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Sample records for soft tissue filler

  1. Facial soft-tissue fillers conference: assessing the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Hanke, C William; Busso, Mariano; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Fagien, Steven; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Glogau, Richard; Greenberger, Phyllis E; Lorenc, Z Paul; Marmur, Ellen S; Monheit, Gary D; Pusic, Andrea; Rubin, Mark G; Rzany, Berthold; Sclafani, Anthony; Taylor, Susan; Weinkle, Susan; McGuire, Michael F; Pariser, David M; Casas, Laurie A; Collishaw, Karen J; Dailey, Roger A; Duffy, Stephen C; Edgar, Elizabeth Jan; Greenan, Barbara L; Haenlein, Kelly; Henrichs, Ronald A; Hume, Keith M; Lum, Flora; Nielsen, David R; Poulsen, Lisle; Shoaf, Lori; Schoaf, Lori; Seward, William; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Stanton, Robert G; Svedman, Katherine J; Thomas, J Regan; Sykes, Jonathan M; Wargo, Carol; Weiss, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    : The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Academy of Dermatology, with the support of other sister societies, conducted the Facial Soft-Tissue Fillers: Assessing the State of the Science conference in December of 2009. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Academy of Dermatology established a panel of leading experts in the field of soft-tissue fillers-from researchers to clinicians-and other stakeholders for the conference to examine and discuss issues of patient safety, efficacy, and effectiveness in relation to the approved and off-label use of soft-tissue fillers, and other factors, including the training and level of experience of individuals administering fillers. This report represents the systematic literature review that examines comprehensively the available evidence and gaps in the evidence related to soft-tissue fillers, to inform and support the work of the state-of-the-science conference panel. This evidence-based medicine review will serve as the foundation for future evidence-based medicine reports in this growing field.

  2. FILLERS-Q: an instrument for assessing patient experiences after treatment with facial injectable soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Pizzi, Laura; Jutkowitz, Eric; Mueller, Nancy; Jung, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Patient-reported outcomes data are limited after injectable soft tissue filler treatment. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are becoming integral to medical practices in other specialties and will become so as well in facial plastic surgery. The obvious differences in types of disorders treated and the outcomes of primary importance seen between general medical/surgical and facial plastic surgery practices make institution of standard outcomes studies difficult in facial plastic surgery. However, understanding the patient's experience and satisfaction with treatment is essential to continue to provide excellent care to facial aesthetic patients. This article describes use of a new survey instrument, Facial Injectables: Longevity, Late and Early Reactions and Satisfaction Questionnaire (FILLERS-Q), in assessing patient response to facial injections of soft tissue fillers. FILLERS-Q is a 43-item questionnaire that captures patient demographics (4 items), patient satisfaction with treatment (10 items), procedure-related events (3 to 7 items), impact on relationships (9 to 15 items), and economic considerations related to dermal filler treatment (3 to 7 items). The results provide a "snapshot" of patients treated in an individual surgeon's practice. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. What Are Your Patients Reading Online About Soft-tissue Fillers? An Analysis of Internet Information

    PubMed Central

    Al Youha, Sarah A.; Bull, Courtney E.; Butler, Michael B.; Williams, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue fillers are increasingly being used for noninvasive facial rejuvenation. They generally offer minimal downtime and reliable results. However, significant complications are reported and patients need to be aware of these as part of informed consent. The Internet serves as a vital resource to inform patients of the risks and benefits of this procedure. Methods: Three independent reviewers performed a structured analysis of 65 Websites providing information on soft-tissue fillers. Validated instruments were used to analyze each site across multiple domains, including readability, accessibility, reliability, usability, quality, and accuracy. Associations between the endpoints and Website characteristics were assessed using linear regression and proportional odds modeling. Results: The majority of Websites were physician private practice sites (36.9%) and authored by board-certified plastic surgeons or dermatologists (35.4%) or nonphysicians (27.7%). Sites had a mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 11.9 ± 2.6, which is well above the recommended average of 6 to 7 grade level. Physician private practice sites had the lowest scores across all domains with a notable lack of information on complications. Conversely, Websites of professional societies focused in plastic surgery and dermatology, as well as academic centers scored highest overall. Conclusions: As the use of soft-tissue fillers is rising, patients should be guided toward appropriate sources of information such as Websites sponsored by professional societies. Medical professionals should be aware that patients may be accessing poor information online and strive to improve the overall quality of information available on soft-tissue fillers. PMID:27536503

  4. Functionalizable hydrogel microparticles of tunable size and stiffness for soft-tissue filler applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ka Man Carmen; Li, Randolph H.; Chapman, Joseph W.; Trac, Eric M.; Kobler, James B.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Particle size, stiffness and surface functionality are important in determining the injection site, safety and efficacy of injectable soft-tissue fillers. Methods to produce soft injectable biomaterials with controlled particle characteristics are therefore desirable. Here we report a method based on suspension photopolymerization and semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) to synthesize soft, functionalizable, spherical hydrogel microparticles (MP) of independently tunable size and stiffness. MP were prepared using acrylated forms of polyethylene glycol (PEG), gelatin and hyaluronic acid. Semi-IPN MP of PEG-diacrylate and PEG were used to study the effect of process parameters on particle characteristics. The process parameters were systematically varied to produce MP with size ranging from 115 to 515 μm and stiffness ranging from 190 to 1600 Pa. In vitro studies showed that the MP thus prepared were cytocompatible. The ratio and identity of the polymers used to make the semi-IPN MP were varied to control their stiffness and to introduce amine groups for potential functionalization. Slow-release polymeric particles loaded with Rhodamine or dexamethasone were incorporated in the MP as a proof-of-principle of drug incorporation and release from the MP. This work has implications in preparing injectable biomaterials of natural or synthetic polymers for applications as soft-tissue fillers. PMID:24561708

  5. The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Sidle, Douglas M

    2015-11-01

    The article is a detailed update regarding cosmetic injectable fillers, specifically focusing on hyaluronic acid fillers. Hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are used extensively for soft tissue volumizing and contouring. Many different hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are available on the market and differ in terms of hyaluronic acid concentration, particle size, cross-linking density, requisite needle size, duration, stiffness, hydration, presence of lidocaine, type of cross-linking technology, and cost. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of many soft tissues, is identical across species minimizing immunogenicity has been linked to wound healing and skin regeneration, and is currently actively being studied for tissue engineering purposes. The biomechanical and biochemical effects of HA on the local microenvironment of the injected site are key to its success as a soft tissue filler. Knowledge of the tissue-device interface will help guide the facial practitioner and lead to optimal outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Adri D; Prager, Welf; Rubin, Mark G; Moretti, Ernesto A; Nikolis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero® fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation. Methods A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero® fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume) and equivalent products (Esthélis®, Mesolis®, Fortélis®, Modélis®). Results This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero® Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118) and Restylane® (at 4 weeks, n=40), and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero® Intense than with Perlane® (at 2 weeks, n=20). With Belotero® Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1–6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8–12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero® Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging), Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach), and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients). The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were temporary. There were no reports of Tyndall effect, nodules, granulomas, or tissue necrosis. Conclusion Clinical evidence indicates sustainable esthetic effects, good safety profile, and long-term tolerability of the Belotero® fillers, particularly Belotero® Basic/Balance and Intense. PMID:27660479

  7. Soft tissue fillers for adipose tissue regeneration: From hydrogel development toward clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, I; Tytgat, L; Ryx, M; Blondeel, P; Stillaert, F; Thienpont, H; Ottevaere, H; Dubruel, P; Van Vlierberghe, S

    2017-11-01

    There is a clear and urgent clinical need to develop soft tissue fillers that outperform the materials currently used for adipose tissue reconstruction. Recently, extensive research has been performed within this field of adipose tissue engineering as the commercially available products and the currently existing techniques are concomitant with several disadvantages. Commercial products are highly expensive and associated with an imposing need for repeated injections. Lipofilling or free fat transfer has an unpredictable outcome with respect to cell survival and potential resorption of the fat grafts. Therefore, researchers are predominantly investigating two challenging adipose tissue engineering strategies: in situ injectable materials and porous 3D printed scaffolds. The present work provides an overview of current research encompassing synthetic, biopolymer-based and extracellular matrix-derived materials with a clear focus on emerging fabrication technologies and developments realized throughout the last decade. Moreover, clinical relevance of the most promising materials will be discussed, together with potential concerns associated with their application in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human histology and persistence of various injectable filler substances for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Morhenn, Vera; Charrier, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of soft tissue filler substances have been introduced to the beauty market outside the U.S. which lack experimental and clinical data in support of their claim. Ten commercially available filler substances were examined for biocompatibility and durability: 0.1 cc of each substance was injected deep intradermally into the volar forearm of one of the authors and observed for clinical reaction and permanence. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months the test sites were excised, histologically examined, and graded according to foreign body reactions classification. Collagen (Zyplast) was phagocytosed at 6 months and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) at 9 months. PMMA microspheres (Artecoll) had encapsulated with connective tissue, macrophages, and sporadic giant cells. Silicone oil (PMS 350) was clinically inconspicuous but dissipated into the tissue, causing a chronic foreign body reaction. Polylactic acid microspheres (New-Fill) induced a mild inflammatory response and had disappeared clinically at 4 months. Dextran microspheres (Reviderm intra) induced a pronounced foreign body reaction and had disappeared at 6 months. Polymethylacrylate particles (Dermalive) induced the lowest cellular reaction but had disappeared clinically at 6 months. Polyacrylamide (Aquamid) was well tolerated and remained palpable to a lessening degree over the entire testing period. Histologically, it dissipated more slowly and was kept in place through fine fibrous capsules. Polyvinylhydroxide microspheres suspended in acrylamide (Evolution) were well tolerated, slowly diminishing over 9 months. Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres (Radiance FN) induced almost no foreign body reaction but were absorbed by the skin at 12 months. Host defense mechanisms react differently to the various filler materials, but all substances-resorbable or nonresorbable-appeared to be clinically and histologically safe, although all exhibit undesirable side effects. Since the mechanism of late inflammation or

  9. Cannula Versus Sharp Needle for Placement of Soft Tissue Fillers: An Observational Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    van Loghem, Jani A J; Humzah, Dalvi; Kerscher, Martina

    2017-12-13

    Soft-tissue fillers have become important products for facial rejuvenation. Deep fat compartments and facial bones lose volume during the natural aging process. For the most natural-looking results, deep volumetric injections at strategic sites are therefore preferred. Supraperiosteal placement is performed with a sharp needle or a non-traumatic cannula. The primary objective was to determine whether there is a difference in precision between supraperiosteal placement with a sharp needle compared with a non-traumatic cannula in cadaver specimens. A secondary objective was to analyze the safety profiles of both injection techniques. Cadaver heads were injected with dye material and soft-tissue fillers at multiple aesthetic facial sites on the supraperiosteum and subsequently dissected for observation of dye and filler placement. The non-traumatic cannula technique resulted in product being confined to the deep anatomic layers. In contrast, with the sharp needle technique, material was placed in multiple anatomic layers, from the periosteum to more superficial skin layers. For both techniques results were consistent for all facial sites. Although direct extrapolation from cadavers to the in vivo situation cannot be made, cannulae showed more precision in placement of product. With the sharp needle, the material was injected on the periosteum, and then migrated in a retrograde direction along the trajectory of the needle path, ending up in multiple anatomic layers. The sharp needle technique also showed a higher complication risk with intra-arterial injection occurring, even though the needle tip was positioned on the periosteum and the product was injected with the needle in constant contact with the periosteum. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Inflammatory nodules following soft tissue filler use: a review of causative agents, pathology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ledon, Jennifer A; Savas, Jessica A; Yang, Steven; Franca, Katlein; Camacho, Ivan; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-10-01

    Nodule development is a common complication following the use of fillers for soft tissue augmentation and is commonly categorized as inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. Inflammatory nodules may appear anywhere from days to years after treatment, whereas non-inflammatory nodules are typically seen immediately following implantation and are usually secondary to improper placement of the filler. Although inflammatory nodules are more common with permanent fillers such as silicone, inflammatory nodule development following administration of temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen has also been reported. Treated many times with corticosteroids due to their anti-inflammatory properties, inflammatory nodules may be secondary to infection or biofilm formation, warranting the use of alternative agents. Appropriate and prompt diagnosis is important in avoiding delay of treatment or long-term complications for the patient. This paper addresses the etiology, development, and studied treatment options available for inflammatory nodules secondary to each of the major classes of fillers. With this knowledge, practitioners may expeditiously recognize and manage this common side effect and thus maximize functional and aesthetic benefit.

  11. Treatment of Soft Tissue Filler Complications: Expert Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Urdiales-Gálvez, Fernando; Delgado, Nuria Escoda; Figueiredo, Vitor; Lajo-Plaza, José V; Mira, Mar; Moreno, Antonio; Ortíz-Martí, Francisco; Del Rio-Reyes, Rosa; Romero-Álvarez, Nazaret; Del Cueto, Sofía Ruiz; Segurado, María A; Rebenaque, Cristina Villanueva

    2018-04-01

    Dermal fillers have been increasingly used in minimally invasive facial esthetic procedures. This widespread use has led to a rise in reports of associated complications. The aim of this expert consensus report is to describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide guidance on their treatment and avoidance. A multidisciplinary group of experts in esthetic treatments convened to discuss the management of the complications associated with dermal fillers use. A search was performed for English, French, and Spanish language articles in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms "complications" OR "soft filler complications" OR "injectable complications" AND "dermal fillers" AND "Therapy". An initial document was drafted by the Coordinating Committee, and it was reviewed and modified by the experts, until a final text was agreed upon and validated. The panel addressed consensus recommendations about the classification of filler complications according to the time of onset and about the clinical management of different complications including bruising, swelling, edema, infections, lumps and bumps, skin discoloration, and biofilm formation. Special attention was paid to vascular compromise and retinal artery occlusion. Clinicians should be fully aware of the signs and symptoms related to complications and be prepared to confidently treat them. Establishing action protocols for emergencies, with agents readily available in the office, would reduce the severity of adverse outcomes associated with injection of hyaluronic acid fillers in the cosmetic setting. This document seeks to lay down a set of recommendations and to identify key issues that may be useful for clinicians who are starting to use dermal fillers. Additionally, this document provides a better understanding about the diagnoses and management of complications if they do occur. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each

  12. Injectable fillers: review of material and properties.

    PubMed

    Attenello, Natalie Huang; Maas, Corey S

    2015-02-01

    With an increasing understanding of the aging process and the rapidly growing interest in minimally invasive treatments, injectable facial fillers have changed the perspective for the treatment and rejuvenation of the aging face. Other than autologous fat and certain preformed implants, the collagen family products were the only Food and Drug Administration approved soft tissue fillers. But the overwhelming interest in soft tissue fillers had led to the increase in research and development of other products including bioengineered nonpermanent implants and permanent alloplastic implants. As multiple injectable soft tissue fillers and biostimulators are continuously becoming available, it is important to understand the biophysical properties inherent in each, as these constitute the clinical characteristics of the product. This article will review the materials and properties of the currently available soft tissue fillers: hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-l-lactic acid, polymethylmethacrylate, and autologous fat (and aspirated tissue including stem cells). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Fat embolism syndrome secondary to injection of large amounts of soft tissue filler in the gluteal area.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martín; Visoso-Palacios, Porfirio; Arce-Salinas, C Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    There are no reports in the literature of an association between soft tissue filler (STF) injection and fat embolism syndrome (FES). The authors present the case of a 26-year-old woman who was injected in the gluteal area with approximately 200 cc of STF on each side for aesthetic purposes. After this procedure, she presented with the triad of hypoxemia, neurological impairment, and petechiae consistent with the diagnosis of FES. After advanced support measures, she recovered completely. This article reviews the presence of FES after a cosmetic procedure with STF.

  14. [Facial injections of hyaluronic acid-based fillers for malformations. Preliminary study regarding scar tissue improvement and cosmetic betterment].

    PubMed

    Franchi, G; Neiva-Vaz, C; Picard, A; Vazquez, M-P

    2018-06-01

    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers have gained rapid acceptance for treating facial wrinkles, deep tissue folds and sunken areas due to aging. This study evaluates, in addition to space-filling properties, their effects on softness and elasticity as a secondary effect, following injection of 3 commercially available cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers (15mg/mL, 17,5mg/mL and 20mg/mL) in patients presenting with congenital or acquired facial malformations. We started injecting gels of cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers in those cases in 2013; we performed 46 sessions of injections in 32 patients, aged from 13-32. Clinical assessment was performed by the patient himself and by a plastic surgeon, 15 days after injections and 6-18 months later. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers offered very subtle cosmetic results and supplemented surgery with a very high level of satisfaction of the patients. When injected in fibrosis, the first session enhanced softness and elasticity; the second session enhanced the volume. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers fill sunken areas and better softness and elasticity of scar tissues. In addition to their well-understood space-filling function, as a secondary effect, the authors demonstrate that cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers improve softness and elasticity of scarring tissues. Many experimental studies support our observations, showing that cross-linked hyaluronic acid stimulates the production of several extra-cellular matrix components, including dermal collagen and elastin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model: part 2.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Peter R; England, Laura J; Dover, Jeffrey S; Ross, E Victor; Harford, Robert; Derienzo, Damian; Bogle, Melissa; Uebelhoer, Nathan; Jacoby, Mark; Pope, Karl

    2006-03-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to heat skin and promote tissue tightening and contouring. Cosmetic fillers are used to soften deep facial lines and wrinkles. Patients who have had dermal fillers implanted may also benefit from or are candidates for monopolar RF skin tightening. This study examined the effect of RF treatment on various dermal filler substances. This is the second part of a two-part study. A juvenile farm pig was injected with dermal fillers including cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), polylactic acid (PLA) (Sculptra), liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) (Radiesse), and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Skin injected with dermal fillers was RF-treated using a 1.5-cm2 treatment tip and treatment levels typically used in the clinical setting. Fillers were examined histologically 5 days, 2 weeks, or 1 month after treatment. Histological specimens were scored for inflammatory response, foreign body response, and fibrosis in order to assess the effect of treatment on early filler processes, such as inflammation and encapsulation. Each filler substance produced a characteristic inflammatory response. No immediate thermal effect of RF treatment was observed histologically. RF treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in the inflammatory, foreign body, and fibrotic responses associated with the filler substances. Monopolar RF treatment levels that are typically used in the clinical setting were employed in this animal study. RF treatment resulted in measurable and statistically significant histological changes associated with the various filler materials. Additional clinical and histological studies are required to determine the optimal timing of monopolar RF treatment and filler placement for maximal potential aesthetic outcome. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Fillers in dermatology: from past to present.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Anna H

    2015-11-01

    Injectable fillers were introduced in dermatology as a method for reconstructing facial deformities and restoring the aging face. Although fillers have become a popular option among cosmetic patients, clinical experience has shown that fillers must be used with caution, as complications can occur. This article provides a brief review of the history of filler agents currently available for soft tissue augmentation. Although no single filler is ideal for all patients, indications, and situations, residents should be aware of the properties and characteristics that make each product unique.

  17. Nitroglycerin: a review of its use in the treatment of vascular occlusion after soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Kleydman, Kate; Cohen, Joel L; Marmur, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    Skin necrosis after soft tissue augmentation with dermal fillers is a rare but potentially severe complication. Nitroglycerin paste may be an important treatment option for dermal and epidermal ischemia in cosmetic surgery. To summarize the knowledge about nitroglycerin paste in cosmetic surgery and to understand its current use in the treatment of vascular compromise after soft tissue augmentation. To review the mechanism of action of nitroglycerin, examine its utility in the dermal vasculature in the setting of dermal filler-induced ischemia, and describe the facial anatomy danger zones in order to avoid vascular injury. A literature review was conducted to examine the mechanism of action of nitroglycerin, and a treatment algorithm was proposed from clinical observations to define strategies for impending facial necrosis after filler injection. Our experience with nitroglycerin paste and our review of the medical literature supports the use of nitroglycerin paste on the skin to help improve flow in the dermal vasculature because of its vasodilatory effect on small-caliber arterioles. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Soft tissue augmentation in skin of color: market growth, available fillers, and successful techniques.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Cheryl M

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, people of color have become an increasingly important market force for the cosmetics industry. Product lines have been expanded to accommodate a broader spectrum of skin colors and marketing strategies have been specialized in order to target specific ethnic populations. In addition, it is predicted that people with pigmented skin will eventually comprise a majority of the domestic and international population during the 21st century. Not surprisingly, people of color are increasingly seeking out products and procedures to fight the effects of aging, including an increase in surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures. Among nonsurgical procedures, soft tissue augmentation has experienced dramatic growth. Today, clinicians are performing more and more of these procedures in people of color. As a result of these shifts in the cosmetics industry, clinicians performing soft tissue augmentation require increased expertise in the treatment of ethnic skin. This article reviews the important differences that exist between the appearance of the aging faces of Caucasians and people of color. In addition, soft tissue augmentation strategies and injection techniques that are specific to skin of color are discussed.

