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Sample records for sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate

  1. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. 520.2184... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184 Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. (a) Chemical name. 2-Sulfamido-6-chloroxyrazine, sodium. (b) Sponsor. See Nos....

  2. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. 520.2184... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184 Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. (a) Chemical name. 2-Sulfamido-6-chloroxyrazine, sodium. (b) Sponsor. See Nos....

  3. 21 CFR 556.625 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.625 Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. A... edible tissues of chickens....

  4. 21 CFR 556.625 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.625 Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate. A... edible tissues of chickens....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. It is used in the drinking water of broilers, breeder flocks, and replacement chickens as.... Administer in drinking water for 3 days as sole source of drinking water and sulfonamide medication; withdraw... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. It is used in the drinking water of broilers, breeder flocks, and replacement chickens as.... Administer in drinking water for 3 days as sole source of drinking water and sulfonamide medication; withdraw... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2184 - Sodium sulfachloropyrazine monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. It is used in the drinking water of broilers, breeder flocks, and replacement chickens as.... Administer in drinking water for 3 days as sole source of drinking water and sulfonamide medication; withdraw... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2184...

  8. Crystal structure of monobasic sodium tartrate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Titaeva, E. K. Somov, N. V.; Portnov, V. N.; Titaev, D. N.

    2015-01-15

    Crystals of a new polymorphic modification of monobasic sodium tartrate monohydrate NaHC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6} · H{sub 2}O have been grown in a metasilicate gel. Their atomic structure is solved by X-ray diffraction.

  9. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  10. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... monohydrate equivalent to 50, 100, 200, or 500 milligrams of dicloxacillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in... body weight, three times daily. In severe cases, up to 25 milligrams per pound of body weight...

  11. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Raghavendra Rao, K.; Sanath Kumar, R.; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d31, elastic coefficient (S11) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k31) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  12. Lysergol monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Stefan; Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Emmerling, Franziska; Nehls, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: (7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexa­hydro­indolo[4,3,2-fg]quinoline-9-yl)methanol monohydrate], C16H18N2O·H2O, the non-aromatic ring (ring C of the ergoline skeleton) directly fused to the aromatic rings is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.659 (3) Å, and shows an envelope conformation. In the crystal, hydrogen bonds between the lysergol and water mol­ecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to (10). PMID:22347120

  13. Isovaline monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Ray J; Brewer, Greg; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P

    2013-11-27

    The title compound, C5H11NO2·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid valine that crystallizes from water in its zwitterion form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has no α-H atom. The compound exhibits hydrogen bonding between the water mol-ecule and the carboxyl-ate O atoms and an amine H atom. In addition, there are inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the carboxyl-ate O atoms and amine H atoms. In the crystal, these extensive N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:24454253

  14. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  15. Desvenlafaxine succinate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Venu, Nalivela; Sreekanth, Bukkapattanam R; Ram, Thaimattam; Devarakonda, Surya

    2008-05-01

    The title compound {systematic name: [2-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]dimethylammonium 3-carboxypropanoate monohydrate}, C(16)H(26)NO(2)(+) x C(4)H(5)O(4)(-) x H(2)O, is a succinate salt of O-desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine). The present structure is one of four reported polymorphs of this salt, which is a new antidepressant drug. The carboxyl group of the succinate anion adopts a rare anti conformation and is engaged in a very short O-H...O(-) hydrogen-bond contact. Both cations and anions are involved separately in the formation of distinct O-H...O hydrogen-bonded networks. Desvenlafaxine cations and water molecules self-assemble to generate a honeycomb layer, while the succinate anions form a linear tape structure. These hydrogen-bonded networks are interlinked via N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonding network is so strong that desolvation and melting occur together at approximately 402 K. Thus, the crystal structure may be used to understand the thermal stability and solubility of the compound at the molecular level.

  16. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  17. Microelectrophoretic study of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopolysaccharides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  18. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 510.600 (c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Dogs—(1) Amount. 5 to 10 milligrams per pound of...-producing staphylococci sensitive to the drug. (3) Limitations. For the treatment of dogs only....

  19. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 510.600 (c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Dogs—(1) Amount. 5 to 10 milligrams per pound of...-producing staphylococci sensitive to the drug. (3) Limitations. For the treatment of dogs only....

  20. The electrokinetic behavior of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chrondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for chemical adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopopolysacchrides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. The amount of proteins that can chemically adsorb appears to be limited to approximately one monomolecular layer. When the surface charge is high, an insufficient number of proteins can chemically adsorb to neutralize or reverse the surface charge. The remaining surface charge is balanced by proteins held near the surface by longer range electrostatic forces only. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  1. Crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Gaur, S. S.; Sheehan, M. E.; Nancollas, G. H.

    1988-02-01

    The kinetics of crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate has been investigated up to very large extents of growth over a range of supersaturations maintained using the Constant Composition technique. It is suggested that the initial rapid growth of aged seed crystals resulting in marked lattice perfection, reduces the density of growth sites on the crystal surfaces. A method for the preparation of perfected crystallites of calcium oxalate monohydrate through pregrowth of aged crystals has been developed. At large extents of growth with respect to initial seed crystals ( > 200% for aged crystals and 30-60% for pregrown crystals), the rates of crystallization at constant supersaturation undergo marked increases accompanying the formulation of secondary nuclei. These nucleation thresholds depend both upon supersaturation and upon the initial specific surface area of the crystallites and may be important factors in the formation of calcium oxalate stones in vivo. Experiments in whole urine suggest that the kinetics of growth, secondary nucleation, aggregation and cementation of particles may be important factors in kidney stone formation.

  2. 2-Methyl-aspartic acid monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Greg; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Butcher, Ray J

    2013-11-30

    The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water mol-ecules while extensive N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array. PMID:24454270

  3. Bifunctional hydrogen bonds in monohydrated cycloether complexes.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Margarita M; Angelina, Emilio L; Peruchena, Nélida M

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the cooperative effects implicated in bifunctional hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) were studied (in monohydrated six-membered cycloether) within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory and of the natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis. The study was carried out in complexes formed by six-membered cycloether compounds (tetrahydropyrane, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,3-dioxane) and a water molecule. These compounds were used as model systems instead of more complicated molecules of biological importance. All the results were obtained at the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) level theory using a 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Attention was focused on the indicators of the cooperative effects that arise when a water molecule interacts simultaneously with a polar and a nonpolar portion of a six-membered cycloether (via bifunctional hydrogen bonds) and compared with conventional H-bonds where the water molecule only interacts with the polar portion of the cycloether. Different indicators of H-bonds strength, such as structural and spectroscopic data, electron charge density, population analysis, hyperconjugation energy and charge transference, consistently showed significant cooperative effects in bifunctional H-bonds. From the AIM, as well as from the NBO analysis, the obtained results allowed us to state that in the monohydrated six-membered cycloether, where the water molecule plays a dual role, as proton acceptor and proton donor, a mutual reinforcement of the two interactions occurs. Because of this feature, the complexes engaged by bifunctional hydrogen bonds are more stabilized than the complexes linked by conventional hydrogen bonds. PMID:20136161

  4. Bifunctional hydrogen bonds in monohydrated cycloether complexes.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Margarita M; Angelina, Emilio L; Peruchena, Nélida M

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the cooperative effects implicated in bifunctional hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) were studied (in monohydrated six-membered cycloether) within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory and of the natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis. The study was carried out in complexes formed by six-membered cycloether compounds (tetrahydropyrane, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,3-dioxane) and a water molecule. These compounds were used as model systems instead of more complicated molecules of biological importance. All the results were obtained at the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) level theory using a 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Attention was focused on the indicators of the cooperative effects that arise when a water molecule interacts simultaneously with a polar and a nonpolar portion of a six-membered cycloether (via bifunctional hydrogen bonds) and compared with conventional H-bonds where the water molecule only interacts with the polar portion of the cycloether. Different indicators of H-bonds strength, such as structural and spectroscopic data, electron charge density, population analysis, hyperconjugation energy and charge transference, consistently showed significant cooperative effects in bifunctional H-bonds. From the AIM, as well as from the NBO analysis, the obtained results allowed us to state that in the monohydrated six-membered cycloether, where the water molecule plays a dual role, as proton acceptor and proton donor, a mutual reinforcement of the two interactions occurs. Because of this feature, the complexes engaged by bifunctional hydrogen bonds are more stabilized than the complexes linked by conventional hydrogen bonds.

  5. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  6. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  7. The tetrapeptide Z-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-OBg monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Schiemann, Norbert; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2003-08-01

    The intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern of Z-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-OBg monohydrate [(N-benzhydrylamino)carbonylmethyl N-benzyloxycarbonyl-alpha-aminoisobutyrylprolylvalinate monohydrate], C(43)H(55)N(5)O(8).H(2)O, is unusual for a tetrapeptide because, in addition to a 1-->4 hydrogen bond, a second hydrogen bond of the type 1-->5 is formed. This folding reflects the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern that this amino acid sequence adopts in the naturally occurring peptaibol alamethicin.

  8. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  9. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  10. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  15. Polymeric structure of (ethylenediamine)silver(I) 3-nitrobenzoate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Usman, Anwar; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Wang, Xian-Jiang

    2003-03-01

    In the ternary title compound, catena-poly[[silver(I)-mu-ethylenediamine-kappa(2)N:N'] 3-nitrobenzoate monohydrate], [[Ag(C(2)H(8)N(2))](C(7)H(4)NO(4)) x H(2)O](n), the Ag atom is bicoordinated in a linear configuration by two different N atoms from two symmetry-related ethylenediamine ligands, thus giving linear polymeric chains with an [-Ag-N-C-C-N-](n) backbone running parallel to the a axis. In the crystal packing, these linear chains are interconnected by N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:12711770

  16. Formation and Transformation Behavior of Sodium Dehydroacetate Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Xie, Chuang; Huang, Yaohui; Hou, Baohong; Bao, Ying; Gong, Junbo; Yin, Qiuxiang; Rohani, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    The effect of various controlling factors on the polymorphic outcome of sodium dehydroacetate crystallization was investigated in this study. Cooling crystallization experiments of sodium dehydroacetate in water were conducted at different concentrations. The results revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation played a key role in the formation of the hydrates. At a high supersaturation generation rate, a new sodium dehydroacetate dihydrate needle form was obtained; on the contrary, a sodium dehydroacetate plate monohydrate was formed at a low supersaturation generation rate. Furthermore, the characterization and transformation behavior of these two hydrated forms were investigated with the combined use of microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). It was found that the new needle crystals were dihydrated and hollow, and they eventually transformed into sodium dehydroacetate monohydrate. In addition, the mechanism of formation of sodium dehydroacetate hydrates was discussed, and a process growth model of hollow crystals in cooling crystallization was proposed. PMID:27058518

  17. Protein adsorption at calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Sheng, X.; Rimer, J.; Jung, T.; Ward, M.

    2008-03-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals are the dominant inorganic phase in most kidney stones, and kidney stones form as aggregates of COM crystals and organic material, principally proteins, but little is known about the molecular level events at COM surfaces that regulate COM aggregation. We have examined the influence of polyelectrolytes on the force of adhesion between chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips and selected COM crystal faces in saturated solution. In general, we found that polyanions bind to COM surfaces and block adhesion of a carboxylate functionalized AFM tip, while polycations had no measureable effect on adhesion force under the same conditions. We did observe a unique absence of interaction between poly(glutamic acid) and the COM (100) face compared to other synthetic polyanions, and some native urinary protein structures also exhibited unique face selective interactions, suggesting that simple electrostatic models will not completely explain the data.

  18. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process. PMID:27030646

  19. Reaction of Molecular Hydrogen with Tetraaminecopper(II) Sulfate Monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Seiichi; Kori, Toshinari; Kida, Sigeo

    1994-02-01

    The reaction of tetraammincopper(II) sulfate monohydrate in a solid state with H 2 (10 MPa) was studied. The Cu(II) ion in the complex was reduced to Cu(0). The final product was a mixture of (NH 4) 2SO 4 and colloidal black Cu(0) which showed a remarkable reactivity as follows. In thermogravimetric analysis up to 440°C under nitrogen atmosphere, the above product reacted between the components very much differently from a control sample with the same composition. The six intermediate samples, taken at successive reaction times, were examined by powder diffraction method. As one of the intermediates, the copper double salt, (NH 4) 2Cu(SO 4) 2, was identified.

  20. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  1. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Wood, Ian G.; Alfè, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Sparkes, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047 (3), b = 4.453 (1), c = 11.023 (3) Å and V = 591.3 (3) Å3 [ρcalc = 1281.8 (7) kg m−3] at 10 K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100 K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273 K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263 K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273 K; above 273 K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (E HB ≃ 30–40 kJ mol−1), on the basis of H⋯O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ∼ 36 kJ mol−1. The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  2. Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate: Formation and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4.H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4) x 10(exp -4) torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10(exp -3) at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10(exp -4) at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

  3. Structure of Dehydroergosterol Monohydrate and Interaction with Sterol Carrier Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Gallegos, Adalberto M.; Storey, Stephen M.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.; Kier, Ann B.; Meyer, Edgar; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroergosterol [ergosta-5,7,9(11),22-tetraen-3β-ol] is a naturally-occurring, fluorescent sterol utilized extensively to probe membrane cholesterol distribution, cholesterol-protein interactions, and intracellular cholesterol transport both in vitro and in vivo. In aqueous solutions, the low solubility of dehydroergosterol results in the formation of monohydrate crystals similar to cholesterol. Low temperature x-ray diffraction analysis reveals that dehydroergosterol monohydrate crystallizes in the space group P21 with 4 molecules in the unit cell and monoclinic crystal parameters a = 9.975(1)Å, b = 7.4731(9)Å, c = 34.054(4)Å, and β = 92.970(2)° somewhat similar to ergosterol monohydrate. The molecular arrangement is in a slightly closer packed bilayer structure resembling cholesterol monohydrate. Since dehydroergosterol fluorescence emission undergoes a quantum yield enhancement and red-shift of its maximum wavelength when crystallized, formation or disruption of microcrystals was monitored with high sensitivity using cuvette-based spectroscopy and multi-photon laser scanning imaging microscopy (MPLSM). This manuscript reports on the dynamical effect of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) interacting between aqueous dispersions of dehydroergosterol monohydrate microcrystal donors and acceptors consisting not only of model membranes but also vesicles derived from plasma membranes isolated by biochemical fractionation and affinity purification from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, this study provides real-time measurements of the effect of increased SCP-2 levels on the rate of disappearance of dehydroergosterol microcrystals in living cells. PMID:19020914

  4. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  5. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  6. 9-O-Ethyl­berberrubinium iodide monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Grundt, Peter; Pernat, Jennifer; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Halverson, Melanie A.; Berry, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound (systematic name: 9-eth­oxy-10-meth­oxy-5,6-dihydro-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinolino­[3,2-a]isoquin­olin-7-ium iodide monohydrate), 2C21H20NO4 +·2I−·H2O, two independent mol­ecules pack in the unit cell, where interactions between the molecules are stabilized by weak inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances in the range 3.571 (4) to 3.815 (4)Å]. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed. The iodide anions are disordered with occupancy ratios of 0.94 (1):0.06 (1) and 0.91 (1):0.09 (1). The cationic molecule is planar in structure with a small torsion resulting from the dihydropyridine ring. PMID:21587567

  7. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  8. Cationic cobaltammine as anion receptor: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ritu; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Harrison, William T. A.

    2007-03-01

    In an effort to utilize the [Co(NH 3) 6] 3+ cation as a new anion receptor (binding agent) for dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate, orange single crystals of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate, [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O, were obtained by reacting hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride with potassium-sodium tartrate tetrahydrate in a 1:1 molar ratio in hot water. The single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O revealed that a distinctive network of hydrogen bonding interactions (N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl -, O-H⋯O) stabilize the crystal lattice. This is the first complex salt of hexaamminecobalt(III) with dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate.

  9. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  10. The effects of the recommended dose of creatine monohydrate on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Taner, Basturk; Aysim, Ozagari; Abdulkadir, Unsal

    2011-02-01

    We report a case of a heretofore healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting and stomach ache while taking creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding purposes. The patient had acute renal failure, and a renal biopsy was performed to determine the cause of increased creatinine and proteinuria. The biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. In the literature, creatine monohydrate supplementation and acute tubular necrosis coexistence had not been reported previously. Twenty-five days after stopping the creatine supplements, the patient recovered fully. Even recommended doses of creatine monohydrate supplementation may cause kidney damage; therefore, anybody using this supplement should be warned about this possible side effect, and their renal functions should be monitored regularly.

