for starch systems.

  4. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  5. Insights into molecular structure and digestion rate of oat starch.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinchuan; Kuang, Qirong; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Shujun

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro digestibility of oat starch and its relationship with starch molecular structure was investigated. The in vitro digestion results showed that the first-order kinetic constant (k) of oat starches (OS-1 and OS-2) was lower than that of rice starch. The size of amylose chains, amylose content and degree of branching (DB) of amylopectin in oat starch were significantly higher than the corresponding parameters in rice starch. The larger molecular size of oat starch may account for its lower digestion rate. The fine structure of amylopectin showed that oat starch had less chains of DP 6-12 and DP>36, which may explain the small difference in digestion rate between oat and rice starch. The biosynthesis model from oat amylopectin fine structure data suggested a lower starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity and/or a higher starch synthase (SS) activity, which may decrease the DB of oat starch and increase its digestion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the determination of airborne ethylene glycol and propylene glycols in non-occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai; Aikawa, Bio

    2004-11-01

    An analytical method for ethylene glycol and propylene glycols has been developed for measuring airborne levels of these chemicals in non-occupational environments such as residences and office buildings. The analytes were collected on charcoal tubes, solvent extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a positive chemical ionization technique. The method had a method detection limit of 0.07 microg m(-3) for ethylene glycol and 0.03 microg m(-3) for 1,2- and 1,3-propylene glycols, respectively, based on a 1.44 m3 sampling volume. Indoor air samples of several residential homes and other indoor environments have been analyzed. The median concentrations of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol in nine residential indoor air samples were 53 microg m(-3) and 13 microg m(-3) respectively with maximum values of 223 microg m(-3) and 25 microg m(-3) detected for ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol respectively. The concentrations of these two chemicals in one office and two laboratories were at low microg m(-3) levels. The maximum concentration of 1,3-propylene glycol detected in indoor air was 0.1 microg m(-3).

  8. Effect of reaction time and polyethylene glycol monooleate-isocyanate composition on the properties of polyurethane-polysiloxane modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwulandari, Evi; Ramadhan, Mohammad Kemilau; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane-polysiloxane modified epoxy based on polyethylene glycol monooleate (PSME-PEGMO) was synthesized. Polyethylene glycol monooleate (PEGMO) for the synthesis of PSME-GMO was synthesized via esterification between oleic acid and polyethylene glycol by using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Synthesis of PSME-PEGMO was conducted by reacting epoxy, isocyanate, PEGMO, and polysiloxane (hydrolyzed and condensable 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) simultaneously in one step. This synthesis was carried out by varied the reaction time (1, 2, 3 hours), PEGMO-isocyanate composition (PI composition: 10 and 20 % toward epoxy), and isocyanate/PEGMO ratio (NCO/OH ratio: 1.5 and 2.5). Characterization of PSME-PEGMO was conducted by determining the isocyanate conversion, viscosity analysis, mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermal analysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The data show that the PI composition and NCO/OH ratio does not affect the isocyanate conversion linearly. The viscosity of PSME-PEGMO product at ratio and composition variation show has tended to increase with increasing of reaction time. The highest tensile strength and elongation at break PSME-PEGMO was shown by PI composition 20%, NCO/OH ratio 2.5 and reaction time 3 hours.

  9. Autophagy Contributes to Leaf Starch Degradation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Yu, Bingjie; Zhao, Jinping; Guo, Jiangbo; Li, Ying; Han, Shaojie; Huang, Lei; Du, Yumei; Hong, Yiguo; Tang, Dingzhong; Liu, Yule

    2013-01-01

    Transitory starch, a major photosynthetic product in the leaves of land plants, accumulates in chloroplasts during the day and is hydrolyzed to maltose and Glc at night to support respiration and metabolism. Previous studies in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that the degradation of transitory starch only occurs in the chloroplasts. Here, we report that autophagy, a nonplastidial process, participates in leaf starch degradation. Excessive starch accumulation was observed in Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings treated with an autophagy inhibitor and in autophagy-related (ATG) gene-silenced N. benthamiana and in Arabidopsis atg mutants. Autophagic activity in the leaves responded to the dynamic starch contents during the night. Microscopy showed that a type of small starch granule-like structure (SSGL) was localized outside the chloroplast and was sequestered by autophagic bodies. Moreover, an increased number of SSGLs was observed during starch depletion, and disruption of autophagy reduced the number of vacuole-localized SSGLs. These data suggest that autophagy contributes to transitory starch degradation by sequestering SSGLs to the vacuole for their subsequent breakdown. PMID:23564204

  10. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hassan Refat H.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Scowen, Ian J.

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  11. THE RESEARCH ON THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HYDROPHOBILITY OF THE NATIVE STARCH/HYDROLYSIS STARCH BLENDS WITH TREATED CaCO{sub 3} POWDER

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.-I; Huang, C.-Y.

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO{sub 3} increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 {mu}mol and 0.14 {mu}mol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO{sub 3} treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60 deg. to 95more » deg. when 15wt% treated CaCO{sub 3} was added. Treated CaCO{sub 3} was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively.« less

  12. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  13. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D. P.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Hay, M. S.

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However,more » these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.« less

  14. Effect of genotype and environment on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the physicochemical properties of starch from, field pea and fababean.

    PubMed

    Hood-Niefer, Shannon D; Warkentin, Thomas D; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Vandenberg, Albert; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-01-15

    The effects of genotype and environment and their interaction on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the amylose content and thermal and pasting properties of starch from, pea and fababean are not well known. Differences due to genotype were observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean, in the onset temperature (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of gelatinization of fababean starch, and in the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch and fababean starch. Significant two-way interactions (location × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in fababean and the amylose content, To, endothermic enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) and trough viscosity of fababean starch. Significant three-way interactions (location × year × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in pea and the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch. Differences observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean were sufficient to be of practical significance to end-users, but the relatively small differences in amylose content and physicochemical properties of starch from pea and fababean were not. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Full-time response of starch subjected to microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daming; Wang, Liyun; Zhang, Nana; Xiong, Lei; Huang, Luelue; Zhao, Jianxin; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao

    2017-06-21

    The effect of non-ionizing microwave radiation on starch is due to a gelatinization temperature range that changes starch structure and properties. However, the changes in starch upon microwave heating are observable throughout the heating process. We compared the effects on starch heating by microwaves to the effects by rapid and regular conventional heating. Our results show that microwave heating promotes the rapid rearrangement of starch molecules at low temperatures; starch showed a stable dielectric response and a high dielectric constant. Microwave heating changed the Cole-Cole curve and the polarization of starch suspension at low temperatures. A marked transition at 2.45 GHz resulted in a double-polarization phenomenon. At temperatures below gelatinization, microwave-induced dielectric rearrangement and changes in the polarization characteristics of starch suspensions reduced the absorption properties; at temperatures above gelatinization, these characteristics became consistent with conventional heating. Throughout the heating process, microwaves change the electrical response and polarization characteristics of the starch at low temperatures, but on the macro level, there is no enhancement of the material's microwave absorption properties. In contrast, with the warming process, the starch exhibited a "blocking effect", and the absorption properties of the starch quickly returned to the level observed in conductive heating after gelatinization.

  16. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  17. Step-reduced synthesis of starch-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jung, Jeyoung; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    In the present process, silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a single step by microwave irradiation of a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and deionized water. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for starch-silver nanoparticle synthesis in which silver nanoparticles are synthesized by preparing a starch solution as a reaction medium first. Thus, the additional step associated with the preparation of the starch solution was eliminated. In addition, no additional reducing agent was utilized. The adopted method was facile and straight forward, affording spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter below 10nm that exhibited good antibacterial activity. Further, influence of starch on the size of the silver nanoparticles was noticed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of starch synthase I expression affects the granule morphology and granule size and fine structure of starch in wheat endosperm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Studies in Arabidopsis and rice suggest that manipulation of starch synthase I (SSI) expression in wheat may lead to the production of wheat grains with novel starch structure and properties. This work describes the suppression of SSI expression in wheat grains using RNAi technology, which leads to a low level of enzymatic activity for SSI in the developing endosperm, and a low abundance of SSI protein inside the starch granules of mature grains. The amylopectin fraction of starch from the SSI suppressed lines showed an increased frequency of very short chains (degree of polymerization, dp 6 and 7), a lower proportion of short chains (dp 8–12), and more intermediate chains (dp 13–20) than in the grain from their negative segregant lines. In the most severely affected line, amylose content was significantly increased, the morphology of starch granules was changed, and the proportion of B starch granules was significantly reduced. The change of the fine structure of the starch in the SSI-RNAi suppression lines alters the gelatinization temperature, swelling power, and viscosity of the starch. This work demonstrates that the roles of SSI in the determination of starch structure and properties are similar among different cereals and Arabidopsis. PMID:24634486

  19. Hot-melt extrusion of sugar-starch-pellets.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2015-09-30

    Sugar-starch-pellets (syn. sugar spheres) are usually manufactured through fluidized bed granulation or wet extrusion techniques. This paper introduces hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an alternative method to manufacture sugar-starch-pellets. A twin-screw extruder coupled with a Leistritz Micro Pelletizer (LMP) cutting machine was utilized for the extrusion of different types (normal-, waxy-, and high-amlyose) of corn starch, blended with varying amounts of sucrose. Pellets were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, tensile strength, and swelling expansion. Furthermore, the influence of sugar content and humidity on the product was investigated. Both sucrose and water lowered the Tg of the starch system allowing a convenient extrusion process. Mechanical strength and swelling behavior could be associated with varying amylose and amylopectin. X-ray powder diffractometric (XRPD) peaks of increasing sucrose contents appeared above 30%. This signified the oversaturation of the extruded starch matrix system with sucrose. Otherwise, had the dissolved sucrose been embedded into the molten starch matrix, no crystalline peak could have been recognized. The replacement of starch with sucrose reduced the starch pellets' swelling effect, which resulted in less sectional expansion (SEI) and changed the surface appearance. Further, a nearly equal tensile strength could be detected for sugar spheres with more than 40% sucrose. This observation stands in good relation with the analyzed values of the commercial pellets. Both techniques (fluidized bed and HME) allowed a high yield of spherical pellets (less friability) for further layering processes. Thermal influence on the sugar-starch system is still an obstacle to be controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  5. Structure of Porous Starch Microcellular Foam Particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A relatively new starch product with various novel applications is a porous microcellular foam. The foam product is made by dehydrating a starch hydrogel in a solvent such as ethanol and then removing the solvent to form a foam product. The process involves heating an aqueous slurry of starch (8% w/...

  6. Effects of adding corn oil and soy protein to corn starch on the physicochemical and digestive properties of the starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Bin; Fu, Xiong; Jane, Jay-Lin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of adding corn oil (CO) and soy protein (SP) to corn starch on the physicochemical properties and digestive rates of annealed starch complex and mechanisms of interactions between corn starch (CS), CO and SP. Binary and ternary blends were prepared using CS mixed with CO (10%, dsb) and/or SP (10%, dsb) and incubated in a water bath at 50°C for 14h. Results showed that more agglomerates of the granules were in the ternary blends. With the addition of CO and/or SP, the CS displayed a decreased pasting temperature, an increased peak viscosity and a decreased enthalpy change of amylose-lipid complex dissociation. The CO can reinforce but SP hinder the annealing phenomenon. Results also showed that CO decreased retrogradation of CS, whereas SP increased it. The digestibility studies showed that the addition of CO and SP decreased the content of rapidly digestible starch and increased the sum of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. SP displayed more impact on the digestibility of the ternary blends than CO. The physical barrier of CO, and amylose-lipid complex and protein-starch matrix can provide resistance to starch digestion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of a novel low-volume and sodium phosphate-free bowel preparation regimen for colon capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jieqiong; Tang, Xiaowei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhenyu; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Bowel preparation regimens for colon capsule endoscopy are not yet standardized since they are not well optimized. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel low-volume and sodium phosphate-free bowel preparation regimen for colon capsule endoscopy. A total of 31 patients were prospectively enrolled. In the novel regimen, on the day prior to examination, a low-fiber diet was permitted, 5 mg mosapride citrate was administered twice (1 h prior to lunch and supper) and 1 l polyethylene glycol was administered in the evening. On the day of the examination, an additional 1 l polyethylene glycol, 5 mg mosapride citrate and 200 mg simethicone were administered before capsule ingestion. Polyethylene glycol booster (0.5 l) was administered twice, at 1 and 4 h following capsule ingestion. Colon cleansing levels, ileocecal valve transit time and completion rate were evaluated. A total of 29 patients were included in the final analysis, 90% of whom achieved adequate preparation of the overall colon. Ileocecal valve transit time was 2.35±0.82 h and completion rate was 79.3%. The results revealed that the novel low-volume and sodium phosphate-free bowel preparation regimen for colon capsule endoscopy was feasible, with adequate colon cleansing and completion rates, and has the potential to be used as an alternative regimen.

  9. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function.

  10. Mammalian Mucosal α-Glucosidases Coordinate with α-Amylase in the Initial Starch Hydrolysis Stage to Have a Role in Starch Digestion beyond Glucogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function. PMID

  11. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-06

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage.

  12. Optimizing the synthesis conditions of silver nanoparticles using corn starch and their catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesised in an aqueous solution of corn starch. To fabricate the SNPs, reaction conditions, such as varying silver nitrate () concentration, time, temperature and solution pH of the reaction, were optimized. Since, the optimum reaction conditions were found 1 mmo l‑1, 15 min and , respectively. Then, to study the role of pH on SNP synthesis, varying pH values of the solution (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11) were investigated. Subsequently, the obtained silver/starch nanocomposites were characterised using different techniques. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the particles were face-centred cubic (FCC), and had an average particle size of 7.5 nm. This was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Moreover, the synthesised SNPs, at different pH values, were used as nanocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. Under optimum reaction conditions, the higher catalytic activity was obtained with SNPs synthesised at pH 11 compared to lower pH of 7 or 9. Therefore, the rapid, reproducible, cost-effective silver/starch nanocomposite can be widely used for various applications such as drug manufacturing (e.g. analgesics and antipyretics) and the removal of pollutants from wastewater.

  13. Effect of temperature and selected sugars on dilute solution properties of two hairless canary seed starches compared with wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Irani, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, influence of temperature (25, 35, 45 and 55°C) and sugars (sucrose and lactose) at different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%) on some molecular parameters of starches from two canary seed varieties (C05041 and CDC Maria) in the dilute regime were investigated in comparison to wheat starch (WS). The results indicated that the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) values of C05041, CDC Maria and WS samples were 1.42, 1.46 and 1.70dl/g at 25°C, respectively. Intrinsic viscosity of selected starches decreased with an increase in temperature, but the effect of high temperatures were somewhat unnoticeable. By increasing the sugar concentration, intrinsic viscosity of each starch solution significantly decreased in comparison with the value determined for sugar free solution. Lactose had more pronounced effect on the intrinsic viscosity reduction of CDC Maria starch and WS at 25°C and 35°C compared with sucrose (P<0.05). But at 55°C, the effect of increasing sucrose on decreasing of [η] of CDC Maria and WS samples were more considerable. The shape factor of starch samples at 25°C were spherical, but increasing temperature from 25°C to 55°C, CSSs and WS samples took an ellipsoidal shape. The interaction between starches and solvent/cosolutes is the predominant factors determining their functional properties in food systems. One of the aspects can help to understand the characteristic of biopolymers such as starches is determination of their dilute solution properties as a function of common additives which are used in food systems. As a matter of fact, dilute solution properties can help to understand the potential applications of biopolymers in food and non-food application. Attentively, dilute solution properties would give some priceless information about molecular properties, biopolymer behavior and its interaction with copolymers. For instance, intrinsic viscosity provides deep insight into fundamental properties of the solute and its interaction with

  14. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    PubMed

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  15. Production of PLA-Starch Fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites of polylactic acid (PLA) with starch have been prepared previously in an effort to reduce cost as well as to modify other properties such as biodegradation rate. However, strength and elongation both decrease on addition of starch due to poor adhesion and stress concentration at the inte...