  19. Fillers: from the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Glogau, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Modern medical use of injectable soft-tissue augmentation fillers has evolved from the introduction of bovine collage implants to an array of synthesized materials in the current domestic and foreign markets. The concept of augmentation has moved from simple lines, scars, and wrinkles to revolumizing the aging face. A brief overview of the past, present, and future injectable fillers is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Chang, Brian L.; Percec, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005–2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration–approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that “product customization” is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes. PMID:28018778

  1. Filler migration and extensive lesions after lip augmentation: Adverse effects of polydimethylsiloxane filler.

    PubMed

    Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Faghihi, Gita; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Saffaei, Ali

    2018-01-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also called liquid silicone, belongs to a group of polymeric compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones. These filling agents have been used as injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation. There are limited experiences about management of the severe complications related to filler migration associated with PDMS injection. We present a 35-year-old female with severe erythema, edema over her cheeks and neck, and multiple irregularities following cosmetic lip augmentation with PDMS. Further studies are required for management of this complicated case of PDMS injection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Penile Girth Enhancement With Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Soft Tissue Fillers.

    PubMed

    Casavantes, Luis; Lemperle, Gottfried; Morales, Palmira

    2016-09-01

    An unknown percentage of men will take every risk to develop a larger penis. Thus far, most injectables have caused serious problems. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres have been injected as a wrinkle filler and volumizer with increasing safety since 1989. To report on a safe and permanently effective method to enhance penile girth and length with an approved dermal filler (ie, PMMA). Since 2007, the senior author has performed penile augmentation in 752 men mainly with Metacrill, a suspension of PMMA microspheres in carboxymethyl-cellulose. The data of 729 patients and 203 completed questionnaires were evaluated statistically. The overall satisfaction rate was 8.7 on a scale of 1 to 10. After one to three injection sessions, average girth increased by 3.5 cm, or 134% (10.2 to 13.7 cm = 134.31%). Penile length also increased by weight and stretching force of the implant from an average of 9.8 to 10.5 cm. Approximately half the patients perceived some irregularities of the implant, which caused no problems. Complications occurred in 0.4%, when PMMA nodules had to be surgically removed in three of the 24% of patients who had a non-circumcised penis. After 5 years of development, penile augmentation with PMMA microspheres appears to be a natural, safe, and permanently effective method. The only complication of nodule formation and other irregularities can be overcome by an improved injection technique and better postimplantation care. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  4. Effect of Silver-Emitting Filler on Antimicrobial and Mechanical Properties of Soft Denture Lining Material

    PubMed Central

    Jabłońska-Stencel, Ewa; Pakieła, Wojciech; Mertas, Anna; Bobela, Elżbieta; Kasperski, Jacek; Chladek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Colonization of silicone-based soft lining materials by pathogenic yeast-type fungi is a common problem associated with the use of dentures. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate (SSHZP) was introduced into polydimethylsiloxane-based material as an antimicrobial filler at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% (w/w). The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy was investigated. Candida albicans was used as a characteristic representative of pathogenic oral microflora. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as the typical Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, respectively. The effect of filler addition on the Shore A hardness, tensile strength, tensile bond strength, sorption, and solubility was investigated. An increase in the filler concentration resulted in an increase in hardness, sorption, and solubility, and for the highest concentration, a decrease in bond strength. The favorable combination of antimicrobial efficacy with other properties was achieved at filler concentrations ranging from 2% to 10%. These composites exhibited mechanical properties similar to the material without the antimicrobial filler and enhanced in vitro antimicrobial efficiency. PMID:29470441

  5. Multimodal noninvasive monitoring of soft tissue wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Michael; Settle, Timothy; Royal, Joseph; Lombardini, Eric; Sawyer, Evelyn; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    Here we report results of non-invasive measurements of indirect markers of soft tissue healing of traumatic wounds in an observational swine study and describe the quantification of analog physiological signals. The primary purpose of the study was to measure bone healing of fractures with four different wound treatments. A second purpose was to quantify soft tissue wound healing by measuring the following indirect markers: (1) tissue oxygenation, (2) fluid content, and (3) blood flow, which were all measured by non-invasive modalities, measured with available devices. Tissue oxygenation was measured by near infrared spectroscopy; fluid content was measured by bipolar bio-impedance; and blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound. Immediately after comminuted femur fractures were produced in the right hind legs of thirty anesthetized female Yorkshire swine, one of four wound treatments was instilled into each wound. The four wound treatments were as follows: salmon fibrinogen/thrombin-n = 8; commercial bone filler matrix-n = 7; bovine collagen-n = 8; porcine fibrinogen/thrombin-n = 7. Fractures were stabilized with an external fixation device. Immediately following wound treatments, measurements were made of tissue oxygenation, fluid content and blood flow; these measurements were repeated weekly for 3 weeks after surgery. Analog signals of each modality were recorded on both the wounded (right) hind leg and the healthy (left) hind leg, for comparison purposes. Data were processed off-line. The mean values of 10-s periods were calculated for right-left leg comparison. ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. Results of the bone healing studies are published separately (Rothwell et al. in J Spec Oper Med 13:7-18, 2013). For soft tissue wounds, healing did not differ significantly among the four wound treatments; however, regional oxygenation of wounds treated with salmon fibrinogen/thrombin showed slightly different time trends. Further studies are

  6. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    PubMed

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  7. Soft Tissue Sarcoma—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer that starts in soft tissues like muscle, tendons, fat, lymph vessels, blood vessels, and nerves. These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Start here to find information on soft tissue sarcoma treatment and research.

  8. Soft Tissue Sarcoma—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum, or head and neck. Soft tissue sarcomas may be heterogeneous. Find evidence-based information on soft tissue sarcoma treatment and research.

  9. Soft-tissue tension total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Akiho; Wilton, Tim J

    2004-08-01

    It is far from clear how best to define the proper strength of soft-tissue tensioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We attached a torque driver to the Monogram balancer/tensor device and measured soft-tissue tension in full extension and 90 degrees flexion during TKA. In our surgical procedure, when we felt proper soft-tissue tension was being applied, the mean distraction force was noted to be 126N in extension and 121N in flexion. There was no significant correlation between soft-tissue tension and the postoperative flexion angle finally achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the actual distraction forces in relation to soft-tissue tension in TKA. Further study may reveal the most appropriate forces to achieve proper soft-tissue tension in the wide variety of circumstances presenting at knee arthroplasty.

  10. Local deformation for soft tissue simulation

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper presents a new methodology to localize the deformation range to improve the computational efficiency for soft tissue simulation. This methodology identifies the local deformation range from the stress distribution in soft tissues due to an external force. A stress estimation method is used based on elastic theory to estimate the stress in soft tissues according to a depth from the contact surface. The proposed methodology can be used with both mass-spring and finite element modeling approaches for soft tissue deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology can improve the computational efficiency while maintaining the modeling realism. PMID:27286482

  11. Development and characterization of a rapid polymerizing collagen for soft tissue augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Dale; Zhu, Jiaxun; Brooks, Robert; McCrate, Rebecca Rone; Grant, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A liquid collagen has been developed that fibrilizes upon injection. Rapid polymerizing collagen (RPC) is a type I porcine collagen that undergoes fibrillization upon interaction with ionic solutions, such as physiological solutions. The ability to inject liquid collagen would be beneficial for many soft tissue augmentation applications. In this study, RPC was synthesized and characterized as a possible dermal filler. Transmission electron microscopy, ion induced RPC fibrillogenesis tests, collagenase resistance assay, and injection force studies were performed to assess RPC's physicochemical properties. An in vivo study was performed which consisted of a 1‐, 3‐, and 6‐month study where RPC was injected into the ears of miniature swine. The results demonstrated that the liquid RPC requires low injection force (<7 N); fibrillogenesis and banding of collagen occurs when RPC is injected into ionic solutions, and RPC has enhanced resistance to collagenase breakdown. The in vivo study demonstrated long‐term biocompatibility with low irritation scores. In conclusion RPC possesses many of the desirable properties of a soft tissue augmentation material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 758–767, 2016. PMID:26488368

  12. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  13. [Soft tissue melanoma: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Frikh, Rachid; Oumakhir, Siham; Chahdi, Hafsa; Oukabli, Mohammed; Albouzidi, Abderrahmane; Baba, Noureddine; Hjira, Naoufal; Boui, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue melanoma was first described by Enzinger in 1965 under the name of clear cell sarcoma. In 1983, Chung and Enzinger renamed it soft tissue melanoma due to its immunohistochemical similarities with melanoma. We here report the case of a 22-year old young man with this rare type of melanoma, presenting with molluscoid lesion on his ankle without any clinical sign of malignancy. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of soft tissue melanoma.

  14. Fiber-reinforced scaffolds in soft tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Xiumei; Watari, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Soft tissue engineering has been developed as a new strategy for repairing damaged or diseased soft tissues and organs to overcome the limitations of current therapies. Since most of soft tissues in the human body are usually supported by collagen fibers to form a three-dimensional microstructure, fiber-reinforced scaffolds have the advantage to mimic the structure, mechanical and biological environment of natural soft tissues, which benefits for their regeneration and remodeling. This article reviews and discusses the latest research advances on design and manufacture of novel fiber-reinforced scaffolds for soft tissue repair and how fiber addition affects their structural characteristics, mechanical strength and biological activities in vitro and in vivo. In general, the concept of fiber-reinforced scaffolds with adjustable microstructures, mechanical properties and degradation rates can provide an effective platform and promising method for developing satisfactory biomechanically functional implantations for soft tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. PMID:28798872

  15. Safety of radiofrequency treatment over human skin previously injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials: a controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Alam, Murad; Levy, Ross; Pajvani, Urvi; Pavjani, Urvi; Ramierez, James A; Guitart, Joan; Veen, Heather; Gladstone, Hayes B

    2006-03-01

    Several soft-tissue augmentation materials are now available for reduction of nasolabial fold creases and perioral rhytides. Nasolabial folds and perioral rhytides can also be improved by skin tightening delivered by non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of RF treatment over skin areas recently injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. Five subjects were assigned to the experimental arm (augmentation materials plus RF) and one to the control arm (augmentation materials alone). Each subject received injections of 0.3 mL of hyaluronic acid derivative (Restylane) and calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) 3 cm apart on the upper inner arm. Two weeks later, two non-overlapping passes of RF (Thermage ThermaCool TC) were delivered at 63.5 setting with medium-fast 1.5 cm2 tip over injected sites in all of the experimental subjects. Punch skin biopsies were obtained 3 days later from each of the two injection sites on each subject. Light microscopy and digital photomicrographs obtained at low, medium, and high power showed no difference between filler materials in experimental and control subjects. In both cases filler was evident at the deep dermal-subcutaneous junction. Nodule formation, foreign body extravasation, or hemorrhage/clot was not observed grossly or histologically. Subjects and physicians did not report any difference in signs and symptoms between the experimental and control arms. Slightly increased transitory pain was noted when RF was delivered over filler versus over normal skin. Applying RF treatment over the same area 2 weeks after deep dermal injection with hyaluronic acid derivatives or calcium hydroxylapatite does not appear to cause gross morphological changes in the filler material or surrounding skin. Further studies with different parameters are necessary to confirm these findings. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Biological characterization of soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuma; Horiuchi, Akiko; Sano, Kenji; Kanai, Yae; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are neoplastic malignancies that typically arise in tissues of mesenchymal origin. The identification of novel molecular mechanisms leading to mesenchymal transformation and the establishment of new therapies and diagnostic biomarker has been hampered by several critical factors. First, malignant soft tissue sarcomas are rarely observed in the clinic with fewer than 15,000 newly cases diagnosed each year in the United States. Another complicating factor is that soft tissue sarcomas are extremely heterogeneous as they arise in a multitude of tissues from many different cell lineages. The scarcity of clinical materials coupled with its inherent heterogeneity creates a challenging experimental environment for clinicians and scientists. Faced with these challenges, there has been extremely limited advancement in clinical treatment options available to patients as compared to other malignant tumours. In order to glean insight into the pathobiology of soft tissue sarcomas, scientists are now using mouse models whose genomes have been specifically tailored to carry gene deletions, gene amplifications, and somatic mutations commonly observed in human soft tissue sarcomas. The use of these model organisms has been successful in increasing our knowledge and understanding of how alterations in relevant oncogenic and/or tumour suppressive signal cascades, i.e., interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour protein 53 (TP53) and/or retinoblastoma (RB) pathway directly impact sarcomagenesis. It is the goal of many in the physiological community that the use of several mouse models will serve as powerful in vivo tools for further understanding of sarcomagenesis and potentially identify new diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic strategies against human soft tissue sarcomas.

  17. Development of crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue augmentation using an ammonium persulfate-ascorbic acid redox system.

    PubMed

    Gold, Gittel T; Varma, Devika M; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2015-12-10

    Hydrogels composed of methylcellulose are candidate materials for soft tissue reconstruction. Although photocrosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels have shown promise for such applications, gels crosslinked using reduction-oxidation (redox) initiators may be more clinically viable. In this study, methylcellulose modified with functional methacrylate groups was polymerized using an ammonium persulfate (APS)-ascorbic acid (AA) redox initiation system to produce injectable hydrogels with tunable properties. By varying macromer concentration from 2% to 4% (w/v), the equilibrium moduli of the hydrogels ranged from 1.47 ± 0.33 to 5.31 ± 0.71 kPa, on par with human adipose tissue. Gelation time was found to conform to the ISO standard for injectable materials. Cellulase treatment resulted in complete degradation of the hydrogels within 24h, providing a reversible corrective feature. Co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts confirmed the cytocompatibility of the gels based on DNA measurements and Live/Dead imaging. Taken together, this evidence indicates that APS-AA redox-polymerized methylcellulose hydrogels possess properties beneficial for use as soft tissue fillers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  19. Development and characterization of a rapid polymerizing collagen for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Devore, Dale; Zhu, Jiaxun; Brooks, Robert; McCrate, Rebecca Rone; Grant, David A; Grant, Sheila A

    2016-03-01

    A liquid collagen has been developed that fibrilizes upon injection. Rapid polymerizing collagen (RPC) is a type I porcine collagen that undergoes fibrillization upon interaction with ionic solutions, such as physiological solutions. The ability to inject liquid collagen would be beneficial for many soft tissue augmentation applications. In this study, RPC was synthesized and characterized as a possible dermal filler. Transmission electron microscopy, ion induced RPC fibrillogenesis tests, collagenase resistance assay, and injection force studies were performed to assess RPC's physicochemical properties. An in vivo study was performed which consisted of a 1-, 3-, and 6-month study where RPC was injected into the ears of miniature swine. The results demonstrated that the liquid RPC requires low injection force (<7 N); fibrillogenesis and banding of collagen occurs when RPC is injected into ionic solutions, and RPC has enhanced resistance to collagenase breakdown. The in vivo study demonstrated long-term biocompatibility with low irritation scores. In conclusion RPC possesses many of the desirable properties of a soft tissue augmentation material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 758-767, 2016. © 2015 The authors journal of biomedical materials research part a published by wiley periodicals, inc.

  20. Rethinking the Role of Nitroglycerin Ointment in Ischemic Vascular Filler Complications: An Animal Model With ICG Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Catherine J; Morgan, Payam V; Pimentel, Aline; Sayre, James W; Goldberg, Robert A; Duckwiler, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue dermal fillers, both temporary and permanent, are used frequently in facial rejuvenation. As the use of fillers increases, ischemic complications including skin necrosis are becoming more prevalent. In the literature, topical nitroglycerin paste has been recommended in the early treatment of patients presenting with ischemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular perfusion effects of topical nitroglycerin paste in an animal model using indocyanine green (ICG) imaging. After Animal Research Committee approval, a rabbit ear model was used to create filler-associated skin ischemia. Ischemia was confirmed to occur after intra-arterial occlusion. Four commonly used soft tissue fillers were injected intra-arterially: Radiesse (Merz USA, Greensboro NC), Restylane (Galderma, Ft. Worth, TX), Juvederm Ultra (Allergan, Irvine CA), Belotero (Merz USA, Greensboro NC) (0.1 ml). A total of 15 ears were used, 1 control and 4 experimental per product. Thirty minutes after occlusion, nitroglycerin ointment USP, 2%(Nitro-Bid) was applied topically to the experimental ears. Vascular perfusion was evaluated with the SPY System (Novadaq Inc.) using ICG imaging. Perfusion images were obtained at baseline, immediately after, and 30 minutes after intra-arterial filler injection, and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after application of topical nitroglycerin ointment. In this rabbit ear model, no statistically significant improvement in perfusion was noted after topical application of nitroglycerin paste with ICG imaging. In addition, the skin of the rabbit ear post-nitroglycerin ointment appeared to have more of a congested appearance than the controls. Ischemic filler complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Practitioners often treat these complications with topical nitroglycerin paste based on the knowledge that topical nitroglycerin causes vasodilation. In filler-induced tissue ischemia, however, filler product is present within arterioles

  1. Avoiding and Treating Blindness From Fillers: A Review of the World Literature.

    PubMed

    Beleznay, Katie; Carruthers, Jean D A; Humphrey, Shannon; Jones, Derek

    2015-10-01

    As the popularity of soft tissue fillers increases, so do the reports of adverse events. The most serious complications are vascular in nature and include blindness. To review the cases of blindness after filler injection, to highlight key aspects of the vascular anatomy, and to discuss prevention and management strategies. A literature review was performed to identify all the cases of vision changes from filler in the world literature. Ninety-eight cases of vision changes from filler were identified. The sites that were high risk for complications were the glabella (38.8%), nasal region (25.5%), nasolabial fold (13.3%), and forehead (12.2%). Autologous fat (47.9%) was the most common filler type to cause this complication, followed by hyaluronic acid (23.5%). The most common symptoms were immediate vision loss and pain. Most cases of vision loss did not recover. Central nervous system complications were seen in 23.5% of the cases. No treatments were found to be consistently successful in treating blindness. Although the risk of blindness from fillers is rare, it is critical for injecting physicians to have a firm knowledge of the vascular anatomy and to understand key prevention and management strategies.

  2. Soft tissue modelling through autowaves for surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Alici, Gursel; Smith, Julian

    2006-09-01

    Modelling of soft tissue deformation is of great importance to virtual reality based surgery simulation. This paper presents a new methodology for simulation of soft tissue deformation by drawing an analogy between autowaves and soft tissue deformation. The potential energy stored in a soft tissue as a result of a deformation caused by an external force is propagated among mass points of the soft tissue by non-linear autowaves. The novelty of the methodology is that (i) autowave techniques are established to describe the potential energy distribution of a deformation for extrapolating internal forces, and (ii) non-linear materials are modelled with non-linear autowaves other than geometric non-linearity. Integration with a haptic device has been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with force feedback. The proposed methodology not only deals with large-range deformations, but also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials by simply changing diffusion coefficients.