  11. Characterization of a new anhydrous form of Rotundine and its monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiying; Du, Guanhua; Lu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Rotundine is a chemical drug developed from Chinese traditional medicines that exhibits pseudopolymorphism. The anhydrous form and monohydrate are isolated and prepared via systemic crystallization screening, and the anhydrous form is reported for the first time. In this article single crystal X-ray diffractometry, powder X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy are used to characterize the Rotundine modifications. The analysis results show that the factors of crystal symmetry, intermolecular arrangements, conformational flexibility, hydrogen bonding interactions, and the incorporation of water finally lead to produce the polymorphic phenomenon. Via the in-vivo bioavailability of two forms, it is found that the new anhydrous form presents absorbable superiority relative to monohydrate, specifically Cmax and AUC of anhydrous form were approximately 1.5 times those of monohydrate. Study on the transformation of two forms show that they can convert to each other in certain conditions at solid state.

  12. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  13. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  14. Negative Linear Compressibility in Organic Mineral Ammonium Oxalate Monohydrate with Hydrogen Bonding Wine-Rack Motifs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuancun; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Hongsheng; Yang, Ke; Zou, Bo

    2015-07-16

    Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon and rarely studied in organic systems. Here we provide the direct evidence of the persistent NLC in organic mineral ammonium oxalate monohydrate under high pressure using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurement reveals that ammonium oxalate monohydrate shows both positive and negative linear compressibility along b-axis before 11.5 GPa. The red shift of the external Raman modes and abnormal changes of several selected internal modes in high-pressure Raman spectra further confirmed the NLC. DFT calculations demonstrate that the N-H···O hydrogen bonding "wine-rack" motifs result in the NLC along b-axis in ammonium oxalate monohydrate. We anticipate the high-pressure study of ammonium oxalate monohydrate may represent a promising strategy for accelerating the pace of exploitation and improvement of NLC materials especially in organic systems. PMID:26266859

  15. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  16. 75 FR 16346 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs... of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis) and... posaconazole. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in Sec. 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  17. Growth and adhesion properties of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Clare M.

    The presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid has long been associated with the joint disease gout. To elucidate the molecular level growth mechanism and adhesive properties of MSU crystals, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques were employed in the characterization of the (010) and (1-10) faces of MSU, as well as physiologically relevant solutions supersaturated with urate. Topographical AFM imaging of both MSU (010) and (1-10) revealed the presence of crystalline layers of urate arranged into v-shaped features of varying height. Growth rates were measured for both monolayers (elementary steps) and multiple layers (macrosteps) on both crystal faces under a wide range of urate supersaturation in physiologically relevant solutions. Step velocities for monolayers and multiple layers displayed a second order polynomial dependence on urate supersaturation on MSU (010) and (1-10), with step velocities on (1-10) generally half of those measured on MSU (010) in corresponding growth conditions. Perpendicular step velocities on MSU (010) were obtained and also showed a second order polynomial dependence of step velocity with respect to urate supersaturation, which implies a 2D-island nucleation growth mechanism for MSU (010). Extensive topographical imaging of MSU (010) showed island adsorption from urate growth solutions under all urate solution concentrations investigated, lending further support for the determined growth mechanism. Island sizes derived from DLS experiments on growth solutions were in agreement with those measured on MSU (010) topographical images. Chemical force microscopy (CFM) was utilized to characterize the adhesive properties of MSU (010) and (1-10). AFM probes functionalized with amino acid derivatives and bio-macromolecules found in the synovial fluid were brought into contact with both crystal faces and adhesion forces were tabulated into

  18. Solubilities and Glass Formation in Aqueous Solutions of the Sodium Salts of Malonic Acid With and Without Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Jared A; Buttke, Lukas G; Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Guzei, Ilia A; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-06-01

    The solubility of sodium hydrogen malonate and sodium malonate in water both with and without ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from sodium hydrogen malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium hydrogen malonate monohydrate by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystals formed in sodium malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium malonate monohydrate, a compound whose structure had not been previously known. When ammonium sulfate is added to these respective aqueous systems, the precipitation solids contain sodium sulfate decahydrate under low to moderate ammonium concentrations and lecontite (NaNH4SO4·2H2O) under high ammonium concentrations, which can be found under dry atmospheric conditions. Thus, it appears the presence of malonate and hydrogen malonate ions does not significantly affect the precipitation of inorganic salts in these systems. The glass transition temperatures of all solutions were also determined, and it was observed that the addition of ammonium sulfate slightly lowers the glass transition temperature in these solutions.

  19. Comparative study of erythritol and lactose monohydrate as carriers for inhalation: atomic force microscopy and in vitro correlation.

    PubMed

    Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Jones, Matthew; Edge, Stephen; Price, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The adhesion of micronised salbutamol sulphate to two carrier excipients, lactose monohydrate and erythritol, was investigated using the atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe technique and correlated with their respective physico-mechanical properties and aerosolisation performance. The particle size, morphology and moisture sorption properties of the carriers were similar thereby allowing direct comparison of functionality. AFM force measurements (n = 1024 force curves) were obtained between salbutamol sulphate drug probes (n = 4) and the excipients, as 63-90 microm sieve fractions and atomically smooth crystals. In general, significant differences in drug adhesion to lactose monohydrate and erythritol were observed (ANOVA, p<0.05), with erythritol exhibiting relatively greater adhesiveness. A linear relationship between drug probe adhesion to lactose monohydrate and drug probe adhesion to erythritol was established with salbutamol sulphate-lactose monohydrate adhesion being 60-70% of that of the erythritol system. In vitro analysis suggested good correlation with the adhesion measurements. The aerosolisation of salbutamol sulphate from erythritol carrier particles was significantly less (ANOVA, p<0.05) than from lactose monohydrate, with a fine particle dose (<6.4 microm) of 41.9 +/- 7.4 microg and 24.9 +/- 3.1 microg for the lactose monohydrate and erythritol carriers, respectively (n = 3).

  20. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  1. Growth and characterization of Cu (II) doped negatively soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Ramasamy, P.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of pure and Cu (II) doped negatively soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. In the present work, to improve the crystalline quality of lithium sulfate monohydrate crystal, metal dopant was incorporated into the pure crystals. The as grown crystals are clear, transparent and the sizes of the crystals were up to 18×12×3 mm3 and 50×15×5 mm3. The presence of metal dopant has been confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies were carried out to ascertain lattice parameters and identify different phase nature. Optical transmission spectrum of the grown crystals was recorded. FT-IR and thermal analysis were carried out to investigate the functional group and thermal behavior of the grown crystals respectively. The grown crystal was subjected to Vickers micro hardness, HRXRD, piezoelectric, laser damage threshold measurements and second harmonic generation efficiency studies.

  2. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets. PMID:24950003

  3. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets.

  4. Preparation of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate

    DOEpatents

    Naud, Darren L.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2003-05-27

    A process of preparing bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate is provided including combining a dicyanamide salt, an azide salt and water to form a first reaction mixture, adding a solution of a first strong acid characterized as having a pKa of less than about 1 to said first reaction mixture over a period of time characterized as providing a controlled reaction rate so as to gradually form hydrazoic acid without loss of significant quantities of hydrazoic acid from the solution while heating the first reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C., heating the resultant reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to substantially completely form a reaction product, treating the reaction product with a solution of a second strong acid to form a product of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate, and, recovering the bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate product.

  5. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  6. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  7. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  9. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  10. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  12. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n = 14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p = 0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change = - 0.7%; ES = - 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change = + 2.4%; ES = + 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p = 0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

  13. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Kerksick, Chad M; Wilborn, Colin D; Campbell, William I; Harvey, Travis M; Marcello, Brandon M; Roberts, Mike D; Parker, Adam G; Byars, Allyn G; Greenwood, Lori D; Almada, Anthony L; Kreider, Richard B; Greenwood, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Coingestion of D-pinitol with creatine (CR) has been reported to enhance creatine uptake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding D-pinitol to CR affects training adaptations, body composition, whole-body creatine retention, and/or blood safety markers when compared to CR ingestion alone after 4 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-four resistance trained males were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to creatine + pinitol (CRP) or creatine monohydrate (CR) prior to beginning a supervised 4-week resistance training program. Subjects ingested a typical loading phase (i.e., 20 g/d-1 for 5 days) before ingesting 5 g/d-1 the remaining 23 days. Performance measures were assessed at baseline (T0), week 1 (T1), and week 4 (T2) and included 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP), 1RM leg press (LP), isokinetic knee extension, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity test. Fasting blood and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were determined at T1 and T3. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Creatine retention increased (p < 0.001) in both groups as a result of supplementation but was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Significant improvements in upper- and lower-body strength and body composition occurred in both groups. However, significantly greater increases in lean mass and fat-free mass occurred in the CR group when compared to CRP (p <0.05). Adding D-pinitol to creatine monohydrate does not appear to facilitate further physiological adaptations while resistance training. Creatine monohydrate supplementation helps to improve strength and body composition while resistance training. Data from this study assist in determining the potential role the addition of D-pinitol to creatine may aid in facilitating training adaptations to exercise.

  14. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  15. The nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate on self- assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.A.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Graff, G.L.; Fryxell, G.E.; Rieke, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    A physical chemical approach was used to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nucleation and growth on various organic interfaces. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs), containing derivatized organic functional groups, were designed to mimic various amino acid residues present in both urine and stone matrix macromolecules. Derivatized surfaces include SAMs with terminal methyl, bromo, imidazole, and thiazolidine-carboxylic acid functional groups. Pronounced differences in COM deposition were observed for the various interfaces with the imidazole and thiazolidine surfaces having the greatest effect and the methyl and bromo groups having little or no nucleating potential.

  16. ESR study of the thymine anion radical in a single crystal of thymine monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Kabiljo, Z; Sanković, K; Herak, J N

    1990-09-01

    ESR spectroscopy was used to study free radicals in an irradiated single crystal of thymine monohydrate at 77 K. At low microwave power (20 microW), a broad doublet is found to be super-imposed on the well known resonance patterns of the 5-yl and 7-yl radicals. The doublet spectrum has been analysed as a difference spectrum. Its spectroscopic properties and the observed transformation into the 5-yl, H-addition radical on warming the crystal are consistent with its anion nature, T(-).

  17. 4-Oxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid: hydrogen bonding in the monohydrate of a delta-keto acid.

    PubMed

    Barcon, Alan; Brunskill, Andrew P J; Thompson, Hugh W; Lalancette, Roger A

    2004-02-01

    The title monohydrate, C(7)H(10)O(3).H(2)O, aggregates as a complex hydrogen-bonding network, in which the water molecule accepts a hydrogen bond from the carboxyl group of one molecule and donates hydrogen bonds to ketone and carboxyl C=O functions in two additional molecules, yielding a sheet-like structure of parallel ribbons. The keto acid adopts a chiral conformation through rotation of the carboxyl group by 62.50 (15) degrees relative to the plane defined by its point of attachment and the ketone C and O atoms. Two C-H.O close contacts exist in the structure. PMID:14767139

  18. Bands separation in fluorescence spectra of ketocyanine dyes: evidence for their complex formation with monohydric alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovarenko, V. G.; Klueva, A. V.; Doroshenko, A. O.; Demchenko, A. P.

    2000-07-01

    In the studies of binary solvent systems containing non-polar (toluene) and polar proton-donating components (monohydric alcohols) using ketocyanine dyes of 2,5-di-benzylidene-cyclopentanone-1 type as solvent polarity probes, we found that in addition to common solvent polarity-dependent shifts of fluorescence spectra, at low alcohol concentrations there appear two new well-resolved spectral bands. They are attributed to the emission of hydrogen bonded complexes of 1:1 and 1:2 type. Effective constants for hydrogen bond complex formation were estimated for them from the fluorescence titration data.

  19. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu2+ doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2016-05-01

    EPR study of Cu2+ doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li2SO4.H2O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu2+ ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu2+ in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu2+ ion in a lattice as dx2-y2.

  20. Growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate. III. Variation of solution composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijvoet, Olav L. M.; Blomen, Leo J. M. J.; Will, Eric J.; van der Linden, Hanneke

    1983-11-01

    The influence of the variations of initial supersaturation, ionic strength and calcium-to-oxalate ratio on the growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate from suspension at 37°C have been investigated in an isotopic system. All experiments can be described with a single growth formula, containing three constants: kA (growth rate constant), La (thermodynamic solubility product) and [ tm] (a parameter describing the agglomeration of any seed suspension). This formula is able to predict any growth curve when the initial concentrations of seed, oxalate and indifferent electrolyte are known. Comparisons with datak from the literature are discussed.

  1. In vivo comet assay of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate and ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Sui, Hajime; Ohta, Ryo; Kumagai, Fumiaki; Usumi, Kenji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamakage, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined the ability of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate (9-AA), and ethanol to induce DNA damage in the liver and glandular stomach of male rats. Acrylonitrile is a genotoxic carcinogen, 9-AA is a genotoxic non-carcinogen, and ethanol is a non-genotoxic carcinogen. Positive results were obtained in the liver cells of male rats treated with known genotoxic compounds, acrylonitrile and 9-AA.

  2. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-01

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  3. Effect of Creatine Monohydrate on Clinical Progression in Patients With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established to promote discovery of potential therapies. OBJECTIVE To determine whether creatine monohydrate was more effective than placebo in slowing long-term clinical decline in participants with Parkinson disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Long-term Study 1, a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 1:1 randomized efficacy trial. Participants were recruited from 45 investigative sites in the United States and Canada and included 1741 men and women with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) Parkinson disease. Participants were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to placebo or creatine (10 g/d) monohydrate for a minimum of 5 years (maximum follow-up, 8 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was a difference in clinical decline from baseline to 5-year follow-up, compared between the 2 treatment groups using a global statistical test. Clinical status was defined by 5 outcome measures: Modified Rankin Scale, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, PDQ-39 Summary Index, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and ambulatory capacity. All outcomes were coded such that higher scores indicated worse outcomes and were analyzed by a global statistical test. Higher summed ranks (range, 5–4775) indicate worse outcomes. RESULTS The trial was terminated early for futility based on results of a planned interim analysis of participants enrolled at least 5 years prior to the date of the analysis (n = 955). The median follow-up time was 4 years. Of the 955 participants, the mean of the summed ranks for placebo was 2360 (95

  4. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P. Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  5. The impact of material attributes and process parameters on the micronisation of lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P; Shao, Q

    2011-04-15

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs), which are important medicines for drug delivery to the lungs, require drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-6 μm for optimal lung deposition. Drugs administered by the oral route also derive benefit from particles in this size range owing to their large surface area to volume ratio, which provides potential for rapid dissolution. Micronisation used in the production of particles, however often leads to heterogeneous product containing mechanically activated surfaces with amorphous content. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of particle properties of three grades of lactose monohydrate, with sizes above and below the brittle-ductile transition (dcrit) and their interaction with process variables on the quality of micronised material. Following an experimental design, the impact of three factors (grinding pressure, injector pressure and feed rate) on the particulate attributes of micronised powders produced from the different size grades was assessed. Processing conditions were shown to be important determinants of powder properties only for the coarsest starting material. Ultrafine material was achieved by processing finer grade feed stock below dcrit. However the resultant product was more crystalline and transformed on heating to the anhydrous state with markedly reduced onset temperature with lower energy surfaces than powders produced from larger sized starting material. Thus the propensity for micronisation of lactose monohydrate can be altered through control of starting materials and optimal settings for process variables. PMID:21295125

  6. Competing Insertion and External Binding Motifs in Hydrated Neurotransmitters: Infrared Spectra of Protonated Phenylethylamine Monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Aude; Schütz, Markus; Dopfer, Otto

    2016-01-18

    Hydration has a drastic impact on the structure and function of flexible biomolecules, such as aromatic ethylamino neurotransmitters. The structure of monohydrated protonated phenylethylamine (H(+) PEA-H2 O) is investigated by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy of cold cluster ions by using rare-gas (Rg=Ne and Ar) tagging and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Monohydration of this prototypical neurotransmitter gives an insight into the first step of the formation of its solvation shell, especially regarding the competition between intra- and intermolecular interactions. The spectra of Rg-tagged H(+) PEA-H2 O reveal the presence of a stable insertion structure in which the water molecule is located between the positively charged ammonium group and the phenyl ring of H(+) PEA, acting both as a hydrogen bond acceptor (NH(+) ⋅⋅⋅O) and donor (OH⋅⋅⋅π). Two other nearly equivalent isomers, in which water is externally H bonded to one of the free NH groups, are also identified. The balance between insertion and external hydration strongly depends on temperature. PMID:26584245

  7. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  8. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shota; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-03-28

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  9. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shota; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  10. Aripiprazole long-acting injectable formulations for schizophrenia: aripiprazole monohydrate and aripiprazole lauroxil.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole monohydrate (AM) and aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) are two different long-acting injectable formulations of aripiprazole. AM 400 mg administered once monthly demonstrated efficacy in an acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, as well as in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal maintenance study, and in two non-inferiority maintenance studies. AL is a prodrug of aripiprazole and available in 441 mg, 662 mg or 882 mg strengths. AL 441 mg and 882 mg administered once monthly demonstrated efficacy in an acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The pharmacokinetic profile of AL also led to approval of dosing intervals of every 6 weeks for the 882 mg dose. The overall tolerability profiles of both products are consistent with what is known about oral aripiprazole.