  16. Production and characterization of cellulose reinforced starch (CRT) films.

    PubMed

    Sudharsan, K; Chandra Mohan, C; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Archana, G; Sabina, K; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2016-02-01

    Starch from Tamarind seed is considered to be a nonedible and inexpensive component, with many industrial applications. Extraction and characterization of tamarind seed starch was carried out for the synthesis of biopolymer. Tamarind seeds were collected, cleaned and further roasted, decorticated, and pulverized to get starch powder. Total starch content present in each tamarind seed is estimated to be around 65-70%. About 84.68% purified starch can be recovered from the tamarind seed. Defatted Tamarind seed starch has an amylose content of 27.55 wt.% and 72.45 wt.% of amylopectin. Morphological (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate crystallinity. Likewise, TGA and DSC of starch have also been analyzed. Thermal properties of starch obtained from tamarind seeds showed good thermal stability when compared to other starch sources such as Mesquite seed and Mango kernel. This study proved that the tamarind seed starch can be used as a potential biopolymer material. Thermo-stable biofilms were produced through initial optimization studies. Predictive response surface quadratic models were constructed for prediction and optimization of biofilm mechanical properties. Correlation coefficient values were calculated to me more than 0.90 for mechanical responses which implies the fitness of constructed model with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Nozière, P; Steinberg, W; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Phosphate Tablets and Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Bowel Cleansing in Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Seo, Sang-Wook; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Lee, Dong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bowel cleansing is generally regarded as time-consuming and unpleasant among patients. Patients commonly state that bowel preparation provokes more discomfort than the actual colonoscopic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare two regimens of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel preparation in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods This was a single center, prospective, open-label, investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled-pilot study. A total of 62 healthy Korean subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (NaP vs. PEG). Efficacy, safety, and patient-related outcomes, as well as procedural parameters, were evaluated. Results Although there were no significant differences in total Ottawa bowel quality score, fluid scores and the rate of adequate bowel preparation were significantly better in the NaP group than the PEG group. Additionally, the NaP group showed better results regarding patient tolerance, satisfaction, preference, and rate of adverse events than the PEG group. Significant fluctuations in specific serum electrolytes were common and of a greater magnitude in the NaP group than the PEG group. However, these abnormalities were transient and did not result in serious complications and side effects. Conclusion In this study, NaP tablets were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated, and acceptable regimen for bowel preparation. Also, our study suggests that NaP tablets may be safe and can be used as a bowel cleansing agent in healthy adults undergoing elective colonoscopy. Further multicenter, large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25323890

  19. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid is as effective as sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate for bowel preparation: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Seok; Chung, Jun-Won; Lee, Ji Won; Lim, Min Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang Ahn; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two low-volume agents, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc) and sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC), for bowel preparation. We performed a prospective, endoscopist-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing PEG + Asc with SPMC to evaluate the bowel cleansing efficacy of the two regimens using the modified Ottawa bowel preparation scale (OBPS) and the Aronchick scale. Patients' taste and overall tolerance were assessed with a questionnaire. In total, 200 patients were randomized to receive either PEG + Asc (n = 98) or SPMC (n = 102). Both treatments were similarly efficacious in bowel cleansing, based on the modified OBSP (PEG + Asc 4.01 ± 2.29 vs SPMC 3.86 ± 2.47, P = 0.62) and Aronchick scale (PEG + Asc 1.96 ± 0.70 vs SPMC 1.89 ± 0.70, P = 0.42). Patient-reported taste and tolerance of each regimen, as reported by the questionnaire, were significantly greater in the PEG + Asc group than in the SPMC group (P = 0.01). In terms of adverse events, dizziness was more frequently observed in the PEG + Asc group (P = 0.03), whereas nausea was more common in the SPMC group (P = 0.02). PEG + Asc and SPMC show similar efficacy for bowel preparation. However, patient's overall tolerance is higher in the PEG + Asc group. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Amyloplast-Localized SUBSTANDARD STARCH GRAIN4 Protein Influences the Size of Starch Grains in Rice Endosperm1[W

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ryo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kusano, Miyako; Kondo, Hideki; Fujita, Naoko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose and is synthesized to form starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. Cereal endosperm accumulates starch to levels that are more than 90% of the total weight, and most of the intracellular space is occupied by SGs. The size of SGs differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. However, the molecular machinery that regulates the size of SGs is unknown. In this study, we report a novel rice (Oryza sativa) mutant called substandard starch grain4 (ssg4) that develops enlarged SGs in the endosperm. Enlargement of SGs in ssg4 was also observed in other starch-accumulating tissues such as pollen grains, root caps, and young pericarps. The SSG4 gene was identified by map-based cloning. SSG4 encodes a protein that contains 2,135 amino acid residues and an amino-terminal amyloplast-targeted sequence. SSG4 contains a domain of unknown function490 that is conserved from bacteria to higher plants. Domain of unknown function490-containing proteins with lengths greater than 2,000 amino acid residues are predominant in photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and higher plants but are minor in proteobacteria. The results of this study suggest that SSG4 is a novel protein that influences the size of SGs. SSG4 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24335509

  1. Hypolipidaemic effect of maize starch with different amylose content in ovariectomized rats depends on intake amount of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kishida, Taro; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The effect of amylose content on digestibility of starch in the small intestine and on the concentration of plasma lipid were studied in ileorectostomized rats and in ovariectomized rats, respectively. Seven kinds of starch with different amylose content (0, 27, 54, 62, 76, 79, 86 %) were used as test starch, which contained 0.4, 5.6, 37.1, 40.2, 45.6, 36.9 and 36.1 % resistant starch (RS), respectively. Rats were fed one of test diets containing 30 % test starch with different amylose content for 14 d in ileorectostomized and for 21 d in ovariectomized rats. Food intake was not significantly different among the groups. In ileorectostomized rats, the small intestinal starch digestibility decreased with increasing intakes of amylose and RS. In ovariectomized rats, body weight gain was lower on the higher amylose maize starch diets. The concentrations of plasma TAG and cholesterol decreased with increasing intake of RS. The concentrations of liver total lipids and TAG decreased with increasing intake of RS, but that of liver cholesterol did not. There was significant positive correlation between the level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA and concentration of liver TAG. Total SCFA amount in the caecum increased logarithmically with increasing dry weight of caecal contents. The amount of bile acids in the small intestinal content and the excretions of bile acids and neutral steroids in faeces increased with increasing RS intake. These results show that starch rich in RS is more effective in preventing ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hyperlipidaemia.

  2. Monetite formed in mixed solvents of water and ethylene glycol and its transformation to hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chang, Jiang

    2006-07-27

    Agglomerated nanorods of hydroxyapatite have been synthesized using monetite as a precursor in a NaOH solution. Monetite consisting of nanosheets has been successfully synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted method using CaCl(2).2.5H(2)O, NaH(2)PO(4), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in water/ethylene glycol (EG) mixed solvents. The effects of the molar ratio of water to EG and the reaction time on the products were investigated. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR).

  3. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) shake flask culture with 3 mM veratryl alcohol addition on day 3 was able to grow and detoxify different concentrations of diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors [10, 25, and 50% (v/v)] in defined media. GC-MS analysis of reaction products showed a decrease and change in some compounds. In addition, the total phenolic assay with Dcs samples demonstrated a decrease in the phenolic compounds. A bioassay employing Lactobacillus casei growth and lactic acid production was developed to confirm the removal of toxic compounds from 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst by the lignolytic enzymes, but not from 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst. The removal did not occur when sodium azide or cycloheximide was added to Ph. chrysosporium culture media, confirming the participation of lignolytic enzymes in the detoxification process. A concentrated enzyme preparation decreased the phenolic compounds in 10% (v/v) corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors to the same extent as the fungal cultures.

  4. Resistant starch modulates in vivo colonic butyrate uptake and its oxidation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Noëlle M; Champ, Martine M; Goupry, Stéphane M; Le Bizec, Bruno J; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick G; Dumon, Henri J; Martin, Lucile J

    2004-03-01

    We previously demonstrated improvements of colonic lesions due to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats after 7 d of supplementation with resistant starch (RS) type 3, a substrate yielding high levels of butyrate (C(4)), a colonic cell fuel source. In the present study, we hypothesized that if inflammation is related to decreased C(4) utilization by the colonic mucosa, RS supplementation should restore C(4) use simultaneously with an increase in the amount of C(4) present in the digestive tract. Hence, we compared, in vivo, the cecocolonic uptake of C(4) and its oxidation into CO(2) and ketone bodies in control and DSS-treated rats fed a fiber-free basal diet (BD) or a RS-supplemented diet. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were used. DSS treatment was performed to induce acute colitis and then to maintain chronic colitis. After cecal infusion of [1-(13)C]-C(4) (20 micro mol in 1 h), concentrations and (13)C-enrichment of C(4), ketone bodies, and CO(2) were quantified in the abdominal aorta and portal vein. Portal blood flow was recorded. During acute colitis, (13)C(4) uptake and (13)CO(2) production were lower in DSS rats than in controls. During chronic colitis, DSS rats did not differ from controls. After 7 d of chronic colitis, RS-DSS rats exhibited the same C(4) uptake as BD-DSS rats in spite of higher C(4) cecocolonic disposal. After 14 d, C(4) uptake was higher in RS-DSS than in BD-DSS rats. Thus, the increased utilization of C(4) by the mucosa is subsequent to evidence of healing and appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of this RS healing effect.

  5. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.

  6. Starch as a feedstock for bioproducts and packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much progress has been achieved in developing starch-based feedstocks as a partial replacement for petroleum-based feedstocks. Although starch remains a poor direct substitute for plastics, composite starch-based materials have useful functional properties and are in commercial production as a repla...

  7. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1∶3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

  8. Starch Structure Influences Its Digestibility: A Review.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Cruz, Perla A; Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2017-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago, it was found that a significant fraction of the starch present in foods is not digested in the small intestine and continues to the large intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiota; this fraction was named resistant starch (RS). It was also reported that there is a fraction of starch that is slowly digested, sustaining a release of glucose in the small intestine. Later, health benefits were found to be associated with the consumption of this fraction, called slowly digestible starch (SDS). The authors declare both fractions to be "nutraceutical starch." An overview of the structure of both fractions (RS and SDS), as well as their nutraceutical characteristics, is presented with the objective of suggesting methods and processes that will increase both fractions in starchy foods and prevent diseases that are associated with the consumption of glycemic carbohydrates. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  10. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  11. Leaf starch degradation comes out of the shadows.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, James R; Kossmann, Jens; Ritte, Gerhard

    2005-03-01

    During the day, plants accumulate starch in their leaves as an energy source for the coming night. Based on recent findings, the prevailing view of how the transitory starch is remobilized needs considerable revision. Analyses of transgenic and mutant plants demonstrate that plastidic glucan phosphorylase is not required for normal starch breakdown and cast doubt on the presumed essential role of alpha-amylase but do show that beta-amylase is important. Repression of the activity of a plastidic beta-amylase, the export of its product (maltose) or further metabolism of maltose by a newly identified transglucosidase impairs starch degradation. Breakdown of particulate starch also depends on the activity of glucan-water dikinase, which phosphorylates glucosyl residues within the polymer.

  12. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  13. Starch-based Foam Composite Materials: processing and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is an abundant, biodegradable, renewable and low-cost commodity that has been explored as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics. By itself, starch is a poor replacement for plastics because of its moisture sensitivity and brittle properties. Efforts to improve starch properties and funct...

  14. Recent processing methods for preparing starch-based bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is currently an intense interest in starch-based materials because of the low cost of starch, the replacement of dwindling petroleum-based resources with annually-renewable feedstocks, the biodegradability of starch-based products, and the creation of new markets for farm commodities. Non-trad...

  15. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical and chemical modification of starches: A review.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ud-Din; Xiong, Hanguo; Fei, Peng

    2017-08-13

    The development of green material in the last decade has been increased, which tends to reduce the impact of humans on the environment. Starch as an agro-sourced polymer has become very popular recently due to its characteristics, such as wide availability, low cost, and total compostability without toxic residues. Starch is the most abundant organic compound found in nature after cellulose. Starches are inherently unsuitable for most applications and, therefore, must be modified physically and/or chemically to enhance their positive attributes and/or to minimize their defects. Modification of starches is generally carried out by using physical methods that are simple and inexpensive due to the absence of chemical agents. However, chemical modification involves the exploitation of hydroxyl group present in the starches that brings about the desired results for the utilization of starches for specific applications. All these techniques have the tendency to produce starches with altered physicochemical properties and modified structural attributes for various food and nonfood applications. This paper reviews the recent knowledge and developments using physical modification methods, some chemical modification methods, and a combination of both to produce a novel molecule with substantial applications, in food industry along with future perspectives.

  18. End-group characterisation of poly(propylene glycol)s by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anthony T; Slade, Susan E; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H

    2008-10-01

    The end-group functionalisation of a series of poly(propylene glycol)s has been characterised by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A series of peaks with mass-to-charge ratios that are close to that of the precursor ion were used to generate information on the end-group functionalities of the poly(propylene glycol)s. Fragment ions resulting from losses of both of the end groups were noted from some of the samples. An example is presented of how software can be used to significantly reduce the length of time involved in data interpretation (which is typically the most time-consuming part of the analysis).

  19. Overexpression of STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II increases short-chain branching of amylopectin and alters the physicochemical properties of starch from potato tuber.

    PubMed

    Brummell, David A; Watson, Lyn M; Zhou, Jun; McKenzie, Marian J; Hallett, Ian C; Simmons, Lyall; Carpenter, Margaret; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2015-04-29

    Starch is biosynthesised by a complex of enzymes including various starch synthases and starch branching and debranching enzymes, amongst others. The role of all these enzymes has been investigated using gene silencing or genetic knockouts, but there are few examples of overexpression due to the problems of either cloning large genomic fragments or the toxicity of functional cDNAs to bacteria during cloning. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of potato STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) using overexpression in potato tubers. A hybrid SBEII intragene consisting of potato cDNA containing a fragment of potato genomic DNA that included a single intron was used in order to prevent bacterial translation during cloning. A population of 20 transgenic potato plants exhibiting SBEII overexpression was generated. Compared with wild-type, starch from these tubers possessed an increased degree of amylopectin branching, with more short chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) 6-12 and particularly of DP6. Transgenic lines expressing a GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS) RNAi construct were also generated for comparison and exhibited post-transcriptional gene silencing of GBSS and reduced amylose content in the starch. Both transgenic modifications did not affect granule morphology but reduced starch peak viscosity. In starch from SBEII-overexpressing lines, the increased ratio of short to long amylopectin branches facilitated gelatinisation, which occurred at a reduced temperature (by up to 3°C) or lower urea concentration. In contrast, silencing of GBSS increased the gelatinisation temperature by 4°C, and starch required a higher urea concentration for gelatinisation. In lines with a range of SBEII overexpression, the magnitude of the increase in SBEII activity, reduction in onset of gelatinisation temperature and increase in starch swollen pellet volume were highly correlated, consistent with reports that starch swelling is greatly dependent upon the

  20. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal properties and free radicals generation in starch isolated from pumpkin fruits.