  3. Dimensional soft tissue changes following soft tissue grafting in conjunction with implant placement or around present dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poskevicius, Lukas; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review changes in mucosal soft tissue thickness and keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting around dental implants. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE database published between 2009 and 2014. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract, and full-text levels were performed. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported changes in soft tissue thickness or keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting at implant placement or around a present implant at 6-month follow-up or longer were included. The search resulted in fourteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria: Six of them reported connective tissue grafting around present dental implants, compared to eight at the time of implant placement. Better long-term soft tissue thickness outcomes were reported for soft tissue augmentation around dental implants (0.8-1.4 mm), compared with augmentation at implant placement (-0.25-1.43 mm). Both techniques were effective in increasing keratinised tissue width: at implant placement (2.5 mm) or around present dental implants (2.33-2.57 mm). The present systematic review discovered that connective tissue grafts enhanced keratinised mucosa width and soft tissue thickness for an observation period of up to 48 months. However, some shrinkage may occur, resulting in decreases in soft tissue, mostly for the first three months. Further investigations using accurate evaluation methods need to be done to evaluate the appropriate time for grafting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Quantitative morphology in canine cutaneous soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, R; Ananiev, J; Gulubova, M

    2015-12-01

    Stained cytological specimens from 24 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas [fibrosarcoma (n = 8), liposarcoma (n = 8) and haemangiopericytoma (n = 8)], and 24 dogs with reactive connective tissue lesions [granulation tissue (n = 12) and dermal fibrosis (n = 12)] were analysed by computer-assisted nuclear morphometry. The studied morphometric parameters were: mean nuclear area (MNA; µm(2)), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP; µm), mean nuclear diameter (MND mean; µm), minimum nuclear diameter (Dmin; µm) and maximum nuclear diameter (Dmax; µm). The study aimed to evaluate (1) possibility for quantitative differentiation of soft tissue sarcomas from reactive connective tissue lesions and (2) by using cytomorphometry, to differentiate the various histopathological soft tissue sarcomas subtypes in dogs. The mean values of all nuclear cytomorphometric parameters (except for Dmax) were statistically significantly higher in reactive connective tissue processes than in soft tissue sarcomas. At the same time, however, there were no considerable differences among the different sarcoma subtypes. The results demonstrated that the quantitative differentiation of reactive connective tissue processes from soft tissue sarcomas in dogs is possible, but the same was not true for the different canine soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. Further investigations on this topic are necessary for thorough explication of the role of quantitative morphology in the diagnostics of mesenchymal neoplasms and tumour-like fibrous lesions in dogs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Studying Genes in Tissue Samples From Younger and Adolescent Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Moawia M

    2010-01-01

    Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft) to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures. PMID:23662087

  7. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-11

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  10. Modern Soft Tissue Pathology | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This book comprehensively covers modern soft tissue pathology and includes both tumors and non-neoplastic entities. Soft tissues make up a large bulk of the human body, and they are susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Many soft-tissue tumors are biologically very aggressive, and the chance of them metastasizing to vital organs is quite high. In recent years, the outlook

  11. Soft tissue wound healing at teeth, dental implants and the edentulous ridge when using barrier membranes, growth and differentiation factors and soft tissue substitutes.

    PubMed

    Vignoletti, Fabio; Nunez, Javier; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    To review the biological processes of wound healing following periodontal and periimplant plastic surgery when different technologies are used in a) the coverage of root and implant dehiscences, b) the augmentation of keratinized tissue (KT) and c) the augmentation of soft tissue volume. An electronic search from The National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE-PubMed) was performed: English articles with research focus in oral soft tissue regeneration, providing histological outcomes, either from animal experimental studies or human biopsy material were included. Barrier membranes, enamel matrix derivatives, growth factors, allogeneic and xenogeneic soft tissue substitutes have been used in soft tissue regeneration demonstrating different degrees of regeneration. In root coverage, these technologies were able to improve new attachment, although none has shown complete regeneration. In KT augmentation, tissue-engineered allogenic products and xenogeneic collagen matrixes demonstrated integration within the host connective tissue and promotion of keratinization. In soft tissue augmentation and peri-implant plastic surgery there are no histological data currently available. Soft tissue substitutes, growth differentiation factors demonstrated promising histological results in terms of soft tissue regeneration and keratinization, whereas there is a need for further studies to prove their added value in soft tissue augmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Soft-Tissue Grafting Techniques Associated With Immediate Implant Placement.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Mark; Kurtzman, Gregori M; Khan, Waji; Choukroun, Joseph; Miron, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    Immediate implant placement often presents challenges in terms of predictably obtaining soft-tissue coverage over the implant site. While delayed implant placement offers the ability for soft tissues to grow and invade the extraction socket making their attachment around implants more predictable, immediate implant placement poses a significant risk of bacterial invasion towards the implant surface as a result of insignificant soft-tissue volume. Soft-tissue grafting techniques have often been proposed for use during immediate implant placement to augment soft-tissue deficiencies, including the use of either palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) or collagen-derived scaffolds. However, both of these approaches have significant drawbacks in that CTGs are harvested with high patient morbidity and collagen scaffolds remain avascular and acelluar posing a risk of infection/implant contamination. More recently, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been proposed as an economical and biological means to speed soft-tissue wound healing. In combination with immediate implant placement, PRF offers an easily procurable low-cost regenerative modality that offers an efficient way to improve soft-tissue attachment around implants. Furthermore, the supra-physiological concentration of defense-fighting leukocytes in PRF, combined with a dense fibrin meshwork, is known to prevent early bacterial contamination of implant surfaces, and the biological concentrations of autologous growth factors in PRF is known to increase tissue regeneration. This article discusses soft-tissue grafting techniques associated with immediate implant placement, presents several cases demonstrating the use of PRF in routine immediate implant placement, and further discusses the biological and economic advantages of PRF for the management of soft-tissue grafting during immediate implant placement.

  13. Soft tissue balancing in total shoulder replacement.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is now capable of recreating near anatomic reproduction of native bony shoulder anatomy, but the function and longevity of anatomic shoulder replacement is dependent on a competent soft tissue envelope and adequate motoring of all musculo-tendinous units about the shoulder. Balancing the soft tissues requires understanding of the anatomy and pathology, as well as technical skills. The advent of reverse shoulder biomechanics has brought with it special requirements of understanding of the soft tissue elements still left in the shoulder despite major rotator cuff deficiency.

  14. Tissue Anisotropy Modeling Using Soft Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Arnab; Callaway, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissues in general exhibit anisotropic mechanical behavior, which varies in three dimensions based on the location of the tissue in the body. In the past, there have been few attempts to numerically model tissue anisotropy using composite-based formulations (involving fibers embedded within a matrix material). However, so far, tissue anisotropy has not been modeled experimentally. In the current work, novel elastomer-based soft composite materials were developed in the form of experimental test coupons, to model the macroscopic anisotropy in tissue mechanical properties. A soft elastomer matrix was fabricated, and fibers made of a stiffer elastomer material were embedded within the matrix material to generate the test coupons. The coupons were tested on a mechanical testing machine, and the resulting stress-versus-stretch responses were studied. The fiber volume fraction (FVF), fiber spacing, and orientations were varied to estimate the changes in the mechanical responses. The mechanical behavior of the soft composites was characterized using hyperelastic material models such as Mooney-Rivlin's, Humphrey's, and Veronda-Westmann's model and also compared with the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the human skin, pelvic tissues, and brain tissues. This work lays the foundation for the experimental modelling of tissue anisotropy, which combined with microscopic studies on tissues can lead to refinements in the simulation of localized fiber distribution and orientations, and enable the development of biofidelic anisotropic tissue phantom materials for various tissue engineering and testing applications.

  15. Tissue Anisotropy Modeling Using Soft Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissues in general exhibit anisotropic mechanical behavior, which varies in three dimensions based on the location of the tissue in the body. In the past, there have been few attempts to numerically model tissue anisotropy using composite-based formulations (involving fibers embedded within a matrix material). However, so far, tissue anisotropy has not been modeled experimentally. In the current work, novel elastomer-based soft composite materials were developed in the form of experimental test coupons, to model the macroscopic anisotropy in tissue mechanical properties. A soft elastomer matrix was fabricated, and fibers made of a stiffer elastomer material were embedded within the matrix material to generate the test coupons. The coupons were tested on a mechanical testing machine, and the resulting stress-versus-stretch responses were studied. The fiber volume fraction (FVF), fiber spacing, and orientations were varied to estimate the changes in the mechanical responses. The mechanical behavior of the soft composites was characterized using hyperelastic material models such as Mooney-Rivlin's, Humphrey's, and Veronda-Westmann's model and also compared with the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the human skin, pelvic tissues, and brain tissues. This work lays the foundation for the experimental modelling of tissue anisotropy, which combined with microscopic studies on tissues can lead to refinements in the simulation of localized fiber distribution and orientations, and enable the development of biofidelic anisotropic tissue phantom materials for various tissue engineering and testing applications. PMID:29853996

  16. Biomimetic 3D tissue printing for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Han, Hyun Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Engineered adipose tissue constructs that are capable of reconstructing soft tissue with adequate volume would be worthwhile in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Tissue printing offers the possibility of fabricating anatomically relevant tissue constructs by delivering suitable matrix materials and living cells. Here, we devise a biomimetic approach for printing adipose tissue constructs employing decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) matrix bioink encapsulating human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). We designed and printed precisely-defined and flexible dome-shaped structures with engineered porosity using DAT bioink that facilitated high cell viability over 2 weeks and induced expression of standard adipogenic genes without any supplemented adipogenic factors. The printed DAT constructs expressed adipogenic genes more intensely than did non-printed DAT gel. To evaluate the efficacy of our printed tissue constructs for adipose tissue regeneration, we implanted them subcutaneously in mice. The constructs did not induce chronic inflammation or cytotoxicity postimplantation, but supported positive tissue infiltration, constructive tissue remodeling, and adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that direct printing of spatially on-demand customized tissue analogs is a promising approach to soft tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the potential of polyurethane-based soft foam as cell-free scaffold for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gerges, Irini; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Martello, Federico; Recordati, Camilla; Martelli, Cristina; Ottobrini, Luisa; Tamplenizza, Mariacaterina; Guelcher, Scott A; Tocchio, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Reconstructive treatment after trauma and tumor resection would greatly benefit from an effective soft tissue regeneration. The use of cell-free scaffolds for adipose tissue regeneration in vivo is emerging as an attractive alternative to tissue-engineered constructs, since this approach avoids complications due to cell manipulation and lack of synchronous vascularization. In this study, we developed a biodegradable polyurethane-based scaffold for soft tissue regeneration, characterized by an exceptional combination between softness and resilience. Exploring the potential as a cell-free scaffold required profound understanding of the impact of its intrinsic physico-chemical properties on the biological performance in vivo. We investigated the effect of the scaffold's hydrophilic character, degradation kinetics, and internal morphology on (i) the local inflammatory response and activation of MGCs (foreign body response); (ii) its ability to promote rapid vascularisation, cell infiltration and migration through the scaffold over time; and (iii) the grade of maturation of the newly formed tissue into vascularized soft tissue in a murine model. The study revealed that soft tissue regeneration in vivo proceeded by gradual infiltration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells though the periphery toward the center of the scaffold, where the rapid formation of a functional and well-formed vascular network supported cell viability overtime. Exploring the potential of polyurethane-based soft foam as cell-free scaffold for soft tissue regeneration. In this work, we address the unmet need for synthetic functional soft tissue substitutes that provide adequate biological and mechanical support to soft tissue. We developed a series of flexible cross-linked polyurethane copolymer scaffolds with remarkable fatigue-resistance and tunable physico-chemical properties for soft tissue regeneration in vivo. Accordingly, we could extend the potential of this class of biomaterials, which was

  18. The Adjunctive Soft-Tissue Diode Laser in Orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Lasers are a relatively new addition to the orthodontist's armamentarium. This article reviews the fundamental basic science of available soft-tissue lasers, with an emphasis on diode lasers, and discusses various adjunct applications of the diode laser for soft-tissue orthodontic procedures. Diode lasers function by cutting with an initiated hot tip and produce minimal to no interaction with healthy dental hard tissue, making them suitable for soft-tissue procedures. The contact cutting mode provides enhanced bloodless site visibility and facility to perform delicate soft tissue procedures, which is important in areas with difficult access. Such adjunctive uses include laser gingivectomy to improve oral hygiene or bracket positioning, esthetic laser gingival recontouring, and laser exposure of superficially impacted teeth. Selected cases treated with a 940-nm indium-gallium-arsenide-phosphide (InGaAsP) diode laser will be presented.

  19. Successful Management of Infected Facial Filler with Brucella.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Zahra; Alsaadi, Yazeed; Mrad, Mohamed Amir

    2018-06-11

    The widespread desire to maintain youth and beauty with minimally invasive procedures made the use of soft tissue fillers an attractive option to correct numerous aesthetic problems. However, many complications have emerged recently especially with the use of non-FDA-approved permanent materials. In this case report, we are demonstrating the effective management of a patient with Brucella isolated from a facial abscess at the site of prior permanent filler injection done 17 years ago. A 56-year-old woman presented complaining of painful swelling of the right cheek after a failed trial of filler evacuation and intralesional corticosteroid injection. The patient was interviewed carefully, and physical examination was performed, followed by culture and imaging. The patient had a facial abscess that was complicated by parotid infiltration by Brucella. Eventually she was managed successfully by anti-Brucella antibiotics for 6 months with no further complaints. A review of causative organisms in the literature along with recommendations for management is discussed. Permanent fillers have shown many complications that can occur even years after injection. Therefore, physicians should be careful when using permanent fillers and should restrict their use to certain situations. Moreover, rare infections must be kept in mind and careful history, including travel history and animal contact, needs to be considered particularly in the unusual scenarios. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. New Soft Tissue Implants Using Organic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Typical biomaterials are stiff, difficult to manufacture, and not initially developed for medical implants. A new biomaterial is proposed that is similar to human soft tissue. The biomaterial provides mechanical properties similar to soft tissue in its mechanical and physical properties. Characterization is performed for modulus of elasticity, ultimate strength and wear resistance. The material further exhibits excellent biocompatibility with little toxicity and low inflammation. The material can be molded into a variety of anatomic shapes for use as a cartilage replacement, heart valve, and reconstructive implant for trauma victims. The biomaterial may be suitable for several biodevices of the future aimed at soft-tissue replacements.

  1. Next Generation Tissue Engineering of Orthopedic Soft Tissue-to-Bone Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Boys, Alexander J; McCorry, Mary Clare; Rodeo, Scott; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Estroff, Lara A

    2017-09-01

    Soft tissue-to-bone interfaces are complex structures that consist of gradients of extracellular matrix materials, cell phenotypes, and biochemical signals. These interfaces, called entheses for ligaments, tendons, and the meniscus, are crucial to joint function, transferring mechanical loads and stabilizing orthopedic joints. When injuries occur to connected soft tissue, the enthesis must be re-established to restore function, but due to structural complexity, repair has proven challenging. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution for regenerating these tissues. This prospective review discusses methodologies for tissue engineering the enthesis, outlined in three key design inputs: materials processing methods, cellular contributions, and biochemical factors.

  2. Soft Tissue Management in Facial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Tara L.; Maricevich, Renata S.

    2017-01-01

    The management of soft tissue injury after facial trauma poses unique challenges to the plastic surgeon, given the specialized nature of facial tissue and the aesthetic importance of the face. The general principles of trauma management and wound care are applied in all cases. The management of severe injuries to the face is discussed in relation to the location and the mechanism of injury. Facial transplants have arisen in the past decade for the management of catastrophic soft tissue defects, although high morbidity and mortality after these non-life-saving operations must be considered in patient selection. PMID:28496386

  3. Evidence-based knowledge on the aesthetics and maintenance of peri-implant soft tissues: Osteology Foundation Consensus Report Part 1-Effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures on the maintenance of peri-implant soft tissue health.

    PubMed

    Giannobile, William V; Jung, Ronald E; Schwarz, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The goal of Working Group 1 at the 2nd Consensus Meeting of the Osteology Foundation was to comprehensively assess the effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures on peri-implant health or disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures included a total of 10 studies (mucosal thickness: n = 6; keratinized tissue: n = 4). Consensus statements, clinical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on structured group discussions and a plenary session approval. Soft tissue grafting to increase the width of keratinized tissue around implants was associated with greater reductions in gingival and plaque indices when compared to non-augmented sites. Statistically significant differences were noted for final marginal bone levels in favor of an apically positioned flap plus autogenous graft vs. all standard-of-care control treatments investigated. Soft tissue grafting (i.e., autogenous connective tissue) to increase the mucosal thickness around implants in the aesthetic zone was associated with significantly less marginal bone loss over time, but no significant changes in bleeding on probing, probing depths, or plaque scores when compared to sites without grafting. The limited evidence available supports the use of soft tissue augmentation procedures to promote peri-implant health. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dynamic soft tissue deformation estimation based on energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Yao, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The needle placement accuracy of millimeters is required in many needle-based surgeries. The tissue deformation, especially that occurring on the surface of organ tissue, affects the needle-targeting accuracy of both manual and robotic needle insertions. It is necessary to understand the mechanism of tissue deformation during needle insertion into soft tissue. In this paper, soft tissue surface deformation is investigated on the basis of continuum mechanics, where a geometry model is presented to quantitatively approximate the volume of tissue deformation. The energy-based method is presented to the dynamic process of needle insertion into soft tissue based on continuum mechanics, and the volume of the cone is exploited to quantitatively approximate the deformation on the surface of soft tissue. The external work is converted into potential, kinetic, dissipated, and strain energies during the dynamic rigid needle-tissue interactive process. The needle insertion experimental setup, consisting of a linear actuator, force sensor, needle, tissue container, and a light, is constructed while an image-based method for measuring the depth and radius of the soft tissue surface deformations is introduced to obtain the experimental data. The relationship between the changed volume of tissue deformation and the insertion parameters is created based on the law of conservation of energy, with the volume of tissue deformation having been obtained using image-based measurements. The experiments are performed on phantom specimens, and an energy-based analytical fitted model is presented to estimate the volume of tissue deformation. The experimental results show that the energy-based analytical fitted model can predict the volume of soft tissue deformation, and the root mean squared errors of the fitting model and experimental data are 0.61 and 0.25 at the velocities 2.50 mm/s and 5.00 mm/s. The estimating parameters of the soft tissue surface deformations are proven to be useful

  5. Arthroscopic debridement for soft tissue ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S A; Rahim, F; Dowling, J; Kearns, S R

    2012-06-01

    To assess the response to treatment in patients with soft tissue impingement of the ankle managed with arthroscopic debridement. Forty-one ankle arthroscopies were performed for soft tissue impingement between April 2007 and April 2009. There were 26 men and 15 women and the mean age was 30.1 years. Arthroscopy was performed on an average of 21 months after injury. The Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VASFA) score and Meislin's criteria were used to assess the response to treatment. The mean pre-operative VASFA score was 44.5. This increased to 78.3 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). According to Meislin's criteria, there were 34 good or excellent results, five fair and two poor results. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging was useful in detecting tears of the anterior talofibular ligament and excluding osteochondral defects; however, synovitis and soft tissue impingement was under-reported. Arthroscopy is an effective method for the diagnoses and treatment of soft tissue impingement of the ankle joint. This condition is under-reported on MRI.

  6. How to use PRICE treatment for soft tissue injuries.

    PubMed

    Norton, Cormac

    2016-08-24

    Rationale and key points This article assists nurses to use the acronym PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation) to guide the treatment of patients with uncomplicated soft tissue injuries to their upper or lower limbs. » Treatment of soft tissue injuries to limbs is important to reduce complications following injury, alleviate pain and ensure normal limb function is restored promptly. » Nurses should have an understanding of the rationale and evidence base supporting PRICE treatment of soft tissue injuries. » Providing accurate information to patients and carers about the management of soft tissue injuries and anticipated recovery time is an important aspect of treatment. » Further research is required to develop best practice in the treatment of soft tissue injuries. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when managing patients with soft tissue injuries to upper or lower limbs. 2. Positive elements of your current practice and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio.

  7. Health, Maintenance, and Recovery of Soft Tissues around Implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulan; Zhang, Yufeng; Miron, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The health of peri-implant soft tissues is one of the most important aspects of osseointegration necessary for the long-term survival of dental implants. To review the process of soft tissue healing around osseointegrated implants and discuss the maintenance requirements as well as the possible short-comings of peri-implant soft tissue integration. Literature search on the process involved in osseointegration, soft tissue healing and currently available treatment modalities was performed and a brief description of each process was provided. The peri-implant interface has been shown to be less effective than natural teeth in resisting bacterial invasion because gingival fiber alignment and reduced vascular supply make it more vulnerable to subsequent peri-implant disease and future bone loss around implants. And we summarized common procedures which have been shown to be effective in preventing peri-implantitis disease progression as well as clinical techniques utilized to regenerate soft tissues with bone loss in advanced cases of peri-implantitis. Due to the difference between peri-implant interface and natural teeth, clinicians and patients should pay more attention in the maintenance and recovery of soft tissues around implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Melorheostosis with recurrent soft-tissue components: a histologically confirmed case.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shoichi; Kanda, Shotaro; Imada, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Akiyama, Toru

    2017-03-01

    Melorheostosis is a very rare disorder characterized by irregular cortical thickening seen on radiographs. In this paper, we present a case of melorheostosis with microscopically confirmed soft-tissue components. The patient was a 51-year-old man who complained of severe pain in the lateral aspect of his right knee. The excision of an ossified soft-tissue lesion relieved intractable pain that had lasted 20 years. Microscopically, the cortex of the affected fibula was composed of thick compact bone and the soft-tissue component consisted of dense compact bone without endochondral ossification. The presence of soft-tissue osseous nodules around the joints is one of the specific conditions for melorheostosis and should be differentiated from synovial chondromatosis. The ossified soft-tissue lesion in our patient is to our knowledge the first reported case of the histologically confirmed soft-tissue component of melorheostosis, which differs from that of synovial chondromatosis.

  9. Next Generation Tissue Engineering of Orthopedic Soft Tissue-to-Bone Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Boys, Alexander J.; McCorry, Mary Clare; Rodeo, Scott; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue-to-bone interfaces are complex structures that consist of gradients of extracellular matrix materials, cell phenotypes, and biochemical signals. These interfaces, called entheses for ligaments, tendons, and the meniscus, are crucial to joint function, transferring mechanical loads and stabilizing orthopedic joints. When injuries occur to connected soft tissue, the enthesis must be re-established to restore function, but due to structural complexity, repair has proven challenging. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution for regenerating these tissues. This prospective review discusses methodologies for tissue engineering the enthesis, outlined in three key design inputs: materials processing methods, cellular contributions, and biochemical factors. PMID:29333332

  10. Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2018-05-30

    Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

  11. Soft Tissue Alterations in Esthetic Postextraction Sites: A 3-Dimensional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, V; Engel, O; Shahim, K; Reyes, M; Katsaros, C; Buser, D

    2015-09-01

    Dimensional alterations of the facial soft and bone tissues following tooth extraction in the esthetic zone play an essential role to achieve successful outcomes in implant therapy. This prospective study is the first to investigate the interplay between the soft tissue dimensions and the underlying bone anatomy during an 8-wk healing period. The analysis is based on sequential 3-dimensional digital surface model superimpositions of the soft and bone tissues using digital impressions and cone beam computed tomography during an 8-wk healing period. Soft tissue thickness in thin and thick bone phenotypes at extraction was similar, averaging 0.7 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively. Interestingly, thin bone phenotypes revealed a 7-fold increase in soft tissue thickness after an 8-wk healing period, whereas in thick bone phenotypes, the soft tissue dimensions remained unchanged. The observed spontaneous soft tissue thickening in thin bone phenotypes resulted in a vertical soft tissue loss of only 1.6 mm, which concealed the underlying vertical bone resorption of 7.5 mm. Because of spontaneous soft tissue thickening, no significant differences were detected in the total tissue loss between thin and thick bone phenotypes at 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. More than 51% of these dimensional alterations occurred within 2 wk of healing. Even though the observed spontaneous soft tissue thickening in thin bone phenotypes following tooth extraction conceals the pronounced underlying bone resorption pattern by masking the true bone deficiency, spontaneous soft tissue thickening offers advantages for subsequent bone regeneration and implant therapies in sites with high esthetic demand (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02403700). © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  12. Soft Tissue Grafting Around Teeth and Implants.

    PubMed

    Deeb, George R; Deeb, Janina Golob

    2015-08-01

    The presence of healthy attached tissue at the tooth and implant soft tissue interface correlates with long-term success and stability in function and esthetics. There are several soft tissue grafting procedures that increase the volume of keratinized tissue and provide coverage on both teeth and implants. Many of these techniques can be used in conjunction with implant placement, or after placement as a means of salvage. This article describes the techniques for augmentation of keratinized tissue as well as root and implant coverage. These tools should be in the armamentarium of oral and maxillofacial surgeons providing implant services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of radiology in paediatric soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, R.; McHugh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of malignant tumours that originate from primitive mesenchymal tissue and account for 7% of all childhood tumours. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) and undifferentiated sarcomas account for approximately 50% of soft tissue sarcomas in children and non-rhabdomyomatous soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) the remainder. The prognosis and biology of STS tumours vary greatly depending on the age of the patient, the primary site, tumour size, tumour invasiveness, histologic grade, depth of invasion, and extent of disease at diagnosis. Over recent years, there has been a marked improvement in survival rates in children and adolescents with soft tissue sarcoma and ongoing international studies continue to aim to improve these survival rates whilst attempting to reduce the morbidity associated with treatment. Radiology plays a crucial role in the initial diagnosis and staging of STS, in the long term follow-up and in the assessment of many treatment related complications. We review the epidemiology, histology, clinical presentation, staging and prognosis of soft tissue sarcomas and discuss the role of radiology in their management. PMID:18442956

  14. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  15. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.; Hwang, M.; Rau, C.

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imagingmore » and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.« less

  16. Applications and Emerging Trends of Hyaluronic Acid in Tissue Engineering, as a Dermal Filler, and in Osteoarthritis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhari, Amir; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer with a variety of applications in medicine including scaffolding for tissue engineering, dermatological fillers, and viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis treatment. HA is available in most connective tissues in body fluids such as synovial fluid and the vitreous humor of the eye. HA is responsible for several structural properties of tissues as a component of extracellular matrix (ECM) and is involved in cellular signaling. Degradation of HA is a step-wise process that can occur via enzymatic or non-enzymatic reactions. A reduction in HA mass or molecular weight via degradation or slowing of synthesis affects physical and chemical properties such as tissue volume, viscosity, and elasticity. This review addresses the distribution, turnover, and tissue-specific properties of HA. This information is used as context for considering recent products and strategies for modifying the viscoelastic properties of HA in tissue engineering, as a dermal filler, and in osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:23507088

  17. Decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap matrix for engineering vascularized composite soft tissue flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qixu; Johnson, Joshua A; Dunne, Lina W; Chen, Youbai; Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Wu, Yewen; Chang, Edward I; Branch-Brooks, Cynthia D; Robb, Geoffrey L; Butler, Charles E

    2016-04-15

    Using a perfusion decellularization protocol, we developed a decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap (DSAF) comprising extracellular matrix (ECM) and intact vasculature. Our DSAF had a dominant vascular pedicle, microcirculatory vascularity, and a sensory nerve network and retained three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous structures well. DSAF, which was composed of collagen and laminin with well-preserved growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor), was successfully repopulated with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which integrated with DSAF and formed 3D aggregates and vessel-like structures in vitro. We used microsurgery techniques to re-anastomose the recellularized DSAF into nude rats. In vivo, the engineered flap construct underwent neovascularization and constructive remodeling, which was characterized by the predominant infiltration of M2 macrophages and significant adipose tissue formation at 3months postoperatively. Our results indicate that DSAF co-cultured with hASCs and HUVECs is a promising platform for vascularized soft tissue flap engineering. This platform is not limited by the flap size, as the entire construct can be immediately perfused by the recellularized vascular network following simple re-integration into the host using conventional microsurgical techniques. Significant soft tissue loss resulting from traumatic injury or tumor resection often requires surgical reconstruction using autologous soft tissue flaps. However, the limited availability of qualitative autologous flaps as well as the donor site morbidity significantly limits this approach. Engineered soft tissue flap grafts may offer a clinically relevant alternative to the autologous flap tissue. In this study, we engineered vascularized soft tissue free flap by using skin/adipose flap extracellular matrix scaffold (DSAF) in combination with multiple types of human cells. Following

  18. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region.

    PubMed

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group.

  19. Angiofibroma of soft tissue: clinicopathologic study of 2 cases of a recently characterized benign soft tissue tumor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Ke; Li, Changshui; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Yu, Jingjing; Jin, Jie; Xia, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a very recently characterized, histologically distinctive benign mesenchymal neoplasm of unknown cellular origin composed of 2 principal components, the spindle cell component and very prominent stromal vasculatures. It usually occurs in middle-aged adults, with a female predominance. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathologic details of 2 other examples of this benign tumor. Both patients were middle-aged male and presented with a slow-growing, painless mass located in the deep-seated soft tissue of thigh and left posterior neck region, respectively. Grossly, both tumors were well-demarcated, partial encapsulated of a grayish-white color with firm consistence. Histologically, one case showed morphology otherwise identical to those have been described before, whereas the other case showed in areas being more cellular than most examples of this subtype tumor had, with the lesional cells frequently exhibiting short fascicular, vaguely storiform and occasionally swirling arrangements, which posed a challenging differential diagnosis. Immunostains performed on both tumors did not confirm any specific cell differentiation with lesional cells only reactive for vimentin and focally desmin and negative for all the other markers tested. This report serves to broaden the morphologic spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tumor. Awareness of this tumor is important to prevent misdiagnosis as other more aggressive soft tissue tumor.

  20. Non-interventional 1-year follow-up study of peri-implant soft tissues following previous soft tissue augmentation and crown insertion in single-tooth gaps.

    PubMed

    Huber, Samuel; Zeltner, Marco; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E; Thoma, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    To assess peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant sites, previously augmented with a collagen matrix (VCMX) or an autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), between crown insertion and 1 year. Twenty patients with single-tooth implants received soft tissue augmentation prior to abutment connection randomly using VCMX or SCTG. Following abutment connection 3 months later, final reconstructions were fabricated and inserted (baseline). Patients were recalled at 6 months (6M) and at 1 year (FU-1). Measurements included clinical data, soft tissue thickness, volumetric outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The buccal soft tissue thickness showed a median decrease of -0.5 mm (-1.0;0.3) (VCMX) and 0.0 mm (-0.5;1.0) (SCTG) (p = .243) up to FU-1. The soft tissue volume demonstrated a median decrease between BL and FU-1 of -0.1 mm (-0.2;0.0) (p = .301) for VCMX and a significant decrease of -0.2 mm (-0.4; -0.1) (p = .002) for SCTG, respectively. Intergroup comparisons did not reveal any significant differences between the groups for peri-implant soft tissue dimensions and changes up to FU-1 (p > .05). PROMs did not show any significant changes over time nor differences between the groups. Between crown insertion and 1 year, the buccal peri-implant soft tissue dimensions remained stable without relevant differences between sites that had previously been grafted with VCMX or SCTG. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-04

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Wrinkle Fillers

    MedlinePlus

    ... A sore at the injection site Allergic reaction Necrosis (tissue death) The following rare side effects have ... injection, and do not inject dermal fillers into blood vessels in the face. Before injection, thoroughly inform the ...

  3. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Eutsler, Eric P; Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia.

  4. Regeneration of soft and hard tissue periodontal defects.

    PubMed

    Caffesse, Raúl G; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mota, Luis F

    2002-10-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets and bone loss. Although the basic treatment emphasizes the control of bacterial plaque, the clinician is confronted with the need to correct soft and/or hard tissue defects that develop as a consequence of the disease. This article reviews the current status of regenerative approaches in treating soft and hard tissue defects (based mainly on findings from our own laboratory) and assessed the global applicability of these procedures. Many different techniques have been suggested to treat those defects with, in general, a high degree of success. From the present knowledge it can be concluded that periodontal soft and hard tissue regeneration is possible. Treatment of areas with localized gingival recession or insufficient keratinized gingiva can be achieved with soft tissue grafts or pedicle flaps, as well as with the use of dermal allografts. The treatment of hard tissue defects around teeth and implants can be approached using different types of bone grafts, guided tissue or bone regeneration, or a combination of these. The predictability of many of these therapies, however, still needs to be improved. Since most of these techniques are sensitive, specific, and expensive, their present universal application is limited.

  5. Principles of definitive soft tissue coverage with flaps.

    PubMed

    Levin, L Scott

    2008-01-01

    Despite the emergence of negative pressure wound therapy with reticulated open cell foam (NPWT/ROCF) as delivered by V.A.C.(R) Therapy (KCI, San Antonio, TX) for orthopaedic trauma, vascularized tissue transfer whether it be pedicle, free, or tissue transfer using the operating microscope or as an island, remains the mainstay of soft tissue reconstruction for orthopaedic traumatology. The critisism of microvascular procedures has been that they are lengthy, costly, and required technical expertise to perform. While technical skills are required, microsurgical care has evolved into a routine operation with high degrees of success in experienced hand. The problem that still remains is access to surgeons who are interested in soft tissue reconstruction and can perform definitive coverage with flaps. There is a need in the orthopaedic community to solve the problem of lack of flap surgeons and as a result, NPWT/ROCF has been touted as the answer to flap reconstruction. NPWT/ROCF is an important addition to soft tissue reconstruction but it serves as a bridge rather than definitive coverage in many hands. Just as wound technology is evolving with tissue substitutes, growth factors and NPWT/ROCF flaps technology continues to advance with new perforator flaps and local regional flaps, particularly the sural flap, coming on line as mainstays of soft tissue reconstruction.

  6. Severe soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Lena M

    2009-09-01

    Severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) frequently require management in the ICU, in part related to associated septic shock or toxic shock syndrome or associated organ failure. Four fundamental management principles are key to a successful outcome in caring for patients who have severe SSTIs, including (1) early diagnosis and differentiation of necrotizing versus nonnecrotizing SSTI, (2) early initiation of appropriate empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy with consideration of risk factors for specific pathogens and mandatory coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), (3) source control (ie, early aggressive surgical intervention for drainage of abscesses and debridement of necrotizing soft tissue infections), and (4) pathogen identification and appropriate de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy. MRSA has emerged as the most common identifiable cause of severe SSTIs; therefore, initiation of empiric anti-MRSA antimicrobials is warranted in all cases of severe SSTIs. In addition, appropriate critical care management-including fluid resuscitation, organ support and nutritional support-is a necessary component in treating severe SSTIs.

  7. [Reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects with pedicled expanded flaps].

    PubMed

    Yangqun, Li; Yong, Tang; Wen, Chen; Zhe, Yang; Muxin, Zhao; Lisi, Xu; Chunmei, Hu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Ning, Ma; Jun, Feng; Weixin, Wang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the application of pedicled expanded flaps for the reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects. The expanded skin flaps, pedicled with orbicularis oculi muscle, submental artery, the branch of facial artery, superficial temporal artery, interior upper arm artery, had similar texture and color as facial soft tissue. The pedicled expanded flaps have repaired the facial soft tissue defects. Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2013, 157 cases with facial soft tissue defects were reconstructed by pedicled expanded flaps. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 8 expanded flaps, pedicled with interior upper arm artery(4 cases), orbicularis oculi muscle(3 cases) and submental artery(1 case), which healed spontaneously after dressing. All the other flaps survived completely with similar color and inconspicuous scar. 112 cases were followed up for 8 months to 8 years. Satisfactory results were achieved in 75 cases. 37 cases with hypertrophic scar at incisions need secondary operation. Island pedicled expanded flap with similar texture and color as facial soft tissue is suitable for facial soft tissue defects. The facial extra-incision and large dog-ear deformity could be avoided.

  8. Soft Tissue Regeneration Incorporating 3-Dimensional Biomimetic Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav; Costello, Bernard J

    2017-02-01

    Soft tissue replacement and repair is crucial to the ever-developing field of reconstructive surgery as trauma, pathology, and congenital deficits cannot be adequately restored if soft tissue regeneration is deficient. Predominant approaches were sometimes limited to harvesting autografts, but through regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, the hope of fabricating custom constructs is now a feasible and fast-approaching reality. The breadth of this field includes tissues ranging from skin, mucosa, muscle, and fat and hopes to not only provide construct to replace a tissue but also to replace its function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. Materials and Method: In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p< 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Conclusion: Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group. PMID:28620632

  10. Facial soft tissue thickness in skeletal type I Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Deguchi, Toshio; Umemura, Yasunobu; Yoshino, Mineo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2007-10-25

    Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology require knowledge of the facial soft tissue thickness of each race if facial features are to be reconstructed correctly. If this is inaccurate, so also will be the reconstructed face. Knowledge of differences by age and sex are also required. Therefore, when unknown human skeletal remains are found, the forensic anthropologist investigates for race, sex, and age, and for other variables of relevance. Cephalometric X-ray images of living persons can help to provide this information. They give an approximately 10% enlargement from true size and can demonstrate the relationship between soft and hard tissue. In the present study, facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese children was measured at 12 anthropological points using X-ray cephalometry in order to establish a database for facial soft tissue thickness. This study of both boys and girls, aged from 6 to 18 years, follows a previous study of Japanese female children only, and focuses on facial soft tissue thickness in only one skeletal type. Sex differences in thickness of tissue were found from 12 years of age upwards. The study provides more detailed and accurate measurements than past reports of facial soft tissue thickness, and reveals the uniqueness of the Japanese child's facial profile.

  11. Soft Tissue Tumours of the Retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Van Roggen, J. Frans Graadt

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. This review summarizes the more prevalent soft tissue tumours arising in the retroperitoneum and highlights some recent fundamental and diagnostic developments relevant to mesenchymal tumours. Discussion. The retroperitoneum is an underestimated site for benign and malignant neoplastic disease, and represents the second most common site of origin of primary malignant soft tissue tumours (sarcomas) after the deep tissues of the lower extremity. In contrast to the predominance of benign soft tissue lesions over malignant sarcomas elsewhere, retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions are far more likely to be malignant. The differential diagnosis is primarily with the more common lymphoproliferative and parenchymatous epithelial lesions arising in this area, and with metastatic disease from known or unknown primary sites elsewhere.The most prevalent mesenchymal tumours at this site are of a lipomatous, myogenic or neural nature.Their generally late clinical presentation and poorly accessible location provides numerous clinical challenges; optimal radiological imaging and a properly performed biopsy are essential cogs in the management route. Histopathological diagnosis may be complicated, but has been aided by developments in the fields of immunohistochemistry and tumour (cyto)genetics. Despite significant advances in oncological management protocols, the prognosis remains generally less favourable than for similar tumours at more accessible sites. PMID:18521430

  12. Microscopic and ultrastructural evidences in human skin following calcium hydroxylapatite filler treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; D'Este, Edoardo; Parodi, Pier Camillo; Calligaro, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    This study uses light and electron microscopes to gain a better knowledge of the interactions of calcium hydroxylapatite filler with the connective tissue of the skin and the modifications of the human deep dermis, after 2 months of treatment. Some morphological evidences of this observational study of filler treated tissue support-specific mechanism involved in the structural modifications of both filler microspherules and cells of the connective tissue. They demonstrate the absence of any immunological reaction and show that the used filler is modified very slowly over time by the action of cells of the connective tissue closely related to the filler without any activity of phagocytosis. Furthermore, associated with the modifications of the filler, evidences of stimulatory effects on dermal fibroblasts are reported.

  13. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  14. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Hematological and Chemical Abnormalities in Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Comparative Study in Patients with Benign and Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Takashi; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ogose, Akira; Sasaki, Taro; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Morita, Tetsuro; Endo, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    The value of routine blood tests in malignant soft tissue tumors remains uncertain. To determine if these tests can be used for screening, the routine pretreatment blood test findings were retrospectively investigated in 359 patients with benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Additionally, the prognostic potential of pretreatment blood abnormalities was evaluated in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. We compared clinical factors and blood tests findings between patients with benign and malignant soft tissue tumors using univariate and multivariate analysis. Subsequently, patients with malignant tumors were divided into two groups based on blood test reference values, and the prognostic significance of each parameter was evaluated. In the univariate analysis, age, tumor size, and tumor depth were significant clinical diagnostic factors. Significant increases in the granulocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels were found in patients with malignant soft tissue tumors. Multiple logistic regression showed that tumor size and ESR were independent factors that predicted malignant soft tissue tumors. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that granulocyte counts, γ-GTP levels, and CRP levels correlated significantly with overall survival. Thus, pretreatment routine blood tests are useful diagnostic and prognostic markers for diagnosing soft tissue sarcoma. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  15. Soft tissues store and return mechanical energy in human running.

    PubMed

    Riddick, R C; Kuo, A D

    2016-02-08

    During human running, softer parts of the body may deform under load and dissipate mechanical energy. Although tissues such as the heel pad have been characterized individually, the aggregate work performed by all soft tissues during running is unknown. We therefore estimated the work performed by soft tissues (N=8 healthy adults) at running speeds ranging 2-5 m s(-1), computed as the difference between joint work performed on rigid segments, and whole-body estimates of work performed on the (non-rigid) body center of mass (COM) and peripheral to the COM. Soft tissues performed aggregate negative work, with magnitude increasing linearly with speed. The amount was about -19 J per stance phase at a nominal 3 m s(-1), accounting for more than 25% of stance phase negative work performed by the entire body. Fluctuations in soft tissue mechanical power over time resembled a damped oscillation starting at ground contact, with peak negative power comparable to that for the knee joint (about -500 W). Even the positive work from soft tissue rebound was significant, about 13 J per stance phase (about 17% of the positive work of the entire body). Assuming that the net dissipative work is offset by an equal amount of active, positive muscle work performed at 25% efficiency, soft tissue dissipation could account for about 29% of the net metabolic expenditure for running at 5 m s(-1). During running, soft tissue deformations dissipate mechanical energy that must be offset by active muscle work at non-negligible metabolic cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diode laser soft-tissue surgery: advancements aimed at consistent cutting, improved clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-01-01

    Laser dentistry and soft-tissue surgery, in particular, have become widely adopted in recent years. Significant cost reductions for dental lasers and the increasing popularity of CADCAM, among other factors, have contributed to a substantial increase in the installed base of dental lasers, especially soft-tissue lasers. New development in soft-tissue surgery, based on the modern understanding of laser-tissue interactions and contact soft-tissue surgery mechanisms, will bring a higher quality and consistency level to laser soft-tissue surgery. Recently introduced diode-laser technology enables enhanced control of side effects that result from tissue overheating and may improve soft-tissue surgical outcomes.

  17. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood soft tissue sarcoma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, observation, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and other medications.  Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of the many types of childhood soft tissue sarcoma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Management of facial soft tissue injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Vasconez, Henry C; Buseman, Jason L; Cunningham, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Pediatric facial trauma can present a challenge to even the more experienced plastic surgeon. Injuries to the head and neck may involve bone and soft tissues with an assortment of specialized organs and tissue elements involved. Because of the active nature of children, facial soft tissue injuries can be diverse and extensive as well as some of the more common injuries a plastic surgeon is asked to treat. In 2007, approximately 800,000 patients younger than 15 years presented to emergency departments around the country with significant open wounds of the head that required treatment.In this review, we present the different types and regions of pediatric soft tissue facial trauma, as well as treatment options and goals of plastic surgery wound management. Special aspects, such as bite wounds, burns, pediatric analgesia, and antibiotic therapy, are also discussed.

  19. Angiofibroma of soft tissue: clinicopathologic study of 2 cases of a recently characterized benign soft tissue tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Ke; Li, Changshui; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Yu, Jingjing; Jin, Jie; Xia, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a very recently characterized, histologically distinctive benign mesenchymal neoplasm of unknown cellular origin composed of 2 principal components, the spindle cell component and very prominent stromal vasculatures. It usually occurs in middle-aged adults, with a female predominance. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathologic details of 2 other examples of this benign tumor. Both patients were middle-aged male and presented with a slow-growing, painless mass located in the deep-seated soft tissue of thigh and left posterior neck region, respectively. Grossly, both tumors were well-demarcated, partial encapsulated of a grayish-white color with firm consistence. Histologically, one case showed morphology otherwise identical to those have been described before, whereas the other case showed in areas being more cellular than most examples of this subtype tumor had, with the lesional cells frequently exhibiting short fascicular, vaguely storiform and occasionally swirling arrangements, which posed a challenging differential diagnosis. Immunostains performed on both tumors did not confirm any specific cell differentiation with lesional cells only reactive for vimentin and focally desmin and negative for all the other markers tested. This report serves to broaden the morphologic spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tumor. Awareness of this tumor is important to prevent misdiagnosis as other more aggressive soft tissue tumor. PMID:24133600

  20. Hybrid Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Colloidal Gels are Injectable Fillers for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Jamal, Syed; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Injectable bone fillers have emerged as an alternative to the invasive surgery often required to treat bone defects. Current bone fillers may benefit from improvements in dynamic properties such as shear thinning during injection and recovery of material stiffness after placement. Negatively charged inorganic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled with positively charged organic poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs to create a cohesive colloidal gel. This material is held together by electrostatic forces that may be disrupted by shear to facilitate extrusion, molding, or injection. Scanning electron micrographs of the dried colloidal gels showed a well-organized, three-dimensional porous structure. Rheology tests revealed that certain colloidal gels could recover after being sheared. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were also highly viable when seeded on the colloidal gels. HAp/PLGA NP colloidal gels offer an attractive scheme for injectable filling and regeneration of bone tissue. PMID:23815275

  1. Functional Attachment of Soft Tissues to Bone: Development, Healing, and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Helen H.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissues such as tendons or ligaments attach to bone across a multitissue interface with spatial gradients in composition, structure, and mechanical properties. These gradients minimize stress concentrations and mediate load transfer between the soft and hard tissues. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries and the lack of integrative solutions for their repair, interface regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge. This review begins with a description of the developmental processes and the resultant structure-function relationships that translate into the functional grading necessary for stress transfer between soft tissue and bone. It then discusses the interface healing response, with a focus on the influence of mechanical loading and the role of cell-cell interactions. The review continues with a description of current efforts in interface tissue engineering, highlighting key strategies for the regeneration of the soft tissue–to-bone interface, and concludes with a summary of challenges and future directions. PMID:23642244

  2. Common Soft Tissue Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Matthew J; Hildebrand, Bernard A; Battafarano, Monica M; Battafarano, Daniel F

    2018-06-01

    Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain disorders are common in the primary care setting. Early recognition and diagnosis of these syndromes minimizes patient pain and disability. This article gives a brief overview of the most common soft tissue musculoskeletal pain syndromes. The authors used a regional approach to organize the material, as providers will encounter these syndromes with complaints of pain referring to an anatomic location. The covered disorders include myofascial pain syndrome, rotator cuff tendinopathy, bicipital tendinopathy, subacromial bursitis, olecranon bursitis, epicondylitis, De Quervain disease, trigger finger, trochanteric bursitis, knee bursitis, pes anserine bursitis, Baker cyst, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendinopathy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Tissue Expansion Using Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Single-Stage Ear Reconstruction: A Novel Concept for Difficult Areas.

    PubMed

    Inbal, Amir; Lemelman, Benjamin T; Millet, Eran; Greensmith, Andrew

    2017-10-16

    Auricular reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery. An adequate skin envelope is essential for cartilage framework coverage, yet few good options exist without additional surgery. We propose a novel method for minimally invasive tissue expansion, using hyaluronic acid (HA) filler to allow for single-stage ear reconstruction. To introduce the novel concept of HA filler for tissue expansion in ear reconstruction, and as an alternative to traditional expansion techniques. Macrolane is a large particle HA gel developed for large volume restoration. Expansion of the non-hair-bearing mastoid skin was performed in our clinic weekly or every other week. Final expansion was completed one week prior to reconstructive surgery. Tissue from one patient's expanded pocket was sent for histological analysis. Ten patients underwent single-stage auricular reconstruction with preoperative expansion. Injection sessions ranged from 7 to 13 (mean, 9.7). Mean injected volume per session was 2.03 mL per patient, for an average total of 19.8 mL (range, 14.5-30 mL). There were no major complications. One minor complication required removal of exposed wire from the antihelix in the office. Hematoxylin and eosin stain revealed similar histology to that seen with traditional expanders. This novel expansion technique using serial HA injections allowed for optimized skin coverage in single-stage ear reconstruction. The concept of tissue expansion using HA filler is a new frontier for research that may be applicable to other arenas of reconstruction. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  5. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors that originate from primitive mesenchymal tissue and account for 7% of all childhood tumors. Get detailed information about clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent soft tissue sarcoma in this summary for clinicians.

  6. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  7. Soft-tissue reactions following irradiation of primary brain and pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, R.J.; Marks, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    One hundred and ninety-nine patients who received radiation therapy for a primary brain or pituitary tumor were studied for radiation-induced soft-tissue reactions of the cranium, scalp, ears and jaw. The frequency of these reactions was studied as a function of: the radiation dose 5 mm below the skin surface, dose distribution, field size and fraction size. Forty percent of patients had complete and permanent epilation, while 21% had some other soft-tissue complication, including: scalp swelling-6%, external otitis-6%, otitis media-5%, ear swelling-4%, etc. The frequency of soft-tissue reactions correlates directly with the radiation dose at 5 mm below the skin surface.more » Patients treated with small portals (<70 cm/sup 2/) had few soft-tissue reactions. The dose to superficial tissues, and hence the frequency of soft-tissue reactions can be reduced by: (1) using high-energy megavoltage beams; (2) using equal loading of beams; and (3) possibly avoiding the use of electron beams.« less

  8. Improved Rubin-Bodner Model for the Prediction of Soft Tissue Deformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangming; Xia, James J.; Liebschner, Michael; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    In craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery, a reliable way of simulating the soft tissue deformation resulted from skeletal reconstruction is vitally important for preventing the risks of facial distortion postoperatively. However, it is difficult to simulate the soft tissue behaviors affected by different types of CMF surgery. This study presents an integrated bio-mechanical and statistical learning model to improve accuracy and reliability of predictions on soft facial tissue behavior. The Rubin-Bodner (RB) model is initially used to describe the biomechanical behavior of the soft facial tissue. Subsequently, a finite element model (FEM) computers the stress of each node in soft facial tissue mesh data resulted from bone displacement. Next, the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) method is implemented to obtain the relationship between the facial soft tissue deformation and the stress distribution corresponding to different CMF surgical types and to improve evaluation of elastic parameters included in the RB model. Therefore, the soft facial tissue deformation can be predicted by biomechanical properties and statistical model. Leave-one-out cross-validation is used on eleven patients. As a result, the average prediction error of our model (0.7035mm) is lower than those resulting from other approaches. It also demonstrates that the more accurate bio-mechanical information the model has, the better prediction performance it could achieve. PMID:27717593

  9. Late revision or correction of facial trauma-related soft-tissue deformities.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Kevin L; Fillmore, W Jonathan; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2013-11-01

    Surgical approaches used in accessing the facial skeleton for fracture repair are often the same as or similar to those used for cosmetic enhancement of the face. Rarely does facial trauma result in injuries that do not in some way affect the facial soft-tissue envelope either directly or as sequelae of the surgical repair. Knowledge of both skeletal and facial soft-tissue anatomy is paramount to successful clinical outcomes. Facial soft-tissue deformities can arise that require specific evaluation and management for correction. This article focuses on revision and correction of these soft-tissue-related injuries secondary to facial trauma. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Utilization of robotic-arm assisted total knee arthroplasty for soft tissue protection.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Assem A; Piuzzi, Nicolas; Khlopas, Anton; Chughtai, Morad; Sodhi, Nipun; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-established success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), iatrogenic ligamentous and soft tissue injuries are infrequent, but potential complications that can have devastating impact on clinical outcomes. These injuries are often related to technical errors and excessive soft tissue manipulation, particularly during bony resections. Recently, robotic-arm assisted TKA was introduced and demonstrated promising results with potential technical advantages over manual surgery in implant positioning and mechanical accuracy. Furthermore, soft tissue protection is an additional potential advantage offered by these systems that can reduce inadvertent human technical errors encountered during standard manual resections. Therefore, due to the relative paucity of literature, we attempted to answer the following questions: 1) does robotic-arm assisted TKA offer a technical advantage that allows enhanced soft tissue protection? 2) What is the available evidence about soft tissue protection? Recently introduced models of robotic-arm assisted TKA systems with advanced technology showed promising clinical outcomes and soft tissue protection in the short- and mid-term follow-up with results comparable or superior to manual TKA. In this review, we attempted to explore this dimension of robotics in TKA and investigate the soft tissue related complications currently reported in the literature.

  11. Soft tissue wound healing around teeth and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Sculean, Anton; Gruber, Reinhard; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2014-04-01

    To provide an overview on the biology and soft tissue wound healing around teeth and dental implants. This narrative review focuses on cell biology and histology of soft tissue wounds around natural teeth and dental implants. The available data indicate that: (a) Oral wounds follow a similar pattern. (b) The tissue specificities of the gingival, alveolar and palatal mucosa appear to be innately and not necessarily functionally determined. (c) The granulation tissue originating from the periodontal ligament or from connective tissue originally covered by keratinized epithelium has the potential to induce keratinization. However, it also appears that deep palatal connective tissue may not have the same potential to induce keratinization as the palatal connective tissue originating from an immediately subepithelial area. (d) Epithelial healing following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy appears to be completed after a period of 7–14 days. Structural integrity of a maturing wound between a denuded root surface and a soft tissue flap is achieved at approximately 14-days post-surgery. (e) The formation of the biological width and maturation of the barrier function around transmucosal implants requires 6–8 weeks of healing. (f) The established peri-implant soft connective tissue resembles a scar tissue in composition, fibre orientation, and vasculature. (g) The peri-implant junctional epithelium may reach a greater final length under certain conditions such as implants placed into fresh extraction sockets versus conventional implant procedures in healed sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Influence of Abutment Color and Mucosal Thickness on Soft Tissue Color.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marco; Carrabba, Michele; Vichi, Alessandro; Goracci, Cecilia; Cagidiaco, Maria Crysanti

    Zirconia (ZrO₂) and titanium nitride (TiN) implant abutments were introduced mainly for esthetic purposes, as titanium's gray color can be visible through mucosal tissues. This study was aimed at assessing whether ZrO₂ and TiN abutments could achieve better esthetics in comparison with titanium (Ti) abutments, regarding the appearance of soft tissues. Ninety patients were included in the study. Each patient was provided with an implant (OsseoSpeed, Dentsply Implant System). A two-stage surgical technique was performed. Six months later, surgical reentry was performed. After 1 week, provisional restorations were screwed onto the implants. After 8 weeks, implant-level impressions were taken and soft tissue thickness was recorded, ranking thin (≤ 2 mm) or thick (≥ 2 mm). Patients were randomly allocated to three experimental groups, based on abutment type: (1) Ti, (2) TiN, and (3) ZrO₂. After 15 weeks, the final restorations were delivered. The mucosal area referring to each abutment was measured for color using a clinical spectrophotometer (Easyshade, VITA); color measurements of the contralateral areas referring to natural teeth were performed at the same time. The data were collected using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color system, and ΔE was calculated between peri-implant and contralateral soft tissues. A critical threshold of ΔE = 3.7 was selected. The chi-square test was used to identify statistically significant differences in ΔE between thin and thick mucosal tissues and among the abutment types. Three patients were lost at follow-up. No statistically significant differences were noticed as to the abutment type (P = .966). Statistically significant differences in ΔE were recorded between thick and thin peri-implant soft tissues (P < .001). Only 2 out of 64 patients with thick soft tissues showed a ΔE higher than 3.7: 1 in the TiN group and 1 in the ZrO₂ group. All the patients with thin soft tissues reported color

  13. Diode laser application in soft tissue oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery.

  14. Diode Laser Application in Soft Tissue Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Discussion: Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. Conclusion: The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery PMID:25606331

  15. Epidemiologic study of soft tissue rheumatism in Shantou and Taiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-yu; Zang, Chang-hai; Lin, Ling; Chen, Su-biao; Li, Xiao-feng; Xiao, Zheng-yu; Dong, Hai-yuan; Zhang, Ai-lian; Chen, Ren

    2010-08-05

    Soft tissue rheumatism is a group of common rheumatic disorders reported in many countries. For investigating the prevalence rate of soft tissue rheumatism in different population in China, we carried out a population study in Shantou rural and Taiyuan urban area. Samples of 3915 adults in an urban area of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and 2350 in a rural area of Shantou, Guangdong Province were surveyed. Modified International League of Association for Rheumatology (ILAR)-Asia Pacific League of Association for Rheumatology (APLAR) Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire was implemented as screening tool. The positive responders were then all examined by rheumatologists. Prevalence rate of soft tissue rheumatism was 2.0% in Taiyuan, and 5.3% in Shantou. Rotator cuff (shoulder) tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and digital flexor tenosynovitis (trigger finger) were the commonly seen soft tissue rheumatism in both areas. Tatarsalgia, plantar fasciitis, and De Quervain's tenosynovitis were more commonly seen in Shantou than that in Taiyuan. Only 1 case of fibromyalgia was found in Taiyuan and 2 cases in Shantou. The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism varied with age, sex and occupation. Soft tissue rheumatism is common in Taiyuan and Shantou, China. The prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism was quite different with different geographic, environmental, and socioeconomic conditions; and varying with age, sex, and occupation. The prevalence of fibromyalgia is low in the present survey.

  16. Soft tissue coverage of the elbow in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Reddy, Kartheek K; Higgs, Matthew

    2007-09-01

    Two cases that required soft tissue coverage to the anterior aspect of the elbow are presented. A fasciocutaneous intercostal perforator chest wall flap was used for one patient when only skin and fascia coverage was required. A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used to provide soft tissue coverage and supply motor power for elbow flexion after contracture release in the other. The surgical techniques for each of these flaps are discussed in the context of addressing soft tissue traumatic injuries about the elbow in a developing country with limited resources.

  17. Finite element dynamic analysis of soft tissues using state-space model.

    PubMed

    Iorga, Lucian N; Shan, Baoxiang; Pelegri, Assimina A

    2009-04-01

    A finite element (FE) model is employed to investigate the dynamic response of soft tissues under external excitations, particularly corresponding to the case of harmonic motion imaging. A solid 3D mixed 'u-p' element S8P0 is implemented to capture the near-incompressibility inherent in soft tissues. Two important aspects in structural modelling of these tissues are studied; these are the influence of viscous damping on the dynamic response and, following FE-modelling, a developed state-space formulation that valuates the efficiency of several order reduction methods. It is illustrated that the order of the mathematical model can be significantly reduced, while preserving the accuracy of the observed system dynamics. Thus, the reduced-order state-space representation of soft tissues for general dynamic analysis significantly reduces the computational cost and provides a unitary framework for the 'forward' simulation and 'inverse' estimation of soft tissues. Moreover, the results suggest that damping in soft-tissue is significant, effectively cancelling the contribution of all but the first few vibration modes.

  18. Mechanical verification of soft-tissue attachment on bioactive glasses and titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Desheng; Moritz, Niko; Vedel, Erik; Hupa, Leena; Aro, Hannu T

    2008-07-01

    Soft-tissue attachment is a desired feature of many clinical biomaterials. The aim of the current study was to design a suitable experimental method for tensile testing of implant incorporation with soft-tissues. Conical implants were made of three compositions of bioactive glass (SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-B(2)O(3)-Na(2)O-K(2)O-CaO-MgO) or titanium fiber mesh (porosity 84.7%). The implants were surgically inserted into the dorsal subcutaneous soft-tissue or back muscles in the rat. Soft-tissue attachment was evaluated by pull-out testing using a custom-made jig 8 weeks after implantation. Titanium fiber mesh implants had developed a relatively high pull-out force in subcutaneous tissue (12.33+/-5.29 N, mean+/-SD) and also measurable attachment with muscle tissue (2.46+/-1.33 N). The bioactive glass implants failed to show mechanically relevant soft-tissue bonding. The experimental set-up of mechanical testing seems to be feasible for verification studies of soft-tissue attachment. The inexpensive small animal model is beneficial for large-scale in vivo screening of new biomaterials.

  19. Containment-enhanced Ho:YAG photofragmentation of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christens-Barry, William A.; Guarnieri, Michael; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surgery of soft tissue can exploit the power of brief, intense pulses of light to cause localized disruption of tissue with minimal effect upon surrounding tissue. In particular, studies of Ho:YAG laser surgery have shown that the effects of cavitation upon tissues and bone depend upon the physical composition of structures in the vicinity of the surgical site. For photofragmentation of occluding structures within catheters and other implant devices, it is possible to exploit the particular geometry of the catheter to amplify the effects of photofragmentation beyond those seen in bulk tissue. A Ho:YAG laser was used to photofragment occlusive material (tissue and tissue analogs) contained in glass capillary tubing and catheter tubing of the kind used in ventricular shunt implants for the management of hydrocephalus. Occluded catheters obtained from patient explants were also employed. Selection of operational parameters used in photoablation and photofragmentation of soft tissue must consider the physical composition and geometry of the treatment site. In the present case, containment of the soft tissue within relatively inelastic catheters dramatically alters the extent of photofragmentation relative to bulk (unconstrained) material. Our results indicate that the disruptive effect of cavitation bubbles is increased in catheters, due to the rapid displacement of material by cavitation bubbles comparable in size to the inner diameter of the catheter. The cylindrical geometry of the catheter lumen may additionally influence the propagation of acoustic shock waves that result from the collapse of the condensing cavitation bubbles.

  20. A multi-physics model for ultrasonically activated soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Suvranu De, Rahul

    2017-02-01

    A multi-physics model has been developed to investigate the effects of cellular level mechanisms on the thermomechanical response of ultrasonically activated soft tissue. Cellular level cavitation effects have been incorporated in the tissue level continuum model to accurately determine the thermodynamic states such as temperature and pressure. A viscoelastic material model is assumed for the macromechanical response of the tissue. The cavitation model based equation-of-state provides the additional pressure arising from evaporation of intracellular and cellular water by absorbing heat due to structural and viscoelastic heating in the tissue, and temperature to the continuum level thermomechanical model. The thermomechanical response of soft tissue is studied for the operational range of frequencies of oscillations and applied loads for typical ultrasonically activated surgical instruments. The model is shown to capture characteristics of ultrasonically activated soft tissue deformation and temperature evolution. At the cellular level, evaporation of water below the boiling temperature under ambient conditions is indicative of protein denaturation around the temperature threshold for coagulation of tissues. Further, with increasing operating frequency (or loading), the temperature rises faster leading to rapid evaporation of tissue cavity water, which may lead to accelerated protein denaturation and coagulation.

  1. A Novel Esthetic Approach using Connective Tissue Graft for Soft Tissue Defect Following Surgical Excision of Gingival Fibrolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Harinath; Kumar, Praveenkrishna; Gajendran, Priyalochana; Appukuttan, Devapriya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to evaluate the adjunctive use of a connective tissue graft to overcome soft tissue defects following excision of a gingival fibrolipoma in the aesthetic region. Connective tissue graft has been well documented for treating defects of esthetic concern. However, the literature does not contain many reports on the esthetic clinical outcome following the use of connective tissue graft secondary to excision of soft tissue tumours. A 28-year-old male patient reported with a complaint of a recurrent growth in relation to his lower front tooth region. The lesion which was provisionally diagnosed as fibroma was treated with a complete surgical excision, following which a modified coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft was adopted to overcome the soft tissue defect. The excised growth was diagnosed histologically as fibrolipoma. One year follow up showed no recurrence of the lesion and good esthetics.The adjunctive use of the connective tissue graft and modified coronally advanced flap predictably yields optimal soft tissue fill and excellent esthetics. Hence, routine use of this procedure may be recommended for surgical excision of soft tissue growths in esthetically sensitive areas. PMID:25584336

  2. Depsipeptide (Romidepsin) in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-18

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  3. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J N; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-07-12

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  4. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J. N.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  5. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  6. Soft tissue sealing around dental implants based on histological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Atsuta, Ikiru; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Kondo, Ryosuke; Oshiro, Wakana; Matsuura, Yuri; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview on the biology and soft tissue sealing around dental implants and teeth. This is a narrative review performed through scientific articles published between 1977 and 2014, indexed in MEDLINE and PubMed databases. The study selected articles that focused on epithelial sealing around dental implant or teeth with cell biology and histology of soft tissue. Implant therapy has been widely applied in dental rehabilitation for many years, with predictable long-term results. The longevity and functionality of dental implants is dependent on both osseointegration around the implant body and the establishment of a soft tissue barrier that protects the underlying hard tissue structures and the implant itself. The health and stability of the peri-implant mucosa also affects the esthetics of the implant. The healing and maintenance of the epithelial and connective tissues around implants are increasingly recognized as being fundamental to implant success. However, there has been little research into the function or formation of the soft tissue seal around dental implants, and the roles of this unique mucosal interface remain unclear. This narrative review explores the extent of the current knowledge of soft tissue barriers around implants from both a basic and clinical perspective, and aims to consolidate this knowledge and highlight the most pertinent questions relating to this area of research. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors utilizing ultrasound parameters.

    PubMed

    Morii, Takeshi; Kishino, Tomonori; Shimamori, Naoko; Motohashi, Mitsue; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Honya, Keita; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Tajima, Takashi; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors is critical for the prevention of excess application of magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy as well as unplanned resection. Although ultrasound, including power Doppler imaging, is an easy, noninvasive, and cost-effective modality for screening soft tissue tumors, few studies have investigated reliable discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. To establish a modality for discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors using ultrasound, we extracted the significant risk factors for malignancy based on ultrasound information from 40 malignant and 56 benign pathologically diagnosed soft tissue tumors and established a scoring system based on these risk factors. The maximum size, tumor margin, and vascularity evaluated using ultrasound were extracted as significant risk factors. Using the odds ratio from a multivariate regression model, a scoring system was established. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed a high area under the curve value (0.85), confirming the accuracy of the scoring system. Ultrasound is a useful modality for establishing the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

  8. Long-term stability of peri-implant tissues after bone or soft tissue augmentation. Effect of zirconia or titanium abutments on peri-implant soft tissues. Summary and consensus statements. The 4th EAO Consensus Conference 2015.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Alberto; Quirynen, Marc; Fontolliet, Alain; Francisco, Helena; Friedman, Anton; Linkevicius, Tomas; Lutz, Rainer; Meijer, Henny J; Rompen, Eric; Rotundo, Roberto; Schwarz, Frank; Simion, Massimo; Teughels, Wim; Wennerberg, Ann; Zuhr, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Several surgical techniques and prosthetic devices have been developed in the last decades, aiming to improve aesthetic, hygienic and functional outcomes that may affect the peri-implant tissues, such as procedures of bone and soft tissue augmentation and the use of custom-made abutments of titanium and zirconium. Three systematic reviews, based on randomized clinical trials and prospective studies covering the above reported topics were analysed, and the detected evidence was exposed to interactive experts' discussion during the group's and general assembly's meetings of the 4th EAO Consensus Conference. The results are reported using the following abbreviations: S-T: short-term evidence, M-T: medium-term evidence; L-T: long-term evidence; LE: limited evidence. Soft tissue augmentation procedures may be indicated for the increase of soft tissue thickness and keratinized tissue, the reduction of interproximal peri-implant bone loss, and the coverage of shallow peri-implant soft tissue recessions (S-T, LE), L-T is lacking. Guided bone regeneration approaches (GBR) showed efficacy when used for ridge reconstruction after the complete healing of the soft tissues (S-T & L-T), and the stability of the augmented bone may play a role in the maintenance of the soft tissue position and dimensions (LE). No significant differences were observed between titanium and zirconia abutments when evaluating probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, marginal bone levels and mucosal recessions. Zirconia abutments were associated with more biological complications but demonstrated superiority in terms of achieving natural soft tissue colour (S-T). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Soft tissue gas gangrene: a severe complication of emphysematous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Safioleas, Michael; Stamatakos, Michael; Kanakis, Meletios; Sargedi, Constantina; Safioleas, Constantinos; Smirnis, Anastasios; Vaiopoulos, George

    2007-12-01

    Soft tissue gas gangrene with myonecrosis is a severe complication of traumatic and non-traumatic conditions with a potentially lethal outcome. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a complication of acute cholecystitis, which is characterized by air accumulation in the gallbladder wall and is reported in the literature as a rare causative factor of soft tissue gas gangrene. Here we report 4 patients who developed soft tissue gas gangrene as a complication of emphysematous cholecystitis. Two patients were female octogenarians (one with a history of diabetes mellitus), and underwent percutaneous trans-gallbladder drainage and fascia incisions of the affected soft tissue with prompt administration of antibiotics. Finally, both of them died. The other two patients were male (32 years old diabetic and 47 years old with a history of chronic alcoholism). They underwent open cholecystectomy. Fascia incisions of the gangrenous areas and antibiotic therapy administration were also performed. Both of them were discharged from the hospital and are currently in excellent clinical status. We also present the ultrasonographic and/or radiologic images of these four patients. Soft tissue gas gangrene may complicate emphysematous cholecystitis, and clinicians should be aware of the coexistence of these two clinical conditions, since immediate management is needed in order to prevent fatal outcome.

  10. Advanced Hemophilic Arthropathy: Sensitivity of Soft Tissue Discrimination With Musculoskeletal Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, Annette; Moore, Randy E; Nguyen, Sonha; Barnes, Richard F W; Volland, Lena M; Hughes, Tudor H; Du, Jiang; Chang, Eric Y

    2018-01-24

    Point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is increasingly used by hemophilia providers to guide management; however, pathologic tissue differentiation with US is uncertain. We sought to determine the extent to which point-of-care musculoskeletal US can identify and discriminate pathologic soft tissue changes in hemophilic arthropathy. Thirty-six adult patients with hemophilia A/B were prospectively enrolled. Point-of-care musculoskeletal US examinations were performed on arthropathic joints (16 knees, 10 ankles, and 10 elbows) using standard views by a musculoskeletal US-trained and certified hematologist, who recorded abnormal intra-articular soft tissue accumulation. Within 3 days, magnetic resonance imaging was performed using conventional and multiecho ultrashort echo time sequences. Soft tissue identification (synovial proliferation with or without hemosiderin, fat, and/or blood products) was performed by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Findings obtained with both imaging modalities were compared and correlated in a blinded fashion. There was perfect agreement between the modalities on the presence of abnormal soft tissue (34 of 36 cases). However, musculoskeletal US was unable to discriminate between coagulated blood, synovium, intrasynovial or extrasynovial fat tissue, or hemosiderin deposits because of wide variations in echogenicity. Musculoskeletal US is valuable for point-of-care imaging to determine the presence of soft tissue accumulation in discrete areas. However, because of limitations of musculoskeletal US in discriminating the nature of pathologic soft tissues and detecting hemosiderin, magnetic resonance imaging will be required if such discrimination is clinically important. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. A mummified duck-billed dinosaur with a soft-tissue cock's comb.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phil R; Fanti, Federico; Currie, Philip J; Arbour, Victoria M

    2014-01-06

    Among living vertebrates, soft tissues are responsible for labile appendages (combs, wattles, proboscides) that are critical for activities ranging from locomotion to sexual display [1]. However, soft tissues rarely fossilize, and such soft-tissue appendages are unknown for many extinct taxa, including dinosaurs. Here we report a remarkable "mummified" specimen of the hadrosaurid dinosaur Edmontosaurus regalis from the latest Cretaceous Wapiti Formation, Alberta, Canada, that preserves a three-dimensional cranial crest (or "comb") composed entirely of soft tissue. Previously, crest function has centered on the hypertrophied nasal passages of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids, which acted as resonance chambers during vocalization [2-4]. The fleshy comb in Edmontosaurus necessitates an alternative explanation most likely related to either social signaling or sexual selection [5-7]. This discovery provides the first view of bizarre, soft-tissue signaling structures in a dinosaur and provides additional evidence for social behavior. Crest evolution within Hadrosaurinae apparently culminated in the secondary loss of the bony crest at the terminal Cretaceous; however, the new specimen indicates that cranial ornamentation was in fact not lost but substituted in Edmontosaurus by a fleshy display structure. It also implies that visual display played a key role in the evolution of hadrosaurine crests and raises the possibility of similar soft-tissue structures among other dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can plantar soft tissue mechanics enhance prognosis of diabetic foot ulcer?

    PubMed

    Naemi, R; Chatzistergos, P; Suresh, S; Sundar, L; Chockalingam, N; Ramachandran, A

    2017-04-01

    To investigate if the assessment of the mechanical properties of plantar soft tissue can increase the accuracy of predicting Diabetic Foot Ulceration (DFU). 40 patients with diabetic neuropathy and no DFU were recruited. Commonly assessed clinical parameters along with plantar soft tissue stiffness and thickness were measured at baseline using ultrasound elastography technique. 7 patients developed foot ulceration during a 12months follow-up. Logistic regression was used to identify parameters that contribute to predicting the DFU incidence. The effect of using parameters related to the mechanical behaviour of plantar soft tissue on the specificity, sensitivity, prediction strength and accuracy of the predicting models for DFU was assessed. Patients with higher plantar soft tissue thickness and lower stiffness at the 1st Metatarsal head area showed an increased risk of DFU. Adding plantar soft tissue stiffness and thickness to the model improved its specificity (by 3%), sensitivity (by 14%), prediction accuracy (by 5%) and prognosis strength (by 1%). The model containing all predictors was able to effectively (χ 2 (8, N=40)=17.55, P<0.05) distinguish between the patients with and without DFU incidence. The mechanical properties of plantar soft tissue can be used to improve the predictability of DFU in moderate/high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell-based regenerative approaches to the treatment of oral soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Bates, Damien; Kampa, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Oral soft tissue plays an important role in the structure and function of the oral cavity by protecting against exogenous substances, pathogens, and mechanical stresses. Repair of oral soft tissue defects that arise as a result of disease, trauma, or congenital abnormalities is often accomplished via transplantation or transfer of autologous mucosal tissue. However, this method of treatment can be complicated by the relatively small amount of autologous mucosal tissue that is available, as well as by the morbidity that may be associated with the donor site and patient reluctance to have oral (eg, palatal) surgery. To circumvent these problems, clinicians have turned to the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to develop acellular and cellular strategies for regenerating oral soft tissue. This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of cell-based investigational approaches to the regeneration of oral soft tissue.

  14. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Non Lipomatous Benign Lesions Mimicking Soft-tissue Sarcomas: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    CORAN, ALESSANDRO; ORSATTI, GIOVANNA; CRIMÌ, FILIPPO; RASTRELLI, MARCO; DI MAGGIO, ANTONIO; PONZONI, ALBERTO; ATTAR, SHADY; STRAMARE, ROBERTO

    2018-01-01

    The incidental finding of soft tissue masses is a challenge for the radiologist. Benign and malignant lesions can be differentiated relying on patient history, symptoms and mostly with the help of imaging. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) become fundamental in order to distinguish these lesions but the radiologist needs to know the main characteristics of benign soft tissue masses and sarcomas. Herein, we present a pictorial review of lesions mimicking soft tissue sarcomas features. PMID:29475903

  16. Porous poly(L-lactic acid) sheet prepared by stretching with starch particles as filler for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ju, Dandan; Han, Lijing; Li, Zonglin; Chen, Yunjing; Wang, Qingjiang; Bian, Junjia; Dong, Lisong

    2016-05-20

    Porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) sheets were prepared by uniaxial stretching PLLA sheets containing starch filler. Here, the starch filler content, stretching ratio, stretching rate and stretching temperature are important factors to influence the structure of the porous PLLA sheets, therefore, they have been investigated in detail. The pore size distribution and tortuosity were characterized by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. The results revealed that the porosity and pore size enlarged with the increase of the starch filler content and stretching ratio, while shrank with the rise of stretching temperature. On the other hand, the pore structure almost had no changes with the stretching rate ranging between 5 and 40 mm/min. In order to test and verify that the porous PLLA sheet was suitable for the tissue engineering, the starch particles were removed by selective enzymatic degradation and its in vitro biocompatibility to osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear wave propagation in anisotropic soft tissues and gels

    PubMed Central

    Namani, Ravi; Bayly, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of shear waves in soft tissue can be visualized by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) [1] to characterize tissue mechanical properties. Dynamic deformation of brain tissue arising from shear wave propagation may underlie the pathology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. White matter in the brain, like other biological materials, exhibits a transversely isotropic structure, due to the arrangement of parallel fibers. Appropriate mathematical models and well-characterized experimental systems are needed to understand wave propagation in these structures. In this paper we review the theory behind waves in anisotropic, soft materials, including small-amplitude waves superimposed on finite deformation of a nonlinear hyperelastic material. Some predictions of this theory are confirmed in experimental studies of a soft material with controlled anisotropy: magnetically-aligned fibrin gel. PMID:19963987

  18. Gunshot wounds: epidemiology, wound ballistics, and soft-tissue treatment.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Paul J; Najibi, Soheil; Silverton, Craig; Vaidya, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    The extremities are the most common anatomic location for gunshot wounds. Because of the prevalence of gunshot injuries, it is important that orthopaedic surgeons are knowledgeable about caring for them. The most common injuries seen with gunshot wounds are those of the soft tissues. Nonsurgical management of patients who have gunshot wounds with minimal soft-tissue disruption has been successfully accomplished in emergency departments for several years; this includes extremity wounds without nerve, intra-articular, or vascular injury. Stable, nonarticular fractures of an extremity have also been successfully treated with either minimal surgical or nonsurgical methods in the emergency department. Indications for surgical treatment include unstable fractures, intra-articular injuries, a significant soft-tissue injury (especially with skin loss), vascular injury, and/or a large or expanding hematoma.

  19. Weak light emission of soft tissues induced by heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Durando, Giovanni; Boschi, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to show that soft tissue interaction with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or direct heating leads to a weak light emission detectable using a small animal optical imaging system. Our results show that the luminescence signal is detectable after 30 min of heating, resembling the time scale of delayed luminescence. The imaging of a soft tissue after heating it using an HIFU field shows that the luminescence pattern closely matches the shape of the cone typical of the HIFU beam. We conclude that heating a soft tissue using two different sources leads to the emission of a weak luminescence signal from the heated region with a decay half-life of a few minutes (4 to 6 min). The origin of such light emission needs to be further investigated.

  20. Soft-Tissue Injuries Associated With High-Energy Extremity Trauma: Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Norris; Kellam

    1997-01-01

    The management of high-energy extremity trauma has evolved over the past several decades, and appropriate treatment of associated soft-tissue injuries has proved to be an important factor in achieving a satisfactory outcome. Early evaluation of the severely injured extremity is crucial. Severe closed injuries require serial observation of the soft tissues and early skeletal stabilization. Open injuries require early aggressive debridement of the soft tissues followed by skeletal stabilization. Temporary wound dressings should remain in place until definitive soft-tissue coverage has been obtained. Definitive soft-tissue closure will be expedited by serial debridements performed every 48 to 72 hours in a sterile environment. Skeletal union is facilitated by early bone grafting and/or modification of the stabilizing device. Aggressive rehabilitation, includ-ing early social reintegration, are crucial for a good functional outcome. Adherence to protocols is especially beneficial in the management of salvageable severely injured extremities.

  1. Hard and soft tissue augmentation in a postorthodontic patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Fred J

    2011-02-01

    A combination of hard and soft tissue grafting is used to augment a thin biotype. A 26-year-old woman with mandibular anterior flaring and Miller Class I and III recessions requested interceptive treatment. Surgery included a full-thickness buccal flap, intramarrow penetrations, bone graft placement, and primary flap closure. Postoperative visits were at 2 and 4 weeks and 2, 3, and 6 months. Stage-two surgery consisted of submerged connective tissue graft placement. Postoperative visits were completed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks and 1 year. Follow-up was completed 3 years after the initial surgery. Interradicular concavities were resolved and gingival biotype was augmented. Soft tissue recession remained at 6 months. Reentry revealed clinical labial plate augmentation; 2 mm was achieved at the lateral incisors and the left central incisor and 3 mm was achieved at the right canine. No bone augmentation was achieved on the left canine and right central incisor. The dehiscence at the right central incisor appeared narrower. Overall, a 2- to 3-mm gain in alveolar bone thickness/height was observed. Two months after stage-two surgery, near complete root coverage was achieved; 1 mm of recession remained on the left central incisor. There was a soft tissue thickness gain of 2 mm without any visual difference in keratinized tissue height. Interradicular concavities were eliminated; the soft tissue was augmented and the gingival biotype was altered. Interdental soft tissue craters remained. One year after connective tissue graft placement, there was near complete root coverage at the left central incisor, which at 2 months experienced residual recession. Interradicular concavities and interdental soft tissue craters were eliminated with soft tissue augmentation, including clinical reestablishment of the mucogingival junction. Clinical stability remained 3 years after the initial surgery, with the patient noting comfort during mastication and routine oral hygiene. A clinical

  2. Optimizing outcomes with polymethylmethacrylate fillers.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Sadick, Neil S

    2018-06-01

    The ideal filler should be long-lasting, biocompatible, chemically inert, soft and easy to use, and have a long history of safety. This review focuses on the evolution and development of the PMMA-collagen gel, Bellafill, and the 10 years of postmarketing experience of Bellafill since it received premarket approval (PMA) from the FDA as Artefill in 2006. Artefill was rebranded to Bellafill in 2015. The authors conducted a literature search on PubMed for key articles describing the steps in which Arteplast, a PMMA filler developed in 1989, led to the development of Bellafill, the only PMMA filler approved by the US FDA for the treatment of nasolabial folds and acne scar correction. The factors governing efficacy and safety were also evaluated for the major PMMA fillers available in the world. The process of manufacturing and purifying PMMA has played a major role in minimizing adverse events for Bellafill. Postmarketing surveillance data for the 2007-2016 period show that for more than 530 000 Bellafill syringes distributed worldwide, 11 confirmed granulomas (excluding clinical trial data) (0.002% of syringes sold) have been reported. Data on other PMMA fillers are limited and inconsistent. The authors suggest that adverse events are often attributable to lack of proficiency in treatment technique and other factors. Bellafill has demonstrated an excellent safety and effectiveness profile in multiple clinical studies, customer feedback, and 10 years of postmarketing surveillance experience. Adverse events occur with all fillers for a variety of reasons. In addition to quality of the product, injector skill and technique are critical to ensuring good clinical outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Local application of periodontal ligament stromal cells promotes soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Baik, H S; Park, J; Lee, K J; Chung, C

    2014-09-01

    To test the potential stimulatory effect of local application of periodontal ligament (PDL) stromal cells on soft tissue regeneration. Fluorescently labeled PDL cells outgrown from extracted human premolars or phosphate-buffered saline were locally injected to the cutaneous wounds created on mice. Soft tissue regeneration was evaluated for 14 days using photographs and histomorphometry. PDL cell engraftment was tracked with confocal microscopy. To detect the paracrine effect of the PDL cells on soft tissue regeneration, PDL cell-conditioned medium (CM) was evaluated for the concentration of secretory factors, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1). The effect of PDL CM on the proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte was tested using MTT assay and migration assay. The application of PDL cells significantly promoted soft tissue regeneration compared with the application of PBS. Self-replicating PDL cells were engrafted into the hair follicles of the host tissue. Dermal fibroblast proliferation and keratinocyte migration were significantly enhanced by the treatment with PDL CM. Physiologically significant amount of TGFβ1 was secreted from PDL cells into the CM. Local injection of PDL cells promoted soft tissue regeneration in part by the enhancement of fibroblast proliferation and keratinocyte migration through a paracrine mechanism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reaction of facial soft tissues to treatment with a Herbst appliance.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, P; Kochel, J; Richter, U; Richter, F; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the reaction of facial soft tissues to treatment with a Herbst appliance. We aimed to quantify three-dimensionally (3D) the isolated effect of the Herbst appliance and volume changes in the lip profile. The 3D data of the facial soft tissues of 34 patients with skeletal Class II (17 female and 17 male, mean age 13.5 ± 1.8 years) were prepared in a standardized manner immediately before (T1) and after (T2) treatment with a Herbst appliance. Anthropometric evaluation was carried out in sagittal and vertical dimensions. To quantify volume changes, pretherapeutic and posttherapeutic images were superimposed three-dimensionally and the difference volumes calculated. Following testing for normal distribution, a statistical analysis was carried out using the paired t test. We observed ventral development of the soft tissues of the lower jaw with flattening of the profile curvature and anterior displacement of the sublabial region in a total of 27 patients. Anterior facial height was lengthened and the facial depth at the lower jaw increased. The largest percentage changes were noted in the lip profile, with a reduction in the red margin of the upper lip and an increase in lower lip height. We also observed a reduction of the sublabial fold in conjunction with a simultaneous increase in volume. The influence of the Herbst appliance on the facial soft tissues is expected to result in a positive treatment outcome, particularly in patients with a convex profile, a retrusive lower lip, and a marked sublabial fold. We observed a broad clinical spectrum of individual reactions in the facial soft tissues. It is, thus, not possible to detect a linear relationship between the Herbst treatment and soft tissue changes, making soft tissue changes difficult to predict.

  5. [Inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect in incomplete cleft palate].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Ma, Lian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect by observing the cleft extent of palate with complete secondary palate bony cleft in incomplete cleft palate patient. The patients with incomplete cleft palate treated in Hospital of Stomatology Peking University from July 2012 to June 2013 were reviewed, of which 75 cases with complete secondary palate bony cleft were selected in this study. The CT scan and intraoral photograph were taken before operation. The patients were classified as four types according to the extent of soft tissue defect. Type 1: soft tissue defect reached incisive foremen region, Type 2 was hard and soft cleft palate, Type 3 soft cleft palate and Type 4 submucous cleft palate. Type 1 was defined as conformity group (CG). The other three types were defined as inconformity group (ICG) and divided into three subgroups (ICG-I), (ICG-II) and (ICG-III). Fifty-seven patients were in ICG group, and the rate of inconformity was 76% (57/75). The percentage of ICG-I, ICG-II and ICG-III was 47% (27/57), 23% (13/57) and 30% (17/57), respevtively. There are different types of soft tissue deformity with complete secondary palate bony cleft. The inconformity between soft tissue and hard tissue defect exits in 3/4 of isolated cleft palate patients.

  6. Observation, Radiation Therapy, Combination Chemotherapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-07

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  7. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Palaeoneurological clues to the evolution of defining mammalian soft tissue traits

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, J.; Manger, P. R.; Rubidge, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    A rich fossil record chronicles the distant origins of mammals, but the evolution of defining soft tissue characters of extant mammals, such as mammary glands and hairs is difficult to interpret because soft tissue does not readily fossilize. As many soft tissue features are derived from dermic structures, their evolution is linked to that of the nervous syutem, and palaeoneurology offers opportunities to find bony correlates of these soft tissue features. Here, a CT scan study of 29 fossil skulls shows that non-mammaliaform Prozostrodontia display a retracted, fully ossified, and non-ramified infraorbital canal for the infraorbital nerve, unlike more basal therapsids. The presence of a true infraorbital canal in Prozostrodontia suggests that a motile rhinarium and maxillary vibrissae were present. Also the complete ossification of the parietal fontanelle (resulting in the loss of the parietal foramen) and the development of the cerebellum in Probainognathia may be pleiotropically linked to the appearance of mammary glands and having body hair coverage since these traits are all controlled by the same homeogene, Msx2, in mice. These suggest that defining soft tissue characters of mammals were already present in their forerunners some 240 to 246 mya. PMID:27157809

  9. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Deora, Savita; Abraham, Dennis; Gaba, Rohini; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Kudva, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nowadays esthetics plays an important role in dentistry along with function of the prosthesis. Various soft tissue augmentation procedures are available to correct the ridge defects in the anterior region. The newer technique, vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap has been introduced, which has the potential to augment predictable amount of tissue and has many benefits when compared to other techniques. Aim: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of the VIP-CT flap in augmenting the ridge defect. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Class III (Seibert's) ridge defects were treated with VIP-CT flap technique before fabricating fixed partial denture. Height and width of the ridge defects were measured before and after the procedure. Subsequent follow-up was done every 3 months for 1-year. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was performed to detect the significance of the procedure. Results: The surgical site healed uneventfully. The predictable amount of soft tissue augmentation had been achieved with the procedure. The increase in height and width of the ridge was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: The VIP-CT flap technique was effective in augmenting the soft tissue in esthetic area that remained stable over a long period. PMID:25810597

  10. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    PubMed

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  11. Large Osteoarthritic Cyst Presenting as Soft Tissue Tumour – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, DD; Park, DH; Cannon, SR; Briggs, TW; Pollock, RC; Skinner, JA

    2007-01-01

    Large osteoarthritic cysts can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from primary osseous and soft tissue tumours. We present such a case involving a cyst arising from the hip joint and eroding the acetabulum which presented as a soft tissue malignancy referred to a tertiary bone and soft tissue tumour centre. We discuss the diagnostic problems it may pose, and present a literature review of the subject. PMID:17535605

  12. Soft tissue augmentation around osseointegrated and uncovered dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Renzo G; Stähli, Alexandra; Bassetti, Mario A; Sculean, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compile the current knowledge about the efficacy of different soft tissue correction methods around osseointegrated, already uncovered and/or loaded (OU/L) implants with insufficient soft tissue conditions. Procedures to increase peri-implant keratinized mucosa (KM) width and/or soft tissue volume were considered. Screening of two databases: MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE (OVID), and manual search of articles were performed. Human studies reporting on soft tissue augmentation/correction methods around OU/L implants up to June 30, 2016, were considered. Quality assessment of selected full-text articles to weight risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool. Overall, four randomized controlled trials (risk of bias = high/low) and five prospective studies (risk of bias = high) were included. Depending on the surgical techniques and graft materials, the enlargement of keratinized tissue (KT) ranged between 1.15 ± 0.81 and 2.57 ± 0.50 mm. The apically positioned partial thickness flap (APPTF), in combination with a free gingival graft (FGG), a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), or a xenogeneic graft material (XCM) were most effective. A coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with SCTG in three, combined with allogenic graft materials (AMDA) in one, and a split thickness flap (STF) combined with SCTG in another study showed mean soft tissue recession coverage rates from 28 to 96.3 %. STF combined with XCM failed to improve peri-implant soft tissue coverage. The three APPTF-techniques combined with FGG, SCTG, or XCM achieved comparable enlargements of peri-implant KT. Further, both STF and CAF, both in combination with SCTG, are equivalent regarding recession coverage rates. STF + XCM and CAF + AMDA did not reach significant coverage. In case of soft tissue deficiency around OU/L dental implants, the selection of both an appropriate surgical technique and a suitable soft tissue graft material is of utmost clinical

  13. Non Lipomatous Benign Lesions Mimicking Soft-tissue Sarcomas: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Coran, Alessandro; Orsatti, Giovanna; Crimì, Filippo; Rastrelli, Marco; DI Maggio, Antonio; Ponzoni, Alberto; Attar, Shady; Stramare, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The incidental finding of soft tissue masses is a challenge for the radiologist. Benign and malignant lesions can be differentiated relying on patient history, symptoms and mostly with the help of imaging. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) become fundamental in order to distinguish these lesions but the radiologist needs to know the main characteristics of benign soft tissue masses and sarcomas. Herein, we present a pictorial review of lesions mimicking soft tissue sarcomas features. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue-Simulating Gel For Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhardening, translucent gel more nearly simulates soft human or animal tissue. Modified to be softer or harder by altering proportions of ingredients. Fillers added to change electrical, mechanical, heat-conducting, or sound-conducting/scattering properties. Molded to any desired shape and has sufficient mechanical strength to maintain shape without supporting shell. Because of its thermal stability, gel especially useful for investigation of hyperthermia as treatment for cancer.

  15. Early Reconstructions of Complex Lower Extremity Battlefield Soft Tissue Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Azin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe lower extremity trauma as a devastating combat related injury is on the rise and this presents reconstructive surgeons with significant challenges to reach optimal cosmetic and functional outcomes. This study assessed early reconstructions of complex lower extremity battlefield soft tissue wounds. METHODS This was a prospective case series study of battled field injured patients which was done in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences hospitals, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2015. In this survey, 73 patients were operated for reconstruction of lower extremity soft tissue defects due to battlefield injuries RESULTS Seventy-three patients (65 men, 8 womens) ranging from 21-48 years old (mean: 35 years) were enrolled. Our study showed that early debridement and bone stabilization and later coverage of complex battlefields soft tissue wounds with suitable flaps and grafts of lower extremity were effective method for difficult wounds managements with less amputation and infections. CONCLUSION Serial debridement and bone stabilization before early soft tissue reconstruction according to reconstructive ladder were shown to be essential steps. PMID:29218283

  16. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repair of Craniomaxillofacial Traumatic Soft Tissue Defects With Tissue Expansion in the Early Stage.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Jianhui; Tao, Ran; Guo, Lingli; Yang, Hongyan; Zeng, Wei; Song, Baoqiang; Xia, Wensen

    2017-09-01

    Craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects severely affect the function and appearance of the patients. The traditional skin grafting or free flap transplantation can only close the defects in the early stage of operation but cannot ensure similar color, texture, and relative aesthetic contour. In the present study, the authors have explored a novel strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects by tissue expansion in the early stage and have obtained satisfactory results. Eighteen patients suffering large craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects were treated by thorough debridement leaving the wounds unclosed or simply closed with thin split-thickness scalp grafts, adjacent expander implantation in the first stage, and expanded flap transposition in the second stage. There were 11 male patients and 7 female patients ranging in age from 3.5 to 40 years (mean, 19.4 ± 12.2 years), with average 15 months follow-up (range, 3-67 months). The average expansion time was 74.3 days (range, 53-96 days). The 18 patients with a total of 22 expanders were treated with satisfactory results. All the flaps survived and the skin color, texture, and contour well matched those of the peripheral tissue. Only 1 complication of infection happened in the 18 cases (5.56%) and the 22 expanders (4.55%), which was similar to the rate reported in the literature. No other complications related to the expanders occurred. Debridement and tissue expansion in the early stage has been proved to be a more effective strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects. This strategy can not only achieve satisfactory color, unbulky and well-matched texture similar to normal, but also avoid unnecessary donor site injuries.

  18. [Soft tissue defects treated with perforator flaps].

    PubMed

    Weum, Sven; de Weerd, Louis; Klein, Steven; Hage, J Joris

    2008-01-31

    Treatment of soft tissue defects caused by trauma, tumour surgery or pressure sores is a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Although contour and function may be restored by tissue transposition, traditional methods often cause significant donor site morbidity. This article describes how increased understanding of vascular anatomy has led to the development of new techniques. The article is based on textbooks of plastic surgery, selected articles and own clinical experience. Pedicled and free perforator flaps represent the latest development in surgical treatment of soft tissue defects. The use of perforator flaps can considerably reduce the disadvantages that are associated with other surgical methods. The use of perforator flaps demands microsurgical skills, but has many advantages. Reliable vascular supply and a good aesthetical result can be combined with minimal donor site morbidity. In many cases this technique may even give sensibility to the reconstructed area.

  19. Evaluation of micron-sized wood and bark particles as filler in thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    David P. Harper; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized particles, prepared from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood and bark, were evaluated for use in wood-plastic composites (WPCs). Particles were also prepared from hard (periderm) and soft (obliterated phloem) components in the bark and compared to whole wood (without bark) filler commonly used by the WPC industry. All bark fillers had...

  20. Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections: Clinical Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    viscus, liposuction , infected arteriovenous grafts, and invasive cancer. As many as half of these patients may not be able to identify a previous lesion...Fractures Liposuction Seawater, seafood Surgery Spider bite Childbirth, C section Burns NSTI, necrotizing soft-tissue infection; GI, gastrointestinal; HIV

  1. Methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan-based hydrogels for soft tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Lukas; Gehrke, Sandra; Winnefeld, Marc; Huber, Birgit; Hoch, Eva; Walter, Torsten; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schmidt, Malte; Kückelhaus, Maximilian; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hirsch, Tobias; Jacobsen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In vitro–generated soft tissue could provide alternate therapies for soft tissue defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan as scaffolds for soft tissue engineering and their interaction with human adipose–derived stem cells (hASCs). ASCs were incorporated into methacrylated gelatin/hyaluronan hydrogels. The gels were photocrosslinked with a lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate photoinitiator and analyzed for cell viability and adipogenic differentiation of ASCs over a period of 30 days. Additionally, an angiogenesis assay was performed to assess their angiogenic potential. After 24 h, ASCs showed increased viability on composite hydrogels. These results were consistent over 21 days of culture. By induction of adipogenic differentiation, the mature adipocytes were observed after 7 days of culture, their number significantly increased until day 28 as well as expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and adiponectin. Our scaffolds are promising as building blocks for adipose tissue engineering and allowed long viability, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. PMID:29318000

  2. Full-driving soft robotic colonoscope in compliant colon tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kundong; Ma, Jiayi; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhou, Yilu

    2017-11-01

    Robotic colonoscopy is an efficient examination method for finding malignant tumour in its early stage. This research developed a novel robotic endoscope with 13 mm diameter, 105 mm length and 22.3 g weight. A contact biomechanical model is proposed to increase the locomotion safety and efficiency in the soft tissue. The model shows that the friction difference between the robot and the tissue is a key factor to locomotion capability. A soft, full bellow with excellent compatibility was designed to package the robot body. The bellow increased the static friction and decreased the kinetic friction given the change in the contact state. The bellow is divided into three segments. Each segment is composed of a linear locomotor with micromotor, turbine-worm and wire wrapping-sliding mechanism. The robot is tested in in vivo pig colon, which revealed an excellent locomotion capability and safety in soft tissues.

  3. Factors influencing on retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness: analysis by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Shinjiro; Kawakami, Reina; Yonenaga, Takenori; Hayashi, Daichi; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2013-03-01

    A retrospective, consecutive case series. To analyze the relationship between retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness and patients' age, sex, and degenerative changes of cervical spine and to investigate the effect these factors have on retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness. Thickening of the soft tissue posterior to the odontoid process can form a retro-odontoid pseudotumor causing symptoms of spinal cord compression. Rheumatoid arthritis and long-term dialysis have been reported as possible causes for this. However, there have been reports of retro-odontoid pseudotumors without coexisting diseases. Findings from a total of 503 cases of cervical spine magnetic resonance images were reviewed, and retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness was measured. The values were matched for age, sex, presence of degenerative changes, rheumatoid arthritis, and dialysis and were analyzed for significance. Retro-odontoid soft tissue thickened with age, and this was also seen in male patients and patients with degenerative changes. Significant increase in thickness was also observed in patients undergoing dialysis and further increased with prolonged dialysis. There was no significant association with presence of rheumatoid arthritis. There is association between age, sex, degenerative cervical spine changes, and dialysis with retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness. With dialysis, retro-odontoid soft-tissue thickness increases with increasing duration. Thus, reviewing magnetic resonance image from daily practice indicates that cervical spine degeneration is associated with the development of retro-odontoid pseudotumors.

  4. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  5. Injectable PolyMIPE Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moglia, Robert S.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Muschenborn, Andrea D.; Touchet, Tyler J.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Injury caused by trauma, burns, surgery, or disease often results in soft tissue loss leading to impaired function and permanent disfiguration. Tissue engineering aims to overcome the lack of viable donor tissue by fabricating synthetic scaffolds with the requisite properties and bioactive cues to regenerate these tissues. Biomaterial scaffolds designed to match soft tissue modulus and strength should also retain the elastomeric and fatigue-resistant properties of the tissue. Of particular design importance is the interconnected porous structure of the scaffold needed to support tissue growth by facilitating mass transport. Adequate mass transport is especially true for newly implanted scaffolds that lack vasculature to provide nutrient flux. Common scaffold fabrication strategies often utilize toxic solvents and high temperatures or pressures to achieve the desired porosity. In this study, a polymerized medium internal phase emulsion (polyMIPE) is used to generate an injectable graft that cures to a porous foam at body temperature without toxic solvents. These poly(ester urethane urea) scaffolds possess elastomeric properties with tunable compressive moduli (20–200 kPa) and strengths (4–60 kPa) as well as high recovery after the first conditioning cycle (97–99%). The resultant pore architecture was highly interconnected with large voids (0.5–2 mm) from carbon dioxide generation surrounded by water-templated pores (50–300 μm). The ability to modulate both scaffold pore architecture and mechanical properties by altering emulsion chemistry was demonstrated. Permeability and form factor were experimentally measured to determine the effects of polyMIPE composition on pore interconnectivity. Finally, initial human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cytocompatibility testing supported the use of these candidate scaffolds in regenerative applications. Overall, these injectable polyMIPE foams show strong promise as a biomaterial scaffold for soft tissue repair. PMID

  6. Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L; Horner, John R; Toporski, Jan K

    2005-03-25

    Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft tissues may retain some of their original flexibility, elasticity, and resilience.

  7. [Update on soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Bui, Binh Nguyen; Tabrizi, Reza; Dagada, Corinne; Trufflandier, Nathalie; St ckle, Eberhard; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Important refinements have taken place in the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma with extensive use of immuno-histochemistry. New entities have been described, while malignant histiocytofibroma, the most diagnosed sarcoma type during the last two decades, has been dismembered. As for prognosis, the new UICC classification is effectively more discriminating in the definition of prognostic groups; but the usefullness of new biological or genetic markers remains to be assessed. Several breakthrough have taken place in the last years in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. Isolated limb perfusion with TNF, hyperthermia and melphalan have proven its efficacy, and is now an alternative to preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for limb sparing treatment of the primary tumor site or to amputation. For systemic treatments, novel cytostatic drugs have been shown to be active in sarcomas, including ecteinascidine (ET743) and Glivec (STI571). This last drug has been shown to be remarkably active in c-kit+ stromal sarcoma of the gastro-intestinal tract. It can hopefully regarded as an example for targeted therapies, which may come with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the fundamental, specific genetic alterations shown in sarcoma.

  8. Soft Tissue Injections in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injections into or adjacent to soft tissue structures, including muscle, tendon, bursa, and fascia, for pain relief and an earlier return to play have become common in the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Clinical review. Results: Corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) are the most commonly used injectable agents in athletes. The use of these injectable agents have proven efficacy in some disorders, whereas the clinical benefit for others remain questionable. All soft tissue injections performed for pain control and/or an anti-inflammatory effect have potentially serious side effects, which must be considered, especially in the pregame setting. Conclusions: The primary concern regarding corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections is an increased risk of tendon rupture associated with the direct injection into the tendon. Intramuscular Toradol injections provide significant analgesia, as well as an anti-inflammatory effect via its inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase pathway. The risk of bleeding associated with Toradol use is recognized but not accurately quantified. PMID:23015899

  9. Soft Tissue Tumor Immunohistochemistry Update: Illustrative Examples of Diagnostic Pearls to Avoid Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Qian, Xiaohua; Bui, Marilyn M

    2017-08-01

    - Current 2013 World Health Organization classification of tumors of soft tissue arranges these tumors into 12 groups according to their histogenesis. Tumor behavior is classified as benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing), and malignant. In our practice, a general approach to reaching a definitive diagnosis of soft tissue tumors is to first evaluate clinicoradiologic, histomorphologic, and cytomorphologic features of the tumor to generate some pertinent differential diagnoses. These include the potential line of histogenesis and whether the tumor is benign or malignant, and low or high grade. Although molecular/genetic testing is increasingly finding its applications in characterizing soft tissue tumors, currently immunohistochemistry still not only plays an indispensable role in defining tumor histogenesis, but also serves as a surrogate for underlining molecular/genetic alterations. Objective- To provide an overview focusing on the current concepts in the classification and diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, incorporating immunohistochemistry. This article uses examples to discuss how to use the traditional and new immunohistochemical markers for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Practical diagnostic pearls, summary tables, and figures are used to show how to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. - Data were obtained from pertinent peer-reviewed English-language literature and the authors' first-hand experience as bone and soft tissue pathologists. - -The ultimate goal for a pathologist is to render a specific diagnosis that provides diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information to guide patient care. Immunohistochemistry is integral to the diagnosis and management of soft tissue tumors.

  10. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Pick, R M; Colvard, M D

    1993-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to briefly describe laser physics, the types of lasers currently available for use on soft tissues focusing primarily on CO2 and Nd:YAG laser energies, the histological effects of lasers on oral tissues, laser safety, the clinical applications of lasers on oral soft tissues, and future directions. Of the two types of lasers currently available for dental applications, both the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers can be used for frenectomies, ablation of lesions, incisional and excisional biopsies, gingivectomies, gingivoplasties, soft tissue tuberosity reductions, operculum removal, coagulation of graft donor sites, and certain crown lengthening procedures. The advantages of lasers include a relatively bloodless surgical and post-surgical course, minimal swelling and scarring, coagulation, vaporization, and cutting, minimal or no suturing, reduction in surgical time, and, in a majority of cases, much less or no post-surgical pain. CO2 lasers, compared to Nd:YAG are faster for most procedures, with less depth of tissue penetration and a well-documented history. There have been recent reports on the use of the Nd:YAG laser for periodontal scaling, gingival curettage, and root desensitization, but further research needs to be conducted. Both the CO2 and the Nd:YAG laser have limited use in conventional flap therapy.

  11. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  12. Intra-oral soft tissue expansion and volume stability of onlay bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient regeneration of missing bone and soft-tissue may present aesthetic or functional problems in patients indicated for dental implant surgery. Several techniques such as bone grafts, bone substitutes and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) have been described to rebuild a compromised alveolar ridge. Adequate soft-tissue coverage of grafted bone and titanium-mesh is important to avoid exposure which may result in loss of the bone graft. The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate use of an osmotic tissue expander for expanding intra-oral soft tissue--creating a surplus of soft tissue-- in preparation for onlay bone grafting. An experimental rabbit model was used in studies (I), (II) and (III). In (I) an osmotic soft-tissue expander was placed bilaterally on the lateral wall of the mandible via an extra-oral approach. After two weeks of expansion the rabbits were killed and specimens were collected for histology. No inflammatory reaction and no resorbtion of the cortical bone occured. The periosteum was expanded and new bone formation was seen in the edges of the expander. In (II) and (III) the expander was placed under the periosteum in the same way as in (I): bilaterally in 13 rabbits in (II) and unilaterally in 11 rabbits in (III). After two weeks of expansion the expander was identified and removed. In (II) particulated bone was placed at the recipient site protected by a titanium mesh in one site and a bio-resorbable mesh on the other site. In (III), DBBM particles and bone particles collected from the lateral border of the mandible separated by a collagen membrane was placed at the recipient site. The graft was protected by a pre-bent titanium mesh covered by a collagen membrane. After a healing period of 3 months specimens were collected for histological and SEM examination. New bone was growing in direct contact with the titanium mesh and bio resorbable mesh. The newly formed bone had the same calcium content as the mature bone in the base of the

  13. Preventing the Complications Associated with the Use of Dermal Fillers in Facial Aesthetic Procedures: An Expert Group Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Urdiales-Gálvez, Fernando; Delgado, Nuria Escoda; Figueiredo, Vitor; Lajo-Plaza, José V; Mira, Mar; Ortíz-Martí, Francisco; Del Rio-Reyes, Rosa; Romero-Álvarez, Nazaret; Del Cueto, Sofía Ruiz; Segurado, María A; Rebenaque, Cristina Villanueva

    2017-06-01

    The use of dermal fillers in minimally invasive facial aesthetic procedures has become increasingly popular of late, yet as the indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications is also likely to increase. Paying special attention to specific patient characteristics and to the technique used can do much to avoid these complications. Indeed, a well-trained physician can also minimize the impact of such problems when they do occur. A multidisciplinary group of experts in aesthetic treatments reviewed the main factors associated with the complications that arise when using dermal fillers. A search of English, French and Spanish language articles in PubMed was performed using the terms "complications" OR "soft filler complications" OR "injectable complications" AND "dermal fillers". An initial document was drafted that reflected the complications identified and recommendations as to how they should be handled. This document was then reviewed and modified by the expert panel, until a final text was agreed upon and validated. The panel addressed consensus recommendations about the preparation, the procedure and the post-procedural care. The panel considered it crucial to obtain an accurate medical history to prevent potential complications. An additional clinical assessment, including standardized photography, is also crucial to evaluate the outcomes and prevent potential complications. Furthermore, the state of the operating theatre, the patient's health status and the preparation of the skin are critical to prevent superficial soft tissue infections. Finally, selecting the appropriate technique, based on the physician's experience, as well as the characteristics of the patient and filler, helps to ensure successful outcomes and limits the complications. This consensus document provides key elements to help clinicians who are starting to use dermal fillers to employ standard procedures and to understand how best to prevent

  14. A case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis necrotizing soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Echaiz, Jose F; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Bailey, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and devastating disease. Apophysomyces trapeziformis is an environmental mold that was recently implicated in several cases of cutaneous and soft tissue mucormycosis in victims of a tornado in Joplin, Missouri. Here, we report a case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis necrotizing soft tissue infection in a resident of Joplin 10 months after the disaster and without preceding trauma. Aspects of histological and microbiological diagnosis are also reviewed. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soft Tissue Deformations Contribute to the Mechanics of Walking in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-Yu; Zelik, Karl E.; Board, Wayne J.; Browning, Raymond C.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity not only adds to the mass that must be carried during walking, but also changes body composition. Although extra mass causes roughly proportional increases in musculoskeletal loading, less well understood is the effect of relatively soft and mechanically compliant adipose tissue. Purpose To estimate the work performed by soft tissue deformations during walking. The soft tissue would be expected to experience damped oscillations, particularly from high force transients following heel strike, and could potentially change the mechanical work demands for walking. Method We analyzed treadmill walking data at 1.25 m/s for 11 obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and 9 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) adults. The soft tissue work was quantified with a method that compares the work performed by lower extremity joints as derived using assumptions of rigid body segments, with that estimated without rigid body assumptions. Results Relative to body mass, obese and non-obese individuals perform similar amounts of mechanical work. But negative work performed by soft tissues was significantly greater in obese individuals (p= 0.0102), equivalent to about 0.36 J/kg vs. 0.27 J/kg in non-obese individuals. The negative (dissipative) work by soft tissues occurred mainly after heel strike, and for obese individuals was comparable in magnitude to the total negative work from all of the joints combined (0.34 J/kg vs. 0.33 J/kg for obese and non-obese adults, respectively). Although the joints performed a relatively similar amount of work overall, obese individuals performed less negative work actively at the knee. Conclusion The greater proportion of soft tissues in obese individuals results in substantial changes in the amount, location, and timing of work, and may also impact metabolic energy expenditure during walking. PMID:25380475

  16. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound.

  17. Deformation of Soft Tissue and Force Feedback Using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Ruiyi; Li, Yunhua; Song, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    We study the deformation and haptic feedback of soft tissue in virtual surgery based on a liver model by using a force feedback device named PHANTOM OMNI developed by SensAble Company in USA. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviors of soft tissue and implementing force feedback, it is still a challenging problem. This paper introduces a kind of meshfree method for deformation simulation of soft tissue and force computation based on viscoelastic mechanical model and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Firstly, viscoelastic model can present the mechanical characteristics of soft tissue which greatly promotes the realism. Secondly, SPH has features of meshless technique and self-adaption, which supply higher precision than methods based on meshes for force feedback computation. Finally, a SPH method based on dynamic interaction area is proposed to improve the real time performance of simulation. The results reveal that SPH methodology is suitable for simulating soft tissue deformation and force feedback calculation, and SPH based on dynamic local interaction area has a higher computational efficiency significantly compared with usual SPH. Our algorithm has a bright prospect in the area of virtual surgery. PMID:26417380

  18. Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, Alexander; Forte, Antonio E; Tan, Zhengchu; Oldfield, Matthew J; Beyrau, Frank; Dini, Daniele; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-08-01

    Phantoms are common substitutes for soft tissues in biomechanical research and are usually tuned to match tissue properties using standard testing protocols at small strains. However, the response due to complex tool-tissue interactions can differ depending on the phantom and no comprehensive comparative study has been published to date, which could aid researchers to select suitable materials. In this work, gelatin, a common phantom in literature, and a composite hydrogel developed at Imperial College, were matched for mechanical stiffness to porcine brain, and the interactions during needle insertions within them were analyzed. Specifically, we examined insertion forces for brain and the phantoms; we also measured displacements and strains within the phantoms via a laser-based image correlation technique in combination with fluorescent beads. It is shown that the insertion forces for gelatin and brain agree closely, but that the composite hydrogel better mimics the viscous nature of soft tissue. Both materials match different characteristics of brain, but neither of them is a perfect substitute. Thus, when selecting a phantom material, both the soft tissue properties and the complex tool-tissue interactions arising during tissue manipulation should be taken into consideration. These conclusions are presented in tabular form to aid future selection.

  19. A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D.; Jérusalem, A.; Garzon-Hernandez, S.; Zaera, R.; Arias, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a continuum constitutive framework for the mechanical modelling of soft tissues that incorporates strain rate and temperature dependencies as well as the transverse isotropy arising from fibres embedded into a soft matrix is developed. The constitutive formulation is based on a Helmholtz free energy function decoupled into the contribution of a viscous-hyperelastic matrix and the contribution of fibres introducing dispersion dependent transverse isotropy. The proposed framework considers finite deformation kinematics, is thermodynamically consistent and allows for the particularisation of the energy potentials and flow equations of each constitutive branch. In this regard, the approach developed herein provides the basis on which specific constitutive models can be potentially formulated for a wide variety of soft tissues. To illustrate this versatility, the constitutive framework is particularised here for animal and human white matter and skin, for which constitutive models are provided. In both cases, different energy functions are considered: Neo-Hookean, Gent and Ogden. Finally, the ability of the approach at capturing the experimental behaviour of the two soft tissues is confirmed.

  20. [Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Corynebacterium ulcerans - Case Reports].

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Christian; Schwede, Ilona; Neumann, Volker; Pietsch, Cristine; Handrick, Werner

    2017-10-01

    History and clinical findings  We report on three patients suffering from skin and soft tissue infections of the legs due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. In all three patients, there was a predisposition due to chronic diseases. Three patients had domestic animals (cat, dog) in their households. Investigations and diagnosis  A mixed bacterial flora including Corynebacterium ulcerans was found in wound swab samples. Diphtheric toxin was produced by the Corynebacterium ulcerans strains in all three cases. Treatment and course  In all three patients, successful handling of the skin and soft tissue infections was possible by combining local treatment with antibiotics. Diphtheria antitoxin was not administered in any case. Conclusion  Based on a review of the recent literature pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and signs, diagnostics and therapy of skin and soft tissue infections due to Corynebacterium ulcerans are discussed. Corynebacterium ulcerans should be considered as a potential cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections. Occupational or domestic animal contacts should be evaluated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Soft tissue-based surgical techniques for treatment of posterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Posterior shoulder instability is a rare clinical condition that encompasses different degrees of severity including various possible pathologies involving the labrum, capsule, bony lesions, and even locked posterior dislocation. When focusing on soft tissue involvement, the diagnosis of posterior instability may be difficult to make because frequently patients report vague symptoms not associated with a clear history of traumatic shoulder dislocation. Pathological soft tissue conditions associated with posterior instability in most cases are related to posterior labral tear and/or posterior capsular detensioning/tear. The diagnosis can be facilitated by physical examination using specific clinical tests (i. e., jerk test, Kim test, and reinterpreted O'Brien test) together with appropriate imaging studies (i. e., magnetic resonance arthrography). Arthroscopy may help in a complete evaluation of the joint and allows for the treatment of soft tissue lesions in posterior instability. Caution is warranted in the case of concomitant posterior glenoid chondral defect as a potential cause of poor outcome after soft tissue repair in posterior instability.

  2. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  3. Soft-tissue coverage of the neural elements after myelomeningocele repair.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S B; Gardner, P M; Howard, P S

    1996-09-01

    We retrospectively reviewed all newborns with a diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MMC) admitted to our hospital between January 1990 and September 1994 to determine methods of soft tissue coverage, complication rates, and results. Sixty-five patients underwent repair of thoracic, lumbar, or sacral MMCs. The average size of defect repaired measured 21.3 cm2 (range, 2-80 cm2). Methods of repair included direct approximation of soft tissues with or without undermining (N = 48), Romberg Limberg flaps (N = 8), gluteus maximus or latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps (N = 5), fascioutaneous flaps (N = 3), and V-gamma advancement (N = 1). A total of 18 complications were recorded (27.7%). There were 5 major complications (7.7%) and 13 minor ones (20.0%). Major complications were defined as midline wound dehiscence overlying the neural elements or wound infection leading to meningitis or ventriculitis. All 5 major and 9 minor complications arose in patients undergoing direct soft-tissue approximation. Additionally, all major complications were recorded in defects > 18 cm2. Based on this series, it appears that MMC defects < 18 cm2 can be closed by direct approximation of soft tissues without significant risk or major wound complication. Larger wounds may be successfully closed in this manner, but the risk of major complication is substantial.

  4. Esthetic soft tissue management for teeth and implants.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jia-Hui; Su, Chuan-Yi; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-09-01

    Can newly introduced graft materials be successfully used in soft tissue augmentation around teeth and dental implants? An electronic search on the PubMed database for English articles published before March 31, 2012, was performed using the following key words: "root coverage," "soft tissue graft," "periodontal plastic surgery," "subepithelial connective graft (SCTG)," "acellular dermal matrix (ADM)," "guided tissue regeneration based root coverage (GTRC)," "recession defects," "mucogingival defects," "collagen matrix," "living cellular construct (LCC)," "mucograft," and "biologic agents." Literature featuring new soft tissue graft materials, such as ADM, collagen matrix, GTRC, and biologic agents, were included. Data showed (1) allogeneic grafts were comparable to SCTG in terms of mean complete root coverage (CRC), mean root coverage (RC), and mean amount of keratinized tissue (KT) gain; (2) xenogeneic collagen matrix was as comparable to SCTG in terms of mean amount of KT gain around teeth and dental implants but inferior in achieving RC; (3) GTRC was inferior to SCTG in terms of mean CRC and mean RC; (4) LCC was inferior to free gingival graft in terms of mean amount of KT gain but was superior in esthetics and patient satisfaction; and (5) adjunctive use of biologic agents did not exert a significant effect on mean CRC, mean RC, and mean amount of KT gain. Although these new materials do not surpass the gold standard (SCTG), they do provide improved patient satisfaction and esthetics, are available in abundance, and lead to reduced postoperative discomfort and surgical time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas (Extremity Sarcoma Closed to Entry as of 5/30/07)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. [Epidemiological characteristics and mortality risk factors in patients admitted in hospitals with soft tissue infections. A multicentric STIMG (Soft Tissue Infections Malacitan Group) study results].

    PubMed

    Salgado Ordóñez, F; Villar Jiménez, J; Hidalgo Conde, A; Villalobos Sánchez, A; de la Torre Lima, J; Aguilar García, J; da Rocha Costa, I; García Ordóñez, M A; Nuño Alvarez, E; Ramos Cantes, C; Martín Pérez, M

    2006-07-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients admitted in hospitals with soft tissue infections, and analyse the variables whose died, in order to define risk groups. retrospective analysis of medical reports of all patient admitted during 2002 year for soft tissue infections in public malacitans hospitals. We excluded the patient with soft tissue infections associated with burns, surgery, pressure ulcers, and orbit cellulitis. We analysed clinical, biochemical variables and indications for yields and imaging tests, so the empiric antibiotic treatment established and its correlations with practice guidelines. We analysed 391 admissions of 374 patients. Cellulitis was the most frequent diagnosis (69.3%). We did imaging tests in 51.6%. In 94.3% of cases were treated with empirics antibiotics. The most prescribed drug was amoxiciline plus clavulanate (39%). 27 patients died, 40.7% of them for septic cause. All deceased patients had chronic diseases. The only biochemical parameters associated with mortality were serum proteins and albumina (55 +/- 9 g/L vs. 63 +/- 8 g/L; p = 0.0231) and (22 +/- 7 g/L vs. 29 +/- 7 g/L; p = 0.0125) respectively. Cellullitis are the most frequent soft tissue infections that requires admissions in hospitals. We overuse imaging test and don t follow the practice guidelines recommendations in antibiotic therapy. Primary soft issue infection s mortality is low and it s restricted to people with chronic illness, deep infections and bad nutritional status.

  7. Effect of antipronation foot orthosis geometry on compression of heel and arch soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Declan; Nester, Christopher; Preece, Stephen; Mickle, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how systematic changes in arch height and two designs of heel wedging affect soft tissues under the foot. Soft tissue thickness under the heel and navicular was measured using ultrasound. Heel pad thickness was measured when subjects were standing on a flat surface and standing on an orthosis with 4 and 8 degree extrinsic wedges and 4 mm and 8 mm intrinsic wedges (n = 27). Arch soft tissue thickness was measured when subjects were standing and when standing on an orthosis with -6 mm, standard, and +6 mm increments in arch height (n = 25). Extrinsic and intrinsic heel wedges significantly increased soft tissue thickness under the heel compared with no orthosis. The 4 and 8 degree extrinsic wedges increased tissue thickness by 28% and 27.6%, respectively, while the 4 mm and 8 mm intrinsic wedges increased thickness by 23% and 14.6%, respectively. Orthotic arch height significantly affected arch soft tissue thickness. Compared with the no orthosis condition, the -6 mm, standard, and +6 mm arch heights decreased arch tissue thickness by 9%, 10%, and 11.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that change in orthotic geometry creates different plantar soