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Sample records for soft drinks consumption

  1. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Soft drink consumption patterns in a Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Maupomé-Carvantes, G; Sánchez-Reyes, V; Laguna-Ortega, S; Andrade-Delgado, L C; Diez de Bonilla-Calderón, J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate soft drink consumption patterns in the Mexican population, the authors conducted a survey among people over 10 years of age in Mexico City (september-october 1993). Also, pH levels of commonly available beverages were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Results indicated that each one of the 33 soft drink brands and 15 brands of juices and beverages available, had markedly acidic pH values (between 2.46 and 3.96). Out of the 2,008 respondents (55.3% male, 44.7% female; response rate, 90.1%), 1,657 (82.5%) admitted drinking soft drinks daily, while 351 (17.5%) said they did not drink this type of beverages. Even though high consumption was frequent in all age groups, self-reported consumption was partially associated to age, being higher in the younger groups. The mean number of soft drinks ingested per day was reported to be 1.7, SD 1.3, and 9.3 per week SD 9.9. Self-reported consumption appeared to be independent of schooling level. Even though the largest proportion of non-consumers was found in the group that considered soft drinks to be a very important contributing factor to caries development, most interviewees agreed that soft drinks consumption was an important cariogenic factor. This attributed role was more prominent among interviewees with a higher level of schooling.

  3. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences.

    PubMed

    Harnack, L; Stang, J; Story, M

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether carbonated soft drink consumption is associated with consumption of milk, fruit juice, and the nutrients concentrated in these beverages. Data collected as part of the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from 2 days of dietary recall data collected via an in-person interview. Nationally representative sample of people of all ages residing in the United States (response rate = 76.2%). Analyses were restricted to children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 1,810). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the odds of low milk and juice consumption by soft drink consumption level. To determine whether intake of select nutrients varied by soft drink consumption, multiple linear regression modeling was conducted. Analyses were conducted using sample weights and software appropriate for the survey design. Energy intake was positively associated with consumption of nondiet soft drinks. For example, mean adjusted energy intake was 1,830 kcal/day for school-aged children who were nonconsumers of soft drinks compared with 2,018 kcal/day for children in this age group who consumed an average of 9 oz of soda or more per day. Those in the highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit juice compared with those in the lowest consumption category (nonconsumers). Nutrition education messages targeted to children and/or their parents should encourage limited consumption of soft drinks. Policies that limit children's access to soft drinks at day care centers and schools should be promoted.

  4. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nseir, William; Nassar, Fares; Assy, Nimer

    2010-06-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver, and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver. Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks, fructose 55% and glucose 45%. Soft drinks are the leading source of added sugar worldwide, and have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of soft drinks can increase the prevalence of NAFLD independently of metabolic syndrome. During regular soft drinks consumption, fat accumulates in the liver by the primary effect of fructose which increases lipogenesis, and in the case of diet soft drinks, by the additional contribution of aspartame sweetener and caramel colorant which are rich in advanced glycation end products that potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation. This review emphasizes some hard facts about soft drinks, reviews fructose metabolism, and explains how fructose contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  5. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Nseir, William; Nassar, Fares; Assy, Nimer

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver, and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver. Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks, fructose 55% and glucose 45%. Soft drinks are the leading source of added sugar worldwide, and have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of soft drinks can increase the prevalence of NAFLD independently of metabolic syndrome. During regular soft drinks consumption, fat accumulates in the liver by the primary effect of fructose which increases lipogenesis, and in the case of diet soft drinks, by the additional contribution of aspartame sweetener and caramel colorant which are rich in advanced glycation end products that potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation. This review emphasizes some hard facts about soft drinks, reviews fructose metabolism, and explains how fructose contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:20518077

  6. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    PubMed

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  7. Parental socioeconomic status and soft drink consumption of the child. The mediating proportion of parenting practices.

    PubMed

    De Coen, Valerie; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Maes, Lea; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine

    2012-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study is twofold and states that parental socioeconomic status has an effect on the soft drink consumption of the child, and that this effect is mediated by the soft drink related parenting practices. One thousand six hundred and thirty-nine parents of 2.5-7 year old children from 34 Flemish pre-primary and primary schools, completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, soft drink consumption and soft drink related parenting practices. Causal mediation analyses showed an effect of socioeconomic status on soft drink consumption of the child: children from high socioeconomic status consume 0.42 times the amount of soft drinks of children from lower socioeconomic status. Interestingly, this effect is almost entirely mediated by three soft drink parenting practices: soft drinks served at meals, the child can take soft drink whenever he or she wants and having soft drinks at home.

  8. Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.

  9. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    PubMed Central

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  10. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-08-06

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students' beverage choices.

  11. School Soft Drink Availability and Consumption Among U.S. Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) such as soft drinks has been associated with significantly increased energy intake and body weight. One strategy used to reduce soft drink consumption among adolescents has been reducing availability in schools; however, research is limited on associations between availability of soft drinks in school and student consumption. Purpose This study examines associations between regular and diet soft drink availability in schools and student consumption using data from 329 secondary schools and 9284 students. Methods Data were obtained from two sources: (1) nationally representative cross-sectional samples of students in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from U.S. public and private schools in 2010 and 2011 in the Monitoring the Future study; and (2) administrators of the same schools in the Youth, Education, and Society study. Multilevel modeling conducted in 2012 examined associations between school availability and student consumption controlling for student sociodemographics and school characteristics. Results In the total sample of more than 9000 students, regular and diet soft drink availability in school was not related to student consumption of these beverages in multivariate models. Yet, among African-American high school students, school regular and diet soft drink availability was significantly related to higher daily consumption (both before and after controlling for student and school factors). Conclusions Although removal of soft drinks from schools may not result in significantly lower overall student consumption, such actions may result in significant decreases in soft drink consumption for specific student groups. PMID:23683974

  12. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for <8 h/school night. Students who perceived soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  13. Soft drink consumption in Pacific Island countries and territories: a review of trade data.

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Mcdonald, A M; McKenzie, J; Tukuitonga, C

    2014-03-01

    Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs) have some of the highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the world. Research has demonstrated a strong link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and subsequent risk of overweight, obesity, dental caries and type II diabetes. To address the impact of SSBs on noncommunicable diseases, it is crucial to understand the level of SSB consumption in PICTs. The volume of soft drinks imported and exported was requested from PICTs to estimate the litres of soft drink consumption per head of population. Analysis was confined to PICTs who did not produce their own soft drinks because production data was limited. The Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) category 22.02 was used which includes both diet and sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The trade data estimates were then compared with school survey data to explore how the data sources corresponded given the strengths and weaknesses of each. Soft drink import volumes were a feasible way of estimating total soft drink consumption in PICTs and look at trends over time. Seven out of eleven non-producing PICTs contacted were able to provide volume of soft drinks imported. In 2011, estimates of soft drink consumption per person were 84L in Palau, 47L in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), 41L in Niue, 31L in Tonga, 22L in Federates States of Micronesia, 8L in Tuvalu and 1L in Kiribati. Trade data is a feasible way of monitoring soft drink consumption and may be useful to evaluate the impact of changes in government policy on importation of soft drinks. Data quality could be maximised by including export data, adjusting for visitor numbers and cross-checking exports from corresponding countries. To monitor SSB consumption, a wider range of categories could be included such as categories for sugar-sweetened juice and sweetened-milk drinks.

  14. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  15. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  16. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    PubMed

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  17. Maternal Milk Consumption Predicts the Tradeoff between Milk and Soft Drinks in Young Girls’ Diets1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls’ diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters’ milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters’ milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers’ calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters’ intakes. Mothers’ and daughters’ soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers’ beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters’ diets. In particular, mothers’ milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters’ calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. PMID:11160541

  18. Consumption of Soft Drinks and Hyperactivity, Mental Distress, and Conduct Problems Among Adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578

  19. School soft drink availability and consumption among U.S. secondary students.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) such as soft drinks has been associated with significantly increased energy intake and body weight. One strategy used to reduce soft drink consumption among adolescents has been reducing availability in schools; however, research is limited on associations between availability of soft drinks in school and student consumption. This study examines associations between regular and diet soft drink availability in schools and student consumption using data from 329 secondary schools and 9284 students. Data were obtained from two sources: (1) nationally representative cross-sectional samples of students in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from U.S. public and private schools in 2010 and 2011 in the Monitoring the Future study and (2) administrators of the same schools in the Youth, Education, and Society study. Multilevel modeling conducted in 2012 examined associations between school availability and student consumption controlling for student sociodemographics and school characteristics. In the total sample of more than 9000 students, regular and diet soft drink availability in school was not related to student consumption of these beverages in multivariate models. Yet, among African-American high school students, school regular and diet soft drink availability was significantly related to higher daily consumption (both before and after controlling for student and school factors). Although removal of soft drinks from schools may not result in significantly lower overall student consumption, such actions may result in significant decreases in soft drink consumption for specific student groups. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  1. [Factors associated with the consumption of soft drinks among Brazilian preschool children: national survey of 2006].

    PubMed

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Poblacion, Ana Paula; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-08-01

    The rising consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks or artificial juices is associated with the prevalence of obesity in Brazil and around the world. This study seeks to verify the frequency of consumption of these beverages among Brazilian children aged 24-59 months and to investigate the association of soft drinks with demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Using data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006, the eating habits were obtained using the food and drink frequency questionnaire for the seven days preceding the interview, and anthropometry recorded the weight and height of children. Among preschoolers, 37.3% consumed soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. The factors significantly associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks were living in regions of higher economic development of the country, in urban areas, belonging to the higher income bracket, with mothers watching TV regularly and excess weight of the child, were associated with consumption of soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. Further studies are needed to understand the effective contribution of soft drinks on the epidemic of childhood obesity.

  2. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Hu, Frank B; Giovannucci, Ed; Michaud, Dominique S; Colditz, Graham A; Stampfer, Meir J; Fuchs, Charles S

    2005-09-01

    A history of diabetes mellitus and a diet high in glycemic load are both potential risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are a prevalent source of readily absorbable sugars and have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and diabetes. We investigated whether higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of pancreatic cancer. We examined the relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and the development of pancreatic cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Among 88,794 women and 49,364 men without cancer at baseline, we documented 379 cases of pancreatic cancer during up to 20 years of follow-up. Soft drink consumption was first assessed at baseline (1980 for the women, 1986 for the men) and updated periodically thereafter. Compared with participants who largely abstained from sugar-sweetened soft drinks, those who consumed more than three sugar-sweetened soft drinks weekly experienced overall a multivariate relative risk (RR) of pancreatic cancer of 1.13 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.81-1.58; P for trend = 0.47]. Women in the highest category of sugar-sweetened soft drink intake did experience a significant increase in risk (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02-2.41; P for trend = 0.05), whereas there was no association between sweetened soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer among men. Among women, the risk associated with higher sugar-sweetened soft drink was limited to those with elevated body mass index (>25 kg/m(2); RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.96-3.72) or with low physical activity (RR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.06-3.85). In contrast, consumption of diet soft drinks was not associated with an elevated pancreatic cancer risk in either cohort. Although soft drink consumption did not influence pancreatic cancer risk among men, consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks may be associated with a modest but significant increase in risk among women who have an underlying

  3. Soft drink consumption is associated with increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome only in women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies on the association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have not been carried out in Asians. We explored the sex-specific association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the MetS in Korean adults during 10 years of follow-up. A total of 5797 subjects who were free of the MetS at baseline were studied. Soft drink consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine hazard ratios (HR) of incidence of the MetS and its components in relation to soft drink consumption. In women, the multivariable-adjusted HR for developing the MetS was 1·8-fold higher in frequent consumers of soft drinks (≥4 servings/week) compared with rare consumers (95 % CI 1·23, 2·64). The adjusted HR for elevated blood pressure increased by 2-fold (95 % CI 1·24, 3·14) and for hypertriacylglycerolaemia by 1·9-fold (95 % CI 1·19, 2·88) in frequent consumers of soft drinks compared with rare consumers. However, in men, there was no association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the MetS or its components. Frequent soft drink consumption was associated with increased risk of developing the MetS and its components only in middle-aged Korean women, suggesting sex differences for the risk of the MetS related to diet.

  4. Associations between parental limits, school vending machine purchases, and soft drink consumption among Kentucky middle school students.

    PubMed

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G; Forthofer, Melinda S

    2010-01-01

    To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky. All sixth- through eighth-grade students in 7 schools and all eighth-grade students in 1 school (n = 4,049). Self-reported parental limits on soft drink intake, school vending machine soft drink purchases, soft drink consumption, and control variables. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses. Compared to students with no parental limits on soft drink consumption, students with the strictest limits were less likely to purchase soft drinks from school vending machines and consume soft drinks; conversely, students with minor parental limitations were more likely to consume soft drinks. The odds of consuming soft drinks were nearly 4 times greater when students purchased soft drinks from school vending machines than when they did not. Further research may enhance understanding of the influence of varying degrees of parental limitations. Efforts to reduce children's soft drink consumption may be augmented by policies limiting soft drink purchases in schools. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS. PMID:25984744

  6. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-05-13

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001-2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007-2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  7. Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non–industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. PMID:17329656

  8. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2007-04-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.

  9. Correlates of soft drink and fruit juice consumption among Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption. PMID:18838019

  10. Correlates of soft drink and fruit juice consumption among Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.

  11. Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2008-03-01

    Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (P<0.001), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 100 and 27 g/d in total fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

  12. Soft Drink and Juice Consumption and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T.; Odegaard, Andrew; Anderson, Kristin; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron; Koh, Woon-Puay; Pereira, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (called soft drinks) and juices, which have a high glycemic load relative to other foods and beverages, have been hypothesized as pancreatic cancer risk factors. However, data thus far are scarce, especially from non-European descent populations. We investigated whether higher consumption of soft drinks and juice increases the risk of pancreatic cancer in Chinese men and women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was done to examine the association between soft drink and juice consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer in 60,524 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study with up to 14 years of follow-up. Information on consumption of soft drinks, juice, and other dietary items, as well as lifestyle and environmental exposures, was collected through in-person interviews at recruitment. Pancreatic cancer cases and deaths were ascertained by record linkage of the cohort database with records of population-based Singapore Cancer Registry and the Singapore Registry of Births and Deaths. Results The first 14 years for the cohort resulted in cumulative 648,387 person-years and 140 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Individuals consuming ≥2 soft drinks/wk experienced a statistically significant increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–3.15) compared with individuals who did not consume soft drinks after adjustment for potential confounders. There was no statistically significant association between juice consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusion Regular consumption of soft drinks may play an independent role in the development of pancreatic cancer. PMID:20142243

  13. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  14. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Results: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of

  15. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  16. Relationship between dental erosion, soft drink consumption, and gastroesophageal reflux among Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Arnadottir, I B; Thorsdottir, I; Bardow, A; Gudmundsson, K; Theodors, A; Holbrook, W P

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in young Icelandic adults (19-22 years old) and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in relation to their soft drink consumption and gastroesophageal reflux. Eighty subjects (40 males and 40 females), comprising 57 young adults (mean age 21 +/- 2 years) and 23 GERD patients (mean age 35 +/- 10 years), were enrolled in this study. All subjects answered a detailed frequency questionnaire of soft drink consumption and participated in a clinical examination. Erosion was scored for incisor and molar teeth separately. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of dental erosion between young adults and GERD patients. However, by combining the two study groups a three-fold higher risk of having erosion in molars or incisors was found for subjects drinking Coca-Cola three times a week or more often ( p < 0.05). Additionally, significantly higher erosion scores were found in molars among subjects drinking more than 1 litre of carbonated drinks (all brands) per week ( p < 0.05). It is concluded that the frequency of soft drink consumption is a strong risk factor in the development of dental erosion.

  17. Determinants and patterns of soft drink consumption in young adults: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, Libby; Irwin, Melissa; King, Lesley; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    To explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding caloric soft drinks in a group of young adults attending university and to identify opportunities for a health promotion intervention aimed at reducing consumption. In-depth, semi-structured focus groups segmented by gender. Sydney, Australia. Undergraduate University of Sydney students aged 18-30 years (n 35). Social and environmental cues, intrinsic qualities of beverages and personal health beliefs were identified as important influences on consumption. Social cues included settings in which alcohol is usually consumed, socialising with friends, and family influences. Environmental cues included purchasing of fast foods, and ready availability, preferential pricing and promotion of caloric beverages. Reinforcing intrinsic qualities of caloric soft drinks included taste, sugar and caffeine content, and their association with treats and rewards. Major gender differences as well as variations in individual readiness for behaviour change were observed. Raising awareness of the sugar content of various beverages and the potential health impacts associated with their consumption was considered important. The findings provide new insights with important implications for policy and practice, and suggest that there is considerable scope for promoting awareness in this group. Carefully designed social marketing campaigns highlighting the health issues and addressing social and environmental cues relating to caloric soft drink consumption are required. There is a need for gender-differentiated intervention programmes which are both informational and appealing to young adults. Further research is warranted, particularly to investigate beverage consumption relating to fast-food meal deals and young adults' consumption patterns in more depth.

  18. Effects of Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption on Orthodontic Tooth Movements in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Hossein Agha; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Yassaei, Soghra; Fatahi meybodi, Seyed Amirreza; Zaeim, Mohammad Hosein Toudeh; Moghadam, Mahdjoubeh Goldani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B), the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B) two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured. Results: The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink. Conclusion: CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism. PMID:24910686

  19. Soft drink consumption and gestational diabetes risk in the SUN project.

    PubMed

    Donazar-Ezcurra, Mikel; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco J; de Irala, Jokin; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-02-20

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing worldwide. To the best of our knowledge the specific evaluation of soft drink consumption as a risk factor for developing GDM has only been conducted in the Nurses' Health Study II. To investigate the incidence of GDM according to soft drink consumption in the SUN project. The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3396 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2012. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess soft drink consumption. Four categories of sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) and diet soft drink (DSD) consumption (servings) were established: rarely or never (<1/month), low (1-3/month), intermediate (>3/month and ≤1/week) and high (≥2/week). Potential confounders were adjusted through non-conditional logistic regression models. During the follow-up, we identified 172 incident cases of GDM. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, family history of diabetes, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, parity, fast-food consumption, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, multiple pregnancy, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, fiber intake, following special diet and snacking, SSSD consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident GDM, with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.31) and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.01-2.77) for the highest and intermediate categories, respectively, versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.006). Conversely, DSD consumption was not associated with GDM incidence (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.52-1.31) for the highest versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.258). Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Higher consumption of SSSDs before pregnancy was an independent risk factor

  20. Soft drink consumption and excess weight gain in Australian school students: results from the Nepean study.

    PubMed

    Tam, C S; Garnett, S P; Cowell, C T; Campbell, K; Cabrera, G; Baur, L A

    2006-07-01

    We studied the relation between soft drink/cordial (a sweet, flavoured, concentrated syrup that is mixed with water to taste), fruit juice/drink and milk consumption in mid-childhood, and body mass index (BMI) status in early adolescence in a contemporary Australian cohort. In 1996/7, 268 children (136 males) were recruited from western Sydney at baseline (mean+/-s.d.: 7.7+/-0.6 years), and at follow-up 5 years later (13.0+/-0.2 years). Height and weight were measured at both time periods and overweight and obesity defined using the International Obesity TaskForce criteria. Beverage consumption was calculated from a 3-day food record at baseline. Median carbohydrate intake from soft drink/cordial was 10 g higher (P=0.002) per day in children who were overweight/obese at follow-up compared to those who had an acceptable BMI at both baseline and follow-up. Intakes of soft drink/cordial in mid-childhood, but not fruit juice/fruit drink and milk, were associated with excess weight gain in early adolescence.

  1. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  2. Soft drinks in schools.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This statement is intended to inform pediatricians and other health care professionals, parents, superintendents, and school board members about nutritional concerns regarding soft drink consumption in schools. Potential health problems associated with high intake of sweetened drinks are 1) overweight or obesity attributable to additional calories in the diet; 2) displacement of milk consumption, resulting in calcium deficiency with an attendant risk of osteoporosis and fractures; and 3) dental caries and potential enamel erosion. Contracts with school districts for exclusive soft drink rights encourage consumption directly and indirectly. School officials and parents need to become well informed about the health implications of vended drinks in school before making a decision about student access to them. A clearly defined, district-wide policy that restricts the sale of soft drinks will safeguard against health problems as a result of overconsumption.

  3. Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors.

    PubMed

    Assy, Nimer; Nasser, Gattas; Kamayse, Iad; Nseir, William; Beniashvili, Zaza; Djibre, Agness; Grosovski, Maria

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about dietary habits and their relationships with liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, particularly in the absence of obesity, diabetes or hyperlipidemia. To assess the association between soft drink consumption and the presence of fatty liver in NAFLD patients who do not have classic risk factors. Three hundred ten patients with NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasound were assessed for 36 months in a cross-sectional manner. Thirty-one patients (10%) who had NAFLD without classic risk factors were compared with 30 healthy controls. Physical activity was assessed during the preceding week and year, and every six months for 36 months. Data on daily dietary intake of food and soft drink, and the source of added sugar were collected during two seven-day periods, at the beginning of the study, and within two weeks after the metabolic tests by using a validated food questionnaire given by a trained dietician. Insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation were assessed by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. Eighty per cent of patients (25 of 31) consumed an excessive amount of soft drink beverages (more than 50 g/day of added sugar) for 36 months, compared with 20% in healthy controls (P<0.001). Twenty per cent of patients consumed one drink per day, 40% consumed two to three drinks per day, and 40% consumed more than four drinks per day for most days during 36 months. The most common soft drinks consumed were regular Coca-Cola (40% of patients), Diet Coke (40%) and flavoured fruit juices (20%). Ultrasound findings revealed mild fatty liver in 44% of cases (n=14), moderate fatty liver in 38% (n=12), and severe fatty liver in 18% (n=5). HOMA-IRI and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in healthy controls (HOMA-IRI, 3.7 versus 1.7, P<0.001; and MDA, 420+/-300 micromol/mL versus 200+/-100 micromol/mL; P<0.001). When controlled for other

  4. The Association between Soft Drink Consumption and Body Fat in Females Age 16 to 24

    PubMed Central

    COSTELLO, MEGAN M.; HEELAN, KATE A; MOWRY, DEBORAH A; ABBEY, BRYCE

    2010-01-01

    American soft drink consumption (SDC) has increased since the 1960’s surpassing all other kinds of beverage consumption. In recent years, the scientific literature has suggested that SDC has been linked to the rising epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents. However, there is lack of information in scientific literature on the effects of SDC on body fat (BF%) in young females. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SDC and BF% in young women, ages 16–24 years. Sixty-six females were asked to complete a 3-day food record, food frequency questionnaire, and an assessment BF% by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, participants consumed 29.44 ± 44.68 fl oz/day of soft drinks. There were significant positive associations between SDC and BF% (r = 0.24, p < 0.05). Due to the large standard deviation in SDC, secondary analysis compared moderate SDC (MSDC: < 32 fl oz/day) to high SDC (HSDC: ≥ 32 fl oz/day). Results suggested HSCD had significantly greater BF% than MSDC. Therefore, limiting the consumption of soft drinks is suggested in order to maintain a healthy BF%. PMID:27182347

  5. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk of incident gout in men. Design Prospective cohort over 12 years. Setting Health professionals follow-up study. Participants 46 393 men with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of soft drinks and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Incident cases of gout meeting the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout. Results During the 12 years of follow-up 755 confirmed incident cases of gout were reported. Increasing intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks was associated with an increasing risk of gout. Compared with consumption of less than one serving of sugar sweetened soft drinks a month the multivariate relative risk of gout for 5-6 servings a week was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.68), for one serving a day was 1.45 (1.02 to 2.08), and for two or more servings a day was 1.85 (1.08 to 3.16; P for trend=0.002). Diet soft drinks were not associated with risk of gout (P for trend=0.99). The multivariate relative risk of gout according to increasing fifths of fructose intake were 1.00, 1.29, 1.41, 1.84, and 2.02 (1.49 to 2.75; P for trend <0.001). Other major contributors to fructose intake such as total fruit juice or fructose rich fruits (apples and oranges) were also associated with a higher risk of gout (P values for trend <0.05). Conclusions Prospective data suggest that consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose is strongly associated with an increased risk of gout in men. Furthermore, fructose rich fruits and fruit juices may also increase the risk. Diet soft drinks were not associated with the risk of gout. PMID:18244959

  6. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M.; Seidell, Jaap C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status. PMID:28561769

  7. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2013-11-01

    We estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate the association between soft drink consumption and overweight, obesity, and diabetes prevalence in 75 countries, controlling for other foods (cereals, meats, fruits and vegetables, oils, and total calories), income, urbanization, and aging. Data were obtained from the Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, the World Health Organization, and the International Diabetes Federation. Bottled water consumption, which increased with per-capita income in parallel to soft drink consumption, served as a natural control group. Soft drink consumption increased globally from 9.5 gallons per person per year in 1997 to 11.4 gallons in 2010. A 1% rise in soft drink consumption was associated with an additional 4.8 overweight adults per 100 (adjusted B; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 6.5), 2.3 obese adults per 100 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.5), and 0.3 adults with diabetes per 100 (95% CI = 0.1, 0.8). These findings remained robust in low- and middle-income countries. Soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Relationship of Soft Drink Consumption to Global Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes: A Cross-National Analysis of 75 Countries

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity and diabetes worldwide. Methods. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate the association between soft drink consumption and overweight, obesity, and diabetes prevalence in 75 countries, controlling for other foods (cereals, meats, fruits and vegetables, oils, and total calories), income, urbanization, and aging. Data were obtained from the Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, the World Health Organization, and the International Diabetes Federation. Bottled water consumption, which increased with per-capita income in parallel to soft drink consumption, served as a natural control group. Results. Soft drink consumption increased globally from 9.5 gallons per person per year in 1997 to 11.4 gallons in 2010. A 1% rise in soft drink consumption was associated with an additional 4.8 overweight adults per 100 (adjusted B; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 6.5), 2.3 obese adults per 100 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.5), and 0.3 adults with diabetes per 100 (95% CI = 0.1, 0.8). These findings remained robust in low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions. Soft drink consumption is significantly linked to overweight, obesity, and diabetes worldwide, including in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23488503

  9. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study 2010 were analysed. Self-reported soft drink intake, bullying, fighting, nervousness, irritability and confounding variables were analysed using logistic regressions. To assess the potential mediation of daily nervousness and irritability on the association between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour, we used Sobel tests. Adolescents' daily soft drink consumption was associated with bullying and fighting, and these relationships were partially mediated by nervousness and irritability. Adjustment of the analyses on gender, age and family affluence did not change the estimates. Adolescents' daily soft drink consumption was associated with negative mood deviations such as nervousness and irritability and with aggressive behaviour in the form of bullying and fighting. Our findings provide new evidence about soft drink consumption-related risks and thus can contribute to the preventive actions aimed at reducing them.