    PubMed

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela; Dyrek, Krystyna; Fortuna, Teresa; Wenda, Elżbieta; Bidzińska, Ewa; Jędrszczyk, Elżbieta

    2018-03-01

    The selected thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches were compared with values evaluated for corn and potato starch. The pumpkin starches had lower pasting temperatures (by near 3°C and 24°C than potato or corn starch respectively), the peak viscosity (nearly 2300mPas lower than potato starch) and higher final viscosities (by 80-120mPas than those for potato starch and by 1700mPas in relation to corn starch). The thermal profile of pumpkin starches examined by the DSC method were quite similar to those of potato starch but lower than those of corn. The retrogradation degree of pumpkin starch was lower by 5-26% than that for corn or potato starches. The thermal treatment of starches led to the formation of radicals. Pumpkin starches were less susceptible to the formation of radicals than potato starch and had less about 0.3-1.3×10 15 radicals/g than potato starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  3. The deposition and characterization of starch in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan T.; Jensen, Susanne L.; Buléon, Alain; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a non-domesticated cereal. Nonetheless, Brachypodium was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals. This study compares grain starch metabolism in Brachypodium and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In Brachypodium, we identified and annotated 28 genes involved in starch metabolism and identified important motifs including transit peptides and putative carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) of the families CBM20, CBM45, CBM48, and CBM53. Starch content was markedly lower in Brachypodium grains (12%) compared to barley grains (47%). Brachypodium starch granules were doughnut shaped and bimodally distributed into distinct small B-type (2.5–10 µm) and very small C-type (0.5–2.5 µm) granules. Large A-type granules, typical of cereals, were absent. Starch-bound phosphate, important for starch degradation, was 2-fold lower in Brachypodium compared with barley indicating different requirements for starch mobilization. The amylopectin branch profiles were similar and the amylose content was only slightly higher compared with barley cv. Golden Promise. The crystallinity of Brachypodium starch granules was low (10%) compared to barley (20%) as determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and molecular disorder was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The expression profiles in grain for most genes were distinctly different for Brachypodium compared to barley, typically showing earlier decline during the course of development, which can explain the low starch content and differences in starch molecular structure and granule characteristics. High transitory starch levels were observed in leaves of Brachypodium (2.8% after 14h of light) compared to barley (1.9% after 14h of light). The data suggest important pre-domesticated features of cereals. PMID:25056772

  4. Glucose transporters and enzymes related to glucose synthesis in small intestinal mucosa of mid-lactation dairy cows fed 2 levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Lohrenz, A-K; Duske, K; Schönhusen, U; Losand, B; Seyfert, H M; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2011-09-01

    Diets containing corn starch may improve glucose supply by providing significant amounts of intestinal starch and increasing intestinal glucose absorption in dairy cows. Glucose absorption in the small intestine requires specific glucose transporters; that is, sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitated glucose transporter (GLUT2), which are usually downregulated in the small intestine of functional ruminants but are upregulated when luminal glucose is available. We tested the hypothesis that mRNA and protein expression of intestinal glucose transporters and mRNA expression of enzymes related to gluconeogenesis are affected by variable starch supply. Dairy cows (n=9/group) were fed for 4 wk total mixed rations (TMR) containing either high (HS) or low (LS) starch levels in the diet. Feed intake and milk yield were measured daily. After slaughter, tissue samples of the small intestinal mucosa (mid-duodenum and mid-jejunum) were taken for determination of mRNA concentrations of SGLT1 and GLUT2 as well as pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase by real-time reverse transcription PCR relative to a housekeeping gene. Protein expression of GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in brush-border membrane vesicles was quantified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and immunoblot. A mixed model was used to examine feeding and time-related changes on feed intake and milk yield and to test feeding and gut site effects on gene or protein expression of glucose transporters and enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. Dry matter intake, but not energy intake, was higher in cows fed HS compared with LS. Abundance of SGLT1 mRNA tended to be higher in duodenal than in jejunal mucosa, and mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase tended to be higher in jejunal than in duodenal mucosa. In brush-border membrane vesicles, SGLT1 and GLUT2 protein expression could be demonstrated. No diet-dependent differences

  5. Amylopectin molecular structure reflected in macromolecular organization of granular starch.

    PubMed

    Vermeylen, Rudi; Goderis, Bart; Reynaers, Harry; Delcour, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    For lintners with negligible amylose retrogradation, crystallinity related inversely to starch amylose content and, irrespective of starch source, incomplete removal of amorphous material was shown. The latter was more pronounced for B-type than for A-type starches. The two predominant lintner populations, with modal degrees of polymerization (DP) of 13-15 and 23-27, were best resolved for amylose-deficient and A-type starches. Results indicate a more specific hydrolysis of amorphous lamellae in such starches. Small-angle X-ray scattering showed a more intense 9-nm scattering peak for native amylose-deficient A-type starches than for their regular or B-type analogues. The experimental evidence indicates a lower contrasting density within the "crystalline" shells of the latter starches. A higher density in the amorphous lamellae, envisaged by the lamellar helical model, explains the relative acid resistance of linear amylopectin chains with DP > 20, observed in lintners of B-type starches. Because amylopectin chain length distributions were similar for regular and amylose-deficient starches of the same crystal type, we deduce that the more dense (and ordered) packing of double helices into lamellar structures in amylose-deficient starches is due to a different amylopectin branching pattern.

  6. Imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents for starch dissolution and plasticization.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Mąka, Honorata

    2016-04-20

    Potato starch and high-amylose starch were treated with imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as dissolution and plasticization media. Beside imidazole (IM) for two-component DESs preparation choline chloride (CC), glycerol (G) or carboxylic acids (citric or malic) were used. An influence of water content in starch (as well as an extra water in the starch/DES system) on polymer dissolution and plasticization processes was investigated. Dissolution and gelatinization of starch in DESs were followed via DSC and laser scanning microscopy. A rheometric characteristics revealed an influence of starch/DES system storage time on the plasticization process. The tendency to recrystallization of compression-molded-starch films was evaluated using XRD technique. High dissolution and plasticization effectiveness of CC/IM and G/IM and a low tendency to film retrogradation of thermoplasticized starch were noted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drowning-out crystallisation of sodium sulphate using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Taboada, M E; Graber, T A; Asenjo, J A; Andrews, B A

    2000-06-23

    A novel method to obtain crystals of pure, anhydrous salt, using aqueous two-phase systems was studied. A concentrated salt solution is mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG), upon which three phases are formed: salt crystals, a PEG-rich liquid and a salt-rich liquid. After removal of the solid salt, a two-phase system is obtained. Both liquid phases are recycled, allowing the design of a continuous process, which could be exploited industrially. The phase diagram of the system water-Na2SO4-PEG 3350 at 28 degrees C was used. Several process alternatives are proposed and their economic potential is discussed. The process steps needed to produce sodium sulphate crystals include mixing, crystallisation, settling and, optionally, evaporation of water. The yield of sodium sulphate increases dramatically if an evaporation step is used.

  8. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the total ethylene and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights... and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights below 450. Analytical Method ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols The analytical method...

  9. Starch Flocculation by the Sweet Potato Sour Liquid Is Mediated by the Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Starch

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Yang; Li, Xinhua; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Huajiang; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we focused on the mechanism underlying starch flocculation by the sweet potato sour liquid. The traditional microbial techniques and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus was dominant flocculating microorganism in sour liquid. In total, 86 bacteria, 20 yeasts, and 10 molds were isolated from the sour liquid and only eight Lactobacillus species exhibited flocculating activity. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 strain with a high flocculating activity was isolated and identified, and the mechanism of starch flocculation was examined. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 cells formed chain-like structures on starch granules. Consequently, these cells connected the starch granules to one another, leading to formation of large flocs. The results of various treatments of L1 cells indicated that bacterial surface proteins play a role in flocculation and L1 cells adhered to the surface of starch granules via specific surface proteins. These surface starch-binding proteins were extracted using the guanidine hydrochloride method; 10 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: three of these proteins were glycolytic enzymes; two were identified as the translation elongation factor Tu; one was a cell wall hydrolase; one was a surface antigen; one was lyzozyme M1; one was a glycoside hydrolase; and one was an uncharacterized proteins. This study will paves the way for future industrial application of the L1 isolate in starch processing and food manufacturing. PMID:28791000

  10. Anaerobic treatability of wastewater contaminated with propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Naim; Tonuk, Gulseven Ubay

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradability of propylene glycol in anaerobic conditions by using methanogenic culture. A master reactor was set up to develop a culture that would be acclimated to propylene glycol. After reaching steady-state, culture was transferred to serum bottles. Three reactors with same initial conditions were run for consistency. Propylene glycol was completely biodegradable under anaerobic methanogenic conditions. Semi-continuous reactors operated at a temperature of 35°C had consistently achieved a propylene glycol removal of higher than 95 % based on chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was found that in semi-continuous reactors, anaerobic treatment of propylene glycol at concentrations higher than 1,500 mg COD m(-3) day(-1) was not convenient due to instable effluent COD.

  11. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana C; Haenen, Daniëlle; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and barley. Digesta from different parts of the large intestine were collected and analysed for sugar composition and carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities. Resistant starch, as well as β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan, was utilised mainly in the caecum. The utilisation of β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan in the caecum was higher in DS-fed pigs than in RS-fed pigs. Analyses on carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities demonstrated that microbial enzyme production was stimulated according to the diet composition, and the enzyme profile throughout the large intestine of RS-fed pigs indicated that the presence of resistant starch shifted the utilisation of NSPs to more distal parts of the colon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Size fractionation of double-stranded DNA by precipitation with polyethylene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Lis, John T.; Schleif, Robert

    1975-01-01

    We show that DNA molecules of differing molecular mass are separable by selective precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG†). Higher molecular mass DNA precipitates at lower PEG concentrations than lower molecular mass DNA. Double-stranded DNA can be fractionated at least in the range of 3 × 107 to 1 × 105 daltons. The effects of PEG concentration, sodium chloride concentration, DNA concentration, pH, divalent ions, precipitation time, and centrifugal force have been determined. These studies show PEG precipitation offers a size fractionation method for DNA which is convenient, of high capacity, and applicable over a wide range of conditions. However, resolution is not high and separation of two species approaches 100% only if they differ in molecular mass by at least a factor of two. Images PMID:236548

  13. Evaluation of a High Throughput Starch Analysis Optimised for Wood

    PubMed Central

    Bellasio, Chandra; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the most important long-term reserve in trees, and the analysis of starch is therefore useful source of physiological information. Currently published protocols for wood starch analysis impose several limitations, such as long procedures and a neutralization step. The high-throughput standard protocols for starch analysis in food and feed represent a valuable alternative. However, they have not been optimised or tested with woody samples. These have particular chemical and structural characteristics, including the presence of interfering secondary metabolites, low reactivity of starch, and low starch content. In this study, a standard method for starch analysis used for food and feed (AOAC standard method 996.11) was optimised to improve precision and accuracy for the analysis of starch in wood. Key modifications were introduced in the digestion conditions and in the glucose assay. The optimised protocol was then evaluated through 430 starch analyses of standards at known starch content, matrix polysaccharides, and wood collected from three organs (roots, twigs, mature wood) of four species (coniferous and flowering plants). The optimised protocol proved to be remarkably precise and accurate (3%), suitable for a high throughput routine analysis (35 samples a day) of specimens with a starch content between 40 mg and 21 µg. Samples may include lignified organs of coniferous and flowering plants and non-lignified organs, such as leaves, fruits and rhizomes. PMID:24523863

  14. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteome Profile of Starch Granules Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa) Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Shihai; Meng, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Lihui; Mujahid, Hana; Zhao, Chunfang; Zhang, Yadong; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most important food energy source in cereals. Many of the known enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis are partially or entirely granule-associated in the endosperm. Studying the proteome of rice starch granules is critical for us to further understand the mechanisms underlying starch biosynthesis and packaging of starch granules in rice amyloplasts, consequently for the improvement of rice grain quality. In this article, we developed a protocol to purify starch granules from mature rice endosperm and verified the quality of purified starch granules by microscopy observations, I2 staining, and Western blot analyses. In addition, we found the phenol extraction method was superior to Tris-HCl buffer extraction method with respect to the efficiency in recovery of starch granule associated proteins. LC-MS/MS analysis showed identification of already known starch granule associated proteins with high confidence. Several proteins reported to be involved in starch synthesis in prior genetic studies in plants were also shown to be enriched with starch granules, either directly or indirectly, in our studies. In addition, our results suggested that a few additional candidate proteins may also be involved in starch synthesis. Furthermore, our results indicated that some starch synthesis pathway proteins are subject to protein acetylation modification. GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the identified proteins were mainly located in plastids and involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This study substantially advances the understanding of the starch granule associated proteome in rice and post translational regulation of some starch granule associated proteins. PMID:27992503

  17. Proteome Profile of Starch Granules Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa) Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihai; Meng, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Lihui; Mujahid, Hana; Zhao, Chunfang; Zhang, Yadong; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most important food energy source in cereals. Many of the known enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis are partially or entirely granule-associated in the endosperm. Studying the proteome of rice starch granules is critical for us to further understand the mechanisms underlying starch biosynthesis and packaging of starch granules in rice amyloplasts, consequently for the improvement of rice grain quality. In this article, we developed a protocol to purify starch granules from mature rice endosperm and verified the quality of purified starch granules by microscopy observations, I2 staining, and Western blot analyses. In addition, we found the phenol extraction method was superior to Tris-HCl buffer extraction method with respect to the efficiency in recovery of starch granule associated proteins. LC-MS/MS analysis showed identification of already known starch granule associated proteins with high confidence. Several proteins reported to be involved in starch synthesis in prior genetic studies in plants were also shown to be enriched with starch granules, either directly or indirectly, in our studies. In addition, our results suggested that a few additional candidate proteins may also be involved in starch synthesis. Furthermore, our results indicated that some starch synthesis pathway proteins are subject to protein acetylation modification. GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the identified proteins were mainly located in plastids and involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This study substantially advances the understanding of the starch granule associated proteome in rice and post translational regulation of some starch granule associated proteins.

  18. Material Compatibility Evaluation for DWPF Nitric-Glycolic Acid - Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Skidmore, T. E.

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reportedmore » corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction.« less

  19. Corrosion and stability study of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki starch industry wastewater-derived biopesticide formulation.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Brar, Satinder K; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2014-01-01

    Biopesticides are usually sprayed on forests by using planes made up of aluminum alloy. Bioval derived from starch industry wastewater (SIW) in suspension form was developed as stable anticorrosive biopesticide formulation. In this context, various anticorrosion agents such as activated charcoal, glycerin, ethylene glycol, phytic acid, castor oil and potassium silicate were tested as anticorrosive agents. There was no corrosion found in Bioval formulation where potassium silicate (0.5% w/v) was added and compared with Foray 76 B, as an industrial standard, when stored over 6 months. In relation to other parameters, the anticorrosion formulation of Bioval+buffer+KSi reported excellent zeta potential (-33.19 ± 4 mV) and the viscosity (319.13 ± 32 mPa.s) proving it's stability over 6 months, compared to the standard biopesticide Foray 76 B (-36.62 ± 4 mV potential zeta, pH 4.14 ± 0.1 and 206 ± 21 mPa.s viscosity). Metal analysis of the different biopesticides showed that Bioval+buffer+KSi has no corrosion (5.11 ± 0.5 mg kg(-1) of Al and 13.53 ± 1.5 mg kg(-1) of Fe) on the aluminum alloy due to the contribution of sodium acetate buffer at pH 5. The bioassays reported excellent results for Bioval+Buffer+KSi (2.95 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 26.6 ± 2.7 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) compared with initial Bioval (2.46 ± 0.3 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 23.09 ± 3 × 10(9) IU L(-1) Tx) and Foray 76 B (2.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1) spores and 19.950 ± 2.1 UI L(-1) Tx) which was due to the break-up of the external chitinous membrane due to abrasive action of potassium silicate after ingestion by insects. The contribution of sodium acetate buffer and potassium silicate (0.5% and at pH = 5) as anticorrosion agent in the Bioval allowed production of an efficient biopesticide with a reduced viscosity and favorable pH as compared to Foray 76 B which enhanced the entomotoxic potential against spruce budworm (SB) larvae (Lepidoptera: Choristoneura fumiferana).

  20. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  1. Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-06-25

    Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol ; CASRN 107 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Propylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol ; CASRN 57 - 55 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  5. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Potato Cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is the starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch in the tuber, approximately 75%, is amylopectin and 25% amylose, but can vary depending on the cultivar. A total of 162 American (85) and foreign (77) potato ...

  6. Effects of grain development on formation of resistant starch in rice.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaoli; Sun, Jian; Wu, Dianxing

    2014-12-01

    Three rice mutants with different contents of resistant starch (RS) were selected to investigate the effects of grain filling process on the formation of resistant starch. During grain development, the content of RS was increased with grain maturation and showed negative correlations with the grain weight and the starch molecular weight (Mn, Mw) and a positive correlation with the distribution of molecular mass (polydispersity, Pd). The morphologies of starch granules in high-RS rice were almost uniform in single starch granules and exhibited different proliferation modes from common rice. The lower activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch branching enzyme and the higher activity of starch synthase and starch de-branching enzyme observed in high-RS rice might be responsible for the formation of small irregular starch granules with large spaces between them. In addition, the lower molecular weight and the broad distribution of molecular weights lead to differences in the physiochemical properties of starch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical characterization of CdS nanorods capped with starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J. S.; Pal Majumder, T.; Schick, C.

    2015-05-01

    Well crystalline uniform CdS nanorods were grown by changing the concentration of maize starch. The highly polymeric (branched) structure of starch enhances the growth of CdS nanorods. The average diameter of the nanorods is 20-25 nm while length is of 500-600 nm as verified from SEM and XRD observations. The optical band gaps of the CdS nanorods are varying from 2.66 eV to 2.52 eV depending on concentration of maize starch. The photoluminescence (PL) emission bands are shifted from 526 nm to 529 nm with concentration of maize starch. We have also observed the enhanced PL intensity in CdS nanorods capped with starch. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows the significant effect of starch on CdS nanorods.

  8. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  9. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  10. Fast determination of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid in blood serum and urine for emergency and clinical toxicology by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Hložek, Tomáš; Bursová, Miroslava; Čabalaa, Radomír

    2014-12-01

    A simple, cost effective, and fast gas chromatography method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. This new method employs a relatively less used class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates, allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of carboxylic acids within seconds while glycols are simultaneously derivatized by phenylboronic acid. The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 10 min. To avoid possible interference from naturally occurring endogenous acids and quantitation errors 3-(4-chlorophenyl) propionic acid was chosen as an internal standard. The significant parameters of the derivatization have been found using chemometric procedures and these parameters were optimized using the face-centered central composite design. The calibration dependence of the method was proved to be quadratic in the range of 50-5000 mg mL(-1), with adequate accuracy (92.4-108.7%) and precision (9.4%). The method was successfully applied to quantify the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. Copyright © 2014 Schreiber et al.