  11. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  12. 6-Azido-6-de­oxy-α-l-galactose (6-azido-l-fucose) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Booth, K. Victoria; Jenkinson, Sarah F.; Rao, Devendar; Simonisi, Tsuyosi; Fleet, George W. J.; Izumori, Ken; Watkin, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Although 6-azido-6-de­oxy-l-galactose in aqueous solution is in equilibrium between the open-chain, furan­ose and pyran­ose forms, it crystallizes solely as 6-azido-6-de­oxy-α-l-galactopyran­ose monohydrate, C6H11N3O5·H2O, with the six-membered ring adopting a chair conformation. The structure exists as hydrogen-bonded chains, with each mol­ecule acting as a donor and acceptor of five hydrogen bonds. There are no unusual crystal packing features and the absolute configuration was determined from the use of 1-azido-1-de­oxy-d-galactitol as the starting material. PMID:21203271

  13. (+)-Gibberellin C: hydrogen-bonding pattern of the monohydrate of a non-racemic pentacyclic diterpenoid.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H W; Brunskill, A P; Lalancette, R A

    2000-12-01

    In the monohydrate of the title compound, (+)-2beta, 4aalpha-dihydroxy-1,7-dimethyl-8-oxo-4bbeta,7alpha- gibbane-1alpha, 10beta-dicarboxylic acid-1,4a-lactone, C(19)H(24)O(6).H(2)O, intermolecular hydrogen bonding progresses helically along b from carboxyl to ketone [O...O = 2.694 (5) A]. The carboxyl and lactone carbonyl groups in translationally related molecules within a helix both accept hydrogen bonds from the same water of hydration. The oxygen of this water in turn accepts a hydrogen bond from the hydroxyl group of a third screw-related molecule in an adjacent counterdirectionally oriented helix, yielding a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding array. Intermolecular O...H-C close contacts were found to the carboxyl and lactone carbonyls, the hydroxyl, and the water. PMID:11119009

  14. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by the combination of citrate and osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, S. Roger; Zachowicz, William J.; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hoyer, John R.; De Yoreo, James J.; Nancollas, George H.

    2006-05-01

    The design of effective crystallization inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the primary constituent of kidney stones, is a significant goal. Inhibitory molecules identified in urine include a small organic anion, citrate, and osteopontin (OPN), an aspartic acid-rich protein. The results of molecular-scale analyses combining force microscopy with molecular modeling raised the possibility that inhibition of COM crystallization might be increased by the additive effects of citrate and OPN because they act on different crystal faces. Constant composition (CC) kinetics studies of COM crystal growth now confirm that additive effects are, indeed, achieved in vitro when both citrate and OPN are present. These results suggest that a strategy employing combinations of inhibitors may provide a useful therapeutic approach to urinary stone disease.

  15. Nucleation of Alpha lactose monohydrate induced using flow through a venturi orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, J. S.; Paterson, A. H. J.; Bronlund, J. E.; Jones, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleation is a determinant of the final crystal size distribution produced during a crystallization process. Other studies in the literature have shown that mixing influences alpha lactose monohydrate nucleation. To investigate this in more detail, three different sized Venturi orifices were used to provide a point of passive mixing for supersaturated lactose solutions. This system allowed the study of different factors associated with characterising the mixing process, including cavitation, power input, Reynolds number and vortex formation. A strong relationship was found between the number of vortices created in the system and the nucleation rate. It is speculated that the vortices decrease the distance required for diffusion of molecules in the system, increasing the rate at which they can come together to form a stable nuclei.

  16. Characterization of a newly synthesized organic nonlinear optical crystal: Urea ninhydrin monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma Devi, T.; Lawrence, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Selvanayagam, S.; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Ramamurthi, K.

    2009-06-01

    Urea ninhydrin monohydrate (UNM) was synthesized and grown for the first time from aqueous solution employing the slow evaporation method. Single crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction data and it reveals that the crystal belongs to centrosymmetric with space group of P2 1/c. The grown crystals were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Preliminary Z-scan measurement indicates that nonlinear refractive index of this crystal is -4.1×10 -8 cm 2/W. The etching study was performed to assess the growth pattern of the crystal. Dielectric response of the crystal was analyzed for different frequencies and temperatures.

  17. Racemic 2′-hydroxy-4′,4′-dimethylpyran-1,5-dihydroxyxanthone monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-01-01

    The title xanthone (systematic name: 3,6,11-trihy­droxy-1,1-dimethyl-2,3-di­hydro­chromeno[2,3-f]chromen-7-one monohydrate), known as pruniflorone N, crystallized as a monohydrate, C18H16O6·H2O. The three ring systems of the xanthone skeleton are approximately coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0270 (1) Å from the plane through the 14 non-H atoms. The O atoms of the two hy­droxy substituents on the benzene rings also lie close to this plane, with deviations of 0.019 (1) and 0.070 (1) Å. The 2′-hy­droxy-4′,4′-di­methyl­pyran ring is disordered over two positions with a 0.798 (3):0.202 (3) site-occupancy ratio. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, the xanthone and water mol­ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. π–π inter­actions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5982 (7), 3.6081 (7) and 3.6456 (7) Å, are also observed. PMID:24427082

  18. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  19. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  20. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium maleate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Kalaivani, M.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-04-01

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of melamine with maleic acid, namely melaminium maleate monohydrate have been carried out by quantum chemical methods in addition to FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G**, cc-pVDZ and 6-311++G** basis sets to determine the energy, structural and thermodynamic parameters of melaminium maleate monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from maleic acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak Osbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects.

  1. Potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate at 295, 245 and 40 K, and its rubidium analogue at 298 K.

    PubMed

    Kashino, S; Taka, J; Fukunaga, T; Ishida, H

    2001-05-01

    A centrosymmetric and short O-H.O hydrogen bond was found in isomorphic crystals of potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (potassium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, K(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (I), and rubidium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (rubidium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, Rb(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (II). The O.O distance at room temperature is 2.444 (3) A in (I), and 2.417 (4) A in (II). The O.O distance for (I) showed no significant decrease at low temperatures. PMID:11353246

  2. Synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium perrhenate monohydrate LiReO 4·H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Artem M.; Rozova, Marina G.; Shpanchenko, Roman V.; Mironov, Andrei V.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Bramnik, Kirill G.

    2001-07-01

    A new monohydrate of lithium perrhenate LiReO 4·H 2O was prepared by dehydration of LiReO 4·1.5H 2O at room temperature. The single crystals of LiReO 4·H 2O were obtained by crystallisation from the isoamyl acetate solution of LiReO 4·1.5H 2O. The structure of monohydrate ( a=5.6674(4), b=10.771(1), c=7.4738(7) Å, β=102.422(7)°, R1=0.0414, space group P2 1/ a, Z=4) is built up from LiO 3(H 2O) 2 trigonal bipyramids and ReO 4 tetrahedra sharing common edges and corners inside the layers. The layers are connected together by hydrogen bonds. The relationships between the structures of sesquihydrate, monohydrate and anhydrous LiReO 4 are discussed.

  3. Effect of calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on in vitro nucleation of human gall bladder bile.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D

    1989-01-01

    The effect of increasing the calcium, magnesium and sodium concentration in gall bladder bile samples from 21 patients with gall stones and nine controls on the in vitro rate of formation of cholesterol microcrystals and numbers of cholesterol microcrystals formed was examined. Addition of these cations to raise the mean maximum concentration of calcium ions to 19.8 mmol/l, of magnesium ions to 20 mmol/l and sodium ions to 998 mmol/l did not trigger nucleation in control bile samples or samples from patients with gall stones. Increasing the mean concentration of calcium ions to 8.6 mmol/l and of sodium to 320 mmol/l increased the numbers of cholesterol monohydrate crystals/0.1 mm3 counted by light polarisation phase contrast microscopy at the time of nucleation in samples from patients with gall stones from a median of 2 (range 1-10) in control portions to 18 (range 2-128) for calcium ions and 10 (range 2-141) for sodium ions (p less than 0.001). Calcium and magnesium ions were more effective than sodium ions, and calcium ions could increase crystal numbers at concentrations found in samples from patients with gall stones, median 4.6 mmol/l (range 2.7-16.9 mmol/l). The concentrations of calcium and magnesium present in bile may therefore influence the rate of development of gall stones. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2731760

  4. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  5. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  9. Improving powder flow properties of a cohesive lactose monohydrate powder by intensive mechanical dry coating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the cohesive lactose powder flowability. A cohesive lactose monohydrate powder was processed in either a tumbling blender or an intensive mechanical processor with either magnesium stearate or fumed silica. No substantial changes in particle size were detected by laser diffraction following either treatment. The untreated lactose sample exhibited very poor powder flow. Only limited improvements in powder flowability were indicated after the tumbling blending, intensive mechanical processing with the fumed silica or without additives. However, the intensive mechanical processing of the lactose sample with magnesium stearate demonstrated exceptionally large increases in both poured and tapped density as well as notable improvements in all powder flowability indicators examined. Our findings support the use of intensive mechanical processing technique as an effective method to coat cohesive pharmaceutical powders with selected additives, modify the surface nature of the particles, reduce the interparticle cohesive forces and hence improve powder flowability. The subtle differences in powder flow behaviour of lactose samples between the untreated and tumbling blended powders with magnesium stearate were only detected by the powder rheometer using its dynamic mode, indicating its potential advantages over traditional powder flow characterisation approaches.

  10. Periodic Hartree-Fock study of nitric acid monohydrate crystal. Bulk and clean surface

    SciTech Connect

    Poshusta, R.D.; Tseng, D.C. ); Hess, A.C.; McCarthy, M.I. )

    1993-07-15

    This study reports the first quantum mechanical investigation of crystalline nitric acid monohydrate (NAM), HNO[sub 3]-H[sub 2]O. The goal of this work is to characterize the physical properties of NAM in order to better understand its role as a catalyst in the destruction of polar stratospheric ozone in the Antarctic. The computations probed energetic, electronic, and elastic properties of the crystalline material using the Periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) method (as implemented in the program CRYSTAL92). All calculations were performed by using standard Pople basis sets. A description of the bulk material was obtained from calculations of the estimated cohesive binding energy, optimized lattice constants, band structure, total and projected density of states, Mulliken population analysis, electrostatic potentials, and elastic constants. The computed intracrystal interactions are consistent with the proposed hydronium/nitrate ionic crystal structure inferred from X-ray diffraction data. The calculated elastic constants, interlayer electrostatic potential maps, and characterization of the bonding in the crystal indicate that NAM is composed of weakly bound puckered layers aligned parallel to the (100) plane in the crystal. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. (-)-Dioxosantadienic acid: hydrogen-bonding patterns in a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid keto acid and its monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, A P; Lalancette, R A; Thompson, H W

    2001-09-01

    The anhydrous form, (I), of the title compound, (-)-2-(1,2,3,4,4a,7-hexahydro-4a,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxo-2-naphthyl)propionic acid, C(15)H(18)O(4), derived from a naturally occurring sesquiterpenoid, has two molecules in the asymmetric unit, (I) and (I'), differing in the conformations of the saturated ring and the carboxyl group. The compound aggregates as carboxyl-to-ketone hydrogen-bonding catemers [O.O = 2.776 (3) and 2.775 (3) A]. Two crystallographically independent sets of single-strand hydrogen-bonding helices with opposite end-to-end orientation pass through the cell in the b direction, one consisting exclusively of molecules of (I) and the other entirely of (I'). Three C-H.O=C close contacts are found in (I). The monohydrate, C(15)H(18)O(4).H(2)O, (II), with two molecules of (I) plus two water molecules in its asymmetric unit, forms a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network including acid-to-water, water-to-acid, water-to-ketone, water-to-water and acid-to-acid hydrogen bonds, plus three C-H.O=C close contacts. In both (I) and (II), only the ketone remote from the acid is involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:11588376

  12. Crystal structure of potassium (1S)-d-lyxit-1-yl­sulfonate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Alan H.; Hughes, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, K+·C5H11O8S−·H2O [systematic name: potassium (1S,2S,3S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-penta­hydroxy­pentane-1-sulfonate monohydrate], formed by reaction of d-lyxose with potassium hydrogen sulfite in water, crystallizes as colourless square prisms. The anion has an open-chain structure in which the S atom, the C atoms of the sugar chain and the oxygen atom of the hy­droxy­methyl group form an essentially all-trans chain with the corresponding torsion angles lying between 178.61 (12) and 157.75 (10)°. A three-dimensional bonding network exists in the crystal structure involving coordination of two crystallographically independent potassium ions by O atoms (one cation being hexa- and the other octa-coordinate, with each lying on a twofold rotation axis), and extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:26396774

  13. Crystal structure of potassium (1S)-d-lyxit-1-yl-sulfonate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alan H; Hughes, David L

    2015-08-01

    The title compound, K(+)·C5H11O8S(-)·H2O [systematic name: potassium (1S,2S,3S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-penta-hydroxy-pentane-1-sulfonate monohydrate], formed by reaction of d-lyxose with potassium hydrogen sulfite in water, crystallizes as colourless square prisms. The anion has an open-chain structure in which the S atom, the C atoms of the sugar chain and the oxygen atom of the hy-droxy-methyl group form an essentially all-trans chain with the corresponding torsion angles lying between 178.61 (12) and 157.75 (10)°. A three-dimensional bonding network exists in the crystal structure involving coordination of two crystallographically independent potassium ions by O atoms (one cation being hexa- and the other octa-coordinate, with each lying on a twofold rotation axis), and extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:26396774

  14. Weak hydrogen bonds in bis(3-nitroanilinium) hexachloridostannate monohydrate. X-ray, vibrational and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Marek

    2014-10-15

    Crystal structures of bis(3-nitroanilinium) hexachloridostannate monohydrate, (H3NA)2SnCl6·H2O, was determined by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction. Relaxed potential energy surface of the H3NA(+) ion was calculated at the B3LYP/6-31(d,p) level. The energy of the H3NA(+) ion is approximately independent upon rotation of the ammonio group. It significantly depends on relative position of the nitro group towards aromatic ring. Theoretical spectra were calculated for the [(A-H3NA)Cl5·H2O](4-) and [(B-H3NA)Cl5](4-) anions, and thus hydrogen bonds of the ammonio group with the nearest neighboring atoms were included. PED results revealed that no coupling among all of the N-H oscillators exists. They vibrate separately because each hydrogen atom of the ammonio group of A- and B-H3NA(+) ions has different surroundings of the acceptors. Overall, very good agreement between theoretical and experimental frequencies was achieved. PMID:24835936

  15. Nephrocalcin isoforms coat crystal surfaces and differentially affect calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal morphology, growth, and aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurutz, Josh W.; Carvalho, Mauricio; Nakagawa, Yasushi

    2003-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals were grown in the presence of each of the four isoforms of nephrocalcin (NC), a urinary protein proposed to inhibit kidney stone growth. Crystal size, morphology, and surface topography were assessed using optical microscopy, Coulter counter measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). All crystals grown in the presence of NC isoforms were calcium oxalate monohydrates (COMs). Crystals formed in the presence of NC-A were smaller than control crystals, which were grown without NC, according to optical and SEM results, suggesting that NC-A restricts crystal growth. In contrast, samples grown with NC-C and NC-D exhibit more large crystals and several crystal aggregates, suggesting that NC-C and -D promote crystal growth and aggregation. Crystals grown with NC-B are not significantly larger or smaller than controls. AFM images of the crystals reveal significantly different surface textures on the control crystals relative to those grown with NC isoforms, indicating that NC acts by coating nascent calcium oxalate crystals. These are the first reported AFM images that show topography of NC-coated crystals. These findings suggest that NC isoforms have distinct interactions with different COM crystal faces, which may be responsible for their different effects on crystal growth and morphology.

  16. Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2004-10-01

    The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca2+ distance of the (1 bar 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1 bar 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca2+-rich (1 bar 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) face.

  17. Solid-State Characterization and Interconversion of Recrystallized Amodiaquine Dihydrochloride in Aliphatic Monohydric Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sirikun, Wiriyaporn; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2016-04-01

    Amodiaquine dihydrochloride monohydrate (AQ-DM) was obtained by recrystallizing amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate (AQ-DD) in methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. Solid-state characterization of AQ-DD and AQ-DM was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. All recrystallized samples were identified as AQ-DM. Crystal habits of AQ-DD and AQ-DM were shown to be needle-like and rhombohedral crystals, respectively. When AQ-DD and AQ-DM were exposed to various relative humidity in dynamic vapor sorption apparatus, no solid-state interconversion was observed. However, AQ-DM showed higher solubility than AQ-DD when exposed to bulk water during solubility study, while excess AQ-DM was directly transformed back to a more stable AQ-DD structure. Heating AQ-DM sample to temperatures ≥190°C induced initial change to metastable amorphous form (AQ-DA) which was rapidly recrystallized to AQ-DD upon ≥80%RH moisture exposure. AQ-DD was able to be recrystallized in alcohols (C1-C3) as AQ-DM solid-state structure. In summary, AQ-DM was shown to have different solubility, moisture and temperature stability, and interconversion pathways when compared to AQ-DD. Thus, when AQ-DM was selected for any pharmaceutical applications, these critical transformation and property differences should be observed and closely monitored. PMID:26206402

  18. Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate: a new route to improve the solubility of mebendazole polymorphs.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Karina; Camí, Gerardo E; Brusau, Elena V; Narda, Griselda E; Ellena, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate, a new stable salt of mebendazole (MBZ), has been synthesized and fully characterized. It was obtained from recrystallization of MBZ forms A, B, or C in diverse solvents with the addition of methyl sulfonic acid solution. The crystal packing is first organized as a two-dimensional array consisting of rows of alternating MBZ molecules linked to columns of mesylate ions by hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional structure is further developed by classical intermolecular interactions involving water molecules. In addition, nonclassical contacts are also found. The vibrational behavior is consistent with the crystal structure, the most important functional groups showing shifts to lower or higher frequencies in relation to the MBZ polymorphs. Thermal analysis indicates that the compound is stable up to 50°C. Decomposition occurs in five steps. Solubility studies show that the title compound presents a significant higher performance than polymorph C. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3528-3538, 2013. PMID:23897162

  19. Influence of ageing, grinding and preheating on the thermal behaviour of alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Garnier, S; Petit, S; Mallet, F; Petit, M-N; Lemarchand, D; Coste, S; Lefebvre, J; Coquerel, G

    2008-09-01

    It is shown that the onset temperature and the magnitude of thermal events observed during DSC analyses of alpha-lactose monohydrate can be strongly affected by various treatments such as ageing, manual grinding and preheating (cycle of preliminary dehydration and rehydration). In the case of grinding and preheating, the change of dehydration pathways was further investigated by using a suitable combination of characterization techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) performed with a synchrotron source (allowing an accurate Rietveld analysis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle size measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR for the determination of beta-lactose contents in samples. It appeared that the dehydration mechanism is affected not only by a smaller particle size distribution, but also by residual anisotropic lattice distortions and by the formation of surface defects or high energy surfaces. The fusion-recrystallization process occurring between anhydrous forms of alpha-lactose at ca. 170 degrees C is not significantly affected by grinding, whereas a preheating treatment induces an unexpected large increase of the enthalpy associated with this transition. Our observations and interpretations confirm the important role of water molecules in the crystal cohesion of the title compound and illustrate the necessity to consider the history of each sample for a satisfactory understanding of the physical properties and the behaviour of this important pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:18617338

  20. IR spectroscopy of monohydrated tryptamine cation: Rearrangement of the intermolecular hydrogen bond induced by photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Kenji; Kouno, Yuuki; Harada, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Rearrangement of intermolecular hydrogen bond in a monohydrated tryptamine cation, [TRA(H2O)1]+, has been investigated in the gas phase by IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. In the S0 state of TRA(H2O)1, a water molecule is hydrogen-bonded to the N atom of the amino group of a flexible ethylamine side chain [T. S. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8827 (2001), 10.1021/jp011659+]. A remarkable change in the hydrogen-bonding motif of [TRA(H2O)]+ occurs upon photoionization. In the D0 state of [TRA(H2O)1]+, the water molecule is hydrogen-bonded to the NH group of the indole ring of TRA+, indicating that the water molecule transfers from the amino group to NH group. Quantum chemical calculations are performed to investigate the pathway of the water transfer. Two potential energy barriers emerge in [TRA(H2O)1]+ along the intrinsic reaction coordinate of the water transfer. The water transfer event observed in [TRA(H2O)1]+ is not an elementary but a complex process.

  1. 2-(4-Hy-droxy-phen-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    González-Padilla, Jazmin E; Rosales-Hernández, Martha Cecila; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; García-Báez, Efren V; Rojas-Lima, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The title mol-ecular salt, C13H11N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. In the cation, the phenol and benzimidazole rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.18 (4)°. The chloride anion and benzimidazole cation are linked by two N(+)-H⋯Cl(-) hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked through O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecule and the chloride anion, which form a diamond core, giving rise to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (10-2). Two π-π inter-actions involving the imidazolium ring with the benzene and phenol rings [centroid-centroid distances = 3.859 (3) and 3.602 (3) Å, respectively], contribute to this second dimension. A strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the water mol-ecule and the phenol substituent on the benzimidazole unit links the networks, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  2. Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate: a new route to improve the solubility of mebendazole polymorphs.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Karina; Camí, Gerardo E; Brusau, Elena V; Narda, Griselda E; Ellena, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate, a new stable salt of mebendazole (MBZ), has been synthesized and fully characterized. It was obtained from recrystallization of MBZ forms A, B, or C in diverse solvents with the addition of methyl sulfonic acid solution. The crystal packing is first organized as a two-dimensional array consisting of rows of alternating MBZ molecules linked to columns of mesylate ions by hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional structure is further developed by classical intermolecular interactions involving water molecules. In addition, nonclassical contacts are also found. The vibrational behavior is consistent with the crystal structure, the most important functional groups showing shifts to lower or higher frequencies in relation to the MBZ polymorphs. Thermal analysis indicates that the compound is stable up to 50°C. Decomposition occurs in five steps. Solubility studies show that the title compound presents a significant higher performance than polymorph C. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3528-3538, 2013.

  3. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  4. Spectroscopic Manifestation of Vibrationally-Mediated Structure Change in the Isolated Formate Monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Joanna K.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Gorlova, Olga; Gerardi, Helen; McCoy, Anne B.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The breadth of the OH stretching manifold observed in the IR for bulk water is commonly attributed to the thermal population of excited states and the presence of many configurations within the water network. Here, I use carboxylate species as a rigid framework to isolate a single water molecule in the gas phase and cold ion vibrational pre-dissociation spectroscopy to explore excited state contributions to bandwidth. The spectrum of the carboxylate monohydrate exhibits a signature series of peaks in the OH stretching region of this system, providing an archetypal model to study vibrationally adiabatic mode separation. Previous analysis of this behavior accounts for the extensive progression in a Franck-Condon formalism involving displaced vibrationally adiabatic potentials. In this talk I will challenge this prediction by using isotopic substation to systematically change the level structure within these potentials. This picture quantitatively accounts for the diffuse spectrum of this complex at elevated temperature providing a convenient spectroscopic reporter for the temperature of ions in a trap. E. M. Myshakin, K. D. Jordan, E. L. Sibert III, M. A. Johnson J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10138 (2003) W.H. Robertson, et al. J. Phys Chem. 107, 6527 (2003)

  5. Growth and characterization of a third order nonlinear optical single crystal: Ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanalakshmi, B.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Subhashini, V.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • EDA4NPH crystal possesses negative nonlinear refractive index. • The crystal exhibits high third-order NLO susceptibility. • Wide transparency of the crystal makes it suitable for NLO applications. • Dielectric studies substantiate the suitability for electro-optic applications. • The crystal possesses suitable mechanical strength for device fabrication. - Abstract: Bulk crystals of the charge-transfer complex, ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate, were grown by slow solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the crystal belongs to centrosymmetric space group C2/c of monoclinic system. The functional groups in the complex were identified using FTIR, FTRaman and FTNMR analyses. The Z-scan measurements revealed the negative nonlinear refractive index of the crystal. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility calculated from the measurements were −3.5823 × 10{sup −3} cm/W and 2.3762 × 10{sup −6} esu respectively. The crystal was shown to be highly transparent above 366 nm by UV–vis spectroscopy and a yellow fluorescence was observed from PL spectrum. The TG–DTA and DSC analyses showed that the crystal is thermally stable up to 117.4 °C. The crystals were characterized by dielectric, etching and microhardness studies.

  6. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Harsh; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].

  7. Structural, Hirshfeld surface and spectroscopic studies of the noncentrosymmetric 1-ethylpiperazinediium pentachloroantimonate (III) monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudani, S.; Zeller, M.; Jelsch, C.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2016-08-01

    1-Ethylpiperazinediium pentachloroantimonate (III) monohydrate, C6H16N2SbCl5·H2O, has been synthesized by the reaction of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) and 1-ethylpiperazine in an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. The structure crystallizes in orthorhombic system, in the non-centrosymmetric space group Pca21 and consists of isolated [C6H16N2]2+ cations, square pyramidal [SbCl5]2- anions and lattice water molecules. Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the [SbCl5]2- anions and water molecules to form double chains stretching along the [101] direction. The chains in turn are linked to the organic cations via Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. This structure presents an example of a general square pyramidal complex ion containing a stereo-chemically active lone pair of electrons. Solid state 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure, and vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and IR absorption bands. The interactions variability of the two independent cations and ten chloride atoms is analyzed via Hirshfeld surface analysis.

  8. Crystal structure of valinomycin-monohydrate cage complexes crystallized from dioxane.

    PubMed

    Langs, D A; Blessing, R H; Duax, W L

    1992-04-01

    Valinomycin, cyclo-[(L-Val-D-Hyv-D-Val-L-Lac)3-], was crystallized from aqueous dioxane solvent as a monohydrate complex in which water molecules were found within the ion-binding cavity of the ionophore: monoclinic P2(1), a = 14.377 (3), b = 41.554 (14), c = 14.080 (3) A, beta = 118.27 (2) degrees, Z = 4. There are two non-equivalent valinomycin-water complexes and three dioxane molecules in the asymmetric unit. The ionophore molecules adopt two similar but non-identical, octahedral, bracelet, cage conformations that are a consequence of two distinct ways in which the complexed water molecules can deform the normal octahedral coordinate geometry of the metal binding site. In the first complex the water molecule forms hydrogen donor bonds to the carbonyl oxygens of two L-valine residues on one facial side of the cavity, while in the second complex the water molecule is trigonal-planar coordinate and binds to two L-valine residues on one entrant face of the cavity plus a third D-valine residue from the opposite side of the cavity.

  9. Aggregation and dispersion characteristics of calcium oxalate monohydrate: effect of urinary species.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kimberly G; Gower, Laurie B; Khan, Saeed R; El-Shall, Hassan

    2002-12-01

    In this research, screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH and calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, particle size analysis, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, and protein adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of these species. Surface responses for these interactions are presented and discussed in this paper. In summary, solution, surface, and interface chemistries interact in a complex manner in the physiological environment to either inhibit or promote aggregation, and an understanding of such interactions may help determine and control the factors affecting kidney stone formation.

  10. Matrix isolation infrared spectrum of the sulfuric acid-monohydrate complex: new assignments and resolution of the "missing H-Bonded v(OH) band" issue.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, M; Loewenschuss, A

    2009-04-30

    The matrix isolation infrared spectra of "dry" and "wet" vapors of sulfuric acid have been investigated as trapped in solid argon matrices. The availability of a spectrum of trapped anhydrous acid vapor and its comparison with the spectra of trapped water containing vapors of the acid allowed the identification of the hydrogen-bonding shifted hydroxyl bands for both the acid and the water moieties of the monohydrated H(2)SO(4).H(2)O complex. The experimental results are compared to the various theoretically calculated wavenumber values of the acid and its monohydrated complex. The complex stabilization energies, as obtained from calculations and empirical correlations, are compared.

  11. 1,6-Dihydr-oxy-3-hydroxy-methyl-8-methoxy-anthracene-9,10-dione monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Liang; Sun, Wei; Gu, Qian-Qun; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2007-12-21

    The title compound, C(16)H(12)O(6)·H(2)O, isolated from the halotolerant fungus Aspergillus variecolor B-17, is also known as questinol monohydrate. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. π-π stacking inter-actions consolidate the supra-molecular structure [the shortest inter-planar distances are 3.456 (3), 3.366 (4) and 3.382 (4) Å].

  12. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  13. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Chad A; Benardot, Dan; Cody, Mildred; Thompson, Walter R

    2008-07-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrMH) supplementation aids the ability to maintain performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, including jump performance. However, carbohydrate supplementation may also provide similar benefits and is less expensive. This study compared the effects of an energy-free placebo, 2 different caloric concentrations of carbohydrate drinks, and a CrMH supplement on repeated jump heights. Sixty active males (mean age, 22 +/- 3.2 years) performed 2 sets of countermovement static jump height tests (10 jumps over 60 seconds) separated by 5 days to determine the differential effects of the placebo, carbohydrate, and CrMH on jump height sustainability over 10 jumps. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups (15 subjects per group) to receive daily doses (x5 days) of carbohydrate drinks containing 100 or 250 kilocalories (kcal), a 25-g CrMH supplement, or an energy-free placebo. After 5 days, the CrMH group experienced a significant weight gain (+1.52; +/-0.89 kg, p < 0.01), while the other groups did not. The 2 levels of carbohydrate and CrMH supplements were all significantly better at sustaining jump height than the energy-free placebo over the final 3-4 jumps. The 250-kcal carbohydrate-supplemented group experienced a level of benefit (p < 0.01) that was at least equal to that of the CrMH group (p < 0.05), suggesting that the higher dose of carbohydrate was as effective as CrMH in maintaining repeated bouts of high-intensity activity as measured by repeated static jumps. Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities.

  14. Mimicking the biomolecular control of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth: effect of contiguous glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Grohe, Bernd; Hug, Susanna; Langdon, Aaron; Jalkanen, Jari; Rogers, Kem A; Goldberg, Harvey A; Karttunen, Mikko; Hunter, Graeme K

    2012-08-21

    Scanning confocal interference microscopy (SCIM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the adsorption of the synthetic polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (poly-glu) to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and its effect on COM formation. At low concentrations (1 μg/mL), poly-glu inhibits growth most effectively in ⟨001⟩ directions, indicating strong interactions of the polypeptide with {121} crystal faces. Growth in <010> directions was inhibited only marginally by 1 μg/mL poly-glu, while growth in <100> directions did not appear to be affected. This suggests that, at low concentrations, poly-glu inhibits lattice-ion addition to the faces of COM in the order {121} > {010} ≥ {100}. At high concentrations (6 μg/mL), poly-glu resulted in the formation of dumbbell-shaped crystals featuring concave troughs on the {100} faces. The effects on crystal growth indicate that, at high concentrations, poly-glu interacts with the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. This mirrors MD simulations, which predicted that poly-glu will adsorb to a {100} terrace plane (most calcium-rich) in preference to a {121} (oblique) riser plane but will adsorb to {121} riser plane in preference to an {010} terrace plane (least calcium-rich). The effects of different poly-glu concentration on COM growth (1-6 μg/mL) may be due to variations between the faces in terms of growth mechanism and/or (nano)roughness, which can affect surface energy. In addition, 1 μg/mL might not be adequate to reach the critical concentration for poly-glu to significantly pin step movement on {100} and {010} faces. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes is essential for the development of agents to reduce recurrence of kidney stone disease.

  15. Oxidation of monohydric phenol substrates by tyrosinase: effect of dithiothreitol on kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Naish-Byfield, S; Cooksey, C J; Riley, P A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of thiol compounds on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase was investigated using 4-hydroxyanisole as the substrate and dithiothreitol (DTT) as the model thiol compound. We have demonstrated three actions of DTT on tyrosinase-catalysed reactions: (1) direct reduction of the copper at the active site of the enzyme; (2) generation of secondary, oxidizable species by adduct formation with the o-quinone reaction product, 4-MOB, which leads to an increase in the total oxygen utilization by the reaction system; and (3) reversible inhibition of the enzyme. We confirm our previous observation that, at approx. 10 mol of DTT/mol of enzyme, the lag phase associated with monohydric phenol oxidation by tyrosinase is abolished. We suggest that this is due to reduction of the copper at the active site of the enzyme by DTT, since (a) reduction of active-site copper in situ by DTT was demonstrated by [Cu(I)]2-carbon monoxide complex formation and (b) abolition of the lag at low DTT concentration occurs without effect on the maximum rate of reaction or on the total amount of oxygen utilized. At concentrations of DTT above that required to abolish the lag, we found that the initial velocity of the reaction increased with increasing DTT, with a concomitant increase in the total oxygen utilization. This is due to the formation of DTT-4-methoxy-o-benzoquinone (4-MOB) adducts which provide additional dihydric phenol substrate either directly or by reducing nascent 4-MOB. We present n.m.r. evidence for the formation of mono- and di-aromatic DTT adducts with 4-MOB, consistent with a suggested reoxidation scheme in the presence of tyrosinase. Inhibition of the enzyme at concentrations of DTT above 300 pmol/unit of enzyme was released on exhaustion of DTT by adduct formation with 4-MOB as it was generated. PMID:7998927

  16. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  17. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  18. Structure and spectroscopic properties of bis(1-carboxyethyl-3-aminopyridinium) hydrobromide monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, I.; Katrusiak, A.; Komasa, A.; Szafran, M.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of bis(1-carboxyethyl-3-aminopyridinium) hydrobromide monohydrate, (3-NH 2PB2) 2HBrṡH 2O ( 1), has been studied by X-ray diffraction, B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and calorimetric measurements. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic, space group Pbca. The Br anion and water molecules are positionally disordered so that Br(1) and O(1w) are located at the same positions with the same average occupations and they form O(1w)H⋯Br bonded zigzag chains along [1 0 0], with the Br⋯O(1w)⋯Br and O(1w)⋯Br⋯O(1w) angles equal 121.0(3)°. These chains are connected to the O(1)⋯H(1)⋯O(11) bonded cations through NH⋯Br and NH⋯O(1w) bonds. A pair of 3-NH 2PB2 molecules is bridged by a short symmetric O(1)·H·O(11) hydrogen bond of 2.462(6) Ǻ. The FTIR spectrum of ( 1) shows a broad and intense absorption in the 1500-400 cm -1 range, similar to that in the spectra of type A acid salts of carboxylic acids and other 2:1 betaine complexes with mineral acids. The assignment of the anharmonic experimental solid-state vibrational frequencies of the compound investigated is proposed based on the second-derivative spectrum ( d2). Correlations between the experimental 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts ( δexp) and the GIAO/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculated magnetic isotropic shielding constants ( σcal) in DMSO-d 6, δexp = a + b· σcalc, are reported.