  10. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population.

    PubMed

    Lana, A; Lopez-Garcia, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-11-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. The cohort was established in 2008-2010 with 8417 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged 18-60 years. Habitual soft drink consumption was assessed with a validated diet history at baseline. HRQL was measured using the SF-12 questionnaire at baseline and in a subsample of 2132 study participants in 2012. The analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, those who drank ⩾1 serving/day of SSB had a lower (worse) score on the physical composite summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (adjusted linear regression coefficient: -1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.60 to -0.54) than those who drank <1 serving/week. Results were similar among individuals younger than 35 years (-1.06; 95% CI: -1.79 to -0.32), those who were not dieting (-1.21; 95% CI: -1.80 to -0.62), those who did not lose >5 kg in the previous 4 years (-0.79; 95% CI: -1.87 to 0.29), and in those without morbidity (-1.18; 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.46). Neither SSBs nor artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) showed an association with the mental composite summary (MCS) of the SF-12. In the prospective analyses, no association was observed between baseline consumption of SSBs or ASBs and the changes in the PCS and MCS score from 2008/2010 to 2012. No evidence was found that soft drink consumption has a beneficial effect on either the physical or mental dimensions of HRQL.

  11. Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Assy, Nimer; Nasser, Gattas; Kamayse, Iad; Nseir, William; Beniashvili, Zaza; Djibre, Agness; Grosovski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about dietary habits and their relationships with liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, particularly in the absence of obesity, diabetes or hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between soft drink consumption and the presence of fatty liver in NAFLD patients who do not have classic risk factors. METHODS: Three hundred ten patients with NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasound were assessed for 36 months in a cross-sectional manner. Thirty-one patients (10%) who had NAFLD without classic risk factors were compared with 30 healthy controls. Physical activity was assessed during the preceding week and year, and every six months for 36 months. Data on daily dietary intake of food and soft drink, and the source of added sugar were collected during two seven-day periods, at the beginning of the study, and within two weeks after the metabolic tests by using a validated food questionnaire given by a trained dietician. Insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation were assessed by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. RESULTS: Eighty per cent of patients (25 of 31) consumed an excessive amount of soft drink beverages (more than 50 g/day of added sugar) for 36 months, compared with 20% in healthy controls (P<0.001). Twenty per cent of patients consumed one drink per day, 40% consumed two to three drinks per day, and 40% consumed more than four drinks per day for most days during 36 months. The most common soft drinks consumed were regular Coca-Cola (40% of patients), Diet Coke (40%) and flavoured fruit juices (20%). Ultrasound findings revealed mild fatty liver in 44% of cases (n=14), moderate fatty liver in 38% (n=12), and severe fatty liver in 18% (n=5). HOMA-IRI and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in healthy controls (HOMA-IRI, 3.7 versus 1.7, P<0.001; and MDA, 420±300 μmol/mL versus 200±100 μmol/mL; P<0

  12. [Connection between of overweight and consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks. Widespread investigation Russian schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Kon', I Ia; Volkova, L Iu; Sannikova, N E; Dzhumagaziev, A A; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Korosteleva, M M

    2010-01-01

    Overweight appear one of the serious problem in European region WHO today. Obesity is polyetiological disease and result of different factors. The aim of the current studies was investigation of connection between consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks and body-mass index (BMI). At the beginning, was inspection of 434 schoolchildren 7-18 age old. As a result, was determined, that confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks mach more popular, than ever stuffs. At the same time, was determined, that mean significance BMI was reliable above for children, who used confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks frequently.

  13. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs. PMID:27916866

  14. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories.

  15. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  16. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks: a comparative study among adolescents in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Iza Cristina de Vasconcelos Martins; Hardman, Carla Menêses; Andrade, Maria Laura Siqueira de Souza; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes

    2014-01-01

    To compare the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks among adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Pernambuco State. A cross-sectional study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of high school students in Pernambuco (n = 4,207, 14 - 19 years) was conducted. Data were collected through a previously validated questionnaire. Adolescents who reported a daily consumption of soft drinks and occasional consumption of fruits, juices and vegetables were classified as exposed to inadequate standard of consumption of these foods. The independent variable was the place of residence (urban/rural). Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, χ2 test and binary logistic regression. It was observed that students residing in rural areas had a higher prevalence of occasional consumption of natural fruit juices (37.6%; 95%CI 36.1 - 39.0) than those living in urban areas (32.1%; 95%CI 30.7 - 33.6). The proportion of students exposed to daily consumption of soft drinks was higher among those who reported they lived in urban areas (65.0%; 95%CI 63.5 - 66.4) compared to those who reported living in rural areas (55.3%; 95%CI 53.8 - 56.9). Adolescent students living in rural areas had a higher prevalence of low consumption of natural fruit juices while those residing in urban areas had a higher prevalence of daily consumption of soda drinks.

  17. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15) and allowed to consume water (C), light Coca Cola ® (L) or regular Coca Cola® (R) as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats. PMID:20573247

  18. Portion size labeling and intended soft drink consumption: the impact of labeling format and size portfolio.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-01-01

    To assess what portion size labeling format is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large labels) were compared to a control condition, and 2 size ranges were assessed. The main outcome variable was participants' intended soft drink size choice. Stimulus material was presented through photographs. There was a statistical trend for reference portion size labeling increasing the likelihood to choose small sizes (n=158, odds ratio=2.55, P=.06, confidence interval: 0.84-7.70). Reference portion size labeling is potentially most promising in reducing large portion size preferences. More research assessing the effectiveness of reference portion size labeling (combined with pricing strategies) on actual choices and consumption behavior in a realistic setting is recommended. Copyright © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between home environmental variables and soft drink consumption among adolescents. Exploration of mediation by individual cognitions and habit strength.

    PubMed

    Tak, N I; Te Velde, S J; Oenema, A; Van der Horst, K; Timperio, A; Crawford, D; Brug, J

    2011-04-01

    Soft-drink consumption is one of the important target behaviours for the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents. To be able to modify these behaviours in obesity prevention interventions, further understanding of the underlying factors and mediational pathways is required. The present study aimed to explore associations between home environment variables and adolescent soft drink consumption and potential mediation of these associations by individual cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength. The ENDORSE study (N=1005) provided data on soft drink consumption and on home environment variables related to soft drink consumption (availability, accessibility, parental modelling, and parental rules), cognitive variables (intention, attitude, perceived behaviour control, and parental norm) and habit strength. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted using regression analyses according to the steps described by MacKinnon to assess the association between home environment variables and soft drink consumption and mediation of these associations by cognitive variables and habit strength. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the confidence intervals. There were significant associations between the home environment variables and soft drink consumption. After inclusion of the mediators the strength of these associations was reduced. In the multiple mediator models, habit strength (39.4-62.6%) and intention (19.1-36.6%) were the strongest mediators. Intention and habit strength partly mediate the associations between home environment factors and soft drink consumption, suggesting that home environment variables influence soft drink consumption both indirectly and directly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ enamel morphology evaluation after acidic soft drink consumption: protection factor of contemporary toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Sauro, S; Mannocci, F; Piemontese, M; Mongiorgi, R

    2008-08-01

    The enamel erosion induced by acidic soft drinks is an increasingly important problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soft drinks on enamel erosion and the protection offered by representative modern toothpastes using a new 'in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-replica technique'. Six patients were selected to receive in vivo enamel replicas, fabricated with a polyvinyl-siloxane/polyether impression material. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphology of enamel surface before and after exposure to lemon juice and SPRITE. The protective effectiveness of toothpaste was further evaluated with the same method. Furthermore, to validate the effectiveness of the in situ SEM-replica technique, we compared it to a direct in vitro SEM investigation on extracted teeth. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of the in situ replicas showed severe enamel morphology alterations after acidic soft drink exposure. On the other hand, it was also showed the protective effectiveness of toothpaste in preventing enamel erosion induced by acidic soft drinks. The direct in vitro SEM investigation provided similar enamel erosion results and proved the effectiveness of the in situ SEM-replica technique. Acidic soft drinks induce enamel erosion but regular use of toothpaste might reduce the risk for enamel erosion. The in situ SEM-replica technique provides an accurate method for tracing enamel morphology alterations and erosion induced by acidic soft drinks.

  2. Is consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    PubMed

    Grundt, Jacob H; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Markestad, Trond

    2016-12-07

    In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW < 2,500 g (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.10). The negative association with SSC consumption was aggravated by smoking, lack of exercise, and obesity. For mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, we observed an increased risk of BW > 4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  4. Point-of-purchase price and education intervention to reduce consumption of sugary soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D; Willett, Walter C

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results.

  5. Point-of-Purchase Price and Education Intervention to Reduce Consumption of Sugary Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. Methods. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Results. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. Conclusions. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:20558801

  6. [Soft-drinks and health].

    PubMed

    Amato, D; Maravilla, A; García-Contreras, F; Paniagua, R

    1997-01-01

    To analyze published papers about soft drinks use, and to describe possible health benefits, risks, and damages related to soft drink consumption. INFORMATION SOURCE: A search was done in the MEDLINE compact disks, from January 1970 to January 1997, with the keywords soft drink, beverages, carbonated beverages, cola, Coca-Cola and sweetening-agents. Ninety nine papers reporting health-related damages or benefits in clinical or experimental studies were reviewed. All articles with a clear description of at least one beneficial or harmful effect related to soft drink consumption were considered. There were reports on 25 harmful effects and of 7 possibly beneficial effects. Data are classified in prophylactic and therapeutic uses, dental caries and other dental disorders, mineral metabolism disorders, acid-peptic disease, neoplasm, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, effects on central nervous system, reproduction, allergy, and miscellaneous. High prevalence of exposure and excessive consumption of soft drinks may represent a public health problem in Mexico. Data analysis shows that soft drink consumption may not be as harmless as generally believed. Many of the reports are anecdotal, without a suitable methodological design. A wide field for research is present in this area.

  7. Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1 litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124 g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  9. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  10. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas

    2009-08-01

    Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions.

  11. Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. Objective To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. Results At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks

  12. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2013-01-01

    Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring

  13. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well.

  14. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  15. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  16. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Chinapaw, Mai J.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F. Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Methods Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. Results In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26–0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36–1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12–1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67–1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67–1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72–2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. Conclusions TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink

  17. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Chinapaw, Mai J; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26-0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36-1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12-1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67-1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67-1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72-2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink consumption and this association was moderated

  18. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  19. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  20. Consumption of Carbonated Soft Drinks Among Young Adolescents Aged 12 to 15 Years in 53 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Liu, Yunxia; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Liang, Yajun; Xi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    To compare consumption of carbonated soft drinks among young adolescents in 53 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used 2009 to 2013 Global School-based Student Health Survey data to assess 137 449 young adolescents aged 12 to 15 years with available data (via a standardized questionnaire) on frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption. Overall, young adolescents reported having consumed carbonated soft drinks 1.39 times per day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26, 1.51), and 54.3% of adolescents reported consuming a carbonated soft drink at least once per day. Frequency (times per day) varied greatly across countries, ranging from 0.52 (95% CI = 0.43, 0.60) in Kiribati to 2.39 (95% CI = 2.25, 2.53) in Suriname. Our data confirm that consumption of carbonated soft drinks is frequent among young adolescents in LMICs. Our findings highlight the need for interventions in these countries to reduce adolescents' carbonated soft drink consumption.

  1. The effects of a middle-school healthy eating intervention on adolescents' fat and fruit intake and soft drinks consumption.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; Brug, Johannes; Deforche, Benedicte

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of a middle-school healthy eating promotion intervention combining environmental changes and computer-tailored feedback, with and without an explicit parent involvement component. Clustered randomised controlled trial. Fifteen West-Flemish (Belgian) middle schools. A random sample of 15 schools with 2991 pupils in 7th and 8th grades was randomly assigned to an intervention group with parental support (n = 5), an intervention group without parental support (n = 5) and a control group (n = 5). In these 15 schools an intervention combining environmental changes with computer-tailored feedback was implemented. Fat and fruit intake, water and soft drinks consumption were measured with food-frequency questionnaires in the total sample of children. In girls, fat intake and percentage of energy from fat decreased significantly more in the intervention group with parental support, compared with the intervention alone group (all F>3.9, P < 0.05) and the control group (all F>16.7, P < 0.001). In boys, there were no significant decreases in fat intake (F = 1.4, not significant (NS)) or percentage of energy from fat (F = 0.7, NS) as a result of the intervention. No intervention effects were found in boys or in girls for fruit (F = 0.5, NS), soft drinks (F = 2.6, NS) and water consumption (F = 0.3, NS). Combining physical and social environmental changes with computer-tailored feedback in girls and their parents can induce lower fat intake in middle-school girls. However, to have an impact on the consumption of soft drinks and water, governmental laws that restrict the at-school availability of low-nutritive products may be necessary.

  2. Soft drink consumption is positively associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors only in Korean women: Data from the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sangwon; Ha, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-Il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and metabolic syndrome risk factors in Korean adults. We used data from 13,972 participants (5432 men and 8540 women) aged ≥30 years, from the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into six groups based on their soft drink consumption levels from a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary sugar intake was compared among groups using 24-hour dietary recall data. The highest soft drink consumption frequency category was ≥4 times per week, observed in 4.6% of men and 1.7% of women. The percentage of energy from total sugar and sugar in processed foods increased with increased soft drink consumption in both men and women. In the highest consumption group, the percentage of energy from sugar in processed foods was 8.9% in men and 11.0% in women. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, greater consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with all of the components of metabolic syndrome, except the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, in women only. Women who consumed soft drinks ≥4 times per week had a 74% higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to those who consumed soft drinks infrequently (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.00-3.03; P for trend <0.0001). High levels of soft drink consumption might constitute an important determinant of metabolic syndrome and its components only in Korean adult women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.

  4. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

  5. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  6. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  7. Association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and variables of bone modeling and remodeling in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Remer, Thomas; Stehle, Peter; Schoenau, Eckhard; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Soft drinks are thought to displace milk in diets of children and adolescents and therefore might affect variables of bone modeling and remodeling. We assessed the association between long-term consumption of several types of soft drinks and bone variables in children and adolescents. Long-term dietary data from 3-d weighed dietary records collected by 228 healthy children and adolescents enrolled in the DONALD Study in 4 y of study participation were used for data analysis. Variables of bone modeling and remodeling of the radius were assessed by using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, muscle area, BMI SD scores, and growth velocity, long-term consumption of all soft drinks and uncaffeinated soft drinks was negatively associated with bone mineral content (P < 0.05), cortical area (P < 0.05), and polar strength strain index (P < 0.05), all of which reflect a combination of bone modeling and remodeling. Long-term consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was negatively associated with polar strength strain index (P < 0.01) and periosteal circumference (P < 0.05), which reflect bone modeling. Milk intake was positively associated with polar strength strain index (P < 0.05). Consumption of all soft drinks was negatively associated with total protein and milk intake, but was not associated with potential renal acid load. Long-term consumption of caffeinated and uncaffeinated soft drinks appears to have bone catabolic effects in boys and girls. This effect is mainly mediated by the negative association with total protein intake and is not primarily based on milk displacement.

  8. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-12-02

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  9. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. PMID:19055714

  10. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating

  11. Soft drink consumption in adolescence: associations with food-related lifestyles and family rules in Belgium Flanders and the Veneto Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Verzeletti, Chiara; Maes, Lea; Santinello, Massimo; Vereecken, Carine A

    2010-06-01

    The number of studies among adolescents that focus on several lifestyle behaviours and family rules as determinant of soft drink consumption are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between daily soft drink consumption, food-related lifestyles and family rules in adolescence. The data are part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional survey. Adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age were included, resulting in a final sample of 14 407 adolescents representative of Belgium Flanders (N = 7904) and the Veneto Region of Italy (N = 6503). Binary logistic regression was used to test the association between soft drink consumption and food-related lifestyle (breakfast habits, family meals, snacking, meals in fast food restaurants and television viewing) and family rules (restriction and obligation rules) by region and gender. Each independent variable is significantly associated with daily soft drink consumption, despite some sub-groups exceptions. When we entered all the variables into the same statistical model, the positive association with daily soft drink consumption remained significant for frequent meals in fast food restaurants, television variables and low restriction rules. Breakfast during weekdays, evening meal with parents and obligation rules remained significant only in specific sub-groups and not the entire sample. Finally, the association with breakfast with parents and during the weekend disappeared. These findings suggest that considering gender and cultural differences, involving parents and limiting adolescents' exposure to television would increase the effectiveness of interventions aimed to reduce soft drink consumption in adolescence.

  12. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  13. Complications of orthodontic treatment: are soft drinks a risk factor?

    PubMed

    Yip, Hilings H Y; Wong, Ricky W K; Hägg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has steadily increased in recent decades in both western and developing countries. The trend is most apparent among children and adolescents. This rise in soft drink consumption has raised concerns among health care professionals, including dental practitioners. Accordingly, the effects of soft drinks on dental health have been investigated. Several studies have shown that dental problems, such as caries, enamel erosion, and corrosion of dental materials, may be associated with soft drink consumption. Because orthodontic appliances restrict toothbrush access, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment need special oral care and advice. This article reviews the risks and implications of soft drink consumption for orthodontic patients.

  14. Jarrib Baleha--a pilot nutrition intervention to increase water intake and decrease soft drink consumption among school children in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Abi Haidar, Gina; Lahham Salameh, Nina; Afifi, Rema A

    2011-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (2005) indicated that in Lebanon, 33% of students in grades 7-9 drink carbonated soft drinks two or more times per day. Observational evidence suggests that students do not drink enough water. A pilot project called Jarrib Baleha ['try without it'] was implemented with 110 students in grades 3 and 4 in two schools in Lebanon to promote drinking water instead of soft drinks. Specific objectives included increasing knowledge about the benefits of water and the harms of soft drinks, increasing confidence in choosing water over soft drinks, and increasing actual water drinking behavior while decreasing soft drink consumption. Four 50-minute theory-informed, interactive and participatory sessions were implemented --by a graduate student in partial fulfillment of requirements for a MPH degree--over a period of two weeks. The intervention sessions--based on the Health Belief Model--took place during a class period. Process evaluation measured satisfaction of the students with the sessions. Impact evaluation measured changes in knowledge, attitudes including self-efficacy, and behavior, using a self-administered questionnaire completed prior to and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis using crosstabs was carried out to compare pretest and posttest scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Comparison of the knowledge index between pretest and posttest indicated that, overall, knowledge increased from 6.0769 to 9.1500 (p = 0.000). Compared to pretest, students at posttest also felt more confident to drink less soft drinks and more water (p < 0.05), to drink water when thirsty (p < 0.05), and to choose water over soft drinks when going to a restaurant (p < 0.05). The percentage of students drinking 6 or more cups of water increased from 27.7% to 59.1% (p = 0.000); and those drinking less than one can of soft drink/day increased from 25.5% to 57.6% (p = 0.000). These results are encouraging and suggest the Jarrib Baleha

  15. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  16. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

  17. Synergic effects of sugar and caffeine on insulin-mediated metabolomic alterations after an acute consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Mateos, Rosa María; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; González-Cortés, José Joaquín; Corrales-Cuevas, Manuel; Rojas-Cots, Juan Alberto; Segundo, Carmen; Schwarz, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. To this end, we performed a randomized, crossover and double-blind intervention study with different soft drinks from the same brand. Numerous metabolomic changes were detected in serum samples over time after the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy-related metabolites, amino acids and lipids, thus demonstrating the intense effects provoked by acute sugar consumption on the organism during 3 h of follow-up. However, the most significant findings were observed after the co-ingestion of caffeine, which could be indicative of a synergic effect of this psychostimulant on insulin-mediated perturbations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Soda Taxes, Soft Drink Consumption, And Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children—children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American—may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption. PMID:20360173

  19. [Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-12-01

    The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes) effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05) and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004). For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (beta = 0.02; p = 0.03). For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and frequent consumption in either gender. Soft drinks and juices accounted for 20% of mean daily energy intake. The results showed that efforts to reduce energy intake from beverages should include consumption of fruit juice.

  20. The association between soft drink consumption and caries risk among low-income African-American children is not clear.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Cariogenicity of soft drinks, milk and fruit juice in low-income African-American children: a longitudinal study. Lim S, Sohn W, Burt BA, et al. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139(7):959-67. Stefano Petti, DMD PURPOSE/QUESTION: (1) to identify the patterns of intake of soft drinks, 100% fruit juice, and milk among low-income African-American children aged between 3 and 5 years at baseline over a 2-year period; and (2) to investigate whether these patterns were associated with caries incidence during the 2-year follow-up. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Delta Dental Fund of Michigan, USA. Cohort study Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable.

  1. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  2. Assessment of the exposure to Allura Red colour from the consumption of red juice-based and red soft drinks in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fallico, B; Chiappara, E; Arena, E; Ballistreri, G

    2011-11-01

    This article reports the results of a survey and an exposure study, based on a probabilistic approach, concerning red juice-based and red soft drink products in Italy. It highlights the fact that the estimates of both the consumption rates and colorant intakes are related to the hypotheses of scenarios. In fact, the study estimates that, on average, consumers of red soft drinks consume 53.1 L year(-1), ranging from 39.1 to 70.7 L of soft drink products under one scenario, or 21.3 L, and from 12.7 and 35.9 L under another hypothesis; while 9.5 L of red juice-based drinks are consumed per year, ranging from 7.0 to 12.5 L, under one scenario, or on average 6.9 L, and ranging from 3.2 to 17.7 L under another scenario. The amount of colorant in a red beverage ranged from 10.9 mg l(-1) in a red soft drink up to 55.9 mg l(-1) in a red juice-based product. The risk evaluation process showed that in all cases the intake of E129 was always lower than the acceptable daily intake. The exposure assessment showed high average intakes of Allura Red in the worst-case scenario, on average, 6.5 and 13.9 mg day(-1), up to 25.0 and 33.0 mg day(-1) at the 95th percentile, for juice-based and soft drinks respectively. The most realistic scenario estimated a weighted average daily intake of Allura Red, on average from about 0.3 to 0.5 mg day(-1) at the 95th percentile, and from 0.4 to 0.6 mg day(-1) for the 95th percentile, from juice-based and soft drinks, respectively. Actually, the highest colorant intake was estimated in a 'health' juice-based drink. The intake of E129 significantly increased with a high level of colorant (>40 mg l(-1)).

  3. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  4. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  5. Effect of Caffeinated Soft Drinks on Salivary Flow

    PubMed Central

    Tantbirojn, Daranee; Augustson, David G.; Guo, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Background Soft drinks containing caffeine have been associated with more aggressive forms of dental decay. Cariogenicity of caffeinated soft drinks may be attributed to the effect of caffeine on salivary flow. This study assessed whether caffeinated soft drinks produced short-term oral dryness in healthy adults. Methods The authors collected saliva on two separate days from 35 participants before and one hour after drinking a soft drink. On one of the days the soft drink was caffeinated and on the other day it was not. Saliva collection involved 15 minutes unstimulated whole saliva, 5 minutes paraffin-stimulated whole saliva, and 10 seconds labial minor salivary gland output. Results Unstimulated and stimulated flow rates slightly increased and minor gland output slightly decreased one hour after the soft drink consumption regardless of caffeine content. These changes were not statistically significant (two-period two-treatment crossover trial using two-stage Grizzle model, p>0.05). A linear mixed model statistic did not show the caffeine effect on salivary flow rate. Conclusions Caffeinated soft drink consumption had no significant effect on salivary flow rate after one hour by any of the three measures employed in this study. Caffeine's contribution to the cariogenicity of soft drinks is likely by centrally-mediated effects on consumption patterns. PMID:24761280

  6. Consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks are associated with psychological dimensions of eating behaviour in parents and their 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, Kristina; Tholin, Sanna; Rasmussen, Finn

    2008-09-01

    We investigated associations between consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks and the psychological dimensions of eating in parents and their children. The role of the parent's characteristics for their children's food intake was also explored. Food intake patterns were assessed by self-reported consumption of the respective foods. Eating behaviour was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and self-esteem by Harter self-perception scale. The participants were 1441 families (mother, father and their 12-year-old child), and additionally 354 mothers and thirty fathers. Among parents, reported intake of fruit and vegetables were associated with restrained eating, higher self-esteem, and higher education and age. Intake of sweets was related to more external and less restrained eating, and for mothers also emotional eating. Parent's intake of soft drink was foremost related to a younger age, and also weakly associated with psychological characteristics. The food intake of parents was more important for the children's food intake than any other characteristics. However, children's intake of sweets showed clear-cut positive associations with external eating. Psychological dimensions of eating behaviour are associated with patterns of food intake, in particular for consumption of sweets, and are most prominent in the parents. The children's food intake mirrored their parents' intake. Being sensitive to external food cues may increase unhealthy food consumption in our society, whereas more restrained eating may indicate proneness or intention to healthier food choices among parents. Emotional eating may imply a proneness to consume sweets for comfort, in particular among mothers.

  7. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and frequency of sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption among low-income adults in the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Peng, Chao-Ying

    2017-09-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was designed to help low-income people purchase nutritious foods in the US. In recent years, there has been a consistent call for banning purchases of sugar drinks in SNAP. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SNAP participation and the frequency of sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSD) consumption among low-income adults in the US. Data came from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low-income adults aged ≥20 years with a household income ≤250% of the Federal Poverty Level ( N = 1200) were categorized into two groups based on the household's SNAP receipt: SNAP recipients ( n = 393) and non-recipients ( n = 807). Propensity-score matching was used to minimize observable differences between these two groups that may explain the difference in SSD consumption, generating the final sample of 393 matched pairs (SNAP recipients, n = 393; non-recipients, n = 393). An ordinal logistic regression was conducted on the matched sample. SNAP recipients were more likely to report higher levels of SSD consumption, compared with non-recipients (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.07). Male gender (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.46), younger age (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96-0.99), lower education level (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.33-3.89), and soda availability in homes (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.77-2.83) were also associated with higher levels of SSD consumption among low-income adults. SNAP participation was associated with frequent SSD consumption. To reduce SSD consumption, strategic efforts need to focus on educating people about the harms of SSD and promoting nutritious food choices with SNAP benefits.