  12. SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. PMID:25081979

  13. Recreating the synthesis of starch granules in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Barbara; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Diaz, Ana; Lu, Kuanjen; Otto, Caroline; Holler, Mirko; Shaik, Farooque Razvi; Meier, Florence; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2016-01-01

    Starch, as the major nutritional component of our staple crops and a feedstock for industry, is a vital plant product. It is composed of glucose polymers that form massive semi-crystalline granules. Its precise structure and composition determine its functionality and thus applications; however, there is no versatile model system allowing the relationships between the biosynthetic apparatus, glucan structure and properties to be explored. Here, we expressed the core Arabidopsis starch-biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae purged of its endogenous glycogen-metabolic enzymes. Systematic variation of the set of biosynthetic enzymes illustrated how each affects glucan structure and solubility. Expression of the complete set resulted in dense, insoluble granules with a starch-like semi-crystalline organization, demonstrating that this system indeed simulates starch biosynthesis. Thus, the yeast system has the potential to accelerate starch research and help create a holistic understanding of starch granule biosynthesis, providing a basis for the targeted biotechnological improvement of crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15552.001 PMID:27871361

  14. Potentiation of Sodium Metabisulfite Toxicity by Propylene Glycol in Both in Vitro and in Vivo Systems.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jean; Lim, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Haewon; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lee, Doo-Hee; Lee, Byeongwoo; Kim, Pilje; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Yoon, Byung-Il; Shim, Ilseob

    2018-01-01

    Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) and propylene glycol (PG) are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced. Solutions of 1, 5, and 20% SM, each with 1% PG solution, were prepared, and the whole body of rats was exposed to aerosols of the mixture for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 1 (exposure group) or 7 days (recovery group) after termination of the exposure. The actual concentration of SM in the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups was 3.91 ± 1.26, 35.73 ± 6.01, and 80.98 ± 5.47 mg/m 3 , respectively, and the actual concentration of PG in each group was 6.47 ± 1.25, 8.68 ± 0.6, and 8.84 ± 1.77 mg/m 3 . The repeated exposure to SM and PG caused specific clinical signs including nasal sound, sneeze, and eye irritation which were not found in SM single exposure. In addition, the body weight of treatment group rats decreased compared to that of the control group rats in a time-dependent manner. The total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased. Histopathological analysis of the lungs, liver, and nasal cavity was performed. Adverse effects were observed in the nasal cavity, with squamous cell metaplasia identified in the front of the nasal cavity in all high-exposure groups, which completely recovered 7 days after exposure was terminated. Whereas inhalation of SM for 2 weeks only reduced body weight in

  15. Dielectric spectroscopy of Ag-starch nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena; Sharma, Annu

    2018-04-01

    In the present work Ag-starch nanocomposite films were fabricated via chemical reduction route. The formation of Ag nanoparticles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further the effect of varying concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the dielectric properties of starch has been studied. The frequency response of dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (ε″) and dissipation factor tan(δ) has been studied in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Dielectric data was further analysed using Cole-Cole plots. The dielectric constant of starch was found to be 4.4 which decreased to 2.35 in Ag-starch nanocomposite film containing 0.50 wt% of Ag nanoparticles. Such nanocomposites with low dielectric constant have potential applications in microelectronic technologies.

  16. 40 CFR 721.4040 - Glycols, polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. 721.4040 Section 721.4040 Protection of...-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. (a) Chemical..., polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl butyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt (P-90-1565) is...

  17. Supply of avocado starch (Persea americana mill) as bioplastic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Hasibuan, R.; Lubis, M.; Alanjani, F.; Winoto, F. A.; Siregar, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time precipitation of avocado slurry seed to yield of starch. Starch analysis included starch content, moisture content, amylose content, amylopectin content, ash content, protein content, fat content, Fourier transform infra red analysis and rapid visco analyzer. Supply of starch from avocado seeds was used by extraction method. Every one hundred grams of avocado slurry was precipitated by gravity with variations for 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours. The Starch yield was washed, and dried using oven at 70°C for 30 minutes. Starch yield was the highest as 24.20 gram at 24 hours. The result of starch characterization was 73.62%, water content 16.6%, amylose 0.07%, amylopectin 73.55%, ash content 0.23%, protein content 2.16%, fat content 1.09%. Rapid visco analyzer obtained at 91.33°C of gelatinization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyzes obtained 20 μm oval-shaped starch granules. Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis of starch obtained the peak spectrum of O-H group of alcohols, C-H alkanes and C-O ether.

  18. Swelling Kinetics of Waxy Maize Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desam, Gnana Prasuna Reddy

    Starch pasting behavior greatly influences the texture of a variety of food products such as canned soup, sauces, baby foods, batter mixes etc. The annual consumption of starch in the U.S. is 3 million metric tons. It is important to characterize the relationship between the structure, composition and architecture of the starch granules with its pasting behavior in order to arrive at a rational methodology to design modified starch of desirable digestion rate and texture. In this research, polymer solution theory was applied to predict the evolution of average granule size of starch at different heating temperatures in terms of its molecular weight, second virial coefficient and extent of cross-link. Evolution of granule size distribution of waxy native maize starch when subjected to heating at constant temperatures of 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 C was characterized using static laser light scattering. As expected, granule swelling was more pronounced at higher temperatures and resulted in a shift of granule size distribution to larger sizes with a corresponding increase in the average size by 100 to 120% from 13 mum to 25-28 mum. Most of the swelling occurred within the first 10 min of heating. Pasting behavior of waxy maize at different temperatures was also characterized from the measurements of G' and G" for different heating times. G' was found to increase with temperature at holding time of 2 min followed by its decrease at larger holding times. This behavior is believed to be due to the predominant effect of swelling at small times. However, G" was insensitive to temperature and holding times. The structure of waxy maize starch was characterized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Experimental data of average granule size vs time at different temperatures were compared with model predictions. Also the Experimental data of particle size distribution vs particle size at different times and temperatures were compared with model predictions.

  19. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  20. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Schmidt, Andrew J [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine, J [Decatur, IL

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  1. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.

  2. Fusion proteins comprising the catalytic domain of mutansucrase and a starch-binding domain can alter the morphology of amylose-free potato starch granules during biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nazarian Firouzabadi, Farhad; Kok-Jacon, Géraldine A; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Ji, Qin; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown previously that mutan can be co-synthesized with starch when a truncated mutansucrase (GtfICAT) is directed to potato tuber amyloplasts. The mutan seemed to adhere to the isolated starch granules, but it was not incorporated in the starch granules. In this study, GtfICAT was fused to the N- or C-terminus of a starch-binding domain (SBD). These constructs were introduced into two genetically different potato backgrounds (cv. Kardal and amf), in order to bring GtfICAT in more intimate contact with growing starch granules, and to facilitate the incorporation of mutan polymers in starch. Fusion proteins of the appropriate size were evidenced in starch granules, particularly in the amf background. The starches from the various GtfICAT/SBD transformants seemed to contain less mutan than those from transformants with GtfICAT alone, suggesting that the appended SBD might inhibit the activity of GtfICAT in the engineered fusion proteins. Scanning electron microscopy showed that expression of SBD-GtfICAT resulted in alterations of granule morphology in both genetic backgrounds. Surprisingly, the amf starches containing SBD-GtfICAT had a spongeous appearance, i.e., the granule surface contained many small holes and grooves, suggesting that this fusion protein can interfere with the lateral interactions of amylopectin sidechains. No differences in physico-chemical properties of the transgenic starches were observed. Our results show that expression of granule-bound and "soluble" GtfICAT can affect starch biosynthesis differently.

  3. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P < 0.01) and fewer were improved (P < 0.01). At the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, both groups had similarly improved. At the 12-month visit, 61% of children on polyethylene glycol and 67% of children on milk of magnesia were doing well. Children on polyethylene glycol soiled more frequently (P < 0.01). None refused polyethylene glycol, but 33% refused to take milk of magnesia. The mean initial treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol was 0.6 +/- 0.2 g/kg daily. Polyethylene glycol had no taste, and no loss of efficacy occurred. Polyethylene glycol did not cause clinically significant side effects. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes is an alternative for long-term management of children with constipation and encopresis.

  4. Structures, properties, modifications, and uses of oat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    There has been increasing interest to utilise oats and their components to formulate healthy food products. Starch is the major component of oat kernels and may account up to 60% of the dry weight. Starch properties may greatly determine the product quality. As a by-product of oat processing and fractionation, the starch may also be utilised for food and non-food applications. This mini-review updates the recent advances in the isolation, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, chemical and physical modifications, and food and non-food uses of oat starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Lentinus edodes β-glucan influencing the in vitro starch digestibility of wheat starch gel.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haining; Chen, Zhongqiu; Feng, Tao; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhaofeng; Ye, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Lentinus edodes β-glucan (abbreviated LEBG) was prepared from fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes. The average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of LEBG were measured to be 1.868×10 6 g/mol and 1.007, respectively. In addition, the monosaccharide composition of LEBG was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose with a molar ratio of 5:11:18:644:16. After adding LEBG, both G' and G″ of starch gel increased. This is mainly because the connecting points between the molecular chains of LEBG and starch formed so that gel network structures were enhanced. The peak temperature in the heat flow diagram shifted to a higher temperature and the peak area of the endothermic enthalpy increased. Furthermore, LEBG can significantly inhibit starch hydrolysis. The predicted glycemic index (pGI) values were reduced when starch was replaced with LEBG at 20% (w/w). It might indicate that LEBG was suitable to develop low GI noodle or bread. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of Rosin Acid Starch Catalyzed by Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2 : 1, reaction time 4 h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch. PMID:24977156

  7. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A.

    PubMed

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Sureshkumar, R S; Anjali, C H; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-11-06

    Azadirachtin a biological compound found in neem have medicinal and pesticidal properties. The present work reports on the encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. Starch and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as coating agents for smooth surface of beads. The SEM images showed beads exhibited nearly spherical shape. Swelling of the polymeric beads reduced with coating which in turn decreased the rate of release of Aza-A. Starch coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion was found to be effective when compared to PEG coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion. The release rate of neem Aza-A from the beads into an aqueous environment was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometer (214 nm). The encapsulated neem oil nanoemulsion have the potential for controlled release of Aza-A. Neem oil nanoemulsion encapsulated beads coated with PEG was found to be toxic in lymphocyte cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-Evaluation of the Role of Starch in Gravitropic Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    Plant organs grow toward or away from gravity as a way to orient those organs for optimizing growth. Starch has long been thought to be important in sensing the direction of the g-vector in gravitropism, but that hypothesis has also evoked controversy. We have previously shown that starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis (TC7) and Nicotiana (NS458) are impaired in their gravitropism. While this suggests that starch is not necessary for reduced gravitropism, it also indicates that the mass of the starch contributes to sensing when present and thus is necessary for full gravitropic sensitivity. The research supported by this grant focused on three related projects, (1) the effect of light on hypocotyl gravitropism in NS458, (2) the effects of root phototropism on measurements of gravitropic sensitivity, and (3) the effects of starch overproduction on sedimentation and gravitropism. Collectively, our results provide additional strong support for the importance of starch in gravitropic sensing. First, by accounting for negative phototropism in roots of two starchless mutants of Arabidopsis we have established that these mutants are much less sensitive to gravity than previously thought. This work also demonstrates the importance of designing experimental protocols that remove the influence of root phototropism on measuring root gravitropism. Second, light apparently promotes gravitropism in starch-deficient Nicotiana hypocotyls by increasing the trace amounts of starch in the plastids, by inducing limited plastid sedimentation and thus by presumably increasing the signal provided by plastid mass. And finally, we show that excess starch in Arabidopsis seedlings has little effect on gravitropic sensitivity implying that the sensing system is already saturated. However, in light-grown stems where this mutation results in starch accumulation and where the wild-type practically lacks starch in the sensing cells, the mutant is much more sensitive than the wild-type again

  10. Gel characteristics and microstructure of fish myofibrillar protein/cassava starch composites.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingcong; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Siming; Xiong, Shanbai; Xie, Jing; Huang, Qilin

    2017-03-01

    The changes in fish myofibrillar protein/cassava starch composites in the starch fraction range from 0 to 1, with their total content maintained at 60mg/mL, were investigated in terms of textural properties, rheological behaviours, morphology, spatial distribution and protein molecular structure. The results revealed that the starch fraction of 0.5 was a critical point for the conversion of the protein matrix to starch matrix and conversion of the gel from elastic to weak. Moreover, the protein-starch synergistic effect on the storage modulus was strongest at fractions of 0.5 and 0.6, due to the formation of a semi-interpenetrating network, with more amylose from the melted starch granules interpenetrated with the protein molecules, and the absorption of water by the starch granules to concentrate the protein matrix. Additionally, no covalent interaction between the protein and starch occurred with increasing starch fraction, thus having no significant influence on the protein secondary structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  12. Porous starch extracted from Chinese rice wine vinasse: characterization and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jiao, Aiquan; Wei, Benxi; Wang, Yong; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Chinese rice wine vinasse (the fermentation residue after removal of the crude wine or beer) contains 20-30% residual native starch. These starches are partly hydrolyzed by amylase and glucoamylase during rice wine fermentation, indicating that it is a potential source of porous starch, which is a value-added material. In the present study, morphological, short-range order, crystalline, and thermal studies were determined to characterize the structural and chemical properties of vinasse starch. The results showed that vinasse starch granule had a rough and porous shape and was much more ordered than native starch. Vinasse starch also could tolerate a higher temperature than native starch. The water and oil adsorptive capacities of vinasse starch were 1.89 and 4.14 times higher than that of native rice starch. These results suggest that vinasse is an effective and economical source of porous starch for using as adsorbent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soybean cotyledon starch metabolism is sensitive to altered gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have demonstrated that etiolated soybean seedlings grown under the altered gravity conditions of clinorotation (1 rpm) and centrifugation (5xg) exhibit changes in starch metabolism. Cotyledon starch concentration was lower (-28%) in clinorotated plants and higher (+24%) in centrifuged plants than in vertical control plants. The activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the cotyledons was affected in a similar way, i.e. lower (-37%) in the clinorotated plants and higher (+22%) in the centrifuged plants. Other starch metabolic enzyme activities, starch synthase, starch phosphorylase and total hydrolase were not affected by the altered gravity treatments. We conclude that the observed changes in starch concentrations were primarily due to gravity-mediated differences in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of starch branching enzymes involved in starch synthesis during the development of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Yanyan; Jiang, Yichen; Zhang, Qing; Cao, Qingqin; Fang, Kefeng; Xing, Yu; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) is native to China and distributes widely in arid and semi-arid mountain area with barren soil. As a perennial crop, chestnut is an alternative food source and acts as an important commercial nut tree in China. Starch is the major metabolite in nuts, accounting for 46 ~ 64% of the chestnut dry weight. The accumulation of total starch and amylopectin showed a similar increasing trend during the development of nut. Amylopectin contributed up to 76% of the total starch content at 80 days after pollination (DAP). The increase of total starch mainly results from amylopectin synthesis. Among genes associated with starch biosynthesis, CmSBEs (starch branching enzyme) showed significant increase during nut development. Two starch branching enzyme isoforms, CmSBE I and CmSBE II, were identified from chestnut cotyledon using zymogram analysis. CmSBE I and CmSBE II showed similar patterns of expression during nut development. The accumulations of CmSBE transcripts and proteins in developing cotyledons were characterized. The expressions of two CmSBE genes increased from 64 DAP and reached the highest levels at 77 DAP, and SBE activity reached its peak at 74 DAP. These results suggested that the CmSBE enzymes mainly contributed to amylopectin synthesis and influenced the amylopectin content in the developing cotyledon, which would be beneficial to chestnut germplasm selection and breeding. PMID:28542293

  15. Eukaryotic starch degradation: integration of plastidial and cytosolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fettke, Joerg; Hejazi, Mahdi; Smirnova, Julia; Höchel, Erik; Stage, Marion; Steup, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Starch is an important plant product widely used as a nutrient, as a source of renewable energy, and for many technological applications. In plants, starch is the almost ubiquitous storage carbohydrate whereas most heterotrophic prokaryotes and eukaryotes rely on glycogen. Despite close similarities in basic chemical features, starch and glycogen differ in both structural and physicochemical properties. Glycogen is a hydrosoluble macromolecule with evenly distributed branching points. Starch exists as a water-insoluble particle having a defined (and evolutionary conserved) internal structure. The biochemistry of starch requires the co-operation of up to 40 distinct (iso)enzymes whilst approximately 10 (iso)enzymes permit glycogen metabolism. The biosynthesis and degradation of native starch include the transition of carbohydrates from the soluble to the solid phase and vice versa. In this review, two novel aspects of the eukaryotic plastidial starch degradation are discussed: Firstly, biochemical reactions that take place at the surface of particulate glucans and mediate the phase transition of carbohydrates. Secondly, processes that occur downstream of the export of starch-derived sugars into the cytosol. Degradation of transitory starch mainly results in the formation of neutral sugars, such as glucose and maltose, that are transported into the cytosol via the respective translocators. The cytosolic metabolism of the neutral sugars includes the action of a hexokinase, a phosphoglucomutase, and a transglucosidase that utilizes high molecular weight glycans as a transient glucosyl acceptor or donor. Data are included on the transglucosidase (disproportionating isozyme 2) in Cyanophora paradoxa that accumulates storage carbohydrates in the cytosol rather than in the plastid.