  19. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Chad A; Benardot, Dan; Cody, Mildred; Thompson, Walter R

    2008-07-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrMH) supplementation aids the ability to maintain performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, including jump performance. However, carbohydrate supplementation may also provide similar benefits and is less expensive. This study compared the effects of an energy-free placebo, 2 different caloric concentrations of carbohydrate drinks, and a CrMH supplement on repeated jump heights. Sixty active males (mean age, 22 +/- 3.2 years) performed 2 sets of countermovement static jump height tests (10 jumps over 60 seconds) separated by 5 days to determine the differential effects of the placebo, carbohydrate, and CrMH on jump height sustainability over 10 jumps. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups (15 subjects per group) to receive daily doses (x5 days) of carbohydrate drinks containing 100 or 250 kilocalories (kcal), a 25-g CrMH supplement, or an energy-free placebo. After 5 days, the CrMH group experienced a significant weight gain (+1.52; +/-0.89 kg, p < 0.01), while the other groups did not. The 2 levels of carbohydrate and CrMH supplements were all significantly better at sustaining jump height than the energy-free placebo over the final 3-4 jumps. The 250-kcal carbohydrate-supplemented group experienced a level of benefit (p < 0.01) that was at least equal to that of the CrMH group (p < 0.05), suggesting that the higher dose of carbohydrate was as effective as CrMH in maintaining repeated bouts of high-intensity activity as measured by repeated static jumps. Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities. PMID:18545204

  20. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Hendrix, C Russell; Mielke, Michelle; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of supplementation with 20 g·d⁻¹ of creatine monohydrate (CM) on mean power (MP) and peak power (PP) from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), body weight (BW), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bilateral leg extension (LE) strength, and 1RM bench press (BP) strength. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD: age = 22.1 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.0 ± 5.8 cm; body weight [BW] = 77.6 ± 7.6 kg) were randomly assigned to either a supplement (SUPP; n = 10) or placebo (PLAC; n = 12) group. The SUPP group ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM powder for 7 days, whereas the PLAC ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of maltodextrin powder. Measurements for the PLAC and SUPP groups included BW, PP, and MP from two 30-second WAnTs (separated by 7 minutes), and 1RM strength for LE and BP. Testing was conducted before (PRE) and after (POST) 7 days of ingesting either the supplement or placebo. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase from PRE to POST testing in MP for the SUPP group (5.4%) but not for the PLAC group (-0.3%). There were no between-group differences, however, for 1RM LE and 1RM BP strength. Furthermore, there were no changes in PP or BW for either group. The findings of this study indicated that loading with 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM for 7 days increased MP (5.4% increase) from the WAnT, but it had no effect on strength (1RM LE and 1RM BP), PP, or BW.

  1. Increased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to injured renal tubular epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Verkoelen, C F; van der Boom, B G; Houtsmuller, A B; Schröder, F H; Romijn, J C

    1998-05-01

    The retention of crystals in the kidney is considered to be a crucial step in the development of a renal stone. This study demonstrates the time-dependent alterations in the extent of calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) crystal binding to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells during their growth to confluence and during the healing of wounds made in confluent monolayers. As determined by radiolabeled COM crystal binding studies and confirmed by confocal-scanning laser microscopy, relatively large amounts of crystals (10.4 +/- 0.4 micrograms/cm2) bound to subconfluent cultures that still exhibited a low transepithelial electrical resistance (TER < 400 omega.cm2). The development of junctional integrity, indicated by a high resistance (TER > 1,500 omega.cm2), was followed by a decrease of the crystal binding capacity to almost undetectable low levels (0.13 +/- 0.03 microgram/cm2). Epithelial injury resulted in increased crystal adherence. The highest level of crystal binding was observed 2 days postinjury when the wounds were already morphologically closed but TER was still low. Confocal images showed that during the repair process, crystals selectively adhered to migrating cells at the wound border and to stacked cells at sites were the wounds were closed. After the barrier integrity was restored, crystal binding decreased again to the same low levels as in undamaged controls. These results indicate that, whereas functional MDCK monolayers are largely protected against COM crystal adherence, epithelial injury and the subsequent process of wound healing lead to increased crystal binding.

  2. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals internalized into renal tubular cells are degraded and dissolved by endolysosomes.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-02-25

    Interaction between calcium oxalate crystals and renal tubular cells has been recognized as one of the key mechanisms for kidney stone formation. While crystal adhesion and internalization have been extensively investigated, subsequent phenomena (i.e. crystal degradation and dissolution) remained poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (1000 μg/ml of crystals/culture medium) to confirm crystal internalization into MDCK (Type II) renal tubular cells after exposure to the crystals for 1 h and to trace the internalized crystals. Crystal size, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were measured using a spectrofluorometer for up to 48 h after crystal internalization. Moreover, markers for early endosome (Rab5), late endosome (Rab7) and lysosome (LAMP-2) were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry confirmed that FITC-labelled COM crystals were internalized into MDCK cells (14.83 ± 0.85%). The data also revealed a reduction of crystal size in a time-dependent manner. In concordance, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were decreased and increased, respectively, indicating crystal degradation/dissolution inside the cells and the degraded products were eliminated extracellularly. Moreover, Rab5 and Rab7 were both up-regulated and were also associated with the up-regulated LAMP-2 to form large endolysosomes in the COM-treated cells at 16-h after crystal internalization. We demonstrate herein, for the first time, that COM crystals could be degraded/dissolved by endolysosomes inside renal tubular cells. These findings will be helpful to better understand the crystal fate and protective mechanism against kidney stone formation.

  3. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  4. Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals.

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, S; Anandan, P; Kanagasabapathy, K; Bhattacharya, Suman; Gopinath, S; Rajasekaran, R

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of zinc doped L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate were successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature for different molar concentration of zinc chloride. The structural properties of grown crystals have been studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction studies and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The incorporation of the dopant (zinc chloride) into L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate crystal lattice has been confirmed by EDAX analysis. UV-Vis spectral analyses showed that the doped crystals have lower UV cut-off wavelength at 200 nm combined with very good transparency about 85% in a very wide range. The second harmonic generation efficiency test has been carried out and results are discussed. The 0.2 and 0.4 mol Zinc chloride doped crystals were thermally stable up to 208.9 °C and 211.9 °C respectively. The electrical properties have been studied by dielectric constant studies. All results are compared with the results of pure L-PCCM crystals. PMID:23583849

  5. Ab initio simulation of ammonia monohydrate (NH3ṡH2O) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.; Brodholt, J. P.; Wood, I. G.; Vočadlo, L.; Jenkins, H. D. B.

    2001-10-01

    We report the results of the first pseudopotential plane-wave simulations of the static properties of ammonia monohydrate phase I (AMH I) and ammonium hydroxide. Our calculated fourth-order logarithmic equation of state, at zero pressure and temperature, has molar volume, V0=36.38(3) cm3 mol-1, bulk modulus, K0=9.59(9) GPa, and the first derivative of the bulk modulus with respect to pressure, K0'=5.73(21). Both this and the lattice parameters are in very good agreement with experimental values. The monohydrate transforms, via a solid-state proton transfer reaction, to ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) at 5.0(4) GPa. The equation of state of ammonium hydroxide is, V0=31.82(5) cm3 mol-1, K0=14.78(62) GPa, K0'=2.69(48). We calculate the reaction enthalpy, ΔH(NH4OH,s→NH3ṡH2O,s)=-14.8(5) kJ mol-1 at absolute zero, and thus estimate the enthalpy of formation, ΔfH⊖(NH4OH,s)=-356 kJ mol-1 at 298 K. This result places an upper limit of 84 kJ mol-1 on the barrier to rotation of the ammonium cation, and yields an average hydrogen bond enthalpy of ˜23 kJ mol-1.

  6. Synthesis, crystal growth and spectroscopic investigation of novel metal organic crystal: β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.

    2014-07-01

    β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM), a new metal organic crystal has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The β-ACBM crystallized in monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The presence of protons and carbons in the β-alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate was confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. The mode of vibration of different molecular groups present in β-ACBM was identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. Transparency of crystals in UV-Vis-NIR region has also been studied. The thermal characteristics of as-grown crystals were analyzed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The magnetic property of the grown crystal was investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at ambient temperature. The mechanical stability of β-ACBM was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurement.

  7. Solution properties and taste behavior of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions at different temperatures: Volumetric and rheological approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit

    2016-11-15

    The densities and viscosities of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions with several molal concentrations m=(0.00-0.08)molkg(-1) of ascorbic acid were determined at T=(298.15-318.15)K and pressure p=101kPa. Using experimental data apparent molar volume (ϕV), standard partial molar volume (ϕV(0)), the slope (SV(∗)), apparent specific volumes (ϕVsp), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕE(0)) and its temperature dependence [Formula: see text] the viscosity B-coefficient and solvation number (Sn) were determined. Viscosity B-coefficients were further employed to obtain the free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solvents (Δμ1(0≠)) and of the solute (Δμ2(0≠)). Effects of molality, solute structure and temperature and taste behavior were analyzed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions; results revealed that the solutions are characterized predominantly by solute-solvent interactions and lactose monohydrate behaves as a long-range structure maker. PMID:27283672

  8. The crystal structure, vibrational spectra, thermal behaviour and second harmonic generation of aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macháčková, Zorka; Němec, Ivan; Teubner, Karel; Němec, Petr; Vaněk, Přemysl; Mička, Zdeněk

    2007-04-01

    Aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate was prepared by crystallisation from aqueous solution and X-ray structural analysis was carried out. The substance crystallises in the orthorhombic system in space group P2 12 12 1, a = 7.1380(2) Å, b = 9.9700(4) Å, c = 14.0790(6) Å, V = 1001.94(7) Å 3, Z = 4, R = 0.0271 for 2272 observed reflections. The crystal structure consists of a 3D framework formed by hydrogen tartrate anions and water molecules with incorporated aminoguanidinium(1+) cations connected by a system of hydrogen bonds. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of natural and N,O-deuterated compounds were measured and discussed at laboratory temperature. DSC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 95 to 380 K. A weak anomaly was observed at a temperature of 268 K. Quantitative measurements of second harmonic generation of powdered aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen tartrate monohydrate at 800 nm were performed relative to KDP and a relative efficiency of 14% was observed.

  9. Synthesis and non linear optical properties of new inorganic-organic hybrid material: 4-Benzylpiperidinium sulfate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessentini, Yassmin; Ahmed, Ali Ben; Al-Juaid, Salih S.; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The synthesized compound was characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible and photoluminescence studies. The title compound crystallises at room temperature in the non centrosymmetric space group P212121.The recorded UV-visible spectrum show good transparency in the visible region and indicates a non-zero value of the first Hyperpolarizability. Photoluminescence spectrum shows a broad and intense band at 440 nm and indicates that the crystal emits blue fluorescence. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), Polarizability (α), the static first Hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound was theoretically investigated by GAUSSIAN 03 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 6.4022 × 10-31 esu. The results show that 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate crystal might have important non linear optical behavior and can be a potential non linear optical material of interest.

  10. ANALYSIS OF OH STRETCHING FREQUENCIES IN GLUCOSE AND GLUCOSE MONOHYDRATES CALCULATED BY DFT: ROTOMER AND WATER PLACEMENT EFFECTS ON THE CALCULATED SPECTRUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared spectra were calculated for glucose molecules and glucose monohydrate complexes, based on geometry optimization at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Alpha and Beta anomers were considered, with all possible combinations of hydroxymethyl rotamer (gg,gt, or tg) and hydroxyl orientation (...

  11. Comment on the paper: "Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: a non-linear optical crystal".

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2015-01-01

    The title paper (Manimekalai et al., 2014) reports a slow evaporation solution growth of a so called 'Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate' (AALSMH) crystal. In this communication, many points of criticism, concerning the crystal growth, NMR spectrum and X-ray powder pattern of this so called AALSMH nonlinear optical crystal are highlighted.

  12. Structural evaluation of three 2-phenylpyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one monohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Vitor F.; Leal, Katia Z.; Lindgren, Eric B.; de Oliveira, Mara R. P.; de Souza, Maria Celia B. V.; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R. A.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Yoneda, Julliane D.

    2013-11-01

    A single crystal X-ray diffraction and theoretical study has been carried out on mono hydrates of three 2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one derivatives, namely 6-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one, 3, 6-methyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one, 4, and 8-methyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one, 5. The monohydrates were obtained on recrystallization from moist solvents. While there are three tautomeric forms possible for such pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one molecules, the sole form isolated in the solid [(X)ṡ(H2O)] (X = 3, 4 and 5) compounds was the quinoloid form - the one calculated to be the most stable at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Excellent agreement was found between the calculated and X-ray determined structures. Molecule 5 in [(5)ṡ(H2O)] is very near planar while both molecules 3 and 4 in their respective hydrates are much less so as a consequence of angles about 24° between the two aromatic rings. In each hydrate, the pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one molecule is bonded to three water molecules and each water molecule is likewise H-bonded to three pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3-one molecules. While the water molecules are H-bonded to 3 and 4 via the pyridinyl N and 2x the carbonyl O atoms, in [(5)ṡ(H2O)] the H-bonds are to pyridinyl N, carbonyl O and a nitro O atoms. Calculations indicated that the found arrangement in [(5)ṡ(H2O)] is more stable than one using the connections as found in [(3)ṡ(H2O)] and [(4)ṡ(H2O)]. While each of the hydrates possess strong Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and weaker Csbnd H⋯π and π⋯π interactions, the supramolecular arrays are very different.

  13. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  14. Development of an instrument to measure adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate to surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeger, Craig Fredrick

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the primary constituent in kidney stones. COM crystals were synthesized in the laboratory and characterized. Computer calculations of particle shape have been reconciled to observed shapes of COM crystals experimentally synthesized under various conditions. Comparison between the theoretical atomic structures generated by computer calculations are consistent with previously reported atomic layering sequences. Composite mixing rules were used to deconvolute the dielectric constant of COM from a COM/silicone composite. Utilizing the Lichtenecker dielectric mixing model, the value of the static dielectric constant of COM was determined to be 28.9. Optical and dielectric data were then used in the Tabor-Winterton relationship to calculate the Hamaker constant, Asb{131}, of COM particles interacting in water. The Asb{131} for COM as a function of crystallographic habit also was examined. The mean value of Asb{131} for COM was calculated to be 13.7 × 10sp{-21} J at 37sp°C in an aqueous environment. A hydrodynamic method for measuring the adhesion of particles to a surface has been designed for use in the study of kidney stone disease and other pathological biomineralization phenomena. The hydrodynamic force required to displace a particle adhering to a fused quartz substrate was calculated via the Poiseuille equation. The strength necessary to remove 50% of the COM particles adhering to the substrate on the (010) and (101) crystallographic surfaces are 81 and 170 Pa, respectively. The previously determined Hamaker constant and measured values of zeta potential were used to calculate the energy of interaction between a COM particle and the fused quartz substrate which was found to be comparable to experimentally measured values, provided the separation distance was on the order of 20 nm. Using the instrument and technique developed, the adhesion of COM to biologically and non-biologically relevant materials was measured in COM

  15. Face-specific molecular adhesion and binding to calcium oxalate monohydrate: Implication for kidney stone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiaoxia

    This thesis focuses on the face-specific molecular adhesion to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the principal crystalline in kidney stones. The primary technique used is atomic force microscopy (AFM), which allows visualizing the structure and growth of crystals, measuring the adhesion force between functional groups and crystal faces, and examining adhesion and binding of the molecules to crystals. The microscopic events associated with crystal growth on the {100}, {12-1}, and {010} faces have been investigated. Each face exhibits hillocks with step sites that can be assigned to specific crystal planes, enabling direct determination of growth rates along specific crystallographic directions. The growth rates are found to depend on the degree of supersaturation. The addition of macromolecules with anionic side chains results in inhibition of hillock growth. The magnitude of this effect depends on the macromolecule structure & concentration, and the identity of the step site. The different profiles observed for three synthetic macromolecules, which have similar backbones but different side chains, argues that local binding of anionic side chains to crystal surface sites governs growth inhibition rather than any secondary polymer structure. The dependence of adhesion force on the functional group-COM crystal face combinations has been identified. Tip-immobilized carboxylate and amidinium groups display the largest adhesion forces among all the functional groups examined, and the adhesive strength decreases as (100) > (12-1) > (010). The more adherent surface of COM, compared with its dihydrate form COD, corroborates the critical role of COM in stone formation. The influence of small molecules, synthetic polymers and native proteins on adhesion was examined. The introduction of these molecular additives, except osteopontin, result in a reduction in the adhesion force measured for all three faces. The extent of suppression, however, varies for molecule

  16. Effects of creatine monohydrate and polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength, endurance, and power output.

    PubMed

    Herda, Trent J; Beck, Travis W; Ryan, Eric D; Smith, Abbie E; Walter, Ashley A; Hartman, Michael J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a moderate dose of creatine monohydrate (CM) and two smaller doses of polyethylene glycosylated (PEG) creatine on muscular strength, endurance, and power output. Fifty-eight healthy men (mean +/- SD: age, 21 +/- 2 years; height, 176 +/- 6 cm; body mass [BM], 75 +/- 14 kg) volunteered and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (a) placebo (PL; 3.6 g of microcrystalline cellulose; n = 15), (b) CM (5 g of creatine; n = 13), (c) small-dose PEG creatine (1.25 g of creatine: PEG1.25; n = 14), or (d) moderate-dose PEG creatine (2.50 g of creatine: PEG2.50; n = 16). Testing was conducted before (pre-) and after (post-) a 30-day supplementation period. Measurements included body mass, countermovement vertical jump (CVJ) height, power output during the Wingate test (peak power [PP] and mean power [MP]), 1 repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), 1RM leg press (1RMLP) strength, and repetitions to failure at 80% of the 1RM for bench press (REPBP) and leg press (REPLP). BM and MP (W) increased (p

  17. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  18. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  19. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  20. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  1. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  2. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  3. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  4. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  5. Spectral, optical and mechanical studies on L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHC) single crystals grown by unidirectional growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, R.; Justin Raj, C.; Krishnan, S.; Uthrakumar, R.; Dinakaran, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    Single crystals of nonlinear optical L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHC) were grown in an aqueous solution by the unidirectional crystal growth method within a period of 45 days along (1 0 1) plane. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their orthorhombic structure having space group P2 12 12 1. Values of several physical parameters were determined for the grown crystal. Optical transmission studies revealed very low absorption and band gap energy was calculated for the LHC crystals. Further, some optical constant were also determined for the grown crystals. Anisotropy in Vicker's microhardness led to the assessment of fracture toughness, brittleness index and yield strength for the synthesized crystals. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out for the grown crystal and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found to be three times that of KDP crystals.

  6. Crystal growth, structural characterization and theoretical investigation on 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid monohydrate for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Prasad, L. Guru; Jayamani, V.

    2015-06-01

    Organic crystal of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid monohydrate has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature, using water as solvent. Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometric structure and vibrational analysis of the title compound are carried out by DFT method with 6-31 + G (d, p) basis set. Both the experimental and theoretical spectra confirm the presence of functional groups. Electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first order hyperpolarizability values have been computed theoretically. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with the experimental results. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies confirm the charge transfer within the molecule. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound are determined.

  7. Structures of protonated thymine and uracil and their monohydrated gas-phase ions from ultraviolet action spectroscopy and theory.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sara Øvad; Byskov, Camilla Skinnerup; Turecek, Frantisek; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2014-06-19

    The strong UV chromophores thymine (Thy) and uracil (Ura) have identical heteroaromatic rings that only differ by one methyl substituent. While their photophysics has been elucidated in detail, the effect on the excited states of base protonation and single water molecules is less explored. Here we report gas-phase absorption spectra of ThyH(+) and UraH(+) and monohydrated ions and demonstrate that the substituent is not only responsible for spectral shifts but also influences the tautomer distribution, being different for bare and monohydrated ions. Spectra interpretation is aided by calculations of geometrical structures and transition energies. The lowest free-energy tautomer (denoted 178, enol-enol form) accounts for 230-280 nm (ThyH(+)) and 225-270 nm (UraH(+)) bands. ThyH(+) hardly absorbs above 300 nm, whereas a discernible band is measured for UraH(+) (275-320 nm), ascribed to the second lowest free-energy tautomer (138, enol-keto form) comprising a few percent of the UraH(+) population at room temperature. Band widths are similar to those measured of cold ions in support of very short excited-state lifetimes. Attachment of a single water increases the abundance of 138 relative to 178, 138 now clearly present for ThyH(+). 138 resembles more the tautomer present in aqueous solution than 178 does, and 138 may indeed be a relevant transition structure. The band of ThyH(+)(178) is unchanged, that of UraH(+)(178) is nearly unchanged, and that of UraH(+)(138) blue-shifts by about 10 nm. In stark contrast to protonated adenine, more than one solvating water molecule is required to re-establish the absorption of ThyH(+) and UraH(+) in aqueous solution.

  8. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  9. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength. Methods Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders (mean ± SD; age: 23.1 ± 2.9; height: 166.0 ± 23.2 cm; weight: 80.18 ± 10.43 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP workout supplementation of creatine (5 grams). The PRE-SUPP group consumed 5 grams of creatine immediately before exercise. On the other hand, the POST-SUPP group consumed 5 grams immediately after exercise. Subjects trained on average five days per week for four weeks. Subjects consumed the supplement on the two non-training days at their convenience. Subjects performed a periodized, split-routine, bodybuilding workout five days per week (Chest-shoulders-triceps; Back-biceps, Legs, etc.). Body composition (Bod Pod®) and 1-RM bench press (BP) were determined. Diet logs were collected and analyzed (one random day per week; four total days analyzed). Results 2x2 ANOVA results - There was a significant time effect for fat-free mass (FFM) (F = 19.9; p = 0.001) and BP (F = 18.9; p < 0.001), however, fat mass (FM) and body weight did not reach significance. While there were trends, no significant interactions were found. However, using magnitude-based inference, supplementation with creatine post workout is possibly more beneficial in comparison to pre workout supplementation

  10. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  11. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  12. Development and validation of X-ray diffraction method for quantitative determination of crystallinity in warfarin sodium products.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate XRPD analytical method for the estimation of percent crystalline warfarin sodium present in drug products. Warfarin sodium (WS) is a clathrate containing Isopropyl alcohol entrapped in the crystalline structure. Four types of WS-excipient mixtures were prepared and used to make four formulations: M1 containing lactose monohydrate (WS: excipient 1:9), M2 containing anhydrous lactose (WS: excipient 1:9), M3 containing lactose monohydrate (WS: excipient 1:21.5), M4 containing lactose anhydrous (WS: excipient 1:21.5). Thoroughly mixed powders were packed in the XRD sample holders and diffractogram were collected. Diffractogram in the 7-9 2θ were found to be distinctive as the peak intensity grows with increasing percent crystalline WS. This peak region was, therefore, used to validate the XRPD method. Validation parameters were evaluated for accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). LOD and LOQ for M1, M2, M3, and M4 were 3.04, 3.17, 4.17, 4.49% and 9.21, 9.62, 12.65, 13.30%, respectively. The method was found to be linear with R(2)>0.99. With changing scan speed, X-ray power output, and type of sample holder, the method was found to be robust. Prediction of the % crystalline content of the WS sample with known crystallinity showed close agreement between actual and predicted value. In summary, XRPD method was validated, which can be used as a quantitative method for the estimation of % crystalline WS present in a drug product. PMID:26209072

  13. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  14. The influence of excipients on the stability of the moisture sensitive drugs aspirin and niacinamide: comparison of tablets containing lactose monohydrate with tablets containing anhydrous lactose.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Hoag, S W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that in tablet formulations, moisture-sensitive drugs formulated with lactose monohydrate have the same stability as formulations containing anhydrous lactose, and to characterize the kinetics of niacinamide degradation in the solid state. Aspirin and niacinamide decomposition were used as indicators of stability. Aspirin and niacinamide tablets containing either lactose monohydrate or anhydrous lactose were separately investigated at different temperatures and relative humidities; the stability tests were done at 25 degrees C--60% RH, 40 degrees C--80% RH, 60 degrees C--60% RH, 60 degrees C--80% RH, and 80 degrees C--80% RH. Official U.S. Pharmacopeia methods were used for the aspirin and niacinamide assays. Statistical analysis showed that tablets containing lactose monohydrate have the same stability as tablets containing anhydrous lactose, which means that even though water is present in the crystal structure, the bound water does not influence the reaction rate. In addition, niacinamide degradation in the solid-state can be described by a third order rate equation.

  15. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  16. Effects of Complementary Creatine Monohydrate and Physical Training on Inflammatory and Endothelial Dysfunction Markers Among Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemati, Farajollah; Rahmani, Asghar; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Soleimannejad, Koroush; Khalighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cytokine in heart failure patients (HF). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of creatine monohydrate and exercise on inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers among HF patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients were prospectively randomized into two groups: Intervention group which received 5 grams/day creatine monohydrate and exercised for 8 weeks; and control group which did not receive any interventions. Interleukine-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured at the start and end of the study for both groups. Results: In total, 100 patients including 50 controls and 50 intervention group (54% male, mean EF of 34.2 ± 10.5% and 52% male, mean EF of 35.6 ± 12.7%, respectively) were analyzed. The serum levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 increased at the end of the study in the control group compared to the baseline, (7.5 ± 1.5 mg/L vs. 6.9 ± 1.3 mg/L, P < 0.05 and 3.0 ± 0.75 ng/L vs. 2.55 ± 0.9 ng/L, P < 0.05, respectively). However, compared to the baseline, the level of both markers decreased at the end of the study in the intervention group (6.3 ± 1.6 mg/L vs.7.5 ± 1.5 mg/L, P < 0.05 and 2.1 ± 0.8 ng/L vs.2.5 ± 0.5 ng/L, P < 0.05). Also, P-selectin and ICAM-1 levels increased at the end of study (56.9 ± 1.8 ng/L vs. 51.9 ± 1.5 ng/L, P < 0.05 and 368.1 ± 25.4 µg/L vs. 353.1 ± 10.4 µg/L, P < 0.05 respectively). Inversely, the levels of these markers decreased in the intervention group, at the end of study (49.7 ± 1.9 ng/l vs. 51.4 ± 2.1 ng/l, P < 0.05 and 342.7 ± 16.5 µg/l vs. 350.4 ± 14.7 µg/l, P < 0.05, respectively). VCAM-1 level was not decreased significantly at the end of the study in the intervention group (570.5 ± 78.4 µg/L vs. 575.3 ± 86.5 µg/L, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Combination

  17. Gargling with sodium azulene sulfonate reduces the postoperative sore throat after intubation of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Junchi; Minami, Kouichiro; Horishita, Takafumi; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Terada, Tadanori; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2005-07-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a complication that remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. In this study, we investigated whether preoperative gargling with sodium 1,4-dimethyl-7-isopropylazulene-3-sulfonate monohydrate (sodium azulene sulfonate, Azunol) reduces POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into Azunol and control groups. In the Azunol group, patients gargled with 4 mg Azunol diluted with 100 mL tap water (40 microg/mL). In the control group, patients gargled with 100 mL of tap water. After emergence from general anesthesia, the patients with POST were counted and POST was evaluated using a verbal analog pain scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups by age, height, body weight, gender distribution, or duration of anesthesia and surgery. In the control group, 13 patients (65%) complained of POST, which remained 24 h later in nine patients (45%). In the Azunol group, five patients (25%) also complained of POST, which completely disappeared by 24 h later. The incidence of POST and verbal analog pain scale scores in the Azunol group decreased significantly compared with the control group. We demonstrated that gargling with Azunol effectively attenuated POST with no adverse reactions.

  18. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  20. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  3. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 3-(2-hy-droxy-2-phospho-nato-2-phosphono-eth-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-1-ium monohydrate (minodronic acid monohydrate): a redetermination.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Annalisa; Bettoni, Piergiorgio; Donnola, Monica; Calestani, Gianluca; Rizzoli, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the X-ray structure of the title compound, C9H12N2O7P2·H2O, was reported [Takeuchi et al., (1998 ▶). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 46, 1703-1709], but neither atomic coordinates nor details of the geometry were published. The structure has been redetermined with high precision as its detailed knowledge is essential to elucidate the presumed polymorphism of minodronic acid monohydrate at room temperature. The mol-ecule crystallizes in a zwitterionic form with cationic imidazolium[1,2a]pyridine and anionic phospho-nate groups. The dihedral angle formed by the planes of the pyridine and imidazole rings is 3.55 (9)°. A short intra-molecular C-H⋯O contact is present. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π inter-actions [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.5822 (11) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:25705449

  4. Quantification of residual crystallinity in ball milled commercially sourced lactose monohydrate by thermo-analytical techniques and terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoff; Hussain, Amjad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Ermolina, Irina

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of crystallinity is necessary in order to be able to control the milling process. The use of thermal analysis for this assessment presents certain challenges, particularly in the case of crystal hydrates. In this study, the residual crystallinity on ball milling of lactose monohydrate (LMH), for periods up to 90min, was evaluated by thermo-analytical techniques (TGA, DSC) and terahertz spectroscopy (THz). In general, the results from one of the DSC analysis and the THz measurements agree showing a monotonous decrease in relative residual crystallinity with milling time (∼80% reduction after 60min milling) and a slight increase at the 90min time point. However, the estimates from TGA and two other methods of analyzing DSC curve do not agree with the former techniques and show variability with significantly higher estimates for crystallinity. It was concluded that, the thermal techniques require more complex treatment of the data in the evaluation of changes in crystallinity of a milled material (in particular to account for the de-vitrification and mutarotation of the material that inevitably occurs during the measurement cycle) while the analysis of THz data is more straightforward, with the measurement having no impact on the native state of the material. PMID:25784570

  5. Growth, crystalline perfection, optical, thermal, laser damage threshold and electrical characterization of melaminium levulinate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, N.; Kanagathara, N.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Kalainathan, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-09-01

    Equimolar amounts of melamine and levulinic acid results an organic crystal of melaminium levulinate monohydrate (MLM) at room temperature. MLM belongs to a monoclinic crystal structure having P21/c space group which was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the MLM crystal were identified by FT-IR spectral study. HRXRD study dictates the quality of MLM crystal. UV-visble spectrum of MLM reveals the lower cut-off wavelength of 293 nm with 55% optical transparency and optical band gap was found to be 4.20 eV for the prominent plane (1 0 -1). Refractive indices for the three axes of MLM crystal were found to be nx=2.6, ny=2.4 and nz=2.2 respectively. Further the thermal stability and melting point of MLM crystal were investigated by TG/DTA study. Dielectric permittivity tensor components were estimated for the planes (1 0 -1), (0 1 0) and (1 1 1) respectively. The thermal conductivity of the crystal by Wiedemann-Franz law was found to be 5.99×10-11 W/mK at 70 °C. LDT value (2.84 GW/cm2) of MLM was estimated for laser optical device applications.

  6. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of an organic single crystal: Quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohana, J.; Ahila, G.; Bharathi, M. Divya; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Organic single crystals of quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (QN) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol and water as a mixed solvent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. The functional groups present in the crystallized material confirmed its molecular structure. The optical transparency range and the lower cutoff wavelength were identified from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants were determined by UV-visible transmission spectrum at normal incidence, measured over the 200-700 nm spectral range. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occur within the molecule. Electronic excitation properties were discussed within the framework of two level model on the basis of an orbital analysis. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) of QN was measured by Z-scan technique and reported here. Thermal stability of QN was determined using TGA/DSC curves. Vicker's microhardness studies were carried out on the (1 1 ̅0) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The microhardness measurements showed a Vickers hardness value as 18.4 kg/mm2 which is comparable to well-known organic crystal, urea.

  7. Fabrication of optical element from unidirectional grown imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) organic crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of Imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) has been grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method using acetonitrile as solvent. First time we report the bulk growth of IIP crystal by SR method. The transparent IIP single crystal of maximum diameter 21 mm and length 46 mm was obtained by employing SR method. The grown crystal was subjected to high resolution X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR transmittance, refractive index, hardness, dielectric and laser damage threshold studies. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was analyzed using HRXRD. Cut off wavelength and optical transmission window of the crystal was assessed by UV-vis-NIR and the refractive index of the crystal was found. The mechanical property of the crystal was estimated by Vicker's hardness test. The dielectric property of the crystal was measured as a function of frequency. The laser damage threshold value was determined. The particle size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency for IIP was evaluated with standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by Kurtz-Perry powder method using Nd:YAG laser, which established the existence of phase matching. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of IIP crystal was investigated by the SHG Maker fringes technique. The mechanism of growth is revealed by carrying out chemical etching using acetonitrile as etchant.

  8. Synthesis, structure, crystal growth and characterization of a novel semiorganic nonlinear optical L-proline lithium bromide monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiskumar, S.; Balakrishnan, T.; Ramamurthi, K.; Thamotharan, S.

    2015-03-01

    L-Proline lithium bromide monohydrate (LPLBM), a promising semiorganic nonlinear optical material, was synthesized and single crystals of LPLBM were grown from solution by slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray structure solution reveals that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21. Presence of various functional groups was identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral analyses. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic study shows that the LPLBM crystal possesses 90% of transmittance in the range of 250-1100 nm. Vickers microhardness values, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the LPLBM crystal were reported. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows the presence of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and bromine. The surface morphology of the crystal was investigated using scanning electron microscopic study. The thermal stability of the LPLBM crystal was studied from TGA and DSC analysis. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the LPLBM crystal measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser is about 0.3 times that of urea.

  9. Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-04-01

    Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of non-centrosymmetric 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: ORTEP diagram of HQDBT. - Highlights: • Single crystal XRD and NMR studies confirm the formation of the title compound. • SHG efficiency was found to be 0.6 times that of KDP. • First-order hyperpolarizability (β) was calculated using HF and B3LYP methods. - Abstract: A novel 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate crystal has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has been done for the title compound and is found to crystallize in orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The optical absorption cut-off wavelength is found to be 440 nm. The vibrational analysis has been carried out to assess the functional groups present in the title compound. The molecular structure of the title compound has been confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the melting point and thermal stability of the title compound. The second harmonic generation efficiency is confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique. Further quantum chemical calculations are performed using Gaussian 03 software.

  11. Crystal structure, thermal analysis and IR spectrometric investigation of the tris(2,6-diaminopyridinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saïd, Salem; Elleuch, Slim; Ślepokura, Katarzyna; Lis, Tadeusz; Naïli, Houcine

    2016-06-01

    The crystals of new inorganic-organic hybrid material tris(2,6-diaminopyridinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate monohydrate (C5H8N3)3(HSO4)(SO4)·H2O, were grown by slow evaporation technique in aqueous solution. The title compound has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P 1 bar , with the following cell parameters a = 8.051(3)Å, b = 10.646(4)Å, c = 14.138(6)Å, α = 73.23(3)°, β = 79.28(3)°, γ = 82.28(3)°, V = 1135.8(8)Å3 and Z = 2, T = 100 K. The crystal is built up from hydrogen sulfate anions HSO4-, sulfate anions SO42-, protonated cations (C5H8N3)+ and water molecules. In this compound, hydrogen bonding and π⋯π interactions play crucial roles in forming interesting structural patterns. Thermal analysis indicates that (C5H8N3)3(HSO4)(SO4)·H2O does not experience any structural phase transition in the temperature range measured from 25 to 700 °C. Therefore, the properties of the new phase are inconsistent with the characteristic features of the superprotonic family M3H(SO4)2.

  12. High-throughput platform for design and screening of peptides as inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanesh, Sahar; Chung, Jihae; Chandra, Divya; Sosa, Ricardo D.; Karande, Pankaj; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2013-06-01

    Crystal growth modifiers present a versatile tool for controlling crystal shape and size. Our work described here focuses on the design and screening of short peptides as inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals using high-throughput approaches. We designed a small library of 13 peptides containing Ala and Asp amino acids arranged in varying sequences that mimic ubiquitous motifs in natural calcium-binding proteins. Peptides were screened using a quick assay to measure their efficacy for inhibiting COM crystallization. Our results show that subtle variations in the placement of Ala and Asp residues in the peptide sequence can have a profound effect on their inhibition potential. We were able to discover peptide sequences that inhibit COM crystallization more effectively than some of the well-known COM inhibitors, such as citrate. Our results also demonstrate that peptides can be engineered to bind to specific faces of COM crystals. Peptide sequences identified in this work are promising candidates for further development as therapies for biomineral-related diseases, such as kidney stone disease. Collectively, our work establishes new paradigms for the design, synthesis, and screening of peptides for controlling crystal habit with the potential to impact a variety of fields, including drug discovery, advanced materials, catalysis and separations.

  13. Novel bioactive composite bone cements based on the beta-tricalcium phosphate-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate composite cement system.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang

    2009-05-01

    Bioactive composite bone cements were obtained by incorporation of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5, C3S) into a brushite bone cement composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-Ca3(PO4)2, beta-TCP] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM], and the properties of the new cements were studied and compared with pure brushite cement. The results indicated that the injectability, setting time and short- and long-term mechanical strength of the material are higher than those of pure brushite cement, and the compressive strength of the TCP/MCPM/C3S composite paste increased with increasing aging time. Moreover, the TCP/MCPM/C3S specimens showed significantly improved in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid and similar degradability in phosphate-buffered saline as compared with brushite cement. Additionally, the reacted TCP/MCPM/C3S paste possesses the ability to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and promote osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells. The results indicated that the TCP/MCPM/C3S cements may be used as a bioactive material for bone regeneration, and might have significant clinical advantage over the traditional beta-TCP/MCPM brushite cement.

  14. Crystal structure of cis-2-(2-carb-oxy-cyclo-prop-yl)glycine (CCG-III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Sergey; Wallock, Nathaniel J; Donaldson, William A

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C6H9NO4·H2O [systematic name: (αR,1R,2S)-rel-α-amino-2-carb-oxy-cyclo-propane-acetic acid monohydrate], crystallizes with two organic mol-ecules and two water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The space group is P21 and the organic mol-ecules are enanti-omers, thus this is an example of a 'false conglomerate' with two mol-ecules of opposite handedness in the asymmetric unit (r.m.s. overlay fit = 0.056 Å for one mol-ecule and its inverted partner). Each mol-ecule exists as a zwitterion, with proton transfer from the amino acid carb-oxy-lic acid group to the amine group. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating (100) sheets. Conformationally restricted glutamate analogs are of inter-est due to their selective activation of different glutamate receptors, and the naturally occurring (+)-CCG-III is an inhibitor of glutamate uptake and the key geometrical parameters are discussed.

  15. Crystal structure of cis-2-(2-carb-oxy-cyclo-prop-yl)glycine (CCG-III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Sergey; Wallock, Nathaniel J; Donaldson, William A

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C6H9NO4·H2O [systematic name: (αR,1R,2S)-rel-α-amino-2-carb-oxy-cyclo-propane-acetic acid monohydrate], crystallizes with two organic mol-ecules and two water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The space group is P21 and the organic mol-ecules are enanti-omers, thus this is an example of a 'false conglomerate' with two mol-ecules of opposite handedness in the asymmetric unit (r.m.s. overlay fit = 0.056 Å for one mol-ecule and its inverted partner). Each mol-ecule exists as a zwitterion, with proton transfer from the amino acid carb-oxy-lic acid group to the amine group. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating (100) sheets. Conformationally restricted glutamate analogs are of inter-est due to their selective activation of different glutamate receptors, and the naturally occurring (+)-CCG-III is an inhibitor of glutamate uptake and the key geometrical parameters are discussed. PMID:26279882

  16. Electron spin echo and spin relaxation of low-symmetry Mn(2+)-complexes in ammonium oxalate monohydrate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stanisław K; Lijewski, Stefan; Goslar, Janina; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Pulse EPR experiments were performed on low concentration Mn(2+) ions in ammonium oxalate monohydrate single crystals at X-band, in the temperature range 4.2-60K at crystal orientation close to the D-tensor z-axis. Hyperfine lines of the resolved spin transitions were selectively excited by short nanosecond pulses. Electron spin echo signal was not observed for the low spin transition (+5/2↔+3/2) suggesting a magnetic field threshold for the echo excitation. Echo appears for higher spin transitions with amplitude, which grows with magnetic field. Opposite behavior displays amplitude of echo decay modulations, which is maximal at low field and negligible for high field spin transitions. Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the pulse saturation method. After the critical analysis of possible relaxation processes it was concluded that the relaxation is governed by Raman T(7)-process. The relaxation is the same for all spin transitions except the lowest temperatures (below 20K) where the high field transitions (-3/2↔-1/2) and (-5/2↔-3/2) have a slower relaxation rate. Electron spin echo dephasing is produced by electron spectral diffusion mainly, with a small contribution from instantaneous diffusion for all spin transitions. For the highest field transition (-5/2↔-3/2) an additional contribution from nuclear spectral diffusion appears with resonance type enhancement at low temperatures.

  17. 2-(4-Hy­droxy­phen­yl)-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    González-Padilla, Jazmin E.; Rosales-Hernández, Martha Cecila; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I.; García-Báez, Efren V.; Rojas-Lima, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The title mol­ecular salt, C13H11N2O+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. In the cation, the phenol and benzimidazole rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.18 (4)°. The chloride anion and benzimidazole cation are linked by two N+—H⋯Cl− hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked through O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecule and the chloride anion, which form a diamond core, giving rise to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (10-2). Two π–π inter­actions involving the imidazolium ring with the benzene and phenol rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.859 (3) and 3.602 (3) Å, respectively], contribute to this second dimension. A strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the water mol­ecule and the phenol substituent on the benzimidazole unit links the networks, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:24427105

  18. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  19. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Herbertz, Stephan; Sawyer, J Scott; Stauber, Anja J; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Driscoll, Kyla E; Estrem, Shawn T; Cleverly, Ann L; Desaiah, Durisala; Guba, Susan C; Benhadji, Karim A; Slapak, Christopher A; Lahn, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle) of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab) in patients with cancer with high unmet medical needs such as glioblastoma, pancreatic cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present review summarizes the past and current experiences with different pharmacological treatments that enabled galunisertib to be investigated in patients. PMID:26309397

  20. Effect of a defined lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on plasma creatine concentration.

    PubMed

    Lukaszuk, Judith M; Robertson, Robert J; Arch, Judith E; Moyna, Niall M

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the effects that preceding creatine supplementation with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet would have on plasma creatine concentration. Twenty-six healthy moderately fit omnivorous men were assigned to either a 26-day lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV; n = 12) or omnivorous (Omni; n = 14) diet. On day 22, subjects were also assigned in a double-blind manner either creatine monohydrate (CM; 0.3 g.kg(-1).day(-1) + 20 g Polycose) or an equivalent dose of placebo (PL) for 5 days. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 22 and 27. Consuming a LOV diet for 21 days was effective in reducing plasma creatine concentration (p < 0.01) in the LOV group. Regardless of diet, the CM group showed an increase in plasma creatine concentrations from day 22 to 27, whereas the PL group's levels remained the same (p < 0.05). Although the LOV diet caused a deprivation effect in plasma creatine concentration relative to the Omni diet, concurrent supplementation with creatine resulted in no difference in plasma creatine concentrations between the LOV and Omni diet groups. Dietary advice should be provided to LOV athletes that supplementation with creatine may help to increase their muscle stores of creatine, and thus their ATP resynthesis capabilities, to levels similar to those of omnivores.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  7. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  8. Radicular penetration of hydrogen peroxide during intra-coronal bleaching with various forms of sodium perborate.

    PubMed

    Weiger, R; Kuhn, A; Löst, C

    1994-11-01

    The development of external cervical root resorption following internal bleaching of discoloured pulpless teeth is associated with the use of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the study was to determine radicular penetration of hydrogen peroxide following intracoronal bleaching with various forms of sodium perborate. 63 extracted human incisors were root filled and stained artificially. Standardized cementum defects were created on the mesial and distal aspects of the root directly below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Using the walking bleach technique all teeth were bleached for a 6-day period, with replacement of the bleaching paste after days 1 and 3. Sodium perborate monohydrate (MH), trihydrate (TRH) or tetrahydrate (TH) was mixed with H2O2 or H2O and subsequently placed intracoronally 1 mm below the labial CEJ. The teeth were divided into six groups: I. MH + H2O2(30%) (n = 12); II. TRH + H2O2(30%) (n = 12); III. TH + H2O2(30%) (n = 12); IV. TH + H2O (n = 12); V. TH + H2O, gel (n = 12); VI. no bleaching paste (n = 3). At baseline and at days 1, 3 and 6 the amount of H2O2 taken up from the surrounding medium of each root was indirectly recorded and calculated as p.p.m. Almost all teeth of the experimental groups showed leakage of hydrogen peroxide compared to those of the control group. The radicular penetration of hydrogen peroxide was significantly higher in teeth of groups I and III than in those of groups IV and V (P < or = 0.001). In conclusion, the amount of hydrogen peroxide leakage depends, among other factors, on the form of sodium perborate used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 2-Hydroxy-3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ium-4-yl)benzoate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Usman, Anwar; Nayar, Chandini R; Unnikrishnan, P A; Sreeja, P B; Prathapachandra Kurup, M R; Fun, Hoong Kun

    2002-12-01

    The title molecule, C(13)H(13)N(3)O(3).H(2)O, is in the form of a monohydrated zwitterion. The tetrahydropyridinium ring adopts an envelope conformation and is nearly coplanar with the plane of the imidazoline ring. The water solvate molecule plays an important role as a bridge between zwitterions, forming molecular chains running along the c direction, which are interconnected by N-H.O hydrogen bonds into molecular ribbons. The crystal packing is further stabilized by another N-H.O and one O-H.N hydrogen bond, which interconnect the molecular ribbons. PMID:12466626

  10. The comparison of approaches to the solid-state NMR-based structural refinement of vitamin B1 hydrochloride and of its monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Jiří; Pawlak, Tomasz; Potrzebowski, Marek J.; Brus, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The 13C and 15N CPMAS SSNMR measurements were accompanied by the proper theoretical description of the solid-phase environment, as provided by the density functional theory in the pseudopotential plane-wave scheme, and employed in refining the atomic coordinates of the crystal structures of thiamine chloride hydrochloride and of its monohydrate. Thus, using the DFT functionals PBE, PW91 and RPBE, the SSNMR-consistent solid-phase structures of these compounds are derived from the geometrical optimization, which is followed by an assessment of the fits of the GIPAW-predicted values of the chemical shielding parameters to their experimental counterparts.

  11. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  12. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  13. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation and exercise on depression-like behaviors and raphe 5-HT neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nari; Leem, Yea Hyun; Kato, Morimasa; Chang, Hyukki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of creatine and exercise on chronic stress-induced depression are unclear. In the present study, we identified the effects of 4-week supplementation of creatine monohydrate and/or exercise on antidepressant behavior and raphe 5-HT expression in a chronic mild stress-induced depressed mouse model. [Methods] Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided randomly into 5 groups: (1) non-stress control (CON, n=10), (2) stress control (ST-CON, n=10), (3) stress and creatine intake (ST-Cr, n=10), (4) stress and exercise (ST-Ex, n=9), and (5) combined stress, exercise, and creatine intake (ST-Cr+Ex, n=9). After five weeks’ treatment, we investigated using both anti-behavior tests (the Tail Suspension Test (TST) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST)), and 5-HT expression in the raphe nuclei (the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MnR)). [Results] Stress for 4 weeks significantly increased depressive behaviors in the mice. Treatment with creatine supplementation combined with exercise significantly decreased depressive behaviors as compared with the CON-ST group in both the TST and FST tests. With stress, 5-HT expression in the raphe nuclei decreased significantly. With combined creatine and exercise, 5-HT positive cells increased significantly and had a synergic effect on both DR and MnR. [Conclusion] The present study found that even a single treatment of creatine or exercise has partial effects as an antidepressant in mice with chronic mild stress-induced depression. Furthermore, combined creatine and exercise has synergic effects and is a more effective prescription than a single treatment. PMID:27757384

  15. FTIR, HATR and FT-Raman studies on the anhydrous and monohydrate species of maltose in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Iramain, Maximiliano Alberto; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-06-16

    The structures of α- and β-maltose anhydrous and their corresponding monohydrated species were studied combining the FT-IR, FT-Raman and HATR spectra with DFT calculations. The four structures were optimized in gas and aqueous solution by using the hybrid B3LYP/6-31G* method. The self-consistent force field (SCRF) calculations together with the polarized continuum (PCM) model were used to study the systems in solution while the solvation energies were computed using the solvation model (SM). The calculated structural and vibrational properties could explain the anomerization of maltose in solution, as was reported in the literature while the natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses for those species support clearly the mutarotation equilibria between both forms in solution, evidencing the anhydrous forms the equilibrium: α (45%) ⇔ β (55%), similar to that experimentally reported at 20 °C. Bands of all the species observed in the vibrational spectra support the presence of the anomeric species of maltose in solution while the presence of dimeric species justify the intense IR bands observed in the higher wavenumbers region. The similar gap values for maltose and lactose probably justify that these sugars are reducing sugars while the high values in sucrose could explain that it is a non-reducing sugar. On the other hand, the sweeteners cyclamate and saccharine are most reactive in solution than the sugars maltose, lactose and sucrose, as expected due to their ionic characteristics. The predicted vibrational spectra for the four species of maltose show reasonable concordances with the corresponding experimental ones. The f(δC-O-C) force constants of the glycosidic bonds follow the tendency: maltose > lactose > sucrose. PMID:27131126

  16. Europa Sodium Cloud: orbital variability and Sodium recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, F.; Leblanc, F.; Witasse, O.

    2007-08-01

    Discovery and further observations of Europa's thin atmosphere of sodium have been carried out by M.E. Brown (Brown and Hill 1996, Brown 2001, Brown 2004) and A.E. Potter and co-workers (Leblanc et al, 2005). The resonant scattering emission of sodium around Europa has been successfully modelled and compared to the compilation of such observations by Leblanc at al 2002; Leblanc et al 2005). Such an analysis confirmed that the cloud morphology is dominated by the production of Na from the trailing hemisphere. The influence of Europa's centrifugal latitude as well as the contribution of Io's sodium source at Europa orbit were also estimated. These studies concluded that the observed sodium atmosphere should be largely endogenic to Europa. However, significant variations of the total emission intensity along Europa's orbit around Jupiter were reported that were difficult to explain without adhoc assumptions on the variability of the sodium ejecta rate with respect to Europa position in Jupiter magnetosphere. In the present study, we investigate the redistribution of the ejected sodium atoms on the surface of the moon during its orbit around Jupiter following the suggestion by Leblanc et al (2005). In our model, the redistribution of sodium atoms at Europa's surface occurs from a set of ejection and absorption of the sodium atoms. Ejection processes are sputtering induced by energetic jovian particles, as well as photo-stimulated and thermal desorptions from the surface. Absorption mainly depends on the surface temperature and porosity. We will present comparisons of the newly calculated sodium emission with the observations, as well as density distributions of sodium at Europa's surface. Consequences of those calculations on the sodium cloud morphology will also be discussed.

  17. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  18. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  20. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  5. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  13. Genotoxicity evaluation of benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and trisodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid monohydrate using a combined rat comet/micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Ryoko; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Ogata, Keiko; Ota, Mika; Yamada, Toru; Miyata, Kaori; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi; Saito, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined DNA damage in the liver, stomach, and bone marrow of rats dosed orally three times with up to 2000 mg/kg of benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and trisodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid monohydrate. All three compounds gave negative results in the liver and stomach. In addition, a bone marrow comet and micronucleus analysis revealed that benzene, but not di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or trisodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid monohydrate induced a significant increase in the median % tail DNA and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, compared with the respective concurrent vehicle control. These results were in good agreement with the previously reported genotoxicity findings for each compound. The present study has shown that combining the micronucleus test with the comet assay and carrying out these analyses simultaneously is effective in clarifying the mechanism of action of genotoxic compounds such as benzene.

  14. Immunopharmacologic profile of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S I

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a pyranoquinolone, was specifically designed as an agent to suppress allergic inflammation. Nedocromil sodium significantly affects not only the early-phase of allergen-induced responses, but also expression of late-phase inflammation, even when administered after the onset of early-phase responses. Nedocromil sodium also limits bronchoconstriction induced by nonallergic factors, including cold air and sulfur dioxide at dosages lower than required with cromolyn sodium. Nedocromil sodium is more potent than cromolyn sodium in preventing mast cell degranulation in selective animal models. In addition, nedocromil sodium limits leukotriene C4 production by calcium ionophore-stimulated eosinophils and also limits the activity of platelet activating factor to induce neutrophil generation of superoxides. Diurnal variation of peak flow rates in asthmatics and requirement for both beta 2-agonists and inhaled beclomethasone have been noted to be reduced in several trials employing nedocromil sodium, suggesting that its in vivo activity parallels its in vitro activity as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  15. Physico-chemical and technological properties of sodium naproxen granules prepared in a high-shear mixer-granulator.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Piera; Malaj, Ledjan; Censi, Roberta; Martelli, Sante

    2008-12-01

    In the present work, authors produced tablets of anhydrous sodium naproxen by wet granulation using a high-shear mixer-granulator. Drug hydrated to the tetrahydrated form, as observed by X-ray powder diffractometry. After wet granulation, authors then performed two different drying procedures, obtaining granules of different water content and crystallographic characteristics. The first procedure dried granules in the high-shear mixer-granulator by applying vacuum at room temperature (batch A), while the second employed the same apparatus and time, under vacuum at 40 degrees C (batch B). X-ray powder diffractometry revealed that the sodium naproxen (SN) contained in batch A granules was a mixture of dihydrated and tetrahydrated forms (as demonstrated by the coexistence of peaks typical of both hydrated forms), while that of batch B granules was a mixture of monohydrated and tetrahydrated forms. This means that differences in drying procedures could lead to products of different crystallographic properties. The behavior under compression was evaluated, revealing that batch A offered the best tabletability and compressibility. These results make it possible to conclude that differences in the crystallographic properties and water content of SN are such that different hydration/drying processes can alter the drug crystal form and thus the tabletability of the resulting granules. PMID:18398910

  16. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  17. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. PMID:26319638

  18. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  19. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, transport also upregulated mRNA expression of avian uncoupling protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 1,200 mg/kg CMH increased the concentrations of Cr and PCr in PM muscle, and Cr in TA muscle than those in the 3-h transport group (P < 0.05). However, contrary to our hypothesis, dietary CMH did not alter the measured parameters in relation to muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity affected by 3-h transport (P > 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH

  20. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, transport also upregulated mRNA expression of avian uncoupling protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 1,200 mg/kg CMH increased the concentrations of Cr and PCr in PM muscle, and Cr in TA muscle than those in the 3-h transport group (P < 0.05). However, contrary to our hypothesis, dietary CMH did not alter the measured parameters in relation to muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity affected by 3-h transport (P > 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH

  1. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  2. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  3. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  4. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  5. Teratogenicity of sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Alsdorf, Rachel; Wyszynski, Diego F

    2005-03-01

    The teratogenicity of the widely popular antiepileptic drug (AED) and mood stabiliser sodium valproate (also known as valproate, VPA) has been evidenced by previous research; however, these findings have often been limited by a small population sample of exposed women and a retrospective study design. Many factors contribute to the teratogenicity of VPA. These include the number of drugs that are co-administered, drug dosage, differences in maternal and/or infant metabolism, the gestational age of the fetus at exposure, and hereditary susceptibility. VPA has been associated with a variety of major and minor malformations, including a 20-fold increase in neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular abnormalities, genitourinary defects, developmental delay, endocrinological disorders, limb defects, and autism. It has been suggested that polytherapy treatment in epileptic pregnant women increases the risk of teratogenicity in offspring. Furthermore, there is an established relationship between VPA dose and adverse outcome. Large single doses of VPA potentially cause high peak levels in the fetal serum resulting in deleterious effects. Currently there is an increase in the number of national and international pregnancy registries being formed in an effort to better identify the teratogenic effects of AEDs. These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations.

  6. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    PubMed

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen

  7. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  8. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  9. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  10. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  11. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  13. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  20. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  1. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for... temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  6. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  12. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  14. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  15. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  16. Studies on the growth, structural, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    An organic nonlinear optical bulk single crystal, Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate (ACHBS) was successfully grown by solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that, the grown crystal belongs to P21/c space group. Powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystallinity of the grown crystal. Infrared spectral analysis showed the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The thermal stability and decomposition stages of the grown crystal were studied by TG-DTA analysis. UV-Visible transmittance studies showed the transparency region and cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was estimated by Z-scan technique using Hesbnd Ne laser source. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test.

  17. Brain perfusion and permeability in patients with advanced, refractory glioblastoma treated with lomustine and the transforming growth factor-β receptor I kinase inhibitor LY2157299 monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    SEPULVEDA-SANCHEZ, JUAN; RAMOS, ANA; HILARIO, AMAYA; DE VELASCO, GUILLERMO; CASTELLANO, DANIEL; GARCIA DE LA TORRE, MARTA; RODON, JORDI; LAHN, MICHAEL F.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is associated with tumor progression and vascularization in malignant glioma. In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate changes in the size and vascularity of glioblastomas in 12 patients who were treated with lomustine and the novel inhibitor of TGF-β signaling, LY2157299 monohydrate. A response in tumor size was observed in 2 of the 12 patients; in 1 of these 2 patients, a reduction in vascular permeability and perfusion was also detected. The effect was observed following 4 cycles of treatment (~3 months). Changes in vascularity have not previously been attributed to treatment with lomustine; therefore, the effect may be associated with LY2157299 treatment. LY2157299 does not appear to have an anti-angiogenic effect when combined with lomustine, and hence may have a different mechanism of action profile compared with anti-angiogenic drugs. PMID:26137087

  18. Two isostructural carbamates: the o-tolyl N-(pyridin-3-yl)carbamate and 2-bromo­phenyl N-(pyridin-3-yl)carbamate monohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Mocilac, Pavle; Gallagher, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The title carbamate monohydrates, C13H12N2O2·H2O and C12H9BrN2O2·H2O, form isomorphous crystals that are isostructural in their primary hydrogen-bonding modes. In both carbamates, the primary hydrogen bonding and aggregation involves cyclic amide–water–pyridine moieties as (N—H⋯O—H⋯N)2 dimers about inversion centres [as R 4 4(14) rings], where the participation of strong hydrogen-bonding donors and acceptors is maximized. The remaining water–carbonyl O—H⋯O=C inter­action extends the aggregation into two-dimensional planar sheets that stack parallel to the (100) plane. The Br derivative does not participate in halogen bonding. A weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each compound. PMID:26594512

  19. Preparation, crystal structure, vibrational spectral and density functional studies of bis (4-nitrophenol)-2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-10-01

    An organic-organic salt, bis (4-nitrophenol) 2,4,6-triamino 1,3,5-triazine monohydrate (BNPM) has been prepared by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in triclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P-1. IR and Raman spectra of BNPM have been recorded and analyzed. The study has been extended to confocal Raman spectral analysis. Band assignments have been made for the melamine and p-nitrophenol molecules. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) Version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with the experimental one. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are calculated and analyzed. The chemical structure of the compound was established by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.

  20. Crystal structure of (2E)-1-(1-benzo-furan-2-yl)-3-(2-bromo-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Satheeshchandra, S; Shetty, Nandakumar

    2015-11-01

    The title compound, C17H11BrO2·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate in the chiral ortho-rhom-bic space group P212121, and has non-linear optical (NLO) properties. The mol-ecule has an E conformation about the C=C bond and is relatively planar with the benzo-furan and bromo-phenyl rings being inclined to one another by 10.60 (14)°. In the crystal, the water mol-ecule is linked to the organic mol-ecule by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R (2) 2(7) ring motif while C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of helices along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594555

  1. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  2. Interactions of Metal Ions with Water: Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Studies of Structure, Bonding Enthalpies, Vibrational Frequencies and Charge Distributions. 1. Monohydrates.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Mendel; Markham, George D.; Glusker, Jenny P.; George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.

    1998-08-24

    The formation and properties of a wide range of metal ion monohydrates, M(n)()(+)-OH(2), where n = 1 and 2, have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the MP2(FULL)/6-311++G//MP2(FULL)/6-311++G and CCSD(T)(FULL)/6-311++G//MP2(FULL)/6-311++G computational levels. The ions M are from groups 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4A in the second, third, and fourth periods of the periodic table and the first transition series. Structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, bonding enthalpies, orbital occupancies and energies, and atomic charge distributions are reported. Trends in these properties are correlated with the progressive occupancy of the s, p, and d orbitals. Except for K(+)-OH(2) and Ca(2+)-OH(2), the O-H bond lengths and HOH angles are greater in the hydrates than in unbound water. The M-O bond lengths decrease proceeding from group 1A --> 4A but become larger in proceeding from the second --> fourth period. The bonding enthalpies, are found to be inversely linearly dependent on the M-O bond length M(n)()(+) according to equations of the form = A + B(1/M-O) for n = 1 and n = 2. Within each monohydrate the distribution of atomic charge reveals a small but definite transfer of charge from water to the metal ion. Compared to unbound water there is, in a metal-ion-bound water complex, an increase in the electronic (negative) charge on the oxygen atom, accompanied by a (significantly) larger decrease in the electronic charge on the hydrogen atoms. The bonding of the water molecule, although electrostatic in origin, is thus more complex than a simple interaction between a point charge on the metal ion, and the water dipole.

  3. Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

  4. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  6. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  7. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  8. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  16. Dipotassium hydrogencarbonate fluoride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Schwaier, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, K2(HCO3)F·H2O, were obtained as a secondary product after performing flux synthesis experiments aimed at the preparation of potassium rare earth silicates. The basic building unit of the structure is an [(HCO3)(H2O)F]2− zigzag chain running parallel to [001]. Both types of anions as well as the water mol­ecules reside on mirror planes perpendicular to [010] at y = 0.25 and y = 0.75, respectively. Linkage between the different constituents of the chains is provided by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonding. The K+ cations are located between the chains and are coordinated by two F and five O atoms in form of a distorted monocapped trigonal prism. PMID:23633982

  17. Cinchonidinium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shi-Feng; Ma, Lin Lin; Zhao, Gui Fang; Sun, Wen Ji; Jin, Zhi Min

    2008-01-01

    In the title salt, C19H23N2O+·Cl−·H2O, the ions and the water mol­ecule are held together by O—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The vinyl group is disordered over two orientations with refined occupancies of 0.564 (16) and 0.436 (16). The cell parameters of the title compound have been reported previously [Griffiths (1952 ▶). Acta Cryst. 5, 290–291]. PMID:21200758

  18. Redetermnation of lagochiline monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ibragimov, Aziz; Dolimov, Davron; Talipov, Samat; Izotova, Lidiya; Zainutdinov, Umardjon

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H36O5·H2O, previously studied by film methods [Vorontsova et al. (1975 ▶). Izvest. USSR Ser. Chem. 2, 338–343], the H atoms have been located and the absolute structure (seven stereogenic centres) established. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21579472

  19. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  20. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  1. Tremor due to sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Hyman, N M; Dennis, P D; Sinclair, K G

    1979-08-01

    Four patients developed postural tremor after ingestion of sodium valproate. The tremor was recorded by a variable-capacitance transducer and was of the "benign essential" type. The dosages of sodium valproate varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg daily and serum levels were between 34.9 microgram per milliliter and 154.3 microgram per milliliter. Tremor was ameliorated in two cases when the dosage was reduced. In only one case was the serum level in the toxic range for our laboratory. The pharmacology of essential tremor is unknown; production of a similar tremor by a drug could serve as a biochemical model. PMID:379690

  2. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  3. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  4. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  5. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  7. Application of NIR chemometric methods for quantification of the crystalline fraction of warfarin sodium in drug product.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Akhtar, Sohail; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of the physical state of warfarin sodium (WS) in products is essential for minimizing product quality variability in order to ensure consistent clinical performance. This study reports the development of chemometric models for quantifying the crystalline and amorphous fractions of WS in commercial drug products using NIR spectroscopy. Formulations based on commercially available products with different API to excipient ratio were used for the study. For each content, two formulations containing either lactose monohydrate or lactose anhydrous as the predominant formulation excipient were prepared. Two formulations containing either 100% amorphous WS (AWS) or crystalline WS (CWS) were prepared and mixed in various ratios to obtain sample matrices containing AWS/CWS 0-100%. The uniformity of the samples was confirmed by near infrared chemical imaging. Data were mathematically pretreated by multiplicative signal correction and Savitzky-Golay second derivative. Principal component regression and partial least square regression models were developed from mathematically treated data. All the models showed linear trend for amorphous and crystalline fractions of the WS as indicated by correlation and R(2) > 0.99 and >0.98, respectively. The models demonstrated good performance parameters with a low-root mean squared error, standard error and bias. The model predicted CWS and AWS contents were in very close agreement with the actual values. The study indicated the utility of NIR chemometric methods in quantification of the crystalline and/or amorphous fraction of WS in its products. PMID:26161939

  8. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively). PMID:26107984

  9. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively).

  10. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This... practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The technical grade is...

  3. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  5. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  8. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the specifications of the Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleate sodium. 522.1610 Section 522.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 milligrams (mg) of sodium oleate....

  4. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 173.405 - Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. 173.405 Section 173.405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 173.405 Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) may...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  14. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 182.3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 497-19-8) is produced...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  11. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...