  8. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks.

    PubMed

    James, J; Kerr, D

    2005-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks. This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks. The association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity has been established in three separate American studies. It has been found that children who consume these drinks have a higher energy intake and are more likely to become overweight. In adult women, the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. In the United Kingdom, a school-based initiative focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks has also been effective in preventing a further increase in obesity. There is an association between obesity and consumption of soft drinks. Initiatives focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks may help to prevent a further increase in childhood obesity.

  9. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  10. Is there a link between soft drinks and erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the potential role of soft drinks, particularly the sugar component, in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). We analyzed the hypothetical link between metabolic disorders, induced by sweetened soft drinks overconsumption, and ED. High caloric intake, high refined-carbohydrates, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) content and less satiety are main factors responsible for metabolic disorders contributing to ED development. Regular diet mistakes among human males, such as soft drink consumption, may lead to slow and asymptomatic progression of ED, finally resulting in full claimed manifestation of ED. PMID:24578881

  11. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  13. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  14. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  15. Predictors and mediators of differences in soft drinks consumption according to gender and plans of further education among Norwegian secondary-school children.

    PubMed

    Hilsen, Marit; te Velde, Saskia J; Bere, Elling; Brug, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    To explore mediators of gender and educational differences in sugarsweetened soft drinks consumption (SDC) and whether gender and level of future education moderate the associations of accessibility, modelling, attitudes and preferences with SDC. A cross-sectional school-based survey within the Fruits and Vegetables Makes the Marks (FVMM) project from 2005. The questionnaires were completed by the pupils in the classroom guided by a trained project worker during one class session. The questionnaire included questions on SDC (times/week), the potential mediators and moderators. Multilevel linear regression models were used to calculate the mediating and moderating effects. A total of 2870 children in 9th and 10th grade (mean age 15?5 years) at thirty-three Norwegian secondary schools were included in the present study. Girls (B521?06) and pupils planning higher education (B520?69) reported lower frequency of SDC. The strongest mediators were accessibility and modelling for future educational plans differences (explaining alone respectively 69% and 44 %) and attitudes and preferences for gender differences (explaining were found, and all associations between the mediators and SDC were in the same direction for both genders and for those with and without plans of higher future education. Preferences and modelling may contribute to gender and educational differences in SDC. The small moderating effects indicate that interventions aiming to reduce SDC can target the same mediators for boys and girls and children planning different levels of future education.

  16. Sensory attributes of soft drinks and their influence on consumers' preferences.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Noemí; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2014-08-01

    Soft drinks are beverages composed of water and other ingredients that provide specific sensorial attributes. Soft drink consumption patterns have recently been changed partially influenced by an increased availability of different types of beverages during the last few years. Consumers' preferences to choose one drink over another are influenced, not only by genetic, psychological and environmental factors, but also by the beverage's specific attributes. In fact, beverage consumption is driven by the sensations it gives. Because the main component of soft drinks is water, an increase in the intake of soft drinks might improve fluid intake and the levels of water in the body if it is regarded as an "essential nutrient".

  17. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  18. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  19. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  20. The worldwide battle against soft drinks in schools.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2010-04-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are widely believed to be contributing to the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity around the world. One of the channels used by industry to encourage greater consumption and preferences for soft drinks is schools. But governments around the world are taking action to limit the availability of soft drinks in schools. More than 30 national and subnational governmental bodies have made efforts to restrict availability, and the soft drinks industry has also taken some limited voluntary action. Most government-led efforts-with some exceptions-restrict the availability of any drink with added sugar, but the voluntary pledges take less-restrictive approaches. There is little consensus on artificially sweetened drinks. Policies vary in other ways, too, presenting an opportunity to study the effects of different policy approaches on short- and long-term consumption and attitudes. In the meantime, the widespread condemnation of soft drinks in schools suggests that it is within the industry's interests to take more comprehensive action. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soft drinks, aggression and suicidal behaviour in US high school students.

    PubMed

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students.

  2. Soft drinks and obesity in Latvia: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin; Pudule, Iveta

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity is now firmly on the political agenda in western Europe but has received rather less attention in the eastern region of the European Union. This is a situation that cannot continue forever, especially in the light of evidence of the future social and economic cost of failure to act. Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Latvia were conducted in October 2004 to understand the Latvian response to childhood obesity and, specifically, to soft drink consumption as one of its key risk factors. Analysis was undertaken using the established principles of stakeholder analysis to assess the position and influence of the stakeholders on consumption of soft drink consumption within broader efforts to curb obesity in children. Twenty interviews were conducted and no one refused to be interviewed. Most stakeholders were concerned or convinced of the importance of restricting soft drinks consumption as part of initiatives to prevent childhood obesity. The most influential and supportive stakeholders were high school and primary school directors and parent groups. These findings help elucidate the actions of the Latvian government in November 2006 when it moved to ban certain foods and drinks from schools based on a concern for the adverse impact of additives on child health. The rapidity with which this poorly evidenced decision took place may have been supported by the unique context of an unstable government, nutrition leadership in dissolution, relatively weak industry influence and a surprisingly strong movement of teachers and parents.

  3. Soft Drink Vending Machines in Schools: A Clear and Present Danger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Murnan, Judy; Moore, Bradene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the availability of soft drinks in schools ("pouring rights contracts") and its effects on the growing nutritional problems of American youth. Of special concern is the prevalence of overweight youth, which has been increasing at alarming rates. There has been a direct relationship found between soft drink consumption and…

  4. Are soft drinks getting a bum rap? We don't think so.

    PubMed

    White, Adrienne A; Nitzke, Susan; Peterson, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    The viewpoint presented in this article is that soft drink consumption is a contributing factor in the rising incidence of overweight among school-aged children. Misinformation must be dispelled so that resources can be directed to real, evidence-based concerns. Child nutrition advocates have called for reducing access to soft drinks in schools as an important step in optimizing healthful environments for children. School nutrition policies are being revised at national, state, and local levels. Along with other stakeholders, soft drink manufacturers must acknowledge the problem of rising rates of overweight in children and work within their spheres of influence to limit access to soft drinks in schools.

  5. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  6. The effects of a soft drink tax in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Richard; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Salois, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    The majority of the UK population is either overweight or obese. Health economists, nutritionists and doctors are calling for the UK to follow the example of other European countries and introduce a tax on soft drinks as a result of the perception that high intakes contribute to diet-related disease. We use a demand model estimated with household-level data on beverage purchases in the UK to investigate the effects of a tax on soft drink consumption. The model is a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, and censoring is handled by applying a double hurdle. Separate models are estimated for low, moderate and high consumers to allow for a differential impact on consumption between these groups. Applying different hypothetical tax rates, we conclude that understanding the nature of substitute/complement relationships is crucial in designing an effective policy as these relationships differ between consumers depending on their consumption level. The overall impact of a soft drink tax on calorie consumption is likely to be small.

  7. Colorimetric sensor array for soft drink analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2007-01-24

    Fourteen commercial soft drinks have been analyzed using colorimetric sensor arrays made from a set of 25 chemically responsive dyes printed on a hydrophobic membrane. Digital imaging of the dye array before and after immersion provides a color change profile as a unique fingerprint for each specific analyte. The digital data library generated was analyzed with statistical and chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Facile identification of all of the soft drinks was readily achieved using comparison of the color change profiles or a PCA score plot. Using a HCA dendrogram, the misclassification rate was <2%, and even very similar sodas were easily differentiated. In addition, the monitoring of soft drinks as they degas or upon dilution also proved to be possible. This work demonstrates the potential of our colorimetric sensor array technology for quality assurance/control applications of sodas and perhaps other beverages as well.

  8. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  9. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions.

  10. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  11. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  12. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Lin; Chang, Chia-Chieh; Chi, Chih-Wen; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Chuang, Yueh-Chiao; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Huang, Guay-Fen; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2014-11-01

    Most soft drinks are acidic in nature. Regular consumption of these drinks may result in dental erosion. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different soft drinks in Taiwan by a novel multiple erosive method. Four commercially available soft drinks in Taiwan were selected for this study. The properties of each product were analyzed to measure their pH, titratable acidity, and ion contents. The erosive potential of the soft drinks was measured based on the amount of loss of human enamel surface following its exposure to the soft drinks tested for different periods (20 minutes, 60 minutes, and 180 minutes). The enamel loss was measured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The pH values of the soft drinks were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralization, and ranged from 2.42 to 3.46. The drink with ingredients of citric acid and ascorbic acid had the highest titratable acidity (33.96 mmol OH(-)/L to pH 5.5 and 71.9 mmol OH(-)/L to pH 7). Exposure to all the soft drinks resulted in loss of human enamel surface (7.28-34.07 μm for 180-minute exposure). The beverage with the highest calcium content had the lowest erosive potential. All tested soft drinks were found to be erosive. Soft drinks with high calcium contents have significantly lower erosive potential. Low pH value and high citrate content may cause more surface enamel loss. As the erosive time increased, the titratable acidity to pH 7 may be a predictor of the erosive potential for acidic soft drinks. The erosive potential of the soft drinks may be predicted based on the types of acid content, pH value, titratable acidity, and ion concentration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed.

  14. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruun, J M; Maersk, M; Belza, A; Astrup, A; Richelsen, B

    2015-08-01

    Sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) are associated with the development of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a major component of SSSDs and is demonstrated to induce uric acid (UA) production and stimulate fat accumulation independent of excess caloric intake. UA induce insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, suggesting that UA may have a causal role in the development of metabolic complications. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of consuming SSSDs on circulating levels of UA in overweight and obese subjects. Using a previously published study, circulating UA levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 months using chromogenic enzymatic absorptiometry. The study included 47 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes, randomised to consume 1 l daily of either SSSD (regular cola), isocaloric semi-skimmed milk, diet cola or water for 6 months. Circulating UA levels increased ~15% (P = 0.02) after the 6-month intervention in the SSSD group with no change in the other groups. In the SSSD group, circulating UA levels increased significantly after the intervention in both absolute (P = 0.005) and relative values (P = 0.004). The change in UA after the intervention correlated with changes in liver fat (P = 0.005), triglycerides (P = 0.02) and insulin (P = 0.002). In this secondary analysis daily intake of 1 l SSSD for 6 months was found to increase circulating UA levels compared with isocaloric milk, diet cola and water. Thus, a high daily intake of SSSDs in overweight and obese subjects without overt diabetes may increase the risk of developing metabolic complications through the elevation of UA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00777647.

  15. Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde

    2009-11-01

    The high sugar content of regular soft drinks brought up discussions on their influence on energy balance and body weight especially in childhood and adolescence. This review examines the evidence for a causal relationship between soft drink consumption and excess weight gain in childhood and identifies potential underlying mechanisms. Although results from cohort studies contrary to those from intervention studies are not univocal, there is evidence for a detrimental effect of soft drink consumption on body weight in childhood. This impact seems to be induced by an inadequate energy compensation after the consumption of sugar-containing beverages. Because of the similar composition of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sucrose, it is implausible that these types of sugar in soft drinks can cause substantially different effects on body weight. The replacement of soft drinks and other sugar-containing beverages such as fruit juices by noncaloric alternatives seems to be a promising approach for the prevention of overweight in childhood and adolescence. However, as the cause of overweight and obesity is multifactorial, the limitation of soft drink consumption needs to be incorporated in a complex strategy for obesity prevention.

  16. Within-day drinking water consumption patterns: results from a drinking water consumption survey.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila; Scrafford, Carolyn; Lantz, Jennifer; Daniels, Carrie; Mihlan, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address how often, when, and how much water is consumed at specific times during the day. The survey was conducted in two waves, to represent two seasons, and the survey instrument consisted of 7-day water consumption diaries. Data on total daily amounts consumed, number of drinking occasions per day, amounts consumed per drinking occasion, and intervals between drinking occasions show larger between-subjects variation than within-subject variation. Statistically significant associations were also observed between drinking water consumption patterns and participants' ages and sex and geographical regions in which these participants live. The number of drinking occasions on a given day varied from 0 to 19, with the majority of respondents reporting 6 or less drinking occasions per day. The average interval between drinking occasions varied from 1 to 17 h, with 57% of the person-days reporting average intervals at least 3 h apart. The mean amount consumed per drinking occasion showed little association with the number of drinking occasions and fluctuated between 8 and 10 oz. To our knowledge, this survey is the only source of information on within-day patterns (i.e., when and how much) of drinking water consumption for a nationally representative sample of the US population. The detailed water consumption data from this survey can be used to support less than 24-h dietary exposure estimates for contaminants in drinking water.

  17. Soft drink wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation-electrooxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Linares Hernández, Ivonne; Barrera Díaz, Carlos; Valdés Cerecero, Mario; Almazán Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Castañeda Juárez, Monserrat; Lugo Lugo, Violeta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a coupled system, a monopolar Electrocoagulation (EC)-Electrooxidation (EO) processes, for the treatment of soft drink wastewater. For the EC test, Cu-Cu, anode-cathode were used at current densities of 17, 51 and 68 mA cm(-2). Only 37.67% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 27% of total organic carbon (TOC) were removed at 20 min with an optimum pH of 8, this low efficiency can be associated with the high concentration of inorganic ions which inhibit the oxidation of organic matter due to their complexation with copper ions. Later EO treatment was performed with boron-doped diamond-Cu electrodes and a current density of 30 Am(-2). The coupled EC-EO system was efficient to reduce organic pollutants from initial values of 1875 mg L(-1) TOC and 4300 mg L(-1) COD, the removal efficiencies were 75% and 85%, respectively. Electric energy consumption to degrade a kilogram of a pollutant in the soft drink wastewater using EC was 3.19 kWh kg(-1) TOC and 6.66 kWh kg(-1) COD. It was concluded that the coupled system EC-EO was effective for the soft drink wastewater treatment, reducing operating costs and residence time, and allowing its reuse in indirect contact with humans, thus contributing to the sustainable reuse as an effluent of industrial wastewater.

  18. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries. PMID:16526959

  19. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  20. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  1. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental attitudes towards soft drink vending machines in high schools.

    PubMed

    Hendel-Paterson, Maia; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-10-01

    Soft drink vending machines are available in 98% of US high schools. However, few data are available about parents' opinions regarding the availability of soft drink vending machines in schools. Six focus groups with 33 parents at three suburban high schools were conducted to describe the perspectives of parents regarding soft drink vending machines in their children's high school. Parents viewed the issue of soft drink vending machines as a matter of their children's personal choice more than as an issue of a healthful school environment. However, parents were unaware of many important details about the soft drink vending machines in their children's school, such as the number and location of machines, hours of operation, types of beverages available, or whether the school had contracts with soft drink companies. Parents need more information about the number of soft drink vending machines at their children's school, the beverages available, the revenue generated by soft drink vending machine sales, and the terms of any contracts between the school and soft drink companies.

  3. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  4. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  5. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  6. Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first worldwide reconnaissance study of the presence and occurrence of pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks. While there are strict regulations and exhaustive controls for pesticides in fruits, vegetables, and drinking water, scarce attention has been paid to highly consumed derivate products, which may contain these commodities as ingredients. In the case of the fruit-based soft drinks industry, there are no clear regulations, relating to pesticides, which address them, even when there is significant consumption in vulnerable groups such as children. In this work, we have developed a screening method to search automatically for up to 100 pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks extracts based on the application of liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The sample extracts injected were obtained by a preliminary sample treatment step based on solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymer-based reverse phase cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Subsequent identification, confirmation, and quantitation were carried out by LC-TOF MS analysis: the confirmation of the target species was based on retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of protonated molecules ([M + H]+) and fragment ions (obtaining accuracy errors typically lower than 2 ppm). With the proposed method, we measured over 100 fruit-based soft drink samples, purchased from 15 different countries from companies with brands distributed worldwide and found relatively large concentration levels of pesticides in most of the samples analyzed. The concentration levels detected were of the micrograms per liter level, low when considering the European maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for fruits but very high (i.e., 300 times) when considering the MRLs for drinking or bottled water. The detected pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and its main degradate, prochloraz and its main degradate, malathion, and

  7. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-05-17

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft drink intake is associated with diet quality even among young Japanese women with low soft drink intake.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mai; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi

    2008-12-01

    Unsweetened traditional Japanese tea has long been the main beverage consumed in Japan, with soft drinks only recently forming a part of people's diets. Evidence suggests an association between soft drink intake and poor diet quality among youth in the United States. The association is not yet fully examined in the population with relatively low intake level of soft drinks such as the current Japanese population. To investigate the association of soft drink intake with dietary intake among young Japanese women. A cross-sectional survey assessed dietary intake using a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire. Female dietetics students aged 18 to 20 years (n=3,931) in April 2005 in Japan. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship of soft drink intake with that of foods, beverages, energy, and nutrients. Mean+/-standard deviation soft drink intake was 70.6+/-93.0 g/1,000 kcal. Soft drink intake was significantly associated positively with intake of confection, fat and oil, noodles, 100% vegetable and fruit juices, diet soft drinks, energy, and carbohydrates and negatively with intake of vegetables, fruits, pulses, fish and shellfish, rice, eggs, potatoes, milk, coffee and black tea, traditional Japanese tea, protein, dietary fiber, cholesterol, and most of the micronutrients examined. Not only among Western populations, but also among non-Western populations, soft drink intake may be an important factor to consider in evaluating overall dietary intake and diet quality.

  9. Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco F; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; López, M Carmen

    2002-06-26

    Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3-V205 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analysed samples, aluminium values ranged from 4.2 to 165.3 microg/l in drinking water (n=41), from 49.3 to 1,144.6 microg/l in fruit juices (n=47), and from 44.6 to 1053.3 microg/l in soft drinks (n=88). According to the type of container (glass or can) statistically significant differences (P<0.01) have been demonstrated. Considering the mean daily individual consumption of these beverages in Spain, the daily dietary intake of Al supplied by this source is estimated as 156 microg/person/day. This study contributes new data on the Al content of a variety of foods and beverages in Spain and to estimate reliably the total dietary intake of aluminium.

  10. Soft Drink Design. USMES Teacher's Resource Book, Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This USMES unit challenges students to invent a new soft drink that would be popular and produced at a low cost. The teacher resource book for the Soft Drink Design unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature of the USMES…

  11. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Deborah A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. Objective We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. Design In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21–39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995–2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Main outcome measures Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Results Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of ≥2 times/week compared with <5 times/year was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.40; P-trend<0.001). For sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, the HR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23; P-trend=0.14) for ≥2 drinks/day compared with <1 drink/month. The associations were stronger among women younger than age 30 with normal weight at baseline. Conclusions Frequent consumption of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to obesity among young African American women. PMID:24392607

  12. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with < 5 times/year was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14-1.40; P-trend<.001). For sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, the HR was 1.10 (95% CI: .99-1.23; P-trend = .14) for > or = 2 drinks/day compared with < 1 drink/month. The associations were stronger among women younger than age 30 with normal weight at baseline. Frequent consumption of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to obesity among young African American women.

  13. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  14. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  15. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Henjum, Sigrun; Terragni, Laura; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks) among adolescents. Methods In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3) were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents. PMID:27652684

  16. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    PubMed

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  17. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Görgülü, Yasemin; Taşdelen, Öznur; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Köse Çinar, Rugül

    2014-03-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  18. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    GÖRGÜLÜ, Yasemin; TAŞDELEN, Öznur; SÖNMEZ, Mehmet Bülent; KÖSE ÇINAR, Rugül

    2014-01-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  19. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  20. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points. PMID:22966937

  1. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Millar, Lynne; Kremer, Peter; Lacy, Kathleen; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-09-12

    Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  2. Categorizing US State Drinking Practices and Consumption Trends

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.

    2010-01-01

    US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings were identified: North Central and New England with the highest consumption and heavy drinking levels; Middle Atlantic, Pacific and South Coast with moderate drinking levels; and Dry South with the lowest drinking levels. Analyses of relationships between beer and spirits series for states within groups as compared to those in different groups failed to clearly indicate group cohesiveness. PMID:20195444

  3. [Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Perico, Andrea; Colzi, Alessio; Bavazzano, Paolo; Di Giusto, Maurizio; Lamberti, Ilaria; Martino, Gianrocco; Puggelli, Francesco; Lorini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of benzene present in soft drinks sold in Florence (Italy). We analyzed 28 different types of soft drinks, by measuring concentrations of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, ascorbic acid (using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection) and benzene (using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Data was analysed by using SPSS 18.0.Traces of benzene were detected in all analyzed beverages, with a mean concentration of 0.45 µg/L (range: 0.15-2.36 µg/L). Statistically significant differences in mean benzene concentrations were found between beverages according to the type of additive indicated on the drink label, with higher concentrations found in beverages containing both ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate. Two citrus fruit-based drinks were found to have benzene levels above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 µg /L. Sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid were also detected in the two drinks.In conclusion, not all soft drink producers have taken steps to eliminate benzoic acid from their soft drinks and thereby reduce the risk of formation of benzene, as recommended by the European Commission. Furthermore, the presence of benzene in trace amounts in all beverages suggests that migration of constituents of plastic packaging materials or air-borne contamination may be occurring.

  4. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, P<0.001) while starch had less impact (OR=1.60, CI=1.0-2.55, P<0.05). Top tertile intakes of caloric soft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These

  5. Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Jan, Nataša; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviors (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 Children (52% girls; mean age=11.7 ± 0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4 ± 5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.

  6. Effect of soft drinks on the release of calcium from enamel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee

    2013-09-01

    Continuous consumption of soft drinks is the main cause of potential oral health problems, including dental caries and erosion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three different types of soft drinks on the release of calcium from the enamel surface of teeth. Forty bovine teeth were selected for the experiment. They were divided into four groups (n=10/group): Group 1 (Coke), Group 2 (Pepsi), Group 3 (Sprite), and Group 4 (distilled water, the control). The pH of each beverage was measured using a pH meter. The release of calcium ions was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at baseline, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results were assessed by analysis of variance and then by the Tukey test (p< 0.05). Coke, with a pH of 2.39, was the most acidic among the soft drinks. Coke, Pepsi, and Sprite showed no significant mean differences in the calcium released, but there was a significant mean difference of these soft drinks with distilled water at 60 minutes. We concluded that prolonged exposure to soft drinks could lead to significant enamel loss.

  7. Levels of bisphenol A in canned soft drink products in Canadian markets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2009-02-25

    The method developed previously for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in liquid infant formula was adapted and validated for determination of BPA in soft drink products. This method was based on solid phase extraction and derivatization with acetic anhydride followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode. The average method detection limit was 0.045 microg/L for a 10 mL sample. The average extraction recoveries were 101 and 99.9% obtained with seven different soft drink products spiked with BPA at 0.5 and 2.5 microg/L, respectively. Good repeatability of the method was observed with replicate analyses of seven different soft drinks; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.3 to 6.6%. This method was used to analyze samples of 72 canned soft drink products for BPA. Except for three products from which BPA-d16 could not be recovered at all due to interference of product compositions (e.g., quinine hydrochloride in tonic water), BPA was detected in samples of all the other products at levels ranging from 0.032 to 4.5 microg/L. About 75% of the products had BPA levels of <0.5 microg/L, and 85% of the products had BPA levels of <1 microg/L. Exposure to BPA through consumption of canned soft drink products is low; dietary intake of BPA was estimated at 0.027 microg/kg of body weight/day on the basis of the consumption of one canned soft drink with the highest BPA level (4.5 microg/L) for an adult with a 60 kg body weight, well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 25 microg/kg of body weight/day established by Health Canada.

  8. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking.

  9. Removal of soft deposits from the distribution system improves the drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Nissinen, Tarja K; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Martikainen, Pertti J; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2004-02-01

    Deterioration in drinking water quality in distribution networks represents a problem in drinking water distribution. These can be an increase in microbial numbers, an elevated concentration of iron or increased turbidity, all of which affect taste, odor and color in the drinking water. We studied if pipe cleaning would improve the drinking water quality in pipelines. Cleaning was arranged by flushing the pipes with compressed air and water. The numbers of bacteria and the concentrations of iron and turbidity in drinking water were highest at 9 p.m., when the water consumption was highest. Soft deposits inside the pipeline were occasionally released to bulk water, increasing the concentrations of iron, bacteria, microbially available organic carbon and phosphorus in drinking water. The cleaning of the pipeline decreased the diurnal variation in drinking water quality. With respect to iron, only short-term positive effects were obtained. However, removing of the nutrient-rich soft deposits did decrease the microbial growth in the distribution system during summer when there were favorable warm temperatures for microbial growth. No Norwalk-like viruses or coliform bacteria were detected in the soft deposits, in contrast to the high numbers of heterotrophic bacteria.

  10. Identification of soft drinks using MEMS-IDT microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Karjathkar, Sonal; Jacesko, Stefany; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2005-05-01

    Development of a taste sensor with high sensitivity, stability and selectivity is highly desirable for the food and beverage industries. The main goal of a taste sensor is to reproduce five kinds of senses of humans, which is quite difficult. The importance of knowing quality of beverages and drinking water has been recognized as a result of increase in concern in environmental pollution issues. However, no accurate measuring system appropriate for quality evaluation of beverages is available. A highly sensitive microsensor using horizontally polarized Surface Acoustic Waves (SH-SAW) for the detection and identification of soft drinks is presented in this paper. Different soft drinks were tested using this sensor and the results which could distinguish between two popular soft drinks like Pepsi and Coca cola is presented in this paper. The SH-SAW microsensors are fabricated on 36°-rotated Y cut X propagating LiTaO3 (36YX.LT) substrate. This design consists of a dual delay line configuration in which one line is free and other one is metallized and shielded. Due to high electromechanical coupling of 36YX.LT, it could detect difference in electrical properties and hence to distinguish different soft drinks. Measured electrical characteristics of these soft drinks at X-band frequency using free space system show distinguishable results. It is clear from these results that the microsensor based on 36YX.LT is an effective liquid identification system for quantifying human sensory expressions.

  11. Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W; Gasser, Melissa L; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-04-01

    Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating Implicit Drinking Identity as a Mediator of Drinking Motives and Alcohol Consumption and Craving

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W.; Gasser, Melissa L.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. Method We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Results Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Conclusions Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. PMID:25544353

  13. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  14. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients.