  16. Separation of no-carrier-added rhenium from bulk tantalum by the sodium malonate-PEG aqueous biphasic system.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Binita; Lahiri, Susanta; Tomar, B S

    2014-02-01

    The aqueous biphasic system (ABS) involving sodium malonate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) phases has been applied for the first time for separation of no-carrier-added (183)Re (T1/2=70 d) from α-particle irradiated bulk tantalum target. The various ABS conditions were applied for investigating the separation by varying pH, temperature, PEG-molecular weight, concentration of salt. The extraction pattern was hardly affected by change in pH and the molecular weight of PEG. One step separation of nca (183)Re from Ta was achieved at the optimal conditions of (i) 50% (w/w) PEG-4000-2 M sodium malonate, 40 °C and (ii) 50% (w/w) PEG-4000-3 M sodium malonate, room temperature (27 °C). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Thermal properties of partially hydrolyzed starch-glycerophosphatidylcholine complexes with various acyl chains.

    PubMed

    Siswoyo, Tri Agus; Morita, Naofumi

    2003-05-07

    Complexes of starch and monoacyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) containing various acyl (myristoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl) chains were subjected to hydrolysis with glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3). The enzyme hydrolyzed approximately 40% of starch control and 20-28% of starch-GPC complexes. Among the GPCs examined, 1- and 2-monomyristoyl-sn-GPC showed the highest resistance to enzyme hydrolysis, and the hydrolysis rate of starch-GPCs was greater with longer chains. Enzymatic hydrolysis strongly affected the thermal properties of the starch. After enzymatic hydrolysis of starch-GPC complexes for 24 h, their thermograms had broader peaks with lower enthalpies than the corresponding starch without enzyme; however, the starch-GPC complexes showed little change. The surface of starch-GPC granules was less eroded. These results showed that the increasing amount of starch-GPC complexes could be more resistant to hydrolysis.

  18. Humidity-activated shape memory effect on plasticized starch-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sessini, Valentina; Arrieta, Marina P; Fernández-Torres, Alberto; Peponi, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Humidity-activated shape memory behavior of plasticized starch-based films reinforced with the innovative combination of starch nanocrystals (SNCs) and catechin as antioxidant were studied. In a previous work, we reported the processing of gelatinized starch-based films filled with SNCs and catechin as antioxidant agent, and we observed that this novel combination leads to starch-based film with enhanced thermal and mechanical performance. In this work, the humidity-activated shape memory behavior of the previous developed starch-based films was characterized. The moisture loss as well as the moisture absorption were studied since they are essential parameters in humidity-activated shape memory polymers to fix the temporary shape and to recover the original shape, respectively. Therefore, the effect of the incorporation of SNCs and catechin on the humidity-activated shape memory properties of plasticized starch was also studied. Moreover, the effectiveness of catechin to increase the polymer stability under oxidative atmosphere and the thermo-mechanical relaxation of all the starch-based materials were studied. The combination of plasticized starch matrix loaded with both, SNCs and catechin, leads to a multifunctional starch-based films with increased hydrophilicity and with excellent humidity-activated shape memory behavior with interest for potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  20. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  1. Starch-gum interactions: nutritional and technological implications.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, V; Singhal, R S; Kulkarni, P R

    1996-03-01

    Starch contributes greatly to the textural properties of many foods. Starch, both native as well as various modified derivative forms offer a great scope to develop a variety of food products having varied texture and mouthfeel.

  2. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for Efficient Ethylene Glycol Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, Gregg T; Franden, Mary A; Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylenemore » glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  3. Pasting characteristics of starch-lipid composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-lipid composites (SLC) have been used as fat replacers and stabilizers in beef patties, dairy products, and baked goods. The SLC are produced by mixing aqueous starch slurry with a lipid source, and steam jet-cooking. The SLC may be dried using a drum drier and then milled in a Retch mill. ...

  4. Second Harmonic Generation Mediated by Aligned Water in Starch Granules.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Krouglov, Serguei; Steup, Martin; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-12-26

    The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) in starch granules was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical modeling and experimentally examined using polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation microscopy. Ab initio calculations revealed that the largest contribution to the SHG signal from A- and B-type allomorphs of starch originates from the anisotropic organization of hydroxide and hydrogen bonds mediated by aligned water found in the polymers. The hypothesis was experimentally tested by imaging maize starch granules under various hydration and heat treatment conditions that alter the hydrogen bond network. The highest SHG intensity was found in fully hydrated starch granules, and heat treatment diminished the SHG intensity. The PIPO SHG imaging showed that dried starch granules have a much higher nonlinear optical susceptibility component ratio than fully hydrated granules. In contrast, deuterated starch granules showed a smaller susceptibility component ratio demonstrating that SHG is highly sensitive to the organization of the hydroxyl and hydrogen bond network. The polarization SHG imaging results of potato starch granules, representing starch allomorph B, were compared to those of maize starch granules representing allomorph A. The results showed that the amount of aligned water was higher in the maize granules. Nonlinear microscopy of starch granules provides evidence that varying hydration conditions leads to significant changes in the nonlinear susceptibility ratio as well as the SHG intensity, supporting the hypothesis from ab initio calculations that the dominant contribution to SHG is due to the ordered hydroxide and hydrogen bond network.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  6. Rheological Properties and Electrospinnability of High-Amylose Starch in Formic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lancuški, Anica; Vasilyev, Gleb; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Zussman, Eyal

    2015-08-10

    Starch derivatives, such as starch-esters, are commonly used as alternatives to pure starch due to their enhanced mechanical properties. However, simple and efficient processing routes are still being sought out. In the present article, we report on a straightforward method for electrospinning high-amylose starch-formate nanofibers from 17 wt % aqueous formic acid (FA) dispersions. The diameter of the electrospun starch-formate fibers ranged from 80 to 300 nm. The electrospinnability window between starch gelatinization and phase separation was determined using optical microscopy and rheological studies. This window was shown to strongly depend on the water content in the FA dispersions. While pure FA rapidly gelatinized starch, yielding solutions suitable for electrospinning within a few hours at room temperature, the presence of water (80 and 90 vol % FA) significantly delayed gelatinization and dissolution, which deteriorated fiber quality. A complete destabilization of the electrospinning process was observed in 70 vol % FA dispersions. Optical micrographs showed that FA induced a disruption of starch granule with a loss of crystallinity confirmed by X-ray diffraction. As a result, starch fiber mats exhibited a higher elongation at break when compared to brittle starch films.

  7. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of starch metabolism genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Van Harsselaar, Jessica K; Lorenz, Julia; Senning, Melanie; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2017-01-05

    Starch is the principle constituent of potato tubers and is of considerable importance for food and non-food applications. Its metabolism has been subject of extensive research over the past decades. Despite its importance, a description of the complete inventory of genes involved in starch metabolism and their genome organization in potato plants is still missing. Moreover, mechanisms regulating the expression of starch genes in leaves and tubers remain elusive with regard to differences between transitory and storage starch metabolism, respectively. This study aimed at identifying and mapping the complete set of potato starch genes, and to study their expression pattern in leaves and tubers using different sets of transcriptome data. Moreover, we wanted to uncover transcription factors co-regulated with starch accumulation in tubers in order to get insight into the regulation of starch metabolism. We identified 77 genomic loci encoding enzymes involved in starch metabolism. Novel isoforms of many enzymes were found. Their analysis will help to elucidate mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and degradation. Expression analysis of starch genes led to the identification of tissue-specific isoenzymes suggesting differences in the transcriptional regulation of starch metabolism between potato leaf and tuber tissues. Selection of genes predominantly expressed in developing potato tubers and exhibiting an expression pattern indicative for a role in starch biosynthesis enabled the identification of possible transcriptional regulators of tuber starch biosynthesis by co-expression analysis. This study provides the annotation of the complete set of starch metabolic genes in potato plants and their genomic localizations. Novel, so far undescribed, enzyme isoforms were revealed. Comparative transcriptome analysis enabled the identification of tuber- and leaf-specific isoforms of starch genes. This finding suggests distinct regulatory mechanisms in transitory and storage starch

  9. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guobin; Xu, Wenbin; Yang, Jinshan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Yizhen; Lin, Cong; Zhang, Yonggen

    2017-05-01

    This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS) levels in total mixed ration (TMR) with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29) were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS) or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS). Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  10. Physicochemical, morphological, and rheological characterization of Xanthosoma robustum Lego-like starch.

    PubMed

    Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 μm conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 μm. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  12. Resistant starch in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Ezekiel, Rajarathnam; Raigond, Baswaraj

    2015-08-15

    The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as an ingredient for lowering the calorific value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance owing to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control and control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyze the information published, especially in the recent past, on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  14. Rheological properties in relation to molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-07-15

    Quinoa starch granules are small (~0.5 - 3μm) with potentials for some food and other applications. To better exploit it as a new starch resource, this study investigates the steady shear and dynamic oscillatory properties of 9 quinoa starches varying in composition and structure. Steady shear analysis shows that the flow curves could be well described by 4 selected mathematic models. Temperature sweep analysis reveals that the quinoa starch encounters a 4-stage process including 2 phase transitions. Structure-function relationship analysis showed that composition as well as unit and internal chain length distribution of amylopectin have significant impact on the rheological properties (e.g., G' at 90°C) of quinoa starch. The roles of some individual unit chains and super-long unit chains of amylopectin in determining the rheological properties of quinoa starch were revealed. This study may stimulate further interest in understanding the structural basis of starch rheology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic moisture sorption characteristics of enzyme-resistant recrystallized cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Christopher; Schuldt, Stefan; Onyango, Calvin; Schneider, Yvonne; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2011-03-14

    The interaction of moisture with enzyme-resistant recrystallized starch, prepared by heat-moisture treatment of debranched acid-modified or debranched non-acid-modified cassava starch, was investigated in comparison with the native granules. Crystallinities of the powdered products were estimated by X-ray diffraction. Moisture sorption was determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer and data fitted to various models. Percent crystallinities of native starch (NS), non-acid-modified recrystallized starch (NAMRS), and acid-modified recrystallized starch (AMRS) were 39.7, 51.9, and 56.1%, respectively. In a(w) below 0.8, sorption decreased in the order NS > NAMRS > AMRS in line with increasing sample crystallinities but did not follow this crystallinity dependence at higher a(w) because of condensation and polymer dissolution effects. Adsorbed moisture became internally absorbed in NS but not in NAMRS and AMRS, which might explain the high resistance of the recrystallized starches to digestion because enzyme and starch cannot approach each other over fairly sufficient surface at the molecular level.

  16. Phosphate fertilization changes the characteristics of 'Maçã' banana starch.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Camila de Barros; Garcia, Émerson Loli; Bolfarini, Ana Carolina Batista; Leonel, Sarita; Franco, Célia Maria L; Leonel, Magali

    2018-06-01

    The unripe banana has been studied as a potential source of starch for use in various applications. Considering the importance of phosphorus in the biosynthesis of the starch and also the interference of this mineral in starch properties, in this study it was evaluated the effect of rates of phosphate fertilizer applied in the cultivation of 'Maçã' banana on the characteristics of the starch. Starches extracted from fruits from different treatments were analyzed for morphological characteristics, X-ray diffraction pattern, relative crystallinity, granule size, amylose, resistant starch and phosphorus levels, as well as, for pasting and thermal properties. Results showed that the phosphate fertilization has interference on the characteristics of the banana starch led to increase of phosphorus content and size of the granules, reduction of crystallinity and resistant starch content, decrease of viscosity peak, breakdown, final viscosity, setback, transitions temperatures and enthalpy. These changes caused by phosphate fertilizer conditions can be increase the applications of the 'Maçã' banana starch. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Slowly digestible starch diets alter proximal glucosidase activity and glucose absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucrase-isomaltase (Si) and maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) are mucosal glucosidases required for digestion of starch to glucose. Ablation of maltase-Mgam reduces in vivo starch digestion. We tested whether slowly digestible starch diets induce changes in glucosidase activities. Rice starch was encaps...

  18. Properties and characteristics of dual-modified rice starch based biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Woggum, Thewika; Sirivongpaisal, Piyarat; Wittaya, Thawien

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the dual-modified rice starch was hydroxypropylated with 6-12% of propylene oxide followed by crosslinking with 2% sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). Increasing the propylene oxide concentrations in the DMRS yielded an increase in the molar substitution (MS) and degree of substitution (DS). However, the gelatinization parameters, paste properties, gel strength and paste clarity showed an inverse trend. The biodegradable films from the DMRS showed an increase the tensile strength, elongation at break and film solubility, while the transparency value decreased when the concentration of propylene oxide increased. However the water vapor permeability of the films did not significantly change with an increase in the concentration of propylene oxide. In addition, it was found that DMRS films crosslinked with 2% STMP demonstrated higher tensile strength, transparency value and lower water vapor permeability than the DMRS films crosslinked with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. The XRD analysis of the DMRS films showed a decrease in crystallinity when the propylene oxide concentrations increased and the crystallinity of DMRS films with 2% STMP were higher than the DMRS films with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of polymer chain fractions of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the amylose composition and molecular structure of starches from the core and outer pericarp of 3 golden kiwifruit varieties were characterised, using enzymatic and chromatographic techniques. Starches from the core tissues of kiwifruit tend to have higher amylose contents (by ∼3-5%) and longer unit chains of both amylopectins and their φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs) than those of the outer pericarp starches. The contents of short B-chains of the φ, β-LDs of amylopectins from the outer pericarp were higher (by ∼3%) than those of φ, β-LDs of the core amylopectins. Overall, the composition and structure of starches from the outer pericarp and core tissues of a golden kiwifruit were different. This study provides a structural basis to further investigate the starch degradation in kiwifruit, which may be of importance for the storage and eating quality of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of single and dual physical modifications on pinhão starch.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Deon, Vinicius Gonçalves; Moomand, Khalid; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Lim, Loong-Tak; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-11-15

    Pinhão starch was modified by annealing (ANN), heat-moisture (HMT) or sonication (SNT) treatments. The starch was also modified by a combination of these treatments (ANN-HMT, ANN-SNT, HMT-ANN, HMT-SNT, SNT-ANN, SNT-HMT). Whole starch and debranched starch fractions were analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography. Moreover, crystallinity, morphology, swelling power, solubility, pasting and gelatinization characteristics were evaluated. Native and single ANN and SNT-treated starches exhibited a CA-type crystalline structure while other modified starches showed an A-type structure. The relative crystallinity increased in ANN-treated starches and decreased in single HMT- and SNT-treated starches. The ANN, HMT and SNT did not provide visible cracks, notches or grooves to pinhão starch granule. SNT applied as second treatment was able to increase the peak viscosity of single ANN- and HMT-treated starches. HMT used alone or in dual modifications promoted the strongest effect on gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Note: This list may not be all-inclusive Symptoms The first symptom of ethylene glycol ingestion ... Toxicology . 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015:chap 33. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: ...

  2. Halophilic starch degrading bacteria isolated from Sambhar Lake, India, as potential anode catalyst in microbial fuel cell: A promising process for saline water treatment.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ankisha; Arora, Shivam; Gupta, Sandeep; Chhabra, Meenu

    2018-05-01

    In this study, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) capable of treating saline starch water was developed. Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 500 mM to 3000 mM were tested at the anode. Nitrate was used as an electron acceptor at the biocathode. The halophilic bacteria were isolated from Sambhar Lake, India. Results indicated successful removal of starch (1.83 kg/m 3 -d) and nitrate (0.13 kg/m 3 -d NO 3 - -N) with concomitant power output of 207.05 mW/m 2 at 1000 mM NaCl concentration. An increase in power density from 71.06 mW/m 2 to 207.05 mW/m 2 (2.92 folds) was observed when NaCl concentration was increased from 500 mM to 1000 mM. A decline in power density was observed when the salt concentrations >1000 mM were used. Concentration of 3000 mM supported power output as well as the highest starch degradation (3.2 kg/m 3 -d) and amylase activity of 2.26 IU/ml. The halophilic exoelectrogens were isolated and identified. The present study demonstrates the utility of MFC for degrading starch in saline water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of enzyme-treated corn starches in breakfast cereal coating.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Curtis R; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2012-08-01

    Presently ready-to-eat cereals are coated with high levels of sugar coating to extend the bowl life. Because of health concerns of added sugar, there is a need to identify alternative coating materials. This study was designed to test the efficacy of debranched corn starches with varying amylose contents as a cereal coating. Hylon VII (70% amylose), common, and waxy corn starches were gelatinized and debranched, and then sprayed onto ready-to-eat breakfast cereal flakes. The surface morphology, milk absorption, texture, and digestibility of coated cereals were determined. A starch film with a thickness of 50 to 130 μm was observed with scanning electron microscopy on the surface of the cereals coated with Hylon VII. All starch-coated cereals had a lower milk absorption value than the uncoated and glucose-coated controls. Among starch coatings, common corn starch and Hylon VII resulted in lower milk absorption than did waxy corn starch. After soaking in milk for 3 min, the peak force and work to peak of the cereals coated with corn starches were higher than those of the glucose control and uncoated reference. The cereals coated with Hylon VII were found to have an increase in dietary fiber content. The results suggest that debranched amylose-containing corn starches could extend the bowl-life of ready-to-eat cereals. Currently, many cereals are coated with sugar to keep them from becoming soggy in milk. However, added sugar has been linked to obesity, hyperactivity, and dental caries. This has led to the investigation of alternative coating materials. This study employed the film-forming properties of enzyme-treated corn starch to function as a coating material in breakfast cereal flakes. In addition, the enzyme-treated high amylose corn starch also increased the dietary fiber content of the cereal flakes. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  5. Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

    2014-09-15

    Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.

  6. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Thomas W.

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and the plastidial starch phosphorylase1 (Pho1) are two regulatory enzymes whose catalytic activities are essential for starch granule synthesis. Conversion of the pre-starch granule to the mature form is dependent on AGPase, which produces ADPglucose, the substrate used by starch synthases. The catalytic activity of AGPase is controlled by small effector molecules and a prime goal of this project was to decipher the role of the two subunit types that comprise the heterotetrameric enzyme structure. Extensive genetic and biochemical studies showed that catalysis was contributed mainly by the small subunit although the large subunit was required formore » maximum activity. Both subunits were needed for allosteric regulatory properties. We had also demonstrated that the AGPase catalyzed reaction limits the amount of starch accumulation in developing rice seeds and that carbon flux into rice seed starch can be increased by expression of a cytoplasmic-localized, up-regulated bacterial AGPase enzyme form. Results of subsequent physiological and metabolite studies showed that the AGPase reaction is no longer limiting in the AGPase transgenic rice lines and that one or more downstream processes prevent further increases in starch biosynthesis. Further studies showed that over-production of ADPglucose dramatically alters the gene program during rice seed development. Although the expression of nearly all of the genes are down-regulated, levels of a starch binding domain containing protein (SBDCP) are elevated. This SBDCP was found to bind to and inhibit the catalytic activity of starch synthase III and, thereby preventing maximum starch synthesis from occurring. Surprisingly, repression of SBDCP elevated expression of starch synthase III resulting in increasing rice grain weight. A second phase of this project examined the structure-function of Pho1, the enzyme required during the initial phase of pre-starch granule formation and its

  7. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  8. Characterisation of a starch-hydrolysing enzyme of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Suresh, C; Dubey, A K; Srikanta, S; Kumar, S U; Karanth, N G

    1999-05-01

    A UV-induced mutant strain of Aspergillus niger (CFTRI-1105-U9) overproduced a starch-hydrolysing enzyme with properties characteristically different from the known amylases of the fungus. The purified enzyme of 4.0 pI had an apparent molecular mass of 125 kDa and it dextrinised starch and then saccharified the dextrins. Patterns of the enzyme activity on starch, resulting in glucose at 60 degrees C and glucose, maltose and maltodextrins at 70 degrees C as primary products, suggested significant applications for the enzyme in starch-processing industries.

  9. Analytical evaluation of current starch methods used in the international sugar industry: Part I.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha; Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-08-01

    Several analytical starch methods exist in the international sugar industry to mitigate starch-related processing challenges and assess the quality of traded end-products. These methods use iodometric chemistry, mostly potato starch standards, and utilize similar solubilization strategies, but had not been comprehensively compared. In this study, industrial starch methods were compared to the USDA Starch Research method using simulated raw sugars. Type of starch standard, solubilization approach, iodometric reagents, and wavelength detection affected total starch determination in simulated raw sugars. Simulated sugars containing potato starch were more accurately detected by the industrial methods, whereas those containing corn starch, a better model for sugarcane starch, were only accurately measured by the USDA Starch Research method. Use of a potato starch standard curve over-estimated starch concentrations. Among the variables studied, starch standard, solubilization approach, and wavelength detection affected the sensitivity, accuracy/precision, and limited the detection/quantification of the current industry starch methods the most. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Barrier properties of heat treated starch Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sjöö, Malin; Emek, Sinan Cem; Hall, Tina; Rayner, Marilyn; Wahlgren, Marie

    2015-07-15

    There is a recognized technological need for delivery systems encapsulating lipophilic substances in food and pharmaceutical products. Pickering emulsions can provide well-defined and highly stable systems, but may not provide good enough barrier properties. Starch granules, recently being used for Pickering stabilization, have the advantage of the ability to swell during gelatinization. Hence, this property could be used to tune and control barrier properties. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch were subject to heat treatment at different conditions. The influence of temperature, time, and storage on emulsion drop characteristics was evaluated. In order to further evaluate the barrier properties, lipolysis using the pH-stat method was applied and the effect of starch concentration, treatment temperature, and preliminary oral conditions were also investigated. A better encapsulating barrier was obtained by starch swelling at the oil drop interface. This was seen as reduced lipase activity. The internal oil drop size remained intact and the starch was kept at the interface during heat treatment. The extent of swelling could be controlled by the heating conditions and had impact on the ability to prevent lipase transport through the starch barrier layer. Addition of α-amylase simulating oral digestion only had minor impact on the barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of magnetic starch on the clarification of hematite tailings wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Tao; Wu, Xiqing

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic starch solution, synthesized by mixing the caustic starch, the Fe2+ solution (in some cases containing the Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions) and H2O2 solution, was used as the flocculant to investigate its clarification effect on hematite tailings wastewater. Based on the clarification tests and adsorption analysis it was demonstrated that the magnetic starch produced better clarification effect than the caustic starch, and the adsorption of magnetic starch onto hematite tailings particles was also stronger than the caustic starch. AFM found that the magnetic interaction between magnetic seeds and hematite is characteristic of long range force and greatly strengthens the adsorption of magnetic seeds onto fine hematite for agglomeration. FTIR indicates the starch adsorbed onto the surfaces of hematite and magnetic seeds, thus acting as the bridging between hematite particles and magnetic seeds, resulting in an intensified coverage of the starch onto hematite and positive action in the clarification.

  12. Comparison of various types of starch when used in meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Skrede, G

    1989-01-01

    Technological and sensory properties of meat sausages formulated with 4·0% of either potato flour, modified (acetylated distarch phosphate) potato starch, wheat, corn or tapioca starch were compared. Sausages were analyzed after cooking at temperatures between 65 and 85°C followed by storage at 5°C and -25°C. Characteristics evaluated were weight loss during cooking and storage, instrumentally and sensory assessed firmness, taste and smell of sausages. The results revealed differences in the suitability of starches for use in meat sausages. Part of the differences could be ascribed to differences in gelatination properties of the starches. With the criteria used for evaluating quality, potato flour was rated as the best suited starch followed by wheat starch while tapioca was rated as the least suited. Corn starch required cooking temperatures above 75°C and showed relatively low freeze/thaw stability. The modified potato starch stored well both above and below the freezing point. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Gravitropism in roots of intermediate-starch mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Wright, J. B.; Caspar, T.

    1996-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in roots of wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (strain Wassilewskija) and three starch-deficient mutants that were generated by T-DNA insertional mutagenesis. One of these mutants was starchless while the other two were intermediate mutants, which had 51% and 60%, respectively, of the WT amount of starch as determined by light and electron microscopy. The four parameters used to assay gravitropism were: orientation during vertical growth, time course of curvature, induction, and intermittent stimulation experiments. WT roots were much more responsive to gravity than were roots of the starchless mutant, and the intermediate starch mutants exhibited an intermediate graviresponse. Our data suggest that lowered starch content in the mutants primarily affects gravitropism rather than differential growth because both phototropic curvature and growth rates were approximately equal among all four genotypes. Since responses of intermediate-starch mutants were closer to the WT response than to the starchless mutant, it appears that 51-60% of the WT level of starch is near the threshold amount needed for full gravitropic sensitivity. While other interpretations are possible, the data are consistent with the starch statolith hypothesis for gravity perception in that the degree of graviresponsiveness is proportional to the total mass of plastids per cell.

  14. A toxicological review of the propylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Jeff R; Banton, Marcy I; Pottenger, Lynn H

    2013-04-01

    The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. The review confirms a rich data set for these compounds, covering all of the major toxicological endpoints of interest. The metabolism of these compounds share common pathways, and a consistent profile of toxicity is observed. The common metabolism provides scientific justification for adopting a read-across approach to describing expected hazard potential from data gaps that may exist for specific oligomers. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. The pathologies reported in some animal studies either occurred at doses that exceeded experimental guidelines, or involved mechanisms that are likely irrelevant to human physiology and therefore are not pertinent to the exposures experienced by consumers or workers. At very high chronic doses, MPG causes a transient, slight decrease in hemoglobin in dogs and at somewhat lower doses causes Heinz bodies to form in cats in the absence of any clinical signs of anemia. Some evidence for rare, idiosyncratic skin reactions exists for MPG. However, the larger data set indicates that these compounds have low sensitization potential in animal studies, and therefore are unlikely to represent human allergens. The existing safety evaluations of the FDA, USEPA, NTP and ATSDR for these compounds are consistent and point to the conclusion that the propylene glycols present a very low risk to human health.

  15. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    PubMed

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  16. Sorption interactions between ethylene glycol and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butyrskaya, E. V.; Belyakova, N. V.; Nechaeva, L. S.; Shaposhnik, V. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2017-03-01

    The adsorption of ethylene glycol by carbon nanoparticles is studied. Carbon nanoparticles with the highest affinity to ethylene glycol are identified, and an adsorption isotherm is constructed. Based on quantum chemical calculations of the energies of interaction between the sorbate and nanotubes with (4,4) and (6,6) chirality, a change in mechanism is revealed upon the monomolecular adsorption of ethylene glycol on carbon nanotubes, and the adsorption isotherm is thus interpreted.

  17. Sodium Azide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cyanogen chloride (CK) Digitalis Case Definition: Digitalis Poisoning Ethylene glycol Fentanyls and other opioids Case Definition: Opioids ( ... Thallium Toxic alcohols Case Definition: Toxic Alcohol Poisoning Ethylene glycol Trichothecene Case Definition: Trichothecene Mycotoxin Poisoning Unidentified ...

  18. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  19. [Colonic lavage prior to colonoscopy: comparable outcomes of two polyethylene-glycol preparations and a sodium-phosphate solution].

    PubMed

    Felt-Bersma, R J; Kooyman, G; Kuipers, E J

    2004-01-24

    Comparison of three cleansing solutions for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. Prospective, randomized. 140 outpatients referred for colonoscopy were randomized into three groups for cleansing with 4 litres PEG 4000, 4 litres PEG 3350 or with 90 ml sodium phosphate with an additional 2.5 litres of fluid. Between cleansing and colonoscopy, patients filled in a questionnaire concerning taste, abdominal cramps and tolerance to the procedure. Blinded to the type of cleansing the endoscopist scored the effects on the colon and rectosigmoid, and made the endoscopic diagnosis. All data were available for 127 of the 140 patients (50 men, 77 women), mean age 51 years (range 18-96). Comparison between the three groups showed no statistically significant difference in the opinion of the patients concerning taste, abdominal cramps and tolerance of lavage. The endoscopist's scoring of total colon cleansing showed a small reduction in colon cleanliness when using sodium phosphate compared to PEG 3350 (p = 0.03). No differences were found between the two PEG solutions. Combining both PEG solutions and comparing them with the sodium-phosphate solution showed fewer abdominal cramps (p = 0.07) with sodium phosphate and a cleaner colon with PEG (p = 0.07). Women complained slightly more of abdominal cramps and were slightly less tolerant of the procedure than men. Previous colonic surgery did not influence the results. Patients with diverticula were older, but no other effect of cleansing was found. The three preparations are comparable in their cleansing effect and tolerance by the patient.

  20. The barley amo1 locus is tightly linked to the starch synthase IIIa gene and negatively regulates expression of granule-bound starch synthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongyi; Li, Dehong; Du, Xihua; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Jenkins, Colin L. D.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Morell, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    In this study of barley starch synthesis, the interaction between mutations at the sex6 locus and the amo1 locus has been characterized. Four barley genotypes, the wild type, sex6, amo1, and the amo1sex6 double mutant, were generated by backcrossing the sex6 mutation present in Himalaya292 into the amo1 ‘high amylose Glacier’. The wild type, amo1, and sex6 genotypes gave starch phenotypes consistent with previous studies. However, the amo1sex6 double mutant yielded an unexpected phenotype, a significant increase in starch content relative to the sex6 phenotype. Amylose content (as a percentage of starch) was not increased above the level observed for the sex6 mutation alone; however, on a per seed basis, grain from lines containing the amo1 mutation (amo1 mutants and amo1sex6 double mutants) synthesize significantly more amylose than the wild-type lines and sex6 mutants. The level of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) protein in starch granules is increased in lines containing the amo1 mutation (amo1 and amo1sex6). In the amo1 genotype, starch synthase I (SSI), SSIIa, starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa), and SBEIIb also markedly increased in the starch granules. Genetic mapping studies indicate that the ssIIIa gene is tightly linked to the amo1 locus, and the SSIIIa protein from the amo1 mutant has a leucine to arginine residue substitution in a conserved domain. Zymogram analysis indicates that the amo1 phenotype is not a consequence of total loss of enzymatic activity although it remains possible that the amo1 phenotype is underpinned by a more subtle change. It is therefore proposed that amo1 may be a negative regulator of other genes of starch synthesis. PMID:21813797

  1. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and

  2. Do starch statoliths act as the gravisensors in cereal grass pulvini?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, I.; Lu, C. R.; Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if starch statoliths do, in fact, act as gravisensors in cereal grass shoots, starch was removed from the starch statoliths by placing 45-day-old intact barley plants (Hordeum vulgare cv 'Larker') in the dark at 25 degrees C for 5 days. Evidence from staining with I2-KI, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that starch grains were no longer present in plastids in the pulvini of plants placed in the dark for 5 days. Furthermore, gravitropic curvature response in these pulvini was reduced to zero, even though pulvini from vertically oriented plants were still capable of elongating in response to applied auxin plus gibberellic acid. However, when 0.1 molar sucrose was fed to the dark pretreated, starch statolith-free pulvini during gravistimulation in the dark, they not only reformed starch grains in the starch-depleted plastids in the pulvini, but they also showed an upward bending response. Starch grain reformation appeared to precede reappearance of the graviresponse in these sucrose-fed pulvini. These results strongly support the view that starch statoliths do indeed serve as the gravisensors in cereal grass shoots.