  15. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  16. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  17. The relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years, and possible mediating effects of availability and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-09-14

    The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.

  18. Soft drink availability, contracts, and revenues in American secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    Soft drinks have been widely available in the nation's schools for some years, but recently, in response to rising concern about the epidemic of obesity among youth, concerns have been raised as to whether they should be available, and if so, under what circumstances. This paper looks at how widespread soft drink availability is at present in schools, as well as the availability of other classes of beverages. Because overweight occurs disproportionately among minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), this paper also seeks to determine to what extent environmental conditions differ for these students. Differences between middle and high schools are also examined. Data for 2004 and 2005 were used from two ongoing United States national surveys: the Youth, Education, and Society (YES) study of school administrators (N=345), and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study of secondary school students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades surveyed in those same schools (N=37,543). Data were gathered in YES on the availability of various beverages in schools from vending machines and other venues, as well as about the presence and nature of pouring rights contracts with soft drink bottlers. Data were analyzed in 2006. The vast majority of high school students today have soft drinks available to them in the school environment both through vending machines (88%) and in the cafeteria at lunch (59%), with middle schools providing somewhat less access. Diet soft drinks are less available, particularly at lunch. Most students (67% in middle and 83% in high school) are in schools that have a contract with a bottler. Revenues to schools generated by soft drink sales are quite modest. Hispanics are most likely to have soft drinks available throughout the school day. The SES of the students correlates negatively with whether the school allows advertising and promotion of soft drinks. Current school practices regarding soft drink availability, advertising, and sales would seem

  19. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  20. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    PubMed Central

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of “pushing” soft drink consumption. “Pouring rights” contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets. Imagesp308-ap313-a PMID:11059423

  1. Carbonated soft drinks induce oxidative stress and alter the expression of certain genes in the brains of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    El-Terras, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Alkhedaide, Adel; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Alharthy, Abdullah; Banaja, Abdel Elah

    2016-04-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the consumption of carbonated soft drinks is common and often occurs with each meal. Carbonated soft drink consumption has been shown to exhibit effects on the liver, kidney and bone. However, the effects of these soft drinks on brain activity have not been widely examined, particularly at the gene level. Therefore, the current study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effects of chronic carbonated soft drink consumption on oxidative stress, brain gene biomarkers associated with aggression and brain histology. In total, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a control and was provided access to food and water ad libitum; and groups 2‑4 were given free access to food and carbonated soft drinks only (Cola for group 2, Pepsi for group 3 and 7‑UP for group 4). Animals were maintained on these diets for 3 consecutive months. Upon completion of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and serological and histopathological analyses were performed on blood and tissues samples. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze alterations in gene expression levels. Results revealed that carbonated soft drinks increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Carbonated soft drinks were also observed to downregulate the expression of antioxidants glutathione reductase (GR), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the brain when compared with that in the control rats. Rats administered carbonated soft drinks also exhibited decreased monoamine oxidase A (MAO‑A) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) serum and mRNA levels in the brain. In addition, soft drink consumption upregulated mRNA expression of dopamine D2 receptor (DD2R), while 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5‑HTT) expression was decreased. However, following histological examination, all rats had a normal brain structure. The results of this study demonstrated that that carbonated soft drinks induced oxidative stress and

  2. Evaluation of The Erosive Potential of Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; de Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study evaluated the capability of different soft drinks (Coca-Cola®-C, Coca-Cola Light®-CL, Guaraná®-G, Pepsi Twist®-P and Sprite Light®-SL) to erode dental enamel, relating the percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) to concentrations of fluoride and phosphate, buffering capacity and pH of these drinks. Methods The soft drinks were evaluated in respect to concentration of phosphate and fluoride spectrophotometrically using Fiske, Subarrow method and by specific electrode (Orion 9609), respectively. The pH and the buffering capacity were determined by glass electrode and by estimating of the volume of NaOH necessary to change the pH of the drink in one unit, respectively. One hundred specimens of bovine enamel were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 20 each. They were exposed to 4 cycles of demineralisation in the beverage and remineralisation in artificial saliva. The softening of enamel was evaluated by %SMHC. Results The mean %SMHC was: C=77.27%, CL= 72.45%, SL=78.43%, G=66.65% and P=67.95%. Comparing the %SMHC promoted by 5 soft drinks, SL = C > CL > P = G (P<.05). There was not significant correlation between %SMHC and the other variables tested for the five drinks (P>.05). Conclusions The five soft drinks caused surface softening of enamel (erosion). In respect to the chemical variables tested, despite not statistically significant, the pH seems to have more influence on the erosive potential of these drinks. (Eur J Dent 2007;1:10–13) PMID:19212490

  3. Joint Influence of Protein Supplements, Soft Drinks and Extreme Physical Activity on the Development of Acute Renal Failure and Hypokalaemia.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, S; Kitic, D; Kostic, M; Apostolovic, B; Brankovic, S; Ciric, I M; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R

    2015-11-13

    We present a case of a 33-year old man who complained of weakness, fever and decreased urinating. A personal history revealed a consumption of creatine, protein supplements, soft drinks containing caffeine and stevia, and extreme physical activity which included lifting of heavy weights. The patient developed anuria, uraemia, fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and paradoxical hypokalaemia. After the patient had seven successive dialysis treatments, normal kidney function was restored. The report presents the first case of acute renal failure followed by hypokalaemia due to the combined action of the excessive consumption of supplements, soft drinks with stevia and caffeine, and extreme physical activity.

  4. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  5. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a

  6. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P < .001) and AmED (P = .002) use. Knowledge about amounts consumed and recommended allowances is associated with less consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  7. Aspartame and Soft Drink-Mediated Neurotoxicity in Rats: Implication of Oxidative Stress, Apoptotic Signaling Pathways, Electrolytes and Hormonal Levels.

    PubMed

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Sadek, Kadry M; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-06-28

    A significant association between fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages consumption and increased risk of detrimental central nervous system effects has been recently reported. We hypothesized that the aspartame and soft drink induced disturbances in energy production and endocrine function, which play a role in the induction of brain damage. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of aspartame and soft drink on brain function and the link between energy status in the brain, oxidative stress and molecular pathways of apoptosis. Thirty rats were randomly assigned to drink water, aspartame (240 mg/kg orally) and cola soft drinks (free access) daily for two months. Subchronic intake of aspartame and soft drink significantly disrupted the brain energy production, as indicated by inhibited serum and brain creatine kinase, specifically in soft drink-received rats. Moreover, they substantially altered serum electrolytes (increased Ca and Na, and depleted Cu, Fe, Zn and K levels), and accordingly the related hormonal status (increased T4 and PTH, and lowered T3 and aldosterone levels), particularly in soft drink-received rats reflecting brain damage. Additionally, significant increment of acetylcholine esterase activity concomitant with the reduction of antioxidant molecules (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH), and induction of malondialdehyde level are precisely indicative of oxidative brain damage. Brain mRNA transcripts of target genes showed that aspartame and soft drink induced upregulation of BAX, Casp3, P27 and Mdm2 (1.5-fold) and down-regulation of Bcl2, suggesting an activation of cellular apoptosis. Collectively, subchronic aspartame and soft drink-induced brain damage in rats may be driven via a mechanism that involves energy production disruption, electrolytes and hormonal imbalance, increased oxidative stress and activation of molecular pathway of neuronal apoptosis.

  8. Association of water softness and heavy alcohol consumption with higher hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Mark; Riva, Antonio; Marks, Peter; Williams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that regional variations in the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease are contributed to by regional variations in 'softness' of drinking water, i.e. its mineral content. Annual hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease per 100,000 population in the 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) existing in England over the period 2003-2006 were compared with regional measures of water hardness, alcohol consumption and social deprivation. As corroborative evidence, the same relations were examined for hospital admission rates for osteoporosis, a disorder with an already established link with calcium deficiency in drinking water (as well as with heavy drinking). Hospital admissions rates for alcoholic liver disease were higher in predominant-soft-water SHAs than with hard water SHAs. These areas, with one exception, were also associated with high alcohol consumption, but not with greater social deprivation. Hospital admission rates for osteoporosis were found to vary in a way similar to that for alcoholic liver disease, with significant correlations with soft water and alcohol consumption. Given experimental evidence that magnesium deficiency can aggravate liver damage from alcohol, soft water with its low magnesium concentration may be a factor additional to alcohol consumption in the development of liver damage. The parallel findings with osteoporosis admissions, explainable by low calcium and magnesium levels present in soft water, along with the known effect of heavy drinking on bone metabolism, provide corollary support for the hypothesis linking soft water with the pathogenesis of these two diseases.

  9. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Analysis of consumer complaints related to microbial contamination in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Goto, Keiichi; Onoue, Youichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Lee, Ken-ichi; Kumagai, Susumu; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    Surveillance of consumer complaints related to microbial contamination in soft drinks indicated that tea drinks, and juice and juice drinks were major soft drinks involved in complaints. The frequency of complaints about juice and juice drinks is relatively high in relation to the production amount. Damage to containers during distribution and inappropriate storage of soft drinks by consumers are major causes of complaints. Molds were predominantly associated with complaints and symptoms caused by intake of contaminated soft drinks. To reduce complaints, more support for small companies, and greater education for carriers, dealers and consumers are needed.

  11. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  12. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students.

    PubMed

    Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

  13. Risk of Colon Cancer and Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Intake: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Albanes, Demetrius; Beeson, W. Lawrence; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Buring, Julie E.; Flood, Andrew; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Jacobs, Eric J.; Krogh, Vittorio; Larsson, Susanna C.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sieri, Sabina; Spiegelman, Donna; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Shumin M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. Methods We investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of primary data from 13 cohort studies. Among 731 441 participants followed for up to 6–20 years, 5604 incident colon cancer case patients were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable relative risks were 1.07 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.30, Ptrend = .68) for coffee consumption greater than 1400 g/d (about six 8-oz cups) and 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61, Ptrend = .01) for tea consumption greater than 900 g/d (about four 8-oz cups). For sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption, the pooled multivariable relative risk comparing consumption greater than 550 g/d (about 18 oz) to nonconsumers was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.32, Ptrend = .91). No statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for the highest category of each beverage consumed (P > .20). The observed associations did not differ by sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, or tumor site (P > .05). Conclusions Drinking coffee or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with colon cancer risk. However, a modest positive association with higher tea consumption is possible and requires further study. PMID:20453203

  14. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  15. Drinking while thirsty can lead to conditioned increases in consumption.

    PubMed

    Durlach, P J; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    2002-10-01

    A within-subject design was used to test whether repeatedly drinking a novel-flavoured and coloured drink while thirsty would influence subsequent liking for or consumption of that drink, compared to a different flavoured and coloured drink repeatedly consumed while less thirsty. Each participant was given 300 ml of one flavoured drink (H) after consuming a high salt meal (5.27 g of salt), and 300 ml of another flavoured drink (L) after consuming a low salt meal (1.27 g of salt). Participants had 4 sessions with each meal-type/drink combination, in an intermixed order. Pre- and post-training assessments of the drinks were conducted to determine the impact of the training regime on pleasantness and perceived thirst-quenching effect of the drinks. The final session included a choice test, and ad libitum access to the chosen drink, after either a high or low salt meal. In this final choice session, people drank almost twice as much H as L; however, there were no differential effects of past training on rated liking or choice. The increased consumption of H might reflect greater liking for H which was not detected by the rating scales; or it might reflect the learning of greater "conditioned thirst" in response to the flavour of H. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  17. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6–23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6–8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. PMID:24847768

  18. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Drinking reasons, alcohol consumption levels, and drinking locations among drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E

    1986-06-01

    In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed.

  20. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    PubMed

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  1. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013.

  2. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  3. Commercial soft drinks: pH and in vitro dissolution of enamel.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Nihill, Patricia; Sobkowski, Jason; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2007-01-01

    Most soft drinks are acidic in nature and exposure to these drinks may result in enamel erosion. This study sought to measure the pH of 20 commercial brands of soft drinks, the dissolution of enamel resulting from immersion in these drinks, and the influence of pH on enamel loss. Comparison of the erosive potential of cola versus non-cola drinks as well as regular sugared and diet versions of the same brands was undertaken. The pH was measured immediately after opening the soft drink can. Enamel slices obtained from freshly extracted teeth were immersed in the soft drinks and weighed at baseline and after 6, 24, and 48 hours of immersion. Non-cola drinks had significantly higher pH values than cola drinks but showed higher mean percent weight loss. By contrast, sugared versions of the cola and non-cola drinks showed significantly lower pH values and higher mean percent weight loss than their diet counterparts. The pH value of the soft drink did not have a significant influence on the mean percent weight loss (r = -0.28). Prolonged exposure to soft drinks can lead to significant enamel loss. Non-cola drinks are more erosive than cola drinks. Sugared versions of cola and non-cola drinks proved to be more erosive than their diet counterparts. The erosive potential of the soft drinks was not related to their pH value.

  4. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P <0.001). Whereas more girls claimed to drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.

  5. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  6. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  7. Bacteriological Examination of Unbottled Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, F. M.; Abd-Elnaby, H. A.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 300 samples, representing 14 different unbottled drinks, indicated that there are three vitally important criteria pertaining to their bacteriological examination. First, the total viable counts may be better accomplished by the pour-plate method, using enriched media, with incubation at either 30 or 37 C. Second, a comparative study of the coliaerogenes group and the enterococci as indices of pollution unquestionably favors the latter as the reliable indicator, owing to false interpretations of the presumptive test and to lack of accurate definition of fecal and nonfecal coliforms recovered from positive cases. The use of enterococci, however, did not provide as reliable an indicator as the pour-plate method. Third, the results with enterococci, in defining the probable source of pollution, are more precise. Experiments judiciously selected and simultaneously conducted revealed that the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests, and the tetrazolium-reduction test, matched in relating 98.9% of available enterococci to an animal source. Negligible but vital discrepancies were obtained with the two odd strains which qualified as human-derived according to the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests. The differential criterion of Skadhauge and Barnes, based on the failure of animal-derived enterococci to grow in the presence of a low concentration of potassium tellurite, did not apply to the other two methods, since 99.5% of the recovered strains were found tolerant to the specified tellurite concentration. PMID:14490056

  8. Water resources management in soft drink industry-water use and wastewater generation.

    PubMed

    Ait Hsine, E; Benhammou, A; Pons, M N

    2005-12-01

    Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimisation. In Morocco, water use in the food and drink industry is extensive at approximately 24 million m3 per year including 14% of drinking water in 1994. This study was conducted in a carbonate soft drink industry plant, during two years, 2001 and 2002. We have investigated the state of consumption and use of fresh water and the generation of the effluent in the factory. The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities for reducing fresh water intake and minimising wastewater production by studying the posibility of reuse, recycling and treatment.

  9. [Identification of toxigenic mould in soft drink causing food poisoning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G

    1992-01-01

    In a soft drink caused food poisoning, white floccus was found and mould count was 6.0 x 10(2) CFU/ml. The Mycoflora was made of only one kind of mould which was identified as Penicillium janthinellum Biourge. This isolate can grow under anaerobic condition. The culture liquid of the isolate was fed to mice orally for toxicity test, which made the mice lose weight. An extract of the culture liquid was tested in weaned mice inaberitoneally for toxicity and all mice died in 24h. The toxic symptoms were tic, sway and paralysis of right rear-leg. Gross anatomy changes were gastrectosis, flatulence and intestinal edema. The conclusion is: the P. janthinellum isolate from the soft drink was the toxigenic mould.

  10. A survey of energy-drink consumption among medical students.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Tanriover, Ozlem; Unaldi, Sule; Sulun, Serdar; Karavus, Melda

    2013-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of energy drink consumption among medical school students, their knowledge of its effects and side effects and to see its relation with alcohol and cigarette usage. The descriptive analytical study was conducted at Marmara University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey from October 2011 and January 2012. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled by students who were asked about their socio-demographic status and their energy drink consumption. SPSS 12 was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the 390 students in the study was 20.98+/-1.96 years (range:16-27). Of them, 204 (52.3%) were females and 186 (47.7%) were males. Overall 52(13.3%) were smoking regularly at least one cigarette per day; 122(31.3%) were consuming alcohol; 127 (32.6%) had consumed energy drinks at least once and 73(18.8%)more than once. In terms of perception, 110(28.2%) students said energy drinks were similar to sports drinks, while only 121(41.1%) named the brands correctly; 96 (24.6%) students did not answer this particular question. Although consumption of energy drinks was common among medical students, the knowledge of ingredients and knowledge of health risks of energy drinks among them was unsatisfactory.

  11. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use.

    PubMed

    Treur, Jorien L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ligthart, Lannie; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-01

    High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use. The frequency of consumption of sugar-containing drinks (e.g., cola, soft drinks, and energy drinks) and addictive substances (nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drugs) was obtained for 8586 twins who were registered at the Netherlands Twin Register (women: 68.7%; mean ± SD age: 33.5 ± 15.3 y). Participants were categorized as high or low sugar consumers (>1 compared with ≤1 SD above daily consumption in grams) and as high or low substance users (≥2 compared with <2 substances). Through bivariate genetic modeling, genetic and environmental influences on sugar consumption, substance use, and their association were estimated. Genetic factors explained 48% of the variation in high sugar consumption, whereas unique environmental factors explained 52%. For high substance use, these values were 62% and 38%, respectively. There was a moderate phenotypic association between high sugar consumption and high substance use (r = 0.2), which was explained by genetic factors (59%) and unique environmental factors (41%). The positive association between high sugar consumption and high substance use was partly due to unique environmental factors (e.g., social situations). Genetic factors were also of influence, suggesting that neuronal circuits underlying the development of addiction and obesity are related. Further research is needed to identify genes that influence sugar consumption and those that overlap with substance use. © 2016

  12. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  13. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  14. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  15. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Soft drinks and dental health: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Tahmassebi, J F; Duggal, M S; Malik-Kotru, G; Curzon, M E J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the role of commercial soft drinks in dental diseases namely as dental caries and erosion. The objective of this paper has been to review the past and current literature to determine the present knowledge on this subject. The literature related to dental caries, erosion, drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices was reviewed. The literature shows efforts have been taken to modify soft drinks by either adding or deleting certain components so as to reduce their harmful effects on teeth. A rational protocol to encourage the sensible use of drinks and the modification of drinks to render them less harmful would be advisable.

  17. Differences in Asian and white drinking: consumption level, drinking contexts, and expectancies.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, T

    1995-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneous nature of interethnic drinking differences within racial groups, research has demonstrated that cautious generalizations can be made when comparing Asian and White drinking patterns. Persons in the United States who identify their race as "Asian" drink much less than their White counterparts, and they report fewer problems. Some have speculated that drinking patterns between racial groups are mediated by culturally influenced social learning. To date there has been very little research examining the expectancy of reinforcement from drinking between different racial, cultural or ethnic groups. The current study of 637 white and 179 Asian university students examined differences in alcohol consumption and problem levels, the social context of drinking, and alcohol expectancies. Results show considerable differences between Asian and White drinking and level of associated problems, as well as similarities and differences in social drinking contexts. It also appears that Asians expected greater tension reduction from drinking despite drinking less overall. Implications for further research are suggested that would link racial, and more specifically, ethnic drinking differences with culturally defined alcohol expectancies.

  18. Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles.

    PubMed

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7-10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model particles adhered almost exclusively on the biofilms (i.e. on the bacterial aggregates and on the filamentous structures) and not directly on the uncolonized walls (glass or Plexiglas). Biofilm age (i.e. bacterial density and biofilm properties) and convective-diffusion were found to govern particle accumulation: older biofilms and higher wall shear rates both increased the velocity and the amount of particle deposition on the biofilm. Persistence of the polystyrene particles was measured over a two-month period after inoculation. Accumulation amounts were found to be very different between hard and soft particles as only 0.03 per thousand of the soft particles inoculated accumulated in the biofilm against 0.3-0.8% for hard particles.

  19. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    PubMed

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  20. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  1. Does the provision of cooled filtered water in secondary school cafeterias increase water drinking and decrease the purchase of soft drinks?

    PubMed

    Loughridge, J L; Barratt, J

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students often do not drink sufficient quantities of water during the school day to prevent dehydration, promote learning and good health. The study aimed to measure the effect of health promotion and the free provision of cooled filtered water on the consumption of water and soft drinks. It also aimed to explore students' views of drinking water provision. A study was conducted with three secondary schools in North Tyneside. Over a 3 month period one school was given cooled filtered water and active promotion (W + P), another had water only (W). The control school (C) took part in post-intervention focus group work. The average volume of water drunk by students, in school 'W + P' was greater (P = 0.05) than that drunk in school 'W' and control school 'C'. The volume of soft drinks purchased by students in all three schools before and during the intervention remained static. Focus group data revealed that students viewed their existing water provision as poor and wanted sufficient supplies of cooled filtered water in school. This pilot study indicates that active promotion of water drinking increased consumption of water by secondary school students. Further developments of the project are suggested.

  2. Soft drink intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Narain, Aditya; Kwok, Chun Shing; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Pooled risk ratios for adverse outcomes were calculated using inverse variance with a random effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. A total of 12 studies (eight cross-sectional, four prospective cohort studies) with 56 244 participants (age range 6-98 years) were included in the review. Our pooled analysis found that soft drink intake is associated with metabolic syndrome. This relationship is shown in cross-sectional studies of SSB consumption (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.91) and both cross-sectional and prospective studies of ASB consumption (RR 2.45; 95% CI 1.15-5.14; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.44, respectively). However, pooled results of prospective cohort studies of SSB consumption found no association between intake and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Sugar-sweetened beverage and ASB intake are both associated with metabolic syndrome. This association may be driven by the fact that soft drink intake serves as a surrogate for an unhealthy lifestyle, or an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michele L; DeBarr, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale(1) and items to describe energy drink consumption, academic performance, and demographics. Positive correlations existed between participants' perceived stress and energy drink consumption. Participants' energy drink consumption and academic performance were negatively correlated. Freshmen (M = 0.330) and sophomores (M = 0.408) consumed a lower number of energy drinks yesterday than juniors (M = 1.000). Males reported higher means than females for selected energy drink consumption items. Statistically significant interactions existed between gender and year in school for selected energy drink consumption items. Results confirm gender differences in energy drink consumption and illuminate a need for education regarding use of energy drinks in response to perceived stress.

  4. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Rath, Mandy

    2012-02-01

    To describe the adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption among adolescents and young adults. Review of literature utilizing Medscape, the Internet, MD Consult, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used: Energy drinks, caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, sugar, and caffeine toxicity. Search was limited to English language sources from 2005 to 2010. The popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to overall health and well-being. Caffeine, which is readily available to minors, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and imposes a potentially harmful influence on health, academic performance, and personal adjustments. Teens and young adults account for nearly $2.3 billion of energy drink sales. Adolescents and young adults are often unaware that various products, such as energy drinks, herbal medications, and various other medications that promote alertness, contain caffeine. When these products are taken together, caffeine toxicity and severe adverse effects can occur. Practitioners need to be aware of the consequences of energy drink consumption and be prepared to provide appropriate patient education. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Drinking water consumption patterns of residents in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Dewey, C E; Doré, K; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Waltner-Toews, D

    2006-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using computer-assisted telephone interviewing was performed to assess the drinking water consumption patterns in a Canadian community, and to examine the associations between these patterns and various demographic characteristics. The median amount of water consumed daily was four 250 ml servings (1.01), although responses were highly variable (0 to 8.01). Bottled water consumption was common, and represented the primary source of drinking water for approximately 27% of respondents. Approximately 49% of households used water treatment devices to treat their tap water. The observed associations between some demographic characteristics and drinking water consumption patterns indicated potential differences in risk of exposure to waterborne hazards in the population. Our results lend support to the federal review of the bottled water regulations currently in progress in Canada. Additionally, they may lend support to a provincial/territorial government review of bottled water regulations, and both federal and provincial/territorial level reviews of the water treatment device industry. Further investigation of the use of alternative water sources and the perceptions of drinking water in Canada is also needed to better understand, and subsequently address, concerns among Canadians.

  6. Microbial Community Analysis of Anaerobic Reactors Treating Soft Drink Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kim, Na-Kyung; Mei, Ran; Nobu, Masaru K.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic packed-bed (AP) and hybrid packed-bed (HP) reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95%) after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR) increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR. PMID:25748027

  7. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules.

  8. Bacterial contaminants in carbonated soft drinks sold in Bangladesh markets.

    PubMed

    Akond, Muhammad Ali; Alam, Saidul; Hasan, S M R; Mubassara, Sanzida; Uddin, Sarder Nasir; Shirin, Momena

    2009-03-31

    A total of 225 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples from nine brands, from various locations in five metropolitan cities of Bangladesh were examined to determine their bacteriological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant species with an incidence of 95%. Streptococcus spp. and Bacillus stearothermophilus were the next most prevalent with numbers ranging from 6 to 122 and 9 to 105 cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fifty four percent of the samples yielded Salmonella spp. at numbers ranging from 2 to 90 cfu/100 ml. Total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) counts were found in 68-100% and 76-100% of samples of individual brands, at numbers ranging from 5 to 213 and 3 to 276 cfu/100 ml, respectively. According to WHO standards 60-88% of samples from six brands and 32% and 40% of samples from two other brands belonged to the intermediate risk group with FC counts of 100-1000 cfu/100 ml. Heterotrophic plate counts, however, were under the permissible limit in all 225 samples. These findings suggest that carbonated soft drinks commercially available in Bangladesh pose substantial risks to public health.

  9. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  11. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  12. Properties and modification of soft drinks in relation to their erosive potential in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Bardow, Allan; Holbrook, Peter

    2005-08-01

    The objective was three-fold; (1) to test the erosive potential (EP) of various soft drinks, (2) to determine properties related to the soft drinks that were important for EP, and (3) to test possibilities of reducing the EP of soft drinks by modification. Sixteen soft drinks from the Icelandic market including three modified soft drinks were used. The pH, calcium, phosphorus, and titratable acid (TA) to pH 5.5, 7.0, and 10.0 were determined in each drink. From these results the buffer capacity (beta) at pH 4.5, 6.3, and 8.5, degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAP)), and critical pH (DS(HAP)=1) were calculated. One orange juice was modified by addition of various concentrations of calcium and phosphate. EP was determined as weight loss from tooth pieces after immersion into the soft drinks for 24 and 72 h as well as calcium increase in the soft drink upon immersion. EP of the drinks varied from 0-10% weight loss and 0-31 mmol calcium increase. The pH in carbonated and sport drinks was lower than in fruit juices, whereas TA and beta was considerably higher in fruit juices. Significant correlations were obtained between EP and TA, beta, pH, and DS(HAP) (r(s)=0.69-0.90). Addition of calcium and phosphate to the experimental drinks considerably decreased their EP. We conclude that several properties related to soft drinks have an impact on their EP upon long exposure time to teeth and that moderate modification could be a helpful measure to reduce the EP of soft drinks.

  13. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  14. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils׳ soft drink consumption were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  16. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gabriel; González, Julián; Müller, Angélica; Ottaviano, Graciela; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Toblli, Jorge E.; Milei, José

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks. Methods Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350–400 g) were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners) drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners) drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary) and CS (cola sedentary), not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks) and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001). Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups. Conclusions This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings

  17. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults.

    PubMed

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/-2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Using 2007-2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non-continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI. Data were analysed in 2011. After excluding the clinically underweight and morbidly obese, consumption incidence of fast food, soft drinks or candy was not positively correlated with measures of BMI. This was true for sweet snacks (r = 0.005, p = <0.001) and salty snacks (r = 0.001, p = 0.040). No significant variation was found between BMI subcategories in weekly consumption frequency of fast food meals. For 95% of this study's sample, the association between the intake frequency of fast food, soft drinks and candy and BMI was negative. This result suggests that a strategy that focuses solely on these problem foods may be ineffective in reducing weight. Reducing the total calories of food eaten at home and the frequency of snacking may be more successful dieting advice for the majority of individuals.

  18. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults

    PubMed Central

    Just, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/−2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Methods Using 2007–2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non‐continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI. Data were analysed in 2011. Results After excluding the clinically underweight and morbidly obese, consumption incidence of fast food, soft drinks or candy was not positively correlated with measures of BMI. This was true for sweet snacks (r = 0.005, p = <0.001) and salty snacks (r = 0.001, p = 0.040). No significant variation was found between BMI subcategories in weekly consumption frequency of fast food meals. Conclusions For 95% of this study's sample, the association between the intake frequency of fast food, soft drinks and candy and BMI was negative. This result suggests that a strategy that focuses solely on these problem foods may be ineffective in reducing weight. Reducing the total calories of food eaten at home and the frequency of snacking may be more successful dieting advice for the majority of individuals. PMID:27774255

  19. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and a cola soft drink on in vitro enamel hardness.

    PubMed

    Panich, Muratha; Poolthong, Suchit

    2009-04-01

    The authors conducted an in vitro study to compare the hardness of normal enamel with enamel eroded by a cola soft drink and enamel remineralized by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) or artificial saliva. The authors immersed 40 extracted sound central and lateral incisors alternately in a cola soft drink or artificial saliva for 10 cycles of five seconds each. They repeated this procedure two times at six-hour intervals. They divided the samples randomly into four groups and applied CPP-ACP to the samples, immersed them in artificial saliva, deionized water or both. They measured the hardness on the labial surface at baseline, after erosion and after remineralization and analyzed the data with one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and two-way analysis of variance. The cola soft drink significantly decreased enamel hardness. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP and artificial saliva significantly increased the hardness of eroded enamel. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP and artificial saliva increased the hardness of eroded enamel significantly more than artificial saliva did. CPP-ACP increased the hardness of eroded enamel. CPP-ACP had a greater effect on enamel hardness than did artificial saliva. Consumption of a cola soft drink can cause tooth erosion. CPP-ACP may significantly remineralize eroded enamel compared with artificial saliva.

  20. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  1. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  2. Determination of synthetic food dyes in commercial soft drinks by TLC and ion-pair HPLC.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Francisca Ivani; Florindo Guedes, Maria Izabel; Pinto Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão; Pereira Mendes, Francisca Noélia; Salmito Rodrigues, Paula Alves; Costa Maia, Carla Soraya; Marques Ávila, Maria Marlene; de Matos Ribeiro, Luzara

    2014-08-15

    Synthetic food colourings were analyzed on commercial carbonated orange and grape soft drinks produced in Ceará State, Brazil. Tartrazine (E102), Amaranth (E123), Sunset Yellow (E110) and Brilliant Blue (E133) were extracted from soft drinks using C18 SPE and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), this method was used to confirm the composition of food colouring in soft drinks stated on label. The concentration of food colouring in soft drink was determined by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The results obtained with the samples confirm that the identification and quantification methods are recommended for quality control of the synthetic colours in soft drinks, as well as to determine whether the levels and lables complies with the recommendations of food dyes legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Receveur, Olivier; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20% of total energy. Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1% of daily energy intake (n 190, 56% women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P < 0·01), physical activity (exp (β) = 1·08; P < 0·01) and recreational computer use (exp (β) = 1·17; P < 0·01) were independently associated with sweetened product consumption. The association between sweetened product consumption and physical activity was U-shaped. BMI was not significantly associated with sweetened product consumption but all participants regardless of BMI were above the WHO recommendation for free sugars. Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

  4. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages.

  5. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    PubMed

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  6. Lactobacillus perolens sp. nov., a soft drink spoilage bacterium.

    PubMed

    Back, W; Bohak, I; Ehrmann, M; Ludwig, W; Pot, B; Kersters, K; Schleifer, K H

    1999-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria that are able to spoil soft drinks with low pH comprise a limited number of acidotolerant or acidophilic species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella. Various Gram-positive rods causing turbidity and off-flavour were isolated from orange lemonades. Physiological and biochemical studies including SDS-PAGE whole-cell protein analysis showed a homogeneous group of organisms. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of two representatives revealed that they formed a phylogenetically distinct line within the genus Lactobacillus. All strains were facultatively heterofermentative, producing L-lactic acid. Based on the data presented a new species L. perolens is proposed. The name refers to the off-flavour caused by high amounts of diacetyl. The type strain of L. perolens is DSM 12744 (LMG 18936). A rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probe was designed that allows a fast and reliable identification of L. perolens.

  7. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  8. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-02-14

    Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; P< 0·001), artificial sweeteners (βparents= - 0·68, βchildren= - 0·66; P< 0·001), fruit content (βparents= 0·33, βchildren= 0·36; P< 0·05) and caffeine content (βparents= - 0·45, βchildren= - 0·46; P< 0·01) were found to be the predictors of parents' and children's health perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised.

  9. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical

  10. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever

  11. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E. S.; Knibbe, Ronald A.; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Methods: Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Results: Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy. PMID:27420089

  12. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-13

    This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.

  13. Alcohol consumption and mortality. I. Characteristics of drinking groups.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, K M; Golding, J M; Graves, K L; Kniep, S; Leino, E V; Romelsjö, A; Shoemaker, C; Ager, C R; Allebeck, P; Ferrer, H P

    1998-02-01

    This is the first of a set of three papers evaluating drinking status and mortality risk. Analyses of multiple studies describe associations of drinking patterns with characteristics hypothesized to confound the relationships between drinking status and mortality. Characteristics which both significantly differentiate drinking groups and are consistent across studies would suggest that mortality studies not controlling for them may be compromised. Associations are evaluated from the raw data of 10 general population studies which contained mortality data. Long-term abstainers are compared to former drinkers, long-term abstainers and former drinkers are compared to light drinkers (by quantity, frequency and volume in separate analyses) and moderate to heavy drinkers are compared to light drinkers. Tetrachoric correlation coefficients assess statistical significance; meta-analysis determines if associations are homogeneous across studies. Measures of alcohol consumption are quantity, frequency and volume; long-term abstainers are differentiated from former drinkers. Multiple measures of health, social position, social integration and mental health characteristics are evaluated. Across studies, adult male former drinkers are consistently more likely to be heavier smokers, depressed, unemployed, lower SES and to have used marijuana than long-term abstainers. Adult female former drinkers are consistently more likely to be heavier smokers, in poorer health, not religious, and unmarried than long-term abstainers. Both types of abstainers tend to be of lower SES than light drinkers and report poorer health (not consistent). Female abstainers are more likely to be of normal or overweight than light drinkers. Characteristics of two groups of abstainers, other than their non-use of alcohol, may confound the associations found between drinking and mortality risk.

  14. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Brug, Johannes; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks. Results In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity. Conclusion Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361 PMID:19383136

  15. Ten-year patterns of alcohol consumption and drinking problems among older women and men.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen; Brennan, Penny; Moos, Bernice S

    2004-07-01

    This study focused on changes in 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption among older women and men, late-life and life history predictors of drinking problems, and gender differences in these predictors. A sample of late-middle-aged community residents (N = 1291) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 1 year, 4 years and 10 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems and health-related and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking. Over the 10 years, the proportion of individuals who consumed alcohol declined. Among individuals who continued to drink, women and men showed comparable declines in alcohol consumption, minor concomitants of alcohol consumption and drinking problems. In addition to the amount of alcohol consumption, smoking, friends' approval of drinking and avoidance coping consistently predicted late-life drinking problems. With respect to life history factors, heavy drinking, drinking problems and increased drinking in response to life events were related to a higher likelihood of late-life drinking problems; obtaining help from family members and friends and, among men, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous, were related to a lower likelihood of problems. Older women and men show comparable declines in alcohol consumption and drinking problems. Specific late-life social context and coping variables, and life history indices, are risk factors for late-life drinking problems among both women and men.

  16. Examining the Unique Influence of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Drinking Perceptions on Alcohol Consumption Among College Students*

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. Method: College students (N = 303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Results: Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed. PMID:19261229

  17. Calcium glycerophosphate supplemented to soft drinks reduces bovine enamel erosion

    PubMed Central

    BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; MONTAGNOLLI, Lia Guimarães; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; SAMPAIO, Fábio Correia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) supplemented to soft drinks on bovine enamel erosion. Material and methods Four pH-cycles were performed, alternating demineralization by the beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva. Results Mean wear (±SD, µm) was 7.91±1.13, 7.39±1.01, 7.50±0.91 and 5.21±1.08 for Coca-ColaTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, respectively, while no wear was detected for CaGP at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. Corresponding figures for Sprite ZeroTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mM were 8.04±1.30, 7.84±0.71, 7.47±0.80, 4.96±0.81, 3.99±0.10 and 1.87±0.12, respectively. Conclusion Supplementation of both beverages with CaGP seems to be an alternative to reduce their erosive potential. PMID:23032201

  18. Wastewater from the soft drinks industry as a source for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Isla, Miguel A; Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G

    2013-05-01

    Wastewaters from the soft drinks industry were examined as media for producing bioethanol using yeast-mediated fermentation. Fermentation assays were performed using cola-type, orange and lemon-lime soft drinks and the biomass, sugar and ethanol levels were monitored over time. The effect of the addition of yeast extract was evaluated; the results indicated that 15 g/L is a suitable value for successful fermentation. Depletion of the sugars contained in the soft drinks (10-12% w/v) was achieved in less than 12 h when the medium was inoculated with 2 g/L of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Windsor. Ethanol yields were close to the theoretical values. The performance of several kinetic models was evaluated, and their parameters were determined. A model including inhibition by ethanol enabled the best adjustment of the experimental results in all assayed media. Some soft drinks include sodium benzoate in their formulae, the effect of which on yeast metabolism is discussed.

  19. Erosion by soft drinks of rat molar teeth assessed by digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mistry, M; Grenby, T H

    1993-01-01

    A digital imaging analysis (DIA) procedure for recording and assessing erosive changes on teeth was developed and evaluated against an older subjective method. Results after exposure of rats' teeth to various soft drinks showed that the DIA system was superior to the conventional method, with improved precision. The system provided a direct and highly sensitive means of quantifying the erosion of dental hard tissues by three different soft drinks, showing that it could be used to evaluate erosiveness and other dental damage. After 6 weeks' exposure to soft drinks in the diet, the area of intact enamel on the lingual surface of the first mandibular molar averaged 47% on apple juice, 27% on still orange and 6% on carbonated orange. The greatest exposure of dentine (36%) was on the still orange drink. Eroded enamel accounted for 72.5% of the tooth surface on the carbonated drink.

  20. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

    2014-09-14

    The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, P< 0·001) and 1·13/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, P= 0·02), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association.

  1. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  3. Energy drink consumption and associated health behaviors among university students in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Blanding, Nineequa; Santella, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe energy drink consumption and health behaviors among college students attending a predominantly minority university. Undergraduate and graduate students attending a private, minority-serving university were invited to participate in an online survey between September 2009 and August 2010. Out of 2,500 students, 407 participated yielding a response of 16 %. Analysis assessed energy drink consumption as well as participation in sport activities and high-risk behaviors. Energy drink consumption is significantly related with drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving (r = .14, p < .05) and to riding with a drunk driver (r = .15, p < .05). Athletes were more likely to engage in drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving F (1, 186) = 6.12, p < .02. Energy drink consumption is a common practice among racial minority university students. Tailored health promotion strategies and interventions are needed to address misconceptions of energy drink and alcohol mixing.

  4. Effects of energy drinks on soft tissue healing.

    PubMed

    Tek, Mustafa; Toptas, Orcun; Akkas, Ismail; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Firat, Tulin; Ezirganli, Seref; Ozan, Fatih

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an energy drink (ED) on soft tissue wound healing in the rat model. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. A full-thickness paravertebral linear incision wound model was created. The experimental group (EG) received an ED (Red Bull), and the control group (CG) received water. Red Bull (3.57 mL/kg/d) was administered to the rats by the oral gavage method on the day before the skin incision and continued for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed (n = 6 in each group) on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th day of the study. Sections were obtained from excised linear wound healing site and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome for morphological analysis. To assess angiogenesis on the sections, immunohistochemical studies were carried out using vascular endothelial growth factor antibody and alpha smooth muscle actin Ab-1. The breaking strength of the wound healing site was measured in Newtons using a tensiometer. Morphological analysis showed that collagen deposition in the wound areas was statistically higher in the EG compared with that of the CG at both the third and seventh days (P < 0.05). Re-epithelialization on healing sites in the EG was statistically higher than in the CG on the seventh day (P < 0.05). The results of the immunohistochemical studies indicated that the numbers of new blood vessels in the wound healing sites of the EG were significantly higher at the 7th and 14th days when compared with the CG (P < 0.05). The breaking strength of the wound healing sites was also significantly higher on the 7th and 14th days in the EG (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that ED accelerates soft tissue wound healing and that its effect may be due to increased collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and new blood vessel formation in the wound.

  5. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  6. The role of social drinking motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halim, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Allen, Felicity

    2012-12-01

    Social norms are key predictors of college student drinking. Additionally, the social reasons for consumption (i.e. social drinking motives) are important to understanding drinking behaviour. This study investigated the effects of social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption. A total of 229 college students completed an online questionnaire assessing their drinking behaviour, social drinking motives and their perceived drinking social norms. Drinking social norms were assessed as descriptive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption), and injunctive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived approval of drinking by their peers). Additionally, injunctive norms were further separated into distal (socially distant peers) and proximal (socially close peers). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed descriptive norms, proximal injunctive norms and social motives all independently predicted alcohol consumption. Additionally, the relationship between proximal injunctive norms and consumption, and descriptive norms and consumption was mediated by social motives. Lastly, there was a significant three-way interaction between descriptive norms, distal injunctive norms and social motives on drinking. Consideration of both the individual factors and the complex interplay between social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption is necessary to further understand drinking behaviour, and to develop more effective alcohol harm-reduction strategies.

  7. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  8. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    PubMed

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  9. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  10. Effect of soft drinks on the physical and chemical features of nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Serena Incerti; Guicciardi, Stefano; Melandri, Cesare; Sprio, Simone; Lafratta, Elena; Tampieri, Anna; Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three popular soft drinks on the Young's modulus, hardness, surface topography and chemical composition of widely used nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires. Thirty-two specimens (20 mm in length) were cut from the straight portion of pre-formed 0.019 × 0.025 inch Nitinol Heat-Activated archwires and randomly divided into four groups of eight specimens each: Group A1 (Coca Cola(®) regular); Group A2 (Santal(®) orange juice); Group A3 (Gatorade(®)); Group B (distilled, deionized water; dH(2)O). Each specimen was immersed in 10 ml of one of the soft drinks or dH(2)O, control, for 60 min, at 37°C. At the end of the soaking time, the Young's modulus and hardness were determined using a nanoindenter. Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize the effects on the topography and chemical composition of the wires. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups either in the Young's modulus or in hardness after the selected soaking protocol. Besides some surface colour changes, the topography and the chemical composition of the wires were not affected by the immersion in any of the chosen soft drinks. These in-vitro results suggest that the consumption of soft drinks cannot be acknowledged as one possible reason for the degradation of the physical and chemical properties of heat activated nickel titanium orthodontic wires in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

  11. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-05-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks.

  12. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks. PMID:19434767

  13. The enduring influence of drinking motives on alcohol consumption after fateful trauma.

    PubMed

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S

    2011-05-01

    Drinking motives predict later levels of alcohol consumption and development of alcohol dependence, but their effects on stress-related drinking are less clear. Proximity to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11/01 was significantly associated with alcohol consumption 1 and 16 weeks after 9/11/01. We investigated the relationship between drinking motives measured a decade earlier, proximity to the WTC, and drinking after 9/11/01. This event constitutes a natural experiment for studying the effects of previously measured drinking motives on alcohol consumption after fateful trauma. Adult drinkers (N = 644) residing in a New Jersey county were evaluated for four drinking motives: coping with negative affect, for enjoyment, for social facilitation and social pressure. After 9/11/01, their exposure to the WTC attack and subsequent drinking were assessed. Poisson regression was used to assess the relationships between proximity to the WTC, drinking motives and post-9/11/01 drinking; models were adjusted for alcohol dependence, age, gender and race. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted alcohol consumption 1 week after 9/11/01 (p = 0.04) and drinking for enjoyment predicted drinking 1 and 16 weeks after 9/11/01 (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). The associations were independent of proximity to the WTC. No interactions were observed between drinking motives, proximity to the WTC or lifetime alcohol dependence. Drinking motives a decade earlier predicted higher alcohol consumption after fateful trauma independently from proximity to the WTC on 9/11/01. Results suggest that drinking motives constitute a robust, enduring influence on drinking behavior, including after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  15. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Worthley, Matthew I; Prabhu, Anisha; De Sciscio, Paolo; Schultz, Carlee; Sanders, Prashanthan; Willoughby, Scott R

    2010-02-01

    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked with sudden cardiac death and, more recently, myocardial infarction. As myocardial infarction is strongly associated with both platelet and endothelial dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that energy drink consumption alters platelet and endothelial function. Fifty healthy volunteers (34 male, aged 22+/-2 years) participated in the study. Platelet aggregation and endothelial function were tested before, and 1 hour after, the consumption of 250 mL (1 can) of a sugar-free energy drink. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate-induced (1 micromol/L) optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma. Endothelial function was assessed via changes in peripheral arterial tonometry and expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Compared with baseline values, there was a significant increase in platelet aggregation following energy drink consumption, while no change was observed with control (13.7+/-3.7% vs 0.3+/-0.8% aggregation, respectively, P <.01). Similarly, RHI decreased following energy drink consumption (-0.33+/-0.13 vs 0.07+/-0.12 RHI [control], P <.05). Mean arterial pressure significantly increased following energy drink consumption, compared with control (P <.05). Heart rate was unaffected by energy drink consumption. Energy drink consumption acutely increases platelet aggregation and decreases endothelial function in healthy young adults. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Are “extreme consumption games” drinking games? Sometimes it's a matter of perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Pearce, Marc W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Woods, Olivia E.; Borsari, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Drinking games are widespread on college campuses and pose health risks to their players. Although there has been considerable research progress in the college drinking games literature, there does not appear to be a standard definition of the term “drinking games.” Researchers, however, have attempted to classify and categorize drinking games in a systematic manner. For example, one category of drinking games (e.g., chugging, keg stands) is often referred to as consumption or extreme consumption games. Questions remain as to whether or how these types of games align with researchers' definitions of drinking games or the categorization systems advanced by researchers in the field. Potential challenges regarding the definition and categorization of drinking games, particularly with respect to extreme consumption types of games, are discussed. PMID:23968169

  17. Are "extreme consumption games" drinking games? Sometimes it's a matter of perspective.

    PubMed

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Pearce, Marc W; Kenney, Shannon R; Ham, Lindsay S; Woods, Olivia E; Borsari, Brian

    2013-09-01

    Drinking games are widespread on college campuses and pose health risks to their players. Although there has been considerable research progress in the college drinking games literature, there does not appear to be a standard definition of the term "drinking games." Researchers, however, have attempted to classify and categorize drinking games in a systematic manner. For example, one category of drinking games (e.g., chugging, keg stands) is often referred to as consumption or extreme consumption games. Questions remain as to whether or how these types of games align with researchers' definitions of drinking games or the categorization systems advanced by researchers in the field. Potential challenges regarding the definition and categorization of drinking games, particularly with respect to extreme consumption types of games, are discussed.

  18. Comparison between the yeast flora of Middle Eastern and Western European soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Sand, F E; van Grinsven, A M

    1976-01-01

    Samples of a carbonated orange drink, raw materials, and intermediate products originating from 6 Iraqi bottling plants were examined. 69 drinks, 4 flavoured syrups and 19 simple syrups contained yeasts, whereas all samples from one plant and all samples of beverage base were free from viable yeasts. From the orange drink 2 species were isolated viz. Saccharomyces montanus and Torulopsis stellata. The following species were present in simple syrup: Hansenula anomala, Sacch. bisporus var. mellis, T. candida and T. stellata. Sacch. bisporus var. mellis was also isolated from favoured syrup. Representative strains were submitted to routine growth tests at reduced oxygen tension, at reduced water activity and on solid soft-drink media containing various amounts of anti-microbially active benzoic acid at pH 3.0. The results are discussed and compared to those obtained in European soft drinks.

  19. Relationship between eating behaviours and food and drink consumption in healthy postmenopausal women in a real-life context.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Provencher, Véronique; Piché, Marie-Eve; Lapointe, Annie; John Weisnagel, S; Nadeau, André; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-10-01

    Associations between eating behaviours and dietary variables have not been thoroughly investigated in healthy postmenopausal women in a real life uncontrolled context. To investigate how eating behaviours (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger) were associated with food and drink consumption, energy density and meal pattern in 112 healthy postmenopausal women (age 56.8 (SD 4.4) years) not on.hormonal therapy. Women completed a 3 d weighed food record and filled out the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The sample was divided according to the median of the distribution of cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition (9 and 6 respectively). Both subgroups of women with high restraint level (presenting either high or low disinhibition) consumed a diet with a lower energy density than subgroups of women with lower restraint level. Women with high restraint-low disinhibition had a lower consumption of red meat and processed meat and a lower consumption of diet soft drinks than women with low restraint-high disinhibition. They were also characterised by a higher intake of whole grains than women with high restraint-high disinhibition and than women with lower restraint level (with either high or low disinhibition). Women with high restraint-high disinhibition levels showed differences in dietary variables when compared with subgroups of women with lower restraint level, namely for refined grains and diet soft drinks. We conclude that in healthy postmenopausal women, dietary consumption of specific food and drink may be related to particular eating behaviours. Women with high restraint and low disinhibition levels generally showed the most healthy dietary pattern.

  20. [SOFT DRINKS CONSUMPTION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN COLOMBIA: FACTORS ASSOCIATED].

    PubMed

    Martínez Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: examinar los factores asociados al consumo regular de bebidas carbonatadas (BCS) en gestantes colombianas. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, secundario de la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010), en 1.865 mujeres embarazas de entre 13 y 49 años de edad. El consumo de BCS y los factores asociados (edad materna, trimestre de embarazo, nivel de Sisbén, región y área geográfica, etnia y escolaridad), se recogieron mediante una encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión y factores asociados. Resultados: el 17% de las mujeres embarazadas consumen al menos una bebida BCS diaria. Tener entre 13 y 17 años de edad, pertenecer a la etnia afrocolombiana, cursar el primer trimestre de embarazo y agruparse en el Sisbén nivel II mostraron el mayor patrón de consumo diario (23,8%, 22,8%, 21,4% y 20,9%), respectivamente. Los modelos de regresión muestran que pertenecer al grupo de 13 a 17 años OR 1,92 (IC95% 1,04-3,55), residir en la zona oriental OR 1,85 (IC95% 1,05-3,27) o central OR 1,73 (IC95% 1,01-2,96) y cursar el primer trimestre de gestación OR 1,59 (IC95% 1,01-2,52) se asociaron como factores predisponentes al consumo diario de BCS. Conclusiones: las embarazadas de Colombia presentan una alta prevalencia de consumo diario de BCS, por lo que se recomiendan intervenciones integrales en las que estén involucrados el componente nutricional y educativo.

  1. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  2. View the label before you view the movie: a field experiment into the impact of portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-06-06

    Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  3. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling. PMID:21645373

  4. Alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes toward drink-drive behaviours and road safety enforcement strategies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Bishop, C A; Liu, S; Fitzharris, M

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol contributes to approximately 30% of all serious crashes. While the majority of drivers acknowledge the risks associated with drink-driving, a significant proportion of the population continue to engage in this behaviour. Attitudes towards drink-driving as well as personal alcohol consumption patterns are likely to underpin a driver's decision to drink-drive. These associations were explored in the current study. A large (N=2994) cross-sectional online survey of a representative sample of drivers in Australia was conducted. Participants provided information about their own alcohol consumption patterns, drink-driving behaviour as well as attitudes towards drink-driving (own and others) and enforcement strategies. Alcohol consumption patterns differed according to age, gender and work status. Drivers who reported drink-driving behaviour and had high risk alcohol consumption patterns were less likely to agree that drink-driving leads to increased crash risk and more likely to agree they drink and drive when they believed they could get away with it. In contrast, drivers who did not report drink-driving and had low risk consumption patterns were more likely to report that the enforcement strategies are too lenient. Binary logistic regression showed that high risk alcohol consumption patterns and agreement from drivers that they drink and drive when they believe they can get away with it had the strongest associations with drink-driving. These findings highlight the relationships between one's drinking patterns, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards drink-driving and drink-driving enforcement CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The patterns of associations that emerged suggest that drink-driving is the expression of a broader health issue for the most "at-risk" cohort of drinkers. The decision to drink and drive may result from a need borne from an alcohol dependent lifestyle exacerbated by a social acceptability of the behaviour and positive attitudes towards

  5. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  6. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  7. Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract.

  8. Role of familiarity on effects of caffeine- and glucose-containing soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Smit, Hendrik J; Grady, Melanie L; Finnegan, Yvonne E; Hughes, Sally-Anne C; Cotton, Jacqui R; Rogers, Peter J

    2006-02-28

    Familiarity, through conditioned responses and expectations, may play a significant role in the expression of liking for, and mood and performance effects of, food and drink constituents. The role of familiarity and the effects of caffeine and glucose in Lucozade Energy were investigated by testing this familiar soft drink, and its non-caffeine/non-CHO placebo match, against novel coloured/flavoured full and placebo drinks. Both the familiar drink and its placebo improved alertness, mental energy and mental performance compared to baseline and compared to the novel placebo drink. After repeated exposure, that is, after having gained familiarity with the novel drinks in addition to the already existing familiarity with Lucozade Energy, only the full (caffeine and CHO containing) drinks showed sustained beneficial effects compared to placebo drinks and baseline measures, as well as an increase in liking compared to placebo drinks. Therefore, participants appeared to have learned that beneficial effects were mainly linked to the full products. The results illustrate the restorative combination of caffeine and CHO in the drink, and emphasises the need to implement the appropriate placebo(s) in any study design employing familiar foods or drinks.

  9. Sociodemographic Correlates of Energy Drink Consumption With and Without Alcohol: Results of a Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa K.; Fendrich, Michael; Chen, Han-Yang; Arria, Amelia M.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the sociodemographic correlates of energy drink use and the differences between those who use them with and without alcohol in a representative community sample. Methods A random-digit-dial landline telephone survey of adults in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area responded to questions about energy drink and alcohol plus energy drink use. Results Almost one-third of respondents consumed at least one energy drink in their lifetime, while slightly over 25% used energy drinks in the past year and 6% were past-year alcohol plus energy drink users. There were important racial/ethnic differences in consumption patterns. Compared to non-users, past-year energy drink users were more likely to be non-Black minorities; and past-year alcohol plus energy drink users when compared to energy drink users only were more likely to be White and younger. Alcohol plus energy drink users also were more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Conclusions Our results which are among the first from a community sample suggest a bifurcated pattern of energy drink use highlighting important population consumption differences between users of energy drinks only and those who use alcohol and energy drinks together. PMID:21276661

  10. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  11. Clinical Symptoms and Adverse Effects Associated With Energy Drink Consumption in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Dalia; Reed-Schrader, Essie; Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi; Rivera, Ruby; Serra, Theresa; Weber, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption by adolescents, to identify associated clinical symptoms and adverse effects, and to gain an understanding to the motivation behind its consumption. A prospective, questionnaire-based study was conducted at 2 emergency departments from June 2011 to June 2013. The questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Stratification was performed on the basis of frequency of consumption: frequent consumption (at least once a month) and infrequent consumption (less frequent than once a month). Data analysis was performed on 612 completed questionnaires. Two hundred two responders (33%) were considered frequent energy drink consumers. Frequent consumers were more likely to be involved in high-risk behaviors and more likely to consume other caffeinated drinks. In the previous 6 months, frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to report headache (76%), anger (47%), and increased urination (24%) and were more likely to require medical evaluation for headache (41%) and difficulty breathing (22%). Frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to believe that energy drinks "help me do better in school" (12%), "help me do better in sports" (35%), "are just for fun" (46%), "help me stay up at night" (67%), and "make me concentrate/focus better" (34%). Clarifying common misconceptions associated with energy drink consumption, especially in high-risk adolescents and frequent energy drink consumers, may decrease the frequency of symptoms experienced by adolescents, such as headache and difficulty breathing, requiring medical evaluation.

  12. Tax Policy, Adult Binge Drinking, and Youth Alcohol Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E.; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. Methods We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Results Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Conclusions Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. PMID:23711219

  13. Tax policy, adult binge drinking, and youth alcohol consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S

    2013-10-01

    Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  15. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  16. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of adipic acid in crackling candy and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Ogawa, S; Iwaida, M

    1979-07-01

    A procedure was developed for the simple and rapid determination of adipic acid in crackling candy and also in soft drinks. An alkaline solution of sample was extracted with ethyl ether to remove fatty substances, and H2SO4 was added to water layer to adjust the pH to less than 2. The acidified layer was saturated with NaCl and then extracted with ether. After drying, the ether layer was concentrated and the adipic acid in the concentrate was methylated using the diazomethane methograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Recovery of adipic acid from crackling candy and from 2 kinds of soft drinks that had been fortified at the 200 ppm level was 96%. An interlaboratory test was carried out on the determination of adipic acid in orange soft drink. The results obtained by 6 laboratories were between 91 and 100% compared with the theoretical value.

  17. Drinking Motivations and Alcohol Consumption among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Roderick S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between motivations for alcohol use and drinking patterns was investigated in 188 adolescent American female high school students. The hypothesis that personal psychological motivations for drinking would correlate positively with heavier rates of drinking was supported. (Author/RH)

  18. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included (n = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  19. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  20. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  1. The effects of temporal perspective on college students' energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jarim; Anagondahalli, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) describes the extent to which individuals consider potential future outcomes of their present behaviors. This personality trait has been found to predict repetitive health behaviors. Research is yet to explore the role of health beliefs, which may mediate the relationship between CFC and self-directed health behaviors. Thus, this study examined how CFC affects energy drink-related health beliefs and consumption behavior. A cross-sectional correlational online survey with 1,050 college students was conducted. Key measures include the CFC Scale, health belief measures, and current energy drink consumption pattern. CFC was associated with energy drink consumption as well as several health beliefs. CFC had indirect effects on energy drink consumption through health beliefs, including perceived severity of consuming energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.191, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-.271, -.122]), perceived benefits of avoiding energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.108, 95% CI [-.174, -.050]), and perceived barriers in abstaining from energy drinks (energy level-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = -.274, 95% CI [-.387, -.181]; and socialization-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = .152, 95% CI [.078, .249]). As the first study to examine CFC's indirect effects on a self-directed health behavior through health beliefs, this study extended CFC's applicability by examining its role in the context of college students' energy drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Do changes in per capita consumption mirror changes in drinking patterns?

    PubMed

    Smart, R G; Suurvali, H M; Mann, R E

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how well per capita alcohol consumption figures derived from beverage sales data relate to changes over time in survey-based measures of drinking patterns. It was expected that strong associations would be found among these various measures of consumption. Data from 12 household surveys conducted in Ontario between 1977 and 1997 provided information on: percentages of drinkers; daily drinkers; those drinking five or more drinks at a sitting weekly; those reporting two or more alcohol-related harms; and average number of drinks per week. These variables were then correlated with per capita consumption. Significant correlations were found only between per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers, and between percentage of drinkers and average number of drinks per week. The relationship of per capita consumption to survey measures of drinking is weak. The absence of consistent associations over time between per capita consumption and survey measures may be attributable to the small number of available data points or to increases in unrecorded consumption. Further research is needed to verify and explain these results.

  3. Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A; Johnson, G

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of water, milk and various sugary drinks and their relationship with the caries experience of a random sample of teenagers aged 14 to 15 years living in New South Wales, Australia was investigated. Data were obtained from both clinical and questionnaire components of the NSW Teen Dental Survey, 2010. The analyses allowed for various demographic and behavioural risk factors using caries experience (DMFT >0) and mean DMFT as the key outcome variables. Males were more likely than females to consume large volumes of sugary drinks. Consuming two or more glasses of sugary drinks per day led to significantly increased caries experience amongst this sample of 14 and 15 year olds. Factors found to be associated with elevated sugary drink consumption included family income, gender, and mother's education level. There is a strong correlation between increased caries experience of NSW teenagers and high levels of consumption of sugary drinks. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    PubMed

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.300-0.484). Additionally, this analysis demonstrated a significant association between energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 1.117-1.553). This study showed a high prevalence of energy drinks consumption among youth. The current

  5. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were “Red Bull” and “Boom Boom” (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.300-0.484). Additionally, this analysis demonstrated a significant association between energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 1.117-1.553). Conclusions: This study

  6. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  7. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Kolt, Gregory S; Webber, Andrew; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

     High-profile sportspeople are posited as role models for others. We examine whether university sportspeople and non-sportspeople's perceptions of high-profile sportspeople's (sports stars) and friends perceived drinking behaviours are related to their own drinking behaviours. Further, we examine the importance of drinking with competitors after sports events.  A convenience sample of 1028 participants (58% females, n=652 sportspeople) from two Australian universities were approached at sporting and university venues. Participants completed a survey booklet containing demographic questions, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, alcohol measure), perceived drinking of high-profile sportspeople and friends (social norms), and for sportspeople only, items assessing the importance of drinking with competitors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess relationships.  Both sporting and non-sporting participants perceived high-profile sportspeople to drink less than themselves and their friends. Small significant bivariate relationships were found between high-profile sportspeople's perceived drinking and self-reported drinking for sportspeople (r=0.20, P <0.0005). However, in multivariate regression models the perceived drinking behaviours of high-profile sportspeople were not significant predictors of sportspeople's drinking, and were negatively related to non-sportspeople's drinking. The practice of drinking with competitors after sports and games accounted for an additional 6.1% of the unique variance in AUDIT-scores (P<0.0005).  Sports stars are touted as negative role models when it comes to drinking. Contrary to expectations high-profile sportspeople were not perceived to be heavy drinkers and their perceived drinking was not predictive of others drinking. Friends' and normative drinking practices were predictors of drinking.[O'Brien KS, Kolt GS, Webber A, Hunter JA. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting

  8. The Effect of Different Soft Drinks on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Omid Khoda, M.; Heravi, F.; Shafaee, H.; Mollahassani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is proved that acidic soft drinks that are commonly used, have an adverse effect on dental structures, and may deteriorate oral heath of our patients and orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of yoghurt drink with other soft drinks on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and standard twin metal brackets were bonded on the center of buccal surface with No-Mix composite. The teeth were thermocycled for 625 cycles and randomly divided into five groups of artificial saliva, carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, non-carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, 7 up with citric acid base and Pepsi with phosphoric acid base. In all groups, the teeth were immersed in liquid for five-minute sessions three times with equal intervening intervals for 3 months. SBS was measured by a universal testing machine with a speed of 0.5mm/min. Data was analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA. Results: The results showed that mean values for the shear bond strength of carbonated yoghurt drinks, non-carbonated yoghurt drinks, 7up and Pepsi groups were 12.98(±2.95), 13.26(±4.00), 16.11(±4.89), 14.73(±5.10), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups (P-value= 0.238) Conclusion: Soft drinks used in this study did not decrease the bond strength of the brackets bonded with this specific type of composite. PMID:23066479

  9. Drinking-driving fatalities and consumption of beer, wine and spirits.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert E; Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Asbridge, Mark; Suurvali, Helen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2006-07-01

    Drinking-driving is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Canada. The purpose of this paper was to examine factors that influenced drinking driver deaths in Ontario. We examined the impact of per capita consumption of total alcohol, and of beer, wine and spirits separately, on drinking-driving deaths in Ontario from 1962 to 1996, as well as the impact of the introduction of Canada's per se law and the founding of People to Reduce Impaired Driving Everywhere - Mothers Against Drunk Driving (PRIDE - MADD) Canada. We utilised time-series analyses with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. As total alcohol consumption increased, drinking driving fatalities increased. The introduction of Canada's per se law, and of PRIDE-MADD Canada, acted to reduce drinking driving death rates. Among the specific beverage types, only consumption of beer had a significant impact on drinking driver deaths. Several factors were identified that acted to increase and decrease drinking driver death rates. Of particular interest was the observation of the impact of beer consumption on these death rates. In North America, beer is taxed at a lower rate than other alcoholic beverages. The role of taxation policies as determinants of drinking-driving deaths is discussed.

  10. Soft Drink Design - USMES Teacher Resource Book. Fourth Edition. Trial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; Sampson, Sue Scott

    Inventing a new soft drink that is popular and can be produced at low cost is the challenge of this Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) unit. The challenge is general enough to apply to many problem-solving situations in mathematics, science, social science, and language arts at any elementary school level (grades 1-8).…

  11. Rapid determination of quinine in soft drinks by reversed phase ion pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jeuring, H J; van den Hoeven, W; van Doorninck, P; ten Broeke, R

    1979-10-01

    Quinine can easily be determined in soft drinks by means of reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography. Sample preparation is not necessary. Quinine is detected by fluorescence and UV spectrophotometry by continuous monitoring of the column effluent. A rectilinear response is obtained in the concentration range of 20--100 mg/l. The complete assay procedure takes about 8 min.

  12. [Preliminary Study on Cognitive Determinants Influencing Argentine Youngsters towards Intensive Alcohol Consumption or Binge Drinking].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Crofton, V A; Beeker, T G

    1985-03-01

    Forty subjects participated in each of two experiments in which both lemon-line and cola-flavored beverages containing one of six sweeteners--sucrose, sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam-K, and two calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends (10:1 and 3.5:1)--were evaluated on similarity and adjective scales. The similarity data suggest that drinks containing sucrose and aspartame cannot be discriminated from one another in either a lemon-line or cola medium in this experimental design. Sucrose and aspartame were also statistically equivalent on every adjective scale for both lemon-line and cola drinks. On both similarity judgments and adjective scales, acesulfam-K and sodium saccharin were most different from sucrose. The calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends tended to be less similar than aspartame but not as different from sucrose as the acesulfam-K or sodium saccharin sweetened beverages.

  15. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns].

    PubMed

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  16. Erosive Effect of Different Soft Drinks on Enamel Surface in vitro: Application of Stylus Profilometry.

    PubMed

    Barac, Radomir; Gasic, Jovanka; Trutic, Natasa; Sunaric, Slavica; Popovic, Jelena; Djekic, Petar; Radenkovic, Goran; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the erosive potential of various soft drinks by measuring initial pH and titratable acidity (TA) and to evaluate enamel surface roughness using different exposure times. The initial pH of the soft drinks (group 1: Coca-Cola; group 2: orange juice; group 3: Cedevita; group 4: Guarana, and group 5: strawberry yoghurt) was measured using a pH meter, and TA was measured by titration with NaOH. Enamel samples (n = 96), cut from unerupted human third molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: experimental (groups 1-5) and control (filtered saliva). The samples were exposed to 50 ml of soft drinks for 15, 30 and 60 min, 3 times daily, during 10 days. Between immersions, the samples were kept in filtered saliva. Enamel surface roughness was measured by diamond stylus profilometer using the following roughness parameters: Ra, Rq, Rz, and Ry. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests. The pH values of the soft drinks ranged from 2.52 (Guarana) to 4.21 (strawberry yoghurt). Orange juice had the highest TA, requiring 5.70 ml of NaOH to reach pH 7.0, whereas Coca-Cola required only 1.87 ml. Roughness parameters indicated that Coca-Cola had the strongest erosion potential during the 15 min of exposure, while Coca-Cola and orange juice were similar during 30- and 60-min exposures. There were no significant differences related to all exposure times between Guarana and Cedevita. Strawberry yoghurt did not erode the enamel surface regardless of the exposure time. All of the tested soft drinks except yoghurt were erosive. Erosion of the enamel surfaces exposed to Coca-Cola, orange juice, Cedevita, and Guarana was directly proportional to the exposure time. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Existence and predictors of soft drink advertisements in Pennsylvania high schools.

    PubMed

    Probart, Claudia; McDonnell, Elaine; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Weirich, J Elaine

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the extent and locations of soft drink advertisements on high school campuses in Pennsylvania and identify factors related to extent of these advertisements. Surveys were distributed to 271 school foodservice directors in a random sample of high schools in Pennsylvania. These high schools were selected to be representative of the entire population of high schools in Pennsylvania based on chosen demographic characteristics. A three-phase survey strategy was used, involving distribution of a postcard reminder 1 to 2 weeks after the initial survey distribution, and mailing of a second survey to nonrespondents 1 to 2 weeks after mailing of the postcard. Two hundred twenty-eight school foodservice directors (84%) returned surveys. Linear multiple regression analyses were done using SPSS (version 11.5.1, 2002, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Approximately two thirds (66.5%) of respondents indicated soft drink advertisements exist in at least one location in their school, with the most prevalent locations being on vending machines (62%) and school grounds, such as playing fields (27%). Slightly more than 10% of respondents indicated soft drink advertisements displayed in the cafeteria. Extent of soft drink advertisement locations was positively related to existence of a pouring-rights contract, subscription to Channel One, and receipt of incentives from soft drink bottlers based on sales, but negatively related to average daily participation in school lunch. These findings suggest that commercialization and sales incentives might interact to contribute to school environments that are not "nutrition-friendly." Schools' efforts to establish wellness policies as mandated by the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 provide ideal opportunities to examine school environments for advertising that might conflict with the healthful environments they are aiming to establish, and perhaps to develop policies to address these

  18. Self-Control and Implicit Drinking Identity as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption, Problems, and Cravings

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Westgate, Erin; Salemink, Elske

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trait and alcohol-specific self-control as unique predictors and moderators of the relation between implicit drinking identity associations and drinking. Method: Three hundred undergraduates completed a drinking identity Implicit Association Test (IAT), trait and alcohol self-control questionnaires, and alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings inventories. Results: Regression analyses tested for unique effects of predictors and for Self-Control × IAT interactions. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in consumption, but there was no evidence of moderation effects. Both types of self-control, but not IAT scores, accounted for unique variance in problems. A Trait Self-Control × Implicit Drinking interaction accounted for excess zeros in problems, with a greater likelihood of not having alcohol problems among individuals with low implicit identity who had higher versus lower trait self-control. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in cravings. A Trait Self-Control × IAT interaction was also found, indicating that implicit drinking identity was a stronger predictor of cravings among those with lower versus higher trait self-control. Conclusions: Results are partially consistent with previous research: Both types of self-control and drinking identity associations predicted unique variance in drinking, and moderation effects were observed for trait self-control and drinking identity associations and two of the three drinking variables. Findings suggest that trait and alcohol-specific self-control and implicit drinking identity could be useful intervention targets. PMID:24650823

  19. [An experimental study on young permanent teeth enamel demineralization by different kinds of soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Chang-Yi

    2008-02-01

    To compare the young permanent teeth enamel demineralization after immersion in different kinds of soft drinks; to compare the degree of enamel demineralization caused by the different immersion time and frequency of beverages. The change of young permanent teeth enamel surface microhardness was measured by a leitzs microhardness tester. The change of calcium and phosphate in the different drinks after immersion of the enamel was analyzed by Roche Biochemical analyzer. Two-way ANOVA in SPSS 15.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The dissolution of calcium and phosphate in young permanent teeth enamel was caused by all kinds of soft drinks the surface microhardness of enamel was decreased by these drinks. There were great significant differences in the demineralization abilities among different beverages (P<0.05).The enamel demineralization was increased when prolonging the immersion time and frequency. The enamel demineralization can be caused by orange juice and carbonic acid drinks. The enamel remineralization can be increased by tea drink, which is an ideal healthy beverage. Supported by Excellent Middle-aged Science Foundation of School of Medicine,Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Grant No.040407).

  20. Biopsychosocial consequences of sweetened drink consumption in children 0-6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Sarah; Jackson-Allen, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    North American children consume an extraordinary amount of sweetened drinks--sodas, juice drinks, and "ades." Health care providers, educators, and parents have long been concerned about the effects sweetened drink consumption (SDC) has on the bodies and minds of children. This review of the literature will examine the current evidence regarding the factors contributing to excess SDC, and the health consequences of SDC consumption in children, especially infants and children under 6 years of age, with the goal of informing clinical pediatric nursing, future research, and policy development aimed at reversing the long-standing trend of rising SDC.

  1. Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Wish, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and correlates of energy drink use among college students, and investigated its possible prospective associations with subsequent drug use, including nonmedical prescription drug use. Methods Participants were 1,060 undergraduates from a large, public university who completed three annual interviews, beginning in their first year of college. Use of energy drinks, other caffeinated products, tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit and prescription drugs were assessed, as well as demographic and personality characteristics. Results Annual weighted prevalence of energy drink use was 22.6%wt and 36.5%wt in the second and third year of college, respectively. Compared to energy drink non-users, energy drink users had heavier alcohol consumption patterns, and were more likely to have used other drugs, both concurrently and in the preceding assessment. Regression analyses revealed that Year 2 energy drink use was significantly associated with Year 3 nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and prescription analgesics, but not with other Year 3 drug use, holding constant demographics, prior drug use, and other factors. Conclusions A substantial and rapidly-growing proportion of college students use energy drinks. Energy drink users tend to have greater involvement in alcohol and other drug use and higher levels of sensation-seeking, relative to non-users of energy drinks. Prospectively, energy drink use has a unique relationship with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance use problems. PMID:20729975

  2. Relationship Between Energy Drink Consumption and Nutrition Knowledge in Student-Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Richard; Kliemann, Nathalie; Evansen, Taylor; Brand, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    To identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics in a convenience sample of student-athletes. Cross-sectional. Online survey. A total of 194 student-athletes (112 female and 82 male). Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of human nutrition, energy drink consumption habits. Chi-square tests of independence, independent t tests, and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Most student-athletes in the sample (85.5%) did not consume energy drinks, but those who did tended to be male (P = .004), had lower overall knowledge of nutrition (P = .02), and had a lower grade point average (P < .001) than did nonusers. Also, energy drink consumption was associated with the overall nutrition knowledge score when adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with nonusers having greater nutrition knowledge (P = .007) than users. Student-athletes tend to refrain from energy drink use but those who use it have a tendency to have lower nutrition knowledge than do nonusers. Therefore, nutrition education targeted toward student-athletes should encompass the consumption of energy drinks because limited evidence shows the benefits of collegiate athletes consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  4. Comparison of acid clearance of noncarbonated and carbonated soft drinks in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Lamees; Wilson, Ron; Bartlett, David

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in oral pH after subjects drank carbonated and noncarbonated acidic soft drinks. Oral pH was measured in 17 subjects at 4 oral sites with beetrode electrodes after each subject drank 50 mL of noncarbonated and carbonated blackcurrant beverages. There were no statistical differences for either beverage regarding the time taken to recover a pH of 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5. Oral pH recovered to 6.5 within 90 seconds with both drinks. The median lowest pH recorded after 30 seconds at the 4 sites for both drinks was > pH 4.9, but there was no statistical difference in the clearance between the drinks. The implication may be that carbonation is not directly responsible for the erosive potential of different beverages.

  5. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  6. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  7. Fluid skills: drinking games and alcohol consumption among Australian university students.

    PubMed

    Polizzotto, Mark N; Saw, Melanie M; Tjhung, Irene; Chua, Eu Hua; Stockwell, Timothy R

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess participation in drinking games among Australian university students; to determine the range of games played, their context and participant motivations; and to analyse the impact of games on alcohol consumption and its adverse consequences. We used a cross-sectional survey incorporating structured interviews and a self-administered questionnaire with students between 18 and 25 years of age at the University of Western Australia. This was a qualitative assessment of drinking game typology and contexts and participant motivation. Quantitative outcomes were rate and frequency of participation in drinking games; amount and rate of alcohol consumption during games; incidence of adverse outcomes following participation. Twenty-seven interview responses and 256 questionnaire responses were analysed for qualitative and quantitative outcomes, respectively. The qualitative analysis enabled categorisation of drinking games by skill and competitive nature, with varying influence on hazardous drinking. Common reported motivations for play included boredom, social pressure and social unease. The associated heavy drinking and possible hazards were well recognised but did not affect the decision to play. In the quantitative arm, most drinkers (74%) reported having participated in a drinking game. Game players reported playing an average of four drinking games in the previous 6 months. An average of six standard drinks was consumed during the most recent game. Pressure to participate from others was reported by 60% of game participants, while 50% reported that they had placed pressure on others to participate. Half (51%) reported an adverse outcome following participation. Loss of consciousness due to drinking was experienced or witnessed by 89% of game players, of whom 63% reported that the person was put to bed, while 54% reported that the person was watched. Participation in drinking games was common, and plays an important social role

  8. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (P<0·05). Health professionals should consider the clustering of sports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  9. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (p<0.01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (p<0.05). Conclusions Health professionals should consider the clustering of sports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  10. Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Z; Pechey, R; Couturier, D L; Hollands, G J; Marteau, T M

    2017-06-12

    Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass. In a between-subjects experimental design, 166 young women were randomised to drink a 175 ml portion of wine from either a smaller (250 ml) or larger (370 ml) wine glass. Primary outcomes were three micro-drinking behaviours, assessed observationally using video recordings: drinking rate, sip number and sip duration. Other possible mechanisms examined were satisfaction with the perceived amount of wine served and pleasure of the drinking experience, assessed using self-report measures. Wine drunk from the larger, compared with the smaller glass, was consumed more slowly and with shorter sip duration, counter to the hypothesised direction of effect. No differences were observed in any of the other outcome measures. These findings provide no support for the hypothesised mechanisms by which serving wine in larger wine glasses increases consumption. While micro-drinking behaviours may still prove to be a mechanism explaining consumption from different glass sizes, cross-validation of these results in a more naturalistic setting is needed.

  11. Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin in cola-flavoured soft drinks to improve the assessment of their dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; D'Aloise, Antonio; Magrì, Antonio L; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin was carried out in 70 samples of cola-flavoured soft drinks purchased in eight European countries with the purpose of assessing the variability in the levels of these substances. Results indicated a limited variability in the content of the three substances: the ratio between the 90th and the 10th percentile concentration amounted to 21, 6 and 13 for tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin, respectively. The uncertainty in the assessment of dietary exposure to these substances due to the variability of their level in cola-flavoured drinks was low. Based on these analytical data and on refined food consumption data, estimates of exposure to safrole associated to cola drink consumption, along with Margin of Exposure (MOE) values, were obtained. For high consumers of cola-flavoured soft drinks in certain age groups, within some European countries, MOE values lower than 10,000 resulted, MOE values of 10,000 or higher having been stated by the EFSA as a quantitative criterion to identify low concern from a public health point of view and low priority for risk management actions. The lowest MOE values, from 1900 to 3000, were observed for children and teen agers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The potential application of vanillin in preventing yeast spoilage of soft drinks and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Stratford, Malcolm; Gasson, Michael J; Narbad, Arjan

    2004-02-01

    The preservative effect of vanillin, the major constituent of vanilla beans, was studied in an apple juice and peach-flavored soft drink. Vanillin activity was tested against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis at 8 and 25 degrees C over an 8-week storage period. Initial results in laboratory media indicated minimum inhibitory concentration values of 17 and 9 mM vanillin for the two yeast strains. Concentrations of 20 and 10 mM vanillin, respectively, were required to achieve complete inhibition of both yeast strains inoculated at a level of approximately 10(4) CFU/ml in the apple juice and peach-flavored soft drink over the 8-week storage at 25 degrees C. These effective levels were reduced to 5 and 1 mM, when the storage temperature was reduced to 8 degrees C. A biocidal effect against both yeasts was observed within 96 h to 8 weeks, with vanillin concentrations of 5 to 40 mM depending on the beverage and the storage temperatures used. The increased activity of vanillin in the peach-flavored soft drink (pH 3.1) in comparison to the apple juice (pH 3.5) is probably a result of the lower intrinsic pH of the former; however, variation in vitamin and mineral levels or the presence of other phenolic compounds between the two drinks might also have contributed to the observed differences. Furthermore, the increased activity at the lower temperature could be linked to the combination of the increased membrane fluidity and the membrane-perturbing action of vanillin. We conclude that vanillin has the potential to preserve fruit juices and soft drinks that are low in both lipid and protein content against S. cerevisiae and C. parapsilosis.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the erosive potential of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel.

    PubMed

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Wiegand, Annette; Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Rengin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of viscosity-modified soft acidic drinks on enamel erosion. A total of 108 bovine enamel samples (∅ = 3 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin and allocated into six groups (n = 18). Soft acidic drinks (orange juice, Coca-Cola, Sprite) were used both in their regular forms and at a kinetic viscositiy of 5 mm(2)/s, which was adjusted by adding hydroxypropyl cellulose. All solutions were pumped over the enamel surface from a reservoir with a drop rate of 3 ml/min. Each specimen was eroded for 10 min at 20 °C. Erosion of enamel surfaces was measured using profilometry. Data were analyzed using independent t tests and one-way ANOVAs (p < 0.05). Enamel loss was significantly higher for the regular (Coca-Cola, 5.60 ± 1.04 μm; Sprite, 5.49 ± 0.94 μm; orange juice, 1.35 ± 0.4 μm) than for the viscosity-modified drinks (Coca-Cola, 4.90 ± 0.34 μm; Sprite, 4.46 ± 0.39 μm; orange juice, 1.10 ± 0.22 μm). For both regular and viscosity-modified forms, Coca-Cola and Sprite caused higher enamel loss than orange juice. Increasing the viscosity of acidic soft drinks to 5 mm(2)/s reduced enamel erosion by 12.6-18.7 %. The erosive potential of soft acidic drinks is not only dependent on various chemical properties but also on the viscosity of the acidic solution and can be reduced by viscosity modification.

  14. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  15. Effect of supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract on their erosive potential against dentine.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C S; Kato, M T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2011-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors reduce dentine erosion. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract, a natural inhibitor of MMPs, on their erosive potential against dentine. For each drink tested (Coca-Cola, Kuat guarana, Sprite and light Coca-Cola), 40 dentine specimens were divided into two subgroups differing with respect to supplementation with green tea extract at 1.2% (OM24, 100%Camellia sinensis leaf extract, containing 30 ± 3% of catechin; Omnimedica, Switzerland) or not (control). Specimens were subjected to four pH cycles, alternating de- and remineralization in one day. For each cycle, samples were immersed in pure or supplemented drink (10 minutes, 30 mL per block) and in artificial saliva (60 minutes, 30 mL per block) at 37 °C, under agitation. Dentine alterations were determined by profilometry (μm). Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p < 0.05). A significant difference was observed among the drinks tested with Sprite leading to the highest surface loss and light Coca-Cola to the lowest. Supplementation with green tea extract reduced the surface loss by 15% to 40% but the difference was significant for Coca-Cola only. Supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract might be a viable alternative to reduce their erosive potential against dentine. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Efficacy of a non-drinking mental simulation intervention for reducing student alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Dominic; Sparks, Paul; de Visser, Richard

    2015-11-01

    To assess the impact of a mental simulation intervention designed to reduce student alcohol consumption by asking participants to imagine potential positive outcomes of and/or strategic processes involved in not drinking during social occasions. English university students aged 18-25 years (n = 211, Mage = 20 years) were randomly allocated to one of four intervention conditions. The dependent variables were weekly alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) frequency and frequency of social occasions at which participants did not drink alcohol when others were drinking alcohol ('episodic non-drinking'). Measures of alcohol-related prototypes (i.e., prototypical non-drinker, prototypical regular drinker) were used to compute sociability prototype difference scores as a potential mediator of any intervention effects. All measures were taken at baseline and at 2- and 4-week follow-up. Participants completed one of four exercises involving either imagining positive outcomes of non-drinking during a social occasion (outcome condition); imagining strategies required for non-drinking during a social occasion (process condition); imagining both positive outcomes and required strategies (combined condition); or completing a drinks diary task (control condition). Latent growth curve analyses revealed a more substantial rate of decrease in weekly unit consumption and HED frequency among outcome condition and process condition participants, relative to control condition participants. Non-significant differences were found between the combined condition and the control condition. Across the whole sample, an inverted U-shape trend indicated an initial increase in episodic non-drinking before it returned to baseline levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that mental simulation interventions focused on non-drinking can successfully promote behaviour change. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? UK drinking recommendations advise two 'dry

  17. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  18. Increasing the availability and consumption of drinking water in middle schools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha I; Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Lamb, Sheila; Uyeda, Kimberly E; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Although several studies suggest that drinking water may help prevent obesity, no US studies have examined the effect of school drinking water provision and promotion on student beverage intake. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and outcomes of a school-based intervention to improve drinking water consumption among adolescents. The 5-week program, conducted in a Los Angeles middle school in 2008, consisted of providing cold, filtered drinking water in cafeterias; distributing reusable water bottles to students and staff; conducting school promotional activities; and providing education. Self-reported consumption of water, nondiet soda, sports drinks, and 100% fruit juice was assessed by conducting surveys among students (n = 876), preintervention and at 1 week and 2 months postintervention, from the intervention school and the comparison school. Daily water (in gallons) distributed in the cafeteria during the intervention was recorded. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and baseline intake of water at school, the odds of drinking water at school were higher for students at the intervention school than students at the comparison school. Students from the intervention school had higher adjusted odds of drinking water from fountains and from reusable water bottles at school than students from the comparison school. Intervention effects for other beverages were not significant. Provision of filtered, chilled drinking water in school cafeterias coupled with promotion and education is associated with increased consumption of drinking water at school. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to assess the intervention's influence on students' consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as obesity-related outcomes.

  19. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Prostatic Hyperplasia According to Facial Flushing After Drinking in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hak Sun; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Yoon, Seok-Joon; Yang, HyunJu; Joung, Hyun Chul

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether facial flushing after drinking influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostatic hyperplasia among Korean men. Methods The subjects were 957 Korean men (180 non-drinkers, 389 with drinking-related facial flushing, 388 without facial flushing) in the 40–69 age group, who underwent prostate ultrasound at the health promotion center of Chungnam National University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Alcohol consumption and alcohol-related facial flushing were assessed through a questionnaire. In terms of the amount consumed, 14 g of alcohol was considered a standard drink. With the non-drinker group as reference, logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between weekly alcohol intake and prostatic hyperplasia in the flushing and non-flushing groups, with adjustment for confounding factors such as age, body mass index, smoking, and exercise patterns. Results Individuals aged 50–59 years who experienced drinking-related facial flushing had a significantly lower risk of prostatic hyperplasia than the non-drinker group, depending on alcohol consumption: ≤4 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86); >4 ≤8 standard drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.95); >8 standard drinks (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.84). However, no significant relationship was observed between the number of drinks consumed and the risk of prostate hyperplasia in the non-flushing group. Conclusion The risk of prostatic hyperplasia appears to be reduced by alcohol consumption among Korean men aged 50–59 years who exhibit drinking-related facial flushing. PMID:28360985

  20. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence from observational studies and interventions.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid

    2008-12-01

    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSD) are a special target of many obesity-prevention strategies, yet critical reviews tend to be more cautious regarding the aetiological role of SSD in promoting excess body weight. Since ongoing evaluation of this issue is important, the present systematic review re-examined the evidence from epidemiological studies and interventions, up to July 2008. Database searches of Medline, Cochrane reviews, Google scholar and a hand search of cross-references identified forty-four original studies (twenty-three cross-sectional, seventeen prospective and four intervention) in adults and children, as well as six reviews. These were critically examined for methodology, results and interpretation. Approximately half the cross-sectional and prospective studies found a statistically significant association between SSD consumption and BMI, weight, adiposity or weight gain in at least one subgroup. The totality of evidence is dominated by American studies where SSD consumption tends to be higher and formulations different. Most studies suggest that the effect of SSD is small except in susceptible individuals or at high levels of intake. Methodological weaknesses mean that many studies cannot detect whether soft drinks or other aspects of diet and lifestyle have contributed to excess body weight. Progress in reaching a definitive conclusion on the role of SSD in obesity is hampered by the paucity of good-quality interventions which reliably monitor diet and lifestyle and adequately report effect sizes. Of the three long-term (>6 months) interventions, one reported a decrease in obesity prevalence but no change in mean BMI and two found a significant impact only among children already overweight at baseline. Of the six reviews, two concluded that the evidence was strong, one that an association was probable, while three described it as inconclusive, equivocal or near zero. Reasons for some discrepancies are presented.

  1. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gambon, Dien L; Brand, Henk S; Boutkabout, Chaimae; Levie, Deborah; Veerman, Enno C I

    2011-10-01

    To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and alcopops were obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. Gender- and age-related differences in consumption were analysed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Associations between variables were investigated with Chi-square tests and Spearman's rank order correlation analysis. Boys consumed soft drinks, energy drinks and sports drinks more frequently than girls, and on average also consumed higher amounts of these drinks. No gender-related differences were observed in alcopop consumption. Consumption of all drinks was most frequent at 14- or 15-year of age, with the exception of alcopops which was most frequent by 16-year-old school children. Significant positive associations were observed between the consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks and/or sports drinks. Alcopop consumption was only associated with consumption of energy drinks. Consumption of soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and alcopops by school children is related to age and gender. The significant positive associations between the consumption of these drinks suggest that a subgroup of school children exists with a high cumulative intake of these potentially erosive drinks. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jessica L; McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Martineau, Chantal; Vanderkooy, Pat; Fenton, Nancy; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons). Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and "ever" exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance), were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language). Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported "ever" consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other), and residents of British Columbia. Among "ever-consumers," 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18-24), aboriginal respondents (vs. white only), and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were "experimental" consumers (i.e., consumed ≤ 5 drinks in their lifetime). Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  3. [CAFFEINE AND QUININE IN SOFT DRINKS; CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIETARY INTAKE].

    PubMed

    González Reyes, Ana Belén; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Gutiérrez Fernández, Angel José; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Frías Tejera, Inmaculada; Revert Gironés, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    soft drinks are becoming increasingly consumed by society. They are composed by a great variety of components, some of which can produce adverse effects if they are frequently consumed in high levels. determine caffeine and quinine concentration to prove that those concentration levels are lower than the legal limits allowed and calculate the contribution to dietary intake to obtain the Estimated Daily Intake. levels of caffeine and quinine of the main brands of soft drinks were analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography technique. concentrations were obtained for all brands, and the medium level was estimated. it has been observed that in any case the maximum concentration limits are exceeded and the contribution to dietary intake doesn't mean adverse reaction. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ashraf A; Abbas, Alaa B; Badawi, Bassam Sh; Al-Jowhar, Wafaa Y; Zain, Esam A; El-Mufti, Seham A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5 and 98.5%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.998, a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 5% and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 and 750 µg l⁻¹, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BVO in several commercial soft drinks which were found to contain BVO in the range 1.8-14.510 mg l⁻¹. The method has less sources of error compared to previously published methods.

  5. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  6. Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1998-05-01

    Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. First, UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello YelloTM using the spectrophotometer's software and manually by the simultaneous equations method. The following week, caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 45% methanol/55% aqueous phosphate, pH 3.0, as the mobile phase. In the third experiment, the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis using a pH 9.4 borate buffer. Students also determine the minimum detection limits for all three compounds by both LC and CE. The experiments demonstrate the analytical use and limitations of the three instruments. The reports and prelab quizzes also stress the importance of the chemistry of the three compounds, especially the relationships of acid/base behavior and polarity to the LC and CE separations.

  7. Improved method for the determination of benzene in soft drinks at sub-ppb levels.

    PubMed

    Cao, X-L; Casey, V

    2008-04-01

    An automated, simple, and reproducible method based on isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry developed previously for the determination of benzene in soft drinks was further improved by adding sodium sulfate to samples, lowering the gas chromatography oven starting temperature to narrow benzene peak width, and increasing sample injection volume. This improved method had a lower detection limit (0.016 microg l(-1)) and good repeatability, and was used in a follow-up survey to assess benzene levels in 139 samples of soft drink products. Benzene was detected in 67% of the 139 products tested. Compared with the previous survey, the average benzene concentrations in most products from this survey were lower, and only a few products had benzene at elevated levels.

  8. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    PubMed

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2017-09-14

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. In vivo dental plaque pH variation with regular and diet soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Roos, Erik H; Donly, Kevin J

    2002-01-01

    Despite the presence or absence of artificial sweeteners in cola drinks, both regular and diet soft drinks still contain phosphoric and citric acid, which contributes to the total acidic challenge potential on enamel. The purpose of this study was to assess the plaque pH, in vivo, after a substrate challenge of diet and regular soft drinks. Seventeen subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects were between the ages of 12 and 15 and had at least 4 restored tooth surfaces present. The subjects were given consent by their parents and were asked to refrain from brushing for 48 hours prior to the study. At baseline, plaque pH was measured from 4 separate locations using touch electrode methodology. Each subject was then randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group was exposed to regular Coke followed by Diet Coke, while the second group was exposed to Diet Coke followed by regular Coke. Subjects were asked to swish with 15 ml of the respective soft drink for one minute. Plaque pH was measured at the 4 designated tooth sites at 5-, 10- and 20-minute intervals. Subjects then repeated the experiment using the other soft drink. The results showed that regular Coke had significantly more acidic plaque pH values at the 5-, 10- and 20-minute intervals compared to Diet Coke, (P = < .001), when subjected to a t test. The mean pH at 5 minutes for Coke and Diet Coke was 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 6.0 +/- 0.7, respectively. At 10 minutes, the pH for Coke and Diet Coke was 5.6 +/- 0.6 and 6.2 +/- 0.7, respectively. The pH at 20 minutes for Coke and Diet Coke was 5.7 +/- 0.7 and 6.5 +/- 0.5, respectively. These data suggest that regular Coke possesses a greater acid challenge potential on enamel than Diet Coke. However, in this clinical trial, the pH associated with either soft drink did not reach the critical pH which is expected for enamel demineralization and dissolution.

  10. Candida davenportii sp. nov., a potential soft-drinks spoilage yeast isolated from a wasp.

    PubMed

    Stratford, M; Bond, C J; James, S A; Roberts, N; Steels, H

    2002-07-01

    During a survey of yeast ecology in a soft-drinks production facility, a dead wasp was removed from the sampling tap of an external sugar-syrup storage tank. A yeast isolated from the dead wasp was found to be similar, although not identical, in its physiological characteristics to Candida lactis-condensi and Candida stellata. Sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 variable domain revealed that this isolate was most closely related to C stellata, but differed sufficiently in its D1/D2 sequence to indicate that it belonged to a separate species. The yeast species has been named Candida davenportii sp. nov.; the type strain is NCYC 3013T (= CBS 9069T). C davenportii sp. nov. was osmotolerant, moderately preservative-resistant and able to grow in very acidic conditions, i.e. pH 14. This yeast grew well in fruit-containing soft drinks, cola-type beverages and a synthetic soft drink and is therefore a potential cause of spoilage of soft drinks and other sugary food products. Other related yeast species in the same taxonomic clade as C davenportii sp. nov. are also osmotolerant, growing in < 50% (w/v) sugar. Many of these species are associated with insects, specifically bees, bumblebees and leafcutter bees, and many have been reported as the causative agent of spoilage of sugary foods, such as condensed milk, fruit juices and concentrates. It is proposed that C davenportii sp. nov. and other closely related yeasts are primarily associated with Aculeates (bees and wasps). In turn, bees and wasps are attracted by sugary residues in foods such as fruit juices and concentrates, forming the source of infection of these yeasts and thus instigating spoilage.

  11. Soft deposits, the key site for microbial growth in drinking water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Zacheus, O M; Lehtola, M J; Korhonen, L K; Martikainen, P J

    2001-05-01

    In this project we studied the microbiological quality of soft pipeline deposits removed from drinking water distribution networks during mechanical cleaning. Drinking water and deposit samples were collected from 16 drinking water distribution networks located at eight towns in different parts of Finland. Soft pipeline deposits were found to be the key site for microbial growth in the distribution networks. The microbial numbers in the soft deposits were significantly higher than numbers in running water. The highest microbial numbers were detected in the main deposit pushed ahead by the first swab. The deposits contained high numbers of heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Also coliform bacteria were often isolated from deposit samples. Manganese and copper in the deposits correlated negatively with the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. After a year, the viable microbial numbers in the new deposits were almost as high as in the old deposits before the first mechanical cleaning. The bacterial biomass production was higher in the new than in the old deposits.

  12. Decolorization and mineralization of Oolong tea polyphenols in colored soft drink wastewater by photo Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, M; Sekine, M; Morito, Y; Kawase, Y

    2011-01-01

    The decolorization and the mineralization of the colored soft drink wastewater including Oolong tea polyphenols by the photo Fenton reaction have been investigated. The decolorization of the colored soft drink wastewater including Oolong tea polyphenols by the photo Fenton reaction could be divided into 3 phases. Just after H2O2 was added to the solution, the color of the solution immediately increased from absorbance of 0.247 to 0.711 at the wavelength of 400 nm, which was defined as the 1st phase. Subsequently the significant decolorization by the photo Fenton reaction occurred at the 2nd phase. Finally, complete decolorization (the color attributed to the color of Fe3+) could be achieved in 180 min at the 3rd phase. The instantaneous and considerable color increase at the 1st phase could be attributed to the formation of intermediate colored compounds like quinones and soluble iron complexes produced by the Fenton reaction. About 95% mineralization of model colored soft drink wastewater with 229 mg L(-1) initial TOC concentration was achieved after 165 min.

  13. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine; Toft, Ulla; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (< once/week) and for individuals with a frequent soft drink intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p < 0.0001). A corresponding decrease was found in the proportion of individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3-4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91) and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85-0.92), respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3-4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63-1.31) and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25), respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02). The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  14. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, D S; Peterson, K E; Gortmaker, S L

    2001-02-17

    The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. Our aim was to examine this relation. We enrolled 548 ethnically diverse schoolchildren (age 11.7 years, SD 0.8) from public schools in four Massachusetts communities, and studied them prospectively for 19 months from October, 1995, to May, 1997. We examined the association between baseline and change in consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks (the independent variables), and difference in measures of obesity, with linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for potentially confounding variables and clustering of results within schools. For each additional serving of sugar-sweetened drink consumed, both body mass index (BMI) (mean 0.24 kg/m2; 95% CI 0.10-0.39; p=0.03) and frequency of obesity (odds ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.14-2.24; p=0.02) increased after adjustment for anthropometric, demographic, dietary, and lifestyle variables. Baseline consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was also independently associated with change in BMI (mean 0.18 kg/m2 for each daily serving; 95% CI 0.09-0.27; p=0.02). Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks is associated with obesity in children.

  15. Associations between drinking motives and changes in adolescents' alcohol consumption: a full cross-lagged panel study.

    PubMed

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2011-07-01

    Longitudinal full cross-lagged models are essential to test causal relationships. This study used such a model to test the predictive value of internal (enhancement and coping) and external (conformity and social) drinking motives for changes in alcohol use over time, and tested possible reversed causality (i.e. alcohol use explains later drinking motives). Longitudinal data consisting of two waves (separated by 1 year) were used to estimate cross-lagged structural equation models. Three comparable (regarding urbanization and social stratification) Dutch communities. A total of 454 alcohol-using adolescents aged 13-16 years (mean = 14.8 years, SD = 0.78) at wave 1. Standardized questionnaires including the Drinking Motive Questionnaire-revised, and items on total weekly consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. In adolescence, drinking motive preferences are already relatively stable over time. Also, only social motives significantly predicted increases in total weekly consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. No feedback mechanisms by which alcohol consumption explains later drinking motives scores were found. Among drinking adolescents in a wet drinking culture, such as the Dutch drinking culture, social drinking motives, rather than enhancement or coping motives for drinking, appear to predict overall consumption and frequency of heavy episodic use a year later. Parents and other important social actors have an active role in reducing alcohol availability and monitoring adolescents' drinking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Sheng-Chin; Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.

  17. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Methods The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Conclusions Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. PMID:28301483

  18. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Nokia, M S; Govindaraju, K P; Shors, T J

    2012-11-08

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, "moderate" amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4% ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08%, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning 2 days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40%. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain.

  19. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Megan L.; Nokia, Miriam S.; Govindaraju, Krishna P.; Shors, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, “moderate” amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4 % ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of two weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08 %, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning two days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40 %. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:22906480

  20. Consumption of a drink containing extruded sorghum reduces glycaemic response of the subsequent meal.

    PubMed

    Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; de Menezes, Cicero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2016-10-12

    Glycaemic control is essential to prevent the manifestation of diabetes in predisposed individuals and the development of associated comorbidities. It is believed that sorghum may modulate the glucose response. In this study, we investigated the effect of extruded sorghum consumption, and the profile of bioactive compounds, on postprandial glycaemia of a subsequent meal in normal weight and normoglycaemic subjects. This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover designed study. After a 12 h overnight fasting, ten subjects reported to the laboratory to participate in four experimental sessions, and consumed one of three sorghum test drinks: sorghum P 3-DXAs (with proanthocyanidins-P and rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanidins-3-DXAs); 3-DXAs (without proanthocyanidins and rich in 3-DXAs); and control (low in 3-DXAs and without proanthocyanidins); or a non-sorghum drink. 30 min later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose). Glycaemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min (after glucose solution consumption). The incremental areas under the glycaemic curve (iAUC) were calculated by the trapezoidal method. Intake of P 3-DXAs drink before the glucose solution resulted in a postprandial iAUC lower than the other sorghum test drinks. Sorghum drinks minimized the postprandial glycaemia peak. Sorghum drinks consumption, especially the P 3-DXAs drink, 30 min before the glucose solution resulted in lower iAUC compared to the non-sorghum drink, leading to a lower glycaemic response.

  1. Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

    PubMed

    Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. [Consumption of fruit juices and fruit drinks: impact on the health of children and teenagers, the dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Catteau, C; Trentesaux, T; Delfosse, C; Rousset, M-M

    2012-02-01

    The French dietary guidelines published in 2001 recommend daily consumption of 5 portions of fruit or vegetable. Despite this advice, the consumption of fruit in France, especially in the north of France, is low, whereas sale of 100% fruit juices, fruit drinks, and fruit-flavored beverages is increasing. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns on dental caries has received less attention than the impact on childhood obesity. Nevertheless, the cariogenic potential of soft drinks is known. Drinking fruit juices, fruit drinks, or fruit-flavored beverages over a long period of time and continuous sipping could therefore be harmful for the teeth. The aim of this study was to examine the sugar content of such beverages. Four different major supermarkets were visited to select a representative sample of beverages for sale. Fruit juices, nectars, fruit drinks (water and fruit juices) and fruit-flavored waters were included. Lemonades, teas, and drinks containing artificial sweetener were not included. The data were collected in April 2010 by reading nutrition labels. The variables studied were the sugar content (g/100mL), the presence of added sugar, and the percentage of fruit juices. A descriptive analysis of the variables studied was conducted. The mean sugar content of the French population's favorite juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, apple, and grape) was compared to the sugar content of a corresponding 100-g portion of fresh fruit. The data were processed using Microsoft Excel. Hundred and eighty-seven different beverages were analyzed: 89 fruit juices, 26 nectars, 51 fruit drinks (sparkling or flat), and 21 fruit-flavored waters. Unlike fruit-flavored waters, nectars and fruit drinks contained fruit juices. Nectars and fruit drinks contained an average of 44.5% (± 10.7%) and 10.5% (± 3.8%) fruit juice, respectively. The sugar content varied from 0 g/100mL to 17.5 g/100mL. The average sugar content was 2.4 (± 2.1) g/100mL, 8.8 (± 2.3) g/100m

  3. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  4. The Consumption of Energy Drinks Among a Sample of College Students and College Student Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Morgan, Grant B

    2016-02-01

    To assess energy drink (ED) consumption, potential ED correlates, and ED-related motivations among a sample of college students to determine differences based on athlete status (student athlete vs. non-athlete). Six hundred and ninety-two college students completed surveys at a large private university in the United States. Participants completed a paper based questionnaire assessing ED and ED-related variables. Over thirty-six percent (197 non-athletes, 58 student athletes) of participants reported ED consumption in the preceding 30 days. Multivariately, there was no difference in ED consumption based on athlete status. Heavy episodic drinking and prescription stimulant misuse were both correlated with increased ED consumption. ED motivations differed based on the frequency of ED consumption. ED use was common among student athletes and non-athletes in our sample. It is important to be aware of the correlation between heavy episodic drinking, prescription stimulant misuse, and ED consumption among college student populations because of the adverse consequences associated with these behaviors.

  5. Impact of substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks by intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands: example of a benefit-risk approach.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Marieke A; Tijhuis, Mariken J; Fransen, Heidi P; Verhagen, Hans; Hoekstra, Jeljer

    2011-02-01

    Substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners may have potential beneficial, but also adverse health effects. This study assessed the benefits and risks associated with substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands. A tiered approach was used analogous to the risk assessment paradigm, consisting of benefit and hazard identification, exposure assessment and finally benefit and risk characterization and comparison. Two extreme scenarios were compared in which all carbonated soft drinks were sweetened with either intense sweeteners or added sugar. National food consumption survey data were used, and intake of added sugar and intense sweeteners was calculated using the food composition table or analytical data for sweetener content. Reduction in dental caries and body weight were identified as benefits of substituting sugar. The mean difference in total energy intake between the scenarios was 542 kJ per day in men and 357 kJ per day in women, under the assumption that no compensation takes place. In the 100% sweetener scenario, the average BMI decreased 1.7 kg/m(2) in men and 1.3 kg/m(2) in women when compared to the 100% sugar scenario. Risks are negligible, as the intake of intense sweeteners remains below the ADI in the substitution scenario. Substitution of added sugar by intense sweeteners in carbonated soft drinks has beneficial effects on BMI and the reduction in dental caries, and does not seem to have adverse health effects in young adults, given the available knowledge and assumptions made.

  6. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Adjene, Josiah Obaghwarhievwo; Ezeoke, Joseph Chigozie; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2010-05-01

    Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. The rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B) (n=16) and Control (c) (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment group (A) received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B) received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C) received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B) showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  7. Prediction of alcohol-related harm from controlled drinking strategies and alcohol consumption trajectories.

    PubMed

    Toumbourou, J W; Williams, I R; White, V M; Snow, P C; Munro, G D; Schofield, P E

    2004-04-01

    To establish predictors of age 21 alcohol-related harm from prior drinking patterns, current levels of alcohol consumption and use of controlled drinking strategies. One thousand, five hundred and ninety-six students recruited from an initial sample of 3300 during their final year of high school in 1993. Longitudinal follow-up across five waves of data collection. Post high school in Victoria, Australia. Self-administered surveys examining a range of health behaviours, including alcohol consumption patterns and related behaviour. Drinking behaviours at age 21 were found to be strongly predicted by drinking trajectories established through the transition from high school. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that alcohol-related harms at age 21 were reduced where current levels of alcohol use fell within limits recommended in Australian national guidelines. After controlling for this effect it was found that the range of strategies employed by participants to control alcohol use maintained a small protective influence. Post-high-school drinking trajectories continued to demonstrate a significant effect after controlling for current behaviours. revealed that over one quarter of males and females drank alcohol, but on a less-than-weekly basis. This pattern of alcohol use demonstrated considerable stability through the post-school transition and was associated with a low level of subsequent harm at age 21. Future research should investigate whether encouraging more Australian adolescents to drink alcohol on a less-than-weekly basis may be a practical intervention target for reducing alcohol-related harms.

  8. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  9. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  10. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  11. Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Casey, Valerie; Seaman, Steve; Tague, Brett; Becalski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    An automated, simple, and reproducible method was developed for the determination of benzene in soft drinks, based on isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The method was used to assess benzene levels in samples of 124 soft drinks and beverages. Benzene was not detected in 60% of the 124 products. The average benzene levels in 6 products exceeded the Canadian maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg/L for benzene in drinking water, and 2 of the 6 products had benzene levels above the World Health Organization guideline of 10 microg/L. The highest level of benzene, 23 microg/L, was found in a soft drink product specifically marketed to children.

  12. Investigation of mineral waters and soft drinks in relation to dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Parry, J; Shaw, L; Arnaud, M J; Smith, A J

    2001-08-01

    A range of still and sparkling mineral waters were assessed for their erosive potential together with comparator soft drinks using in vitro dissolution assays with extracted human teeth and powdered hydroxyapatite. Dissolution levels with all of the mineral waters were very low and for several still waters were undetectable. Sparkling mineral waters showed slightly greater dissolution than still waters, but levels remained low and were of the order of one hundred times less than the comparator soft drinks. De-gassing of a sparkling mineral water reduced its dissolution, but the total levels were still relatively low suggesting that carbonation of drinks may not be an important factor per se in respect of erosive potential. The complex and heterogeneous mineral compositions of mineral waters could influence the dissolution equilibrium of apatite in enamel and controlled addition of several ions to ultrapure deionized water was investigated. Calcium ions led to the greatest reduction in hydroxyapatite dissolution, but their effects were moderated by other ions including magnesium and sulphate. Thus, mineral waters appear to offer a safe alternative to more erosive acidic beverages and their complex mineral ion compositions may positively influence any dissolution processes at the tooth surface.

  13. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  14. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  15. Perceived Stress, Energy Drink Consumption, and Academic Performance among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…

  16. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  17. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  18. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  19. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  20. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  1. Perceived Stress, Energy Drink Consumption, and Academic Performance among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…

  2. Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink increases bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Guglielmetti, Simone; Riso, Patrizia; Arioli, Stefania; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2011-12-28

    Wild blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols and other compounds that are highly metabolized by the intestinal microbiota and may, at the same time, affect the intestinal environment itself. A repeated-measure, crossover dietary intervention on human volunteers was designed to study the effect of six week consumption of a wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium ) drink, versus a placebo drink, in modulating the intestinal microbiota. Relative to total eubacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. significantly increased following blueberry treatment (P ≤ 0.05), while Lactobacillus acidophilus increased after both treatments (P ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were observed for Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Clostridium coccoides . Bifidobacteria, which have been largely proposed to be of benefit for the host, appeared to be selectively favored suggesting an important role for the polyphenols and fiber present in wild blueberries. Results obtained suggest that regular consumption of a wild blueberry drink can positively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota.

  3. Alcohol Consumption, Dating Relationships, and Preliminary Sexual Outcomes in Collegiate Natural Drinking Groups.

    PubMed

    Devos-Comby, Loraine; Daniel, Jason; Lange, James E

    2013-12-01

    This study tested the effects of committed relationships and presence of dates on alcohol consumption and preliminary sexual outcomes in natural drinking groups (NDGs). Undergraduate drinkers (N = 302) answered an online questionnaire on their most recent participation in a NDG. The interaction between relationship commitment and presence of a date on alcohol consumption was significant. Among students not in committed relationships, those dating within their NDG reported heavier drinking than those not dating. Students in committed relationships drank less than those who were not committed only when their partners were present. The positive correlation between drinking and sexual contact was significant only for those who were not in committed relationships. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  4. Alcohol Consumption, Dating Relationships, and Preliminary Sexual Outcomes in Collegiate Natural Drinking Groups

    PubMed Central

    Devos-Comby, Loraine; Daniel, Jason; Lange, James E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the effects of committed relationships and presence of dates on alcohol consumption and preliminary sexual outcomes in natural drinking groups (NDGs). Undergraduate drinkers (N = 302) answered an online questionnaire on their most recent participation in a NDG. The interaction between relationship commitment and presence of a date on alcohol consumption was significant. Among students not in committed relationships, those dating within their NDG reported heavier drinking than those not dating. Students in committed relationships drank less than those who were not committed only when their partners were present. The positive correlation between drinking and sexual contact was significant only for those who were not in committed relationships. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:26236043

  5. An outbreak of trichinellosis by consumption of raw soft-shelled turtle meat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joon Taek; Seo, Min; Hong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Young Keun

    2015-04-01

    Trichinellosis transmission to humans via the consumption of reptile meat is rare worldwide. In Korea, however, 2 such outbreaks, possibly via consumption of soft-shelled turtle meat, have occurred in 2 successive years. In 17 August 2014, 6 patients were admitted to Wonju Severance Christian Hospital complaining of myalgia, fever, and headache. Eosinophilia was the indication of the initial laboratory results, and they were eventually diagnosed as trichinellosis by ELISA. All of the patients worked at the same company and had eaten raw soft-shelled turtle meat at a company dinner 10 days prior to their admission. They were treated with albendazole for 2 weeks, upon which all of their symptoms disappeared. This is the 8th report on human trichinellosis in Korea, and the second implicating raw soft-shelled turtle meat.

  6. Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks is associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis in U.S. Adults, ages 20-55 y.

    PubMed

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; Uribarri, Jaime; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-10-16

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink intake has been linked with asthma in US high-schoolers. Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. One hypothesis for this association is that underlying fructose malabsorption and fructose reactivity in the GI may contribute to in situ formation of enFruAGEs. EnFruAGEs may be an overlooked source of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) that contribute to lung disease. AGE/ RAGEs are elevated in COPD lungs. EFF intake has increased in recent decades, and intakes may exceed dosages associated with adult fructose malabsorption in subsets of the population. Intestinal dysfunction has been shown to be elevated in COPD patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HFCS sweetened soft drink intake and chronic bronchitis (CB), a common manifestation of COPD, in adults. In this cross sectional analysis, the outcome variable was self-reported existing chronic bronchitis or history of CB. Exposure variable was non-diet soda. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, BMI, smoking, exposure to in-home smoking, pre-diabetes, diabetes, SES, total energy and total fruits and beverages consumption. Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. 2801 adults aged 20-55 y. There was a statistically significant correlation between intake of non-diet soft drinks and greater prevalence and odds of chronic bronchitis (p < 0.05). Independent of all covariates, intake of non-diet soda ≥5 times a week (vs. non/low non-diet soda) was associated with nearly twice the likelihood of having chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.80; p = 0.047; 95% CI 1.01-3.20). HFCS sweetened soft drink intake is correlated with chronic bronchitis in US adults aged 20-55 y

  7. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  9. Friend's drinking behaviour and adolescent alcohol consumption: the moderating role of friendship characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2005-06-01

    Friends are presumed to exert a substantial influence on young people's drinking patterns. The current study focused on the effects of the best friend's drinking behaviour on the alcohol consumption of 12-14-year-old adolescents. Furthermore, we hypothesized friendship characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and sociometric status differences) to moderate the extent in which adolescents had been influenced by their best friends. Longitudinal data of 1276 adolescents and their best friends were used to examine whether the adolescent's friend's drinking behaviour, reciprocity of the friendship, and status differences between friends affected the magnitude of change in the adolescent's drinking behaviour. The findings showed that best friend's drinking behaviour is related to adolescent's drinking both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Cross-sectionally, this association was particularly strong between mutual friends and friends with lower status. In longitudinal analyses, a different picture emerged. Respondents were most likely to adopt their friend's drinking behaviour when it was a unilateral friend with a higher status.

  10. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 8210 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of energy drink use patterns, including substance use, sensation seeking, risk of depression, and socioeconomic status. Nearly two-thirds of survey respondents (62%) reported consuming energy drinks at least once in the previous year, with about 20% reporting use once or more per month. Sensation seeking, depression, and substance use were all higher among energy drink users relative to non-users, and in higher frequency users relative to lower frequency users. The prevalence of energy drink consumption among high school students was high. The association of energy drinks with other potential negative health and behavioral outcomes suggests that use of these products may represent a marker for other activities that may negatively affect adolescent development, health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking settings, alcohol consumption, and sexual risk behavior among gay men.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-03-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: "home" "social," "bar/social," and "general" drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that "general" drinkers were more likely than "social" drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to 'social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drinking Settings, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: “home” “social,” “bar/social,” and “general” drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that “general” drinkers were more likely than “social” drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to `social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. PMID:23261495

  13. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  14. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  15. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  16. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M F; Brownell, K D

    2000-06-01

    Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs.

  17. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, M F; Brownell, K D

    2000-01-01

    Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs. PMID:10846500

  18. Contamination of a soft-drink manufacturing plant by 210Po.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J D; Williamson, M R

    1990-04-01

    An investigation was undertaken of the contamination of equipment and flooring by 210Po, released from a static eliminator source, at a soft-drink manufacturing plant. The detection and establishment of extent of contamination, development of decontamination and control procedures and difficulties in implementing those procedures are discussed. Additionally, the likely health effects to workers are assessed. The removal and disposal of contaminated equipment, the use of epoxy compound on the floor to seal fixed contamination and the implementation of a 5-y monitoring program are detailed. The estimated cost of decontamination is provided.

  19. Tooth injury by chewing a soft drink can's ring: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a 28-year-old male patient's habit of chewing the aluminum ring of soft drink cans, with harmful consequences: broken cusp, dental attrition and craze lines. Although the reported dental damage is similar to that seen in oral piercing and wearing metal ornaments, the reported habit was unknown to the dental team in the 10 years preceding the event of cusp breakage. Dental practitioners should ask patients about their lifestyles and habits before occurence of such a complication, which has potential to affect oral integrity.

  20. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  1. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Janet; Thomas, Peter; Cavan, David; Kerr, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine if a school based educational programme aimed at reducing consumption of carbonated drinks can prevent excessive weight gain in children. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six primary schools in southwest England. Participants 644 children aged 7-11 years. Intervention Focused educational programme on nutrition over one school year. Main outcome measures Drink consumption and number of overweight and obese children. Results Consumption of carbonated drinks over three days decreased by 0.6 glasses (average glass size 250 ml) in the intervention group but increased by 0.2 glasses in the control group (mean difference 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.3). At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7.5%, compared with a decrease in the intervention group of 0.2% (mean difference 7.7%, 2.2% to 13.1%). Conclusion A targeted, school based education programme produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children. PMID:15107313

  2. Learning to drink: How Chinese adolescents make decisions about the consumption (or not) of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungwon; Lam, Wendy W T; Sham, Judy T L; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to provide in-depth understanding of how Chinese adolescents learn to drink and how they make decisions about the consumption (or not) of alcohol. This study explored the ways in which social and cultural factors shape the drinking trajectories of Chinese underage young people. The study used a qualitative design to collect and analyse the data. We recruited adolescents aged between 14 and 17 from a range of secondary schools in Hong Kong. Focus group interviews were undertaken with 22 groups encompassing 111 participants. A thematic analysis based upon grounded theory was performed using NVivo 10. The traditional Chinese drinking culture, characterised by the coming together of friends and relatives for celebrations, signifies the Chinese adolescents' first alcohol experiment. The adolescents' motivations for drinking essentially reflect the value placed upon alcohol within the Chinese culture - promoting conviviality, sociability and camaraderie. Whereas a sense of commonality encouraged alcohol use among them, there was little indication that drinkers and non-drinkers separately clustered around friendship networks. A high degree of self-regulation was exercised when drinking and this emerged as an acceptable social norm amongst young drinkers within social and cultural contexts. Most respondents saw underage drinking as an entirely normal and accepted part of social lives provided that it is kept under control. This study sheds light on the Chinese adolescents' own understandings and interpretations of their drinking. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed to curtail underage drinking need to reflect social and cultural contexts within which alcohol comes into play and importantly, consider social environments that are conducive to underage drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coping Motives for Drinking Affect Stress Reactivity but Not Alcohol Consumption in a Clinical Laboratory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne E.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; von Hofe, Johanna; Magid, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stress evokes thoughts about alcohol and enhances alcohol’s rewarding value in drinkers who use alcohol to cope with negative affect. The present study extends prior research by examining whether this effect applies to actual alcohol consumption following a stressor and whether individuals with high and low coping motives for drinking differ in stress reactivity. Method: Nondependent drinkers with high scores ( > 1 SD above national norms) on the coping motives subscale on the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (n = 41; 46% women) were enrolled along with age- and gender-matched nondependent drinkers with low coping motives (n = 41). Participants were randomized to receive the Trier Social Stress Test or a no-stress control condition. Following the stress manipulation, participants could consume up to 473 ml of beer in a “taste test,” a covert measure of alcohol consumption. Stress reactivity was measured with both objective and subjective indices, and milliliters of beer consumed was the alcohol-relevant outcome. Results: Participants with high coping motives showed a less robust stress response to the Trier Social Stress Test than participants with low coping motives for drinking. However, the stressor did not result in greater consumption of alcohol (i.e., no main effect of stress induction) or differential drinking in the two motive groups (i.e., no Stressor × Coping Motive group interaction). Conclusions: Findings suggest that nondependent drinkers with and without coping motives for drinking may experience a stress provocation differently, but exposure to a standardized social stressor does not lead to differential drinking in these groups in a clinical laboratory setting. PMID:24411803

  4. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic feedback to reduce alcohol consumption in hospital outpatients with risky drinking: feasibility and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Natalie A; Kypri, Kypros; Latter, Joanna; Attia, John; McEvoy, Mark; Dunlop, Adrian; Scott, Rodney

    2016-09-30

    There have been no trials in healthcare settings of genetic susceptibility feedback in relation to alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a full-scale randomised trial estimating the effect of personalised genetic susceptibility feedback on alcohol consumption in hospital outpatients with risky drinking. Outpatients ≥18 years of age who reported drinking more than 14 standard drinks in the past week or in a typical week were asked to provide a saliva sample for genetic testing. Genetic susceptibility feedback was posted to participants 6 months after recruitment. The co-primary outcomes were the proportion of participants who (i) provided a saliva sample that could be genotyped, and (ii) spoke with a genetic counsellor. Secondary outcomes included changes in patients' weekly alcohol consumption; scores on scales measuring readiness to change, importance of changing and confidence in ability to change drinking habits; knowledge about which cancers are alcohol-attributable; and acceptability of the saliva collection procedure and the genetic-feedback intervention. McNemar's test and paired t-tests were used to test for differences between baseline and follow-up in proportions and means, respectively. Of 100 participants who provided a saliva sample, 93 had adequate DNA for at least one genotyping assay. Three participants spoke to a genetic counsellor. Patients' readiness to change their drinking, their views on the importance of changing and their stated confidence in their ability to change increased between baseline and follow-up. There was no increase in patients' knowledge about alcohol-attributable cancers nor any reduction in how much alcohol they drank 4 months after receiving the feedback. Most participants (80%) were somewhat comfortable or very comfortable with the process used to collect saliva, 84% understood the genetic feedback, 54% found it useful, 10% had sought support to

  6. Acute Liver Failure Following One Year of Daily Consumption of a Sugar-Free Energy Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, David; Kabany, Mohamed El

    2014-01-01

    We report a 36-year-old man who presented with 1 week of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, jaundice, and fatigue. He consumed 3 sugar-free energy drinks daily for the past year with binge alcohol use. His liver function progressively deteriorated, requiring orthotopic liver transplantation. Submassive hepatic necrosis with eosinophilic infiltrate was seen on pathology, consistent with drug-induced liver injury. Further investigation is warranted into identifying which individuals are susceptible to liver failure from energy drink consumption. PMID:26157880

  7. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children’s participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Results Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p < 0.01). Only a small number (n = 20/1421) of children consumed sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more

  8. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p < 0.01). Only a small number (n = 20/1421) of children consumed sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre

  9. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round), and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004) of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round). Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type) and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i) frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly) (ii) consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit). Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years) were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash), determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly) was widespread amongst men (12-17%) throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy drinking; however, men

  10. Overweight among low-income preschool children associated with the consumption of sweet drinks: Missouri, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jean A; Cogswell, Mary E; Rogers, Sharmini; Rockett, Helaine; Mei, Zuguo; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2005-02-01

    To examine the association between sweet drink consumption and overweight among preschool children. A retrospective cohort design was used to examine the association between sweet drink consumption and overweight at follow-up among 10904 children who were aged 2 and 3 years and had height, weight, and Harvard Service Food Frequency Questionnaire data collected between January 1999 and December 2001 and height and weight data collected 1 year later. Sweet drinks included vitamin C-containing juices, other juices, fruit drinks, and sodas as listed on the Harvard Service Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to adjust for age; gender; race/ethnicity; birth weight; and intake of high-fat foods, sweet foods, and total calories. Results were stratified by baseline BMI. Among children who were normal or underweight at baseline (BMI <85th percentile), the association between sweet drink consumption and development of overweight was positive but not statistically significant. Children who were at risk for overweight at baseline (BMI 85th-<95th percentile) and consumed 1 to <2 drinks/day, 2 to <3 drinks/day, and > or =3 drinks/day were, respectively, 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.2), 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.2), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.8) times as likely to become overweight as the referent (<1 drink/day). Children who were overweight at baseline (BMI > or =95th percentile) and consumed 1 to <2 drinks/day, 2 to <3 drinks/day, and > or =3 drinks/day were, respectively, 2.1, 2.2, and 1.8 times as likely to remain overweight as the referent. Reducing sweet drink consumption might be 1 strategy to manage the weight of preschool children. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which such consumption contributes to overweight.

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  12. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Christiana; Hagan, John E

    2012-03-24

    Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  13. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  14. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.

    PubMed

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  15. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time. PMID:27274416

  16. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  17. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Bisphenol A in soft drinks and canned foods and data evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Karzi, Vasiliki; Vakonaki, Elena; Goumenou, Marina; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Stivaktakis, Polychronis; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.4 ± 4.4 ng/g (4.90 ± 0.64-66.0 ± 8.6 ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.70 ± 0.08 ng/ml (1.90 ± 0.06-3.50 ± 0.11 ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.30 ± 0.18 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.03-10.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.

  19. Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak Patterson, Pamela

    1999-10-01

    This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy. He designed an experiment to test the unknown sample and used samples of purified sugar, purified caffeine, purified citric acid, Coke, Diet Coke, Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Diet 7-Up, and Sam's Diet Cola as controls. The results were analyzed and presented in a final report. The student was able to determine if the unknown contained sugar, caffeine, Nutrasweet, or sodium benzoate. He learned how to compile relevant information, conduct an experiment, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and prepare and edit a formal report. In addition to learning the uses of NMR, he also learned some of its limitations. In the final report, he was encouraged to reflect on the difficulties a scientist might encounter when trying to identify NMR peaks without an "ingredient list" like those of the soft drink cans. The experience was rewarding for the student and all scientists involved.

  20. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples.

  1. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.

  2. Physiological workload evaluation of carrying soft drink beverage boxes on the back.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min K; Lee, Yue J; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Kyung I

    2005-09-01

    Soft drink manufacturing has become one of the largest food industries in Korea, now competing in a 2.5-billion dollar market, with more than 20,000 people employed. Deliveries of a broad line of soft drink products involve the use of a hand truck and, in many cases, a backpack mode of carriage. Workers usually prefer the backpack mode, because they feel safer by carrying beverage boxes on the back on stairs. In this study, the physiological workload involved in backpack-mode carrying was investigated, especially focusing on the effects of load weight and stairway transport. To measure heart rate and oxygen uptake while carrying on the back, a laboratory experiment was conducted and safety guidelines for such tasks were proposed, based on the experimental results. Eight healthy male subjects performed backpack-mode carrying, weight between 40 and 60 kg: (1) on level ground, (2) upstairs and (3) downstairs. The results showed that stairways involved an increased physiological burden, and that a load of 60 kg entailed a significantly higher physiological cost than carrying a load of 40 kg. Although backpack-mode carrying has some biomechanical advantages, the worker should be advised to carry a load of less than 40 kg, to avoid a high physiological load. During backpack-mode carrying, it is also recommended that a delivery person makes more trips with a light load rather than fewer trips with a heavier load per trip.

  3. Relationship of drinking water quality (hardness-softness) to cardiovascular mortality in Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, J. G.; Pfeiffer, C. J.; Papezik, V. S.

    1973-01-01

    The profile of mortality in Newfoundland was analysed for all deaths occurring in 1969 of persons 35 to 69 years of age, of whom the total was 1036. An exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality (793 deaths/100,000) was noted for St. John's, the capital city of Newfoundland, a city which has an extremely soft drinking-water supply. This high rate corresponds to that observed in the “high mortality belt” reported for the east coast of the United States, and in conjunction with data from mainland Canada, extends the belt across the entire eastern aspect of North America. The proportion of cardiovascular deaths of men occurring outside the hospital was less within hard drinking-water areas in Newfoundland than in the soft water areas of the province. Thus, the statistics reported here of cardiovascular mortality confirm evidence reported elsewhere on “macro-geographic” variations in this disease(s) as well as “micro-geographic” regional variations which may be dependent upon local environmental factors. PMID:4704905

  4. Relationship of drinking water quality (hardness-softness) to cardiovascular mortality in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fodor, J G; Pfeiffer, C J; Papezik, V S

    1973-06-02

    The profile of mortality in Newfoundland was analysed for all deaths occurring in 1969 of persons 35 to 69 years of age, of whom the total was 1036. An exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality (793 deaths/100,000) was noted for St. John's, the capital city of Newfoundland, a city which has an extremely soft drinking-water supply. This high rate corresponds to that observed in the "high mortality belt" reported for the east coast of the United States, and in conjunction with data from mainland Canada, extends the belt across the entire eastern aspect of North America. The proportion of cardiovascular deaths of men occurring outside the hospital was less within hard drinking-water areas in Newfoundland than in the soft water areas of the province. Thus, the statistics reported here of cardiovascular mortality confirm evidence reported elsewhere on "macro-geographic" variations in this disease(s) as well as "micro-geographic" regional variations which may be dependent upon local environmental factors.

  5. Influence of Soft Drinks with Low pH on Different Ni-Ti Orthodontic Archwire Surface Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, C.; Paul, A.; Mendoza, A.; Solano, E.; Palazon, C.; Gil, F. J.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soft drinks on the surface of Ni-Ti archwires and their corrosion behavior. Archwires with different patterns (smooth, scratch, dimple, and crack) were selected and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. Immersion tests were performed in artificial saliva (pH 6.7) with a soft drink with a pH of 2.5 for 28 days. The results showed an increase in the surface defects and/or roughness of the dimple, crack and scratch patterns with the immersion times, and a decrease in corrosion resistance. A relationship between the surface pattern and the extent of the corrosion in Ni-Ti archwires with soft drinks at low pH has been demonstrated. Pattern should be taken into account in future studies, and manufacturing processes that produce surface defects (especially cracks) should be avoided.

  6. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  7. Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753

  8. Diet drink consumption and the risk of cardiovascular events: a report from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ankur; Rubenstein, Linda; Robinson, Jennifer; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Shikany, James M; Johnson, Karen C; Snetselaar, Linda; Wallace, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Data are limited regarding the influence of diet drink consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between diet drink intake and cardiovascular events. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, utilizing data from the national, multicenter Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS), recruiting subjects from 1993 to 1998. Post-menopausal women with available diet drink intake data, without pre-existing CVD and who survived ≥ 60 days were included in the study. A composite of incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and CVD death was used as the primary outcome. CVD death and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare primary and secondary outcomes across diet drink intake strata. In all, 59,614 women, mean age 62.8 years, were included for analysis. In unadjusted analysis over a follow-up of 8.7 ± 2.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 8.5 % of the women consuming ≥ 2 diet drinks/day, compared to 6.9 %, 6.8 % and 7.2 % in the 5-7/week, 1-4/week and 0-3/month groups, respectively. After controlling for other CVD risk factors, women who consumed ≥ 2 drinks/day had a higher adjusted risk of CVD events (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5), CVD mortality (HR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.03-2.3) and overall mortality (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.04-1.5) compared to the reference group (0-3 drinks/month). This analysis demonstrates an association between high diet drink intake and CVD outcomes and mortality in post-menopausal women in the WHI OS.

  9. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-07-29

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.