  3. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    PubMed

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  4. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, p<0.01) and negatively correlated to the lipid content (r=-0.951, p<0.01). Understanding the roles of starch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydration-induced crystalline transformation of starch polymer under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongling; Zhang, Binjia; Huang, Jing; Xie, Fengwei; Wang, David K; Jiang, Fatang; Zhao, Siming; Zhu, Jie

    2017-10-01

    With synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), we revealed that post-harvest hydration at ambient conditions can further alter the starch crystalline structure. The hydration process induced the alignment of starch helices into crystalline lamellae, irrespective of the starch type (A- or B-). In this process, non-crystalline helices were probably packed with water molecules to form new crystal units, thereby enhancing the overall concentration of starch crystallinity. In particular, a fraction of the monoclinic crystal units of the A-type starches encapsulated water molecules during hydration, leading to the outward movement of starch helices. Such movement resulted in the transformation of monoclinic units into hexagonal units, which was associated with the B-type crystallites. Hence, the hydration under ambient conditions could enhance the B-polymorphic features for both A-type and B-type starches. The new knowledge obtained here may guide the design of biopolymer-based liquid crystal materials with controlled lattice regularity and demanded features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Starch-based xerogels: Effect of acetylation on Physicochemical and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Kemas, Chinwe U; Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Ochekpe, Nelson A; Nep, Elijah I

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties of starch-based xerogels. The starch from the shoots of Borassus aethiopium was physically modified by xerogelization, and chemically by acetylation, and combination of acetylation and xerogelization. The solubility, swelling and syneresis of the starches were determined by gravimetric techniques. Evaluation of the native starch and derivatives was done using microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Rheological evaluation was done on 10%w/v dispersions using a Bohlin Gemini rheometer (fitted with a 55mm and 2° cone and plate geometry with gap of 70). The diffractograms displayed three peaks, centered on 2θ=15.3, 17.2 and 23.1° for the native and the starch acetate while the xerogel and the starch acetate xerogel were amorphous. The 1 H NMR and FTIR confirmed the presence of acetyl groups at about 2.05ppm and 1720cm -1 , respectively. Acetylation of the native starch resulted in improvement of solubility. The starch acetate-xerogel sample formed viscoelastic gels without the need for heating. Acetylation and/or xerogelization of the native starch inhibited syneresis. Starch acetate-xerogels, may find application as stabilizer or suspending agent in liquid food and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  8. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R 2 values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion datamore » were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally, similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.« less

  11. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion datamore » were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.« less

  12. Octenylsuccinate starch spherulites as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Fu, Xiong; Tang, Chuan-He; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-15

    This study investigated structure and morphology of starch spherulites prepared from debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches. Debranched waxy potato starch favored the formation of B-type crystals with longer branch chains (average chain length, 26.14), whereas A-type polymorphic aggregates were generated from debranched waxy maize under same recrystallization condition. Spherulites had smaller particle size distribution (D[3,2], ∼3.7μm), higher dissociation temperature (80-120°C) and crystallinity (80∼90%), compared to native waxy starches. Intact spherulites could be used as an edible particle emulsifier after modifying by octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The emulsion produced using 2wt.% of octenylsuccinate (OS) starch spherulites as emulsifier was quite stable over 2months, and its Pickering emulsions displayed protective effect on stability of oil droplets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol fermentation of cassava starch pretreated with alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Choe, Y.K.

    1986-04-01

    In view of the current industrial process for the conventional ethanol fermentation, in which raw starch materials are heated at 120 degrees C for 2 h, conditions for an alternative process were set: an overall time from saccharification to ethanol fermentation of within 3-4 days, an operation temperature of below 60 degrees C, an ethanol yield of over 93%, and a ratio of raw material to fermentation volume of within 1:4. To meet these conditions, previously a steeping method of starch materials in 0.5N HCl solution at 60 degrees C for 12 h were used, followed by combined actions ofmore » ..cap alpha..-amylase and glucoamylase. The ethanol yield from uncooked cassava starch treated under the conditions described was 95% after fermentation for 3 days with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the use of a relatively higher concentration of acid for steeping is still a problem and gelatinization of starch materials is insufficient. This communication, therefore, describes effects of alkali steeping and structural change of starch granules on the ethanol fermentation. 8 references.« less

  14. Molecular structure of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Källman, Anna; Myers, Alan M; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2013-10-16

    Molecular structures of starches from dull1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were characterized and compared with the wild type. Amylose content with altered structure was higher in the nonwaxy mutants (25.4-30.2%) compared to the wild type maize (21.5%) as revealed by gel permeation chromatography. Superlong chains of the amylopectin component were found in all nonwaxy samples. Unit chain length distribution of amylopectins and their φ,β-limit dextrins (reflecting amylopectin internal structure) from dull1 mutants were also characterized by anion-exchange chromatography after debranching. Deficiency of SSIII led to an increased amount of short chains (DP ≤36 in amylopectin), whereas the content of long chains decreased from 8.4% to between 3.1 and 3.7% in both amylopectin and φ,β-limit dextrins. Moreover, both the external and internal chain lengths decreased, suggesting a difference in their cluster structures. Whereas the molar ratio of A:B-chains was similar in all samples (1.1-1.2), some ratios of chain categories were affected by the absence of SSIII, notably the ratio of "fingerprint" A-chains to "clustered" A-chains. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and the internal molecular structure of maize starch.

  15. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  16. Development and characterisation of composite films made of kefiran and starch.

    PubMed

    Motedayen, Ali Akbar; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Salehi, Esmail Atai

    2013-02-15

    In this study, new edible composite films were prepared by blending kefiran with corn starch. Film-forming solutions of different ratios of kefiran to corn starch (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70) were cast at room temperature. The effects of starch addition on the resulting films' physical, mechanical and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were investigated. Increasing starch content from 0% to 50% (v/v) decreased the WVP of films; however, with further starch addition the WVP increased. Also, this increase in starch content increased the tensile strength and extensibility of the composite films. However, these mechanical properties decreased at higher starch contents. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) curves showed that addition of starch at all levels increased the glass transition temperature of films. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. Thus, it was observed that these two film-forming components were compatible, and that an interaction existed between them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural basis for the slow digestion property of native cereal starches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2006-11-01

    Native cereal starches are ideal slowly digestible starches (SDS), and the structural basis for their slow digestion property was investigated. The shape, size, surface pores and channels, and degree of crystallinity of starch granules were not related to the proportion of SDS, while semicrystalline structure was critical to the slow digestion property as evidenced by loss of SDS after cooking. The high proportion of SDS in cereal starches, as compared to potato starch, was related to their A-type crystalline structure with a lower degree of perfection as indicated by a higher amount of shortest A chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 5-10. The A-type amorphous lamellae, an important component of crystalline regions of native cereal starches, also affect the amount of SDS as shown by a reduction of SDS in lintnerized maize starches. These observations demonstrate that the supramolecular A-type crystalline structure, including the distribution and perfection of crystalline regions (both crystalline and amorphous lamellae), determines the slow digestion property of native cereal starches.

  18. Interphase vs confinement in starch-clay bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Coativy, Gildas; Chevigny, Chloé; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Leroy, Eric; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-03-06

    Starch-clay bionanocomposites containing 1-10% of natural montmorillonite were elaborated by melt processing in the presence of water. A complex macromolecular dynamics behavior was observed: depending on the clay content, an increase of the glass transition temperature and/or the presence of two overlapped α relaxation peaks were detected. Thanks to a model allowing the prediction of the average interparticle distance, and its comparison with the average size of starch macromolecules, it was possible to associate these phenomena to different populations of macromolecules. In particular, it seems that for high clay content (10%), the slowdown of segmental relaxation due to confinement of the starch macromolecules between the clay tactoïds is the predominant phenomenon. While for lower clay contents (3-5%), a significant modification of chain relaxation seems to occur, due to the formation of an interphase by the starch macromolecules in the vicinity of clay nanoparticles coexisting with the bulk polymer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycol leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Paul; Browne, Keith; Brink, Janus; Coetzee, Christiaan J.

    2016-07-01

    MonoEthylene glycol coolant is used extensively on the Southern African Large Telescope to cool components inside the telescope chamber. To prevent coolant leaks from causing serious damage to electronics and optics, a Glycol Leak Detection System was designed to automatically shut off valves in affected areas. After two years of research and development the use of leaf wetness sensors proved to work best and is currently operational. These sensors are placed at various critical points within the instrument payload that would trigger the leak detector controller, which closes the valves, and alerts the building management system. In this paper we describe the research of an initial concept and the final accepted implementation and the test results thereof.

  20. Flocculation and antimicrobial properties of a cationized starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouzhou; Huang, Mu; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a series of cationized starch-based flocculants (starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl triethyl ammonium chloride, St-CTA) containing various quaternary ammonium salt groups on the starch backbone were prepared using a simple etherification reaction. All of the prepared starch-based flocculants show effective performance for the flocculation of kaolin suspension, two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) suspensions, and two contaminant mixtures (kaolin and each bacterium) under most pH conditions. St-CTA with a high substitution degree of CTA demonstrates improved contaminant removal efficiency because of the strong cationic nature of the grafted quaternary ammonium salt groups and the charge naturalization flocculation effect. The antibacterial effects of St-CTA were also evaluated, considering that many quaternary ammonium salt compounds elicit bactericidal effects. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra and direct cell morphological observation under scanning electron microscopy reveal that the starch-based flocculants exhibit better antibacterial effects on the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli than on the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus. The thicker cell wall due to the presence of abundant peptidoglycan and teichoic acids of S. aureus than E. coli explains the uneasy breakage of S. aureus cell wall after being attacked by the cationized starch-based flocculants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ion chromatographic methods for the detection of starch hydrolysis products in ruminal digesta.

    PubMed

    Barsuhn, K; Kotarski, S F

    1991-06-21

    Dionex high-performance ion chromatographic methods were evaluated for separation and quantitation of plant sugars and starch digestion products in the ruminal digesta of cattle. Mono- and disaccharides were eluted from a Dionex CarboPac PA1 column with sodium hydroxide used isocratically or as a pH gradient. Maltooligosaccharides which had a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 30 glucose residues were eluted in 60 min by a sodium hydroxide eluent containing a sodium acetate gradient. Carbohydrates were detected amperometrically. Responses were linear (r2 greater than 0.99) for glucose, disaccharides and maltooligosaccharides (DP less than 8). Precipitation and solid-phase extraction methods were evaluated for clean-up of samples of feedstuffs, ruminal contents, and bacterial culture fluids. Perchloric acid precipitation hydrolyzed sucrose but did not affect recoveries of cellobiose, isomaltose or maltose. Ethanol in concentrations of 79 and 86% precipitated maltooligosaccharides having chain lengths larger than 14 and 9 glucose residues, respectively. Maltooligosaccharide recoveries from solid-phase extraction columns varied with maltooligosaccharide size and column packing. Recoveries were greater than 94% for short chains (DP less than 6) eluted from phenyl-substituted columns and variable for all oligosaccharides eluted from C18 columns. Applications of these methods are presented and include: (1) detection of sugars in ruminant feed, (2) monitoring changes in ruminal sugars after feeding and (3) monitoring changes in extracellular sugars and oligosaccharides in the culture fluids of the ruminal bacterium, Bacteroides ruminicola.

  2. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    PubMed Central

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  3. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals.

    PubMed

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M; Holm, Preben B; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2012-09-07

    Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 - 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus compared with developing endosperm. In this study

  4. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 – 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus compared with developing

  5. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, O A; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Piastuch, W C; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M M; Hasenstein, K H

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean (Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato (Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio delta X/delta rho (delta X --difference of magnetic susceptibilities, delta rho--difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm3), the observed difference in delta X/delta rho was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with alpha-amylase for 24 hours, 77 +/- 6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58 +/- 12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and delta X/delta rho suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, delta X/delta rho and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M. M.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean (Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato (Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio delta X/delta rho (delta X --difference of magnetic susceptibilities, delta rho--difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm3), the observed difference in delta X/delta rho was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with alpha-amylase for 24 hours, 77 +/- 6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58 +/- 12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and delta X/delta rho suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, delta X/delta rho and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  8. Dynamic high-pressure microfluidization assisting octenyl succinic anhydride modification of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ri-Si; Liang, Rui-Hong; Chen, Jun; He, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Rui-Yun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2018-08-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch is widely used in food industries. In this study, rice starch (RS) was pretreated by dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) and subsequently modified by OSA. The influence of DHPM on OSA modification of rice starch was investigated. Results showed that DHPM pretreatment enhanced the degree of substitution by changing the morphology and crystallinity of rice starch. Compared with the rice starch modified by OSA without DHPM pretreatment (OSA-RS), the DHPM-pretreated OSA starch (DHPM-OSA-RS) presented higher peak viscosity and lower pasting temperature. DHPM-OSA-RS also exhibited better emulsifying activity and emulsion stability. This study suggested that DHPM will provide an opportunity to change the physicochemical properties of starch, with the resulting starch being more suitable for chemical modification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of plastids responsible for starch synthesis in developing pea embryos.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Quinton-Tulloch, J; Denyer, K

    1990-03-01

    The nature of the starch-synthesising plastids in developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) embryos has been investigated. Chlorophyll and starch were distributed throughout the cotyledon during development. Chlorophyll content increased initially, then showed little change up to the point of drying out of the embryo. Starch content per embryo increased dramatically throughout development. The chlorophyll content per unit volume was highest on the outer edge of the cotyledon, while the starch content was highest on inner face. Nycodenz gradients, which fractionated mechanically-prepared plastids according to their starch content, failed to achieve any significant separation of plastids rich in starch and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from those rich in chlorophyll and a Calvin-cycle marker enzyme, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. However, material that was not sufficiently dense to enter the gradients was enriched in activity of the Calvin-cycle marker enzyme relative to that of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Nomarski and epi-fluorescence microscopy showed that intact, isolated plastids, including those with very large starch grains, invariably contained chlorophyll in stromal structures peripheral to the starch grain. We suggest that the starch-storing plastids of developing pea embryos are derived directly from chloroplasts, and retain chloroplast-like characteristics throughout their development. Developing pea embryos also contain chloroplasts which store little or no starch. These are probably located primarily on the outer edge of the cotyledons where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis at some stages of development.

  10. Biodegradation Behaviour of Thermoplastic Starch Films Derived from Tacca leontopetaloides Starch under Controlled Composting Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, A. M. Mohd; Sauid, S. Mohd; Hamid, K. H. Ku; Musa, M.

    2018-05-01

    The biodegradation study of thermoplastic starch (TPS) films derived from Tacca leontopetaloides starch; namely TPS/GLY, TPS/ACE and TPS/BCHR were investigated under controlled composting conditions. A manual set-up test rig in laboratory scale was built according to ISO 14855-1: 2012. The biodegradation percentage was determined by measuring the amount of CO2 evolved using titration method and validated by automatic system (Arduino UNO System) that detected the CO2 evolved. After 45 days under controlled composting condition, results indicated that TPS/GLY degraded the fastest, followed by TPS/BCHR and the TPS/ACE had the slowest degradation. The biodegradation process of TPS/GLY, TPS/ACE and TPS/BCHR also exhibited two stages with different degradation speeds. From these results, it indicated that chemical modification of the TPS films by adding acetic acid and rice husk bio-char to the thermoplastic starch can have a major impact on the biodegradation rate and final biodegradation percentage.

  11. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical, morphological and functional properties of Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds starch.

    PubMed

    Madruga, Marta Suely; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Samara Medeiros; Silva, Izis Rafaela Alves; do Amaral, Deborah Silva; Magnani, Marciane; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2014-01-15

    Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  14. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  15. Starch Degradation in the Cotyledons of Germinating Lentils

    PubMed Central

    Tárrago, Jorge Fernández; Nicolás, Gregorio

    1976-01-01

    Starch, total amylolytic and phosphorylase activities were determined in lentil cotyledons during the first days of germination. Several independent criteria show that the amylolytic activity is due mainly to an amylase of the α type. Starch is degraded slowly in the first days; during this time, α- and β-amylase activity are very low, while phosphorylase increases and reach a peak on the 3rd day. On the 4th day, there is a more rapid depletion of starch which coincides with an increase in α-amylase activity. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the crude starch-degrading enzyme, five bands were obtained: one phosphorylase, three α-amylases, and one β-amylase. Based on their heat lability or heat stability, two sets of α-amylase seem to exist in lentil cotyledons. Images PMID:16659730

  16. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P < 0.01)in both the outer and inner crust. A lower temperature (difference of 10-20 °C) in combination with a higher moisture content (maximum difference of 8%) of bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Propylene glycol accumulation in critically ill patients receiving continuous intravenous lorazepam infusions.

    PubMed

    Horinek, Erica L; Kiser, Tyree H; Fish, Douglas N; MacLaren, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Lorazepam is recommended by the Society of Critical Care Medicine as the preferred agent for sedation of critically ill patients. Intravenous lorazepam contains propylene glycol, which has been associated with toxicity when high doses of lorazepam are administered. To evaluate the accumulation of propylene glycol in critically ill patients receiving lorazepam by continuous infusion and determine factors associated with propylene glycol concentration. A 6-month, retrospective, safety assessment was conducted of adults admitted to the medical intensive care unit who were receiving lorazepam by continuous infusion for 12 hours or more. Propylene glycol serum concentrations were obtained 24-48 hours after continuous-infusion lorazepam was initiated and every 3-5 days thereafter. Propylene glycol accumulation was defined as concentrations of 25 mg/dL or more. Groups with and without propylene glycol accumulation were compared and factors associated with propylene glycol concentration were determined using multivariate correlation regression analyses. Forty-eight propylene glycol serum samples were obtained from 33 patients. Fourteen (42%) patients had propylene glycol accumulation, representing 23 (48%) serum samples. Univariate analyses showed the following factors were related to propylene glycol accumulation: baseline renal dysfunction, presence of alcohol withdrawal, sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, rate of lorazepam continuous infusion, and 24-hour lorazepam dose. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that propylene glycol concentration was strongly associated with the continuous infusion rate and 24-hour dose (adjusted r(2) > or = 0.77; p < 0.001). Independent correlation analyses showed that these 2 variables were so strongly associated with propylene glycol concentration (r(2) > or = 0.71; p < 0.001) that they alone predicted propylene glycol concentration. Seven (21%) patients developed renal dysfunction

  18. Application of ultra high pressure (UHP) in starch chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) processing is an attractive non-thermal technique for food treatment and preservation at room temperature, with the potential to achieve interesting functional effects. The majority of UHP process applications in food systems have focused on shelf-life extension associated with non-thermal sterilization and a reduction or increase in enzymatic activity. Only a few studies have investigated modifications of structural characteristics and/or protein functionalities. Despite the rapid expansion of UHP applications in food systems, limited information is available on the effects of UHP on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch and/or its chemical derivatives included in most processed foods as major ingredients or minor additives. Starch and its chemical derivatives are responsible for textural and physical properties of food systems, impacting their end-use quality and/or shelf-life. This article reviews UHP processes for native (unmodified) starch granules and their effects on the physicochemical properties of UHP-treated starch. Furthermore, functional roles of UHP in acid-hydrolysis, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and cross-linking reactions of starch granules, as well as the physicochemical properties of UHP-assisted starch chemical derivatives, are discussed.

  19. Composite starch-based coatings applied to strawberries (Fragaria ananassa).

    PubMed

    García, M A; Martino, M N; Zaritzky, N E

    2001-08-01

    Starch-based coatings were used to the extend storage life of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) stored at 0 degree C and 84.8% relative humidity. Effects of coating formulation (including starch type, plasticizer, lipid and antimicrobial agent) were analysed with respect to fruit quality. Plasticizer addition was necessary for film and coating integrity to avoid pores and cracks. Plasticizer presence reduced weight losses and maintained surface colour of fruits. Amylomaize coatings showed lower water vapour and gas permeabilities and decreased weight losses for longer periods than corn starch ones. Coatings with sorbitol showed lower permeabilities than glycerol ones. Coatings with antimicrobial agents decreased microbial counts, extending storage life of coated fruits by 10 to 14 days in comparison to the control. The addition of 2 g/l sunflower oil to the formulations decreased the water vapour permeability of starch-based films, maintained the surface colour of coated fruits and controlled effectively fruit weight losses during storage. Lipid addition minimized the effects of starch and plasticizer types. Composite starch-based coatings showed selective gas permeability (CO2 higher than O2) which helps to delay senescence of fruits.

  20. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  1. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in... determined that this use of propylene glycol is not prior sanctioned. [61 FR 19544, May 2, 1996] ...

  2. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in... determined that this use of propylene glycol is not prior sanctioned. [61 FR 19544, May 2, 1996] ...

  3. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in... determined that this use of propylene glycol is not prior sanctioned. [61 FR 19544, May 2, 1996] ...

  4. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (P<0.05) as the level of substitution with RS III increased from 2.1 to 4.4% of resistant starch content. The butter cake with RS III replacement had a significantly lower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  5. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.765 Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate) may be safely used in...

  6. Preparation of starch nanoparticles loaded with quercetin using nanoprecipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Yousof; Ide, Walther; Montero, Belén; Rico, Maite; Rodríguez-Llamazares, Saddys; Barral, Luis; Bouza, Rebeca

    2018-07-15

    Nanoparticles of starches from different botanical origin were prepared by nanoprecipitation using 0.1M hydrochloric acid as non-solvent. The morphology and the particle size were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoparticles were spherical and their sizes vary depending on the origin and the concentration of the starch solution. Starch nanoparticles loaded with quercetin were prepared. In-vitro release studies of the quercetin from the starch nanoparticles were performed in 35% ethanol as a release medium. The starch origin affects the quercetin loading percentage, the release kinetics and the antioxidant activity of the produced nanoparticles. The starch-quercetin nanoparticles from cereal origin showed the lowest loading percentage and the lowest fraction released of quercetin in comparison with nanoparticles from tuber and legume origin. The release kinetics seem to be controlled mainly by Fickian diffusion which have been revealed fitting the release data to the Peppas-Sahlin model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of genetics to the development of starch-fermenting yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mattoon, J.R.; Kim, K.; Laluce, C.

    1987-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of direct fermentation of manioc starch were developed by hybridizing strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hybrids were evaluated for speed of alcohol production, and yields and speed of formation of glycoamylase. Up to 6% solutions of Lintner starch could be fermented directly with about 80% conversion to alcohol. Pretreatment of crude 40% manioc starch suspensions with alpha-amylase, followed by fermentations with a starch-fermenting yeast strain, permitted accumulation of 12% ethanol within three days. Starch conversion was almost 100%. A fragment of DNA was cloned from S. diastaticus using the yeast-E. coli shuttle vector, YEp13, andmore » was used to transform a strain of S. cerevisiae to a starch-fermenting state. Supported by National Science Foundation grant INT 7927328 and National Institutes of Health grant GM 27860. Dr. Laluce was supported by a grant from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Sao Paulo and by her university. (Refs. 5).« less

  8. Structure and properties of starches from Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) roots.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Nanci; Villar, James; Matta Junior, Manoel Divino da; Anjos, Carlota Boralli Prudente Dos; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2018-06-05

    Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) is an underexplored Andean root with a high starch content. In this work, starches from two different varieties of Peruvian arracacha were evaluated and characterized in relation to their granule morphology, molecular structure and properties. The starches presented round or polygonal shapes, with a mean diameter of ~20 μm and B-type granules. They were rich in amylopectin molecules with long chain lengths (with the ability to complex iodine) and some with intermediate sizes (indicating a defective crystalline structure). The starches presented low gelatinization temperature, enthalpy of gelatinization and tendency to retrogradation and high peak apparent viscosity and swelling capacity, even at moderate temperatures (60 °C), characteristics of high interest for industrial purposes. Besides, the starches presented a smooth and elastic gel and a high paste clarity. Overall, the arracacha roots presented attractive properties and can be used as an alternative botanical source for starch extraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Root starch in defoliated sugar maples following thrips damage

    Treesearch

    Barbara S. Burns

    1991-01-01

    Sugar maple root starch evaluations were done in 1987 and 1988 as a service to Vermont sugarmakers concerned about tree health. Trees were rated for starch content in late fall, using a visual iodine-staining technique. On the average, trees with heavy pear thrips damage in the spring of 1988 had higher levels of root starch the following fall than trees with light or...

  10. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of glycolate anion on aqueous corrosion in DWPF and downstream facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-12-15

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable tomore » SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion.« less

  12. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen...

  13. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen...

  14. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen...

  15. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  16. FERMENTATION OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BY CLOSTRIDIUM GLYCOLICUM, SP. N1

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Lamont W.; Stadtman, E. R.

    1963-01-01

    Gaston, Lamont W. (National Heart Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.) and E. R. Stadtman. Fermentation of ethylene glycol by Clostridium glycolicum, sp. n. J. Bacteriol. 85:356–362. 1963.—An anaerobic organism which utilizes ethylene glycol as a source of energy and carbon has been isolated from mud. It is a long (5 μ), slender, motile, gram-positive, spore-forming rod, with peritrichous flagellae. It grows well from 22 to 37 C at pH 7.4 to 7.6, and ferments glucose, fructose, sorbitol, dulcitol, and cellulose. It does not reduce nitrates, form indole, or cause hemolysis or proteolysis except for a slight attack on coagulated egg albumin. Fifteen amino acids and the vitamins biotin and pantothenate are required for optimal growth on ethylene glycol. Analogues other than propylene glycol do not support growth. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are stoichiometrically converted to equal amounts of the respective acid and alcohol. PMID:13946772

  17. Synergistic reinforcing effect of TiO2 and montmorillonite on potato starch nanocomposite films: Thermal, mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Moayedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-11-05

    In this study, ternary potato starch (PS) bionanocomposite films containing two types of nanoparticles, sodium montmorillonite (MMT), one-dimensional (1D) clay platelets, (3 and 5wt%) and TiO2, three-dimensional (3D) nanospheres, (0.5, 1 and 2wt%), are prepared using solvent casting method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test confirms the completely exfoliated structure formed in the PS-MMT nanocomposites containing 3 and 5% MMT. The success of the formation of new hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and nanofillers is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), glass transition temperature (Tg), and melting point (Tm) of the films are also enhanced after MMT and TiO2 incorporation. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and the visible, UVA, UVB and UVC lights transmittance decreases upon TiO2 and MMT content increasing. Generally, a synergistic effect is observed between MMT and TiO2 at lower concentrations of MMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust and biodegradable elastomers based on corn starch and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Ceseracciu, Luca; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Dante, Silvia; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-02-18

    Designing starch-based biopolymers and biodegradable composites with durable mechanical properties and good resistance to water is still a challenging task. Although thermoplastic (destructured) starch has emerged as an alternative to petroleum-based polymers, its poor dimensional stability under humid and dry conditions extensively hinders its use as the biopolymer of choice in many applications. Unmodified starch granules, on the other hand, suffer from incompatibility, poor dispersion, and phase separation issues when compounded into other thermoplastics above a concentration level of 5%. Herein, we present a facile biodegradable elastomer preparation method by incorporating large amounts of unmodified corn starch, exceeding 80% by volume, in acetoxy-polyorganosiloxane thermosets to produce mechanically robust, hydrophobic bioelastomers. The naturally adsorbed moisture on the surface of starch enables autocatalytic rapid hydrolysis of polyorganosiloxane to form Si-O-Si networks. Depending on the amount of starch granules, the mechanical properties of the bioelastomers can be easily tuned with high elastic recovery rates. Moreover, starch granules considerably lowered the surface friction coefficient of the polyorganosiloxane network. Stress relaxation measurements indicated that the bioelastomers have strain energy dissipation factors that are lower than those of conventional rubbers, rendering them as promising green substitutes for plastic mechanical energy dampeners. Corn starch granules also have excellent compatibility with addition-cured polysiloxane chemistry that is used extensively in microfabrication. Regardless of the starch concentration, all of the developed bioelastomers have hydrophobic surfaces with lower friction coefficients and much less water uptake capacity than those of thermoplastic starch. The bioelastomers are biocompatible and are estimated to biodegrade in Mediterranean seawater within three to six years.

  19. Two- and multi-step annealing of cereal starches in relation to gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2008-02-13

    Two- and multi-step annealing experiments were designed to determine how much gelatinization temperature of waxy rice, waxy barley, and wheat starches could be increased without causing a decrease in gelatinization enthalpy or a decline in X-ray crystallinity. A mixture of starch and excess water was heated in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pan to a specific temperature and maintained there for 0.5-48 h. The experimental approach was first to anneal a starch at a low temperature so that the gelatinization temperature of the starch was increased without causing a decrease in gelatinization enthalpy. The annealing temperature was then raised, but still was kept below the onset gelatinization temperature of the previously annealed starch. When a second- or third-step annealing temperature was high enough, it caused a decrease in crystallinity, even though the holding temperature remained below the onset gelatinization temperature of the previously annealed starch. These results support that gelatinization is a nonequilibrium process and that dissociation of double helices is driven by the swelling of amorphous regions. Small-scale starch slurry annealing was also performed and confirmed the annealing results conducted in DSC pans. A three-phase model of a starch granule, a mobile amorphous phase, a rigid amorphous phase, and a crystalline phase, was used to interpret the annealing results. Annealing seems to be an interplay between a more efficient packing of crystallites in starch granules and swelling of plasticized amorphous regions. There is always a temperature ceiling that can be used to anneal a starch without causing a decrease in crystallinity. That temperature ceiling is starch-specific, dependent on the structure of a starch, and is lower than the original onset gelatinization of a starch.

  20. Mechanisms of propylene glycol and triacetin pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Laino, Teodoro; Tuma, Christian; Moor, Philippe; Martin, Elyette; Stolz, Steffen; Curioni, Alessandro

    2012-05-10

    Propylene glycol and triacetin are chemical compounds, commonly used as food additives. Though the usage of the pure chemicals is not considered harmful when used as dietary supplements, little is known about the nature of their thermal degradation products and the impact they may have on human health. For these reasons, in this manuscript we investigate the thermal decomposition mechanisms of both neutral propylene glycol and triacetin in the gas phase by a novel simulation framework. This is based on a free energy sampling methodology followed by an accurate energy refinement. Structures, Gibbs free energy barriers, and rate constants at 800 K were computed for the different steps involved in the two pyrolytic processes. The thermal decomposition mechanisms found theoretically for propylene glycol and triacetin were validated by a qualitative experimental investigation using gas-phase chromatography-mass spectroscopy, with excellent agreement. The results provide a validation of the novel simulation framework and shed light on the potential hazard to the health that propylene glycol and triacetin may have when exposed to high temperatures.

  1. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lee-Fen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Lee, Chong Yew

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of propionylated starches with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterification of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40 °C). Oil-in- -water (O/W) emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86) showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated) starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:27904359

  2. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Storage Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions as...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Storage Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions as...

  4. New approach to elaborate exfoliated starch-based nanobiocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chivrac, Frédéric; Pollet, Eric; Schmutz, Marc; Avérous, Luc

    2008-03-01

    The present paper reports the successful elaboration of exfoliated plasticized starch-based nanobiocomposites. This was made possible by using cationic starch as a new clay organomodifier to better match the polarity of the matrix and thus to facilitate the clay exfoliation process. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new approach, either natural (MMT-Na) or organomodified (OMMT-CS) montmorillonite were incorporated into the starch nanobiocomposites by a melt blending process. The morphological analyses (SAXD and TEM) showed that MMT-Na leads to the formation of intercalated nanobiocomposites. On the contrary, OMMT-CS allowed the elaboration of well-exfoliated nanobiocomposites. Tensile tests performed on the obtained nanobiocomposites showed that exfoliated nanobiocomposites display enhanced mechanical properties compared to those of the intercalated nanobiocomposites and neat matrix. These results clearly highlight the great interest in using OMMT-CS to obtain starch-based nanobiocomposites with improved properties.

  5. Selective depression of titanaugite in the ilmenite flotation with carboxymethyl starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyou; Yuan, Zhitao; Yu, Li; Xu, Yuankai; Du, Yusheng; Zhang, Chen

    2018-05-01

    In order to intensify the flotation separation of ilmenite from titanaugite, surface modification of mineral particles was carried out using carboxymethyl starch (CMS) by microflotation experiments, zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Microflotation results showed that CMS was a selective depressant, and it effectively enhanced the floatability difference between ilmenite and titanaugite in the pH range from 6.0 to 10.0. As it was revealed by the zeta potential, FTIR and AFM analysis, the CMS adsorption occurred onto mineral surfaces through chemisorption and hydrogen bonding, while CMS exhibited a stronger interaction with titanaugite than ilmenite. After that, the CMS adsorption impeded the adsorption of sodium oleate collector on titanaugite surfaces, giving rise to a concomitant decrease in the floatability of titanaugite. These findings exhibit great potential for CMS application in the selective flotation of ilmenite.

  6. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  7. The effect of excipients on the stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate tablets.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu; Stalcup, Apryll; Dansereau, Richard; Sakr, Adel

    2003-10-02

    Levothyroxine tablets, 50 microg, have been marketed for many decades but have had numerous recalls due to degradation and failure to meet potency. These experiments were devised to study the effects of various excipients on the stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate in aqueous slurries and in formulated tablets. The active alone was found to be stable in the solid state for 6 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed containers, and was found to be non-hygroscopic under normal processing conditions (>30% RH). In aqueous slurries with an excipient, the stability of the active improved as the pH of the slurry was increased from pH 3 to 11. Tablets manufactured with lactose anhydrous, starch, or microcrystalline cellulose failed to meet USP assay requirements at 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH. Tablets manufactured with dibasic calcium phosphate or mannitol met USP assay requirements at 3, but not 6 months when stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH. Tablets manufactured with dibasic calcium phosphate and a basic pH modifier, such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or magnesium oxide, met the USP assay requirements at both 3 and 6 months. Thus, the use of basic pH modifiers is a potential technique for improving the stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate tablets.

  8. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the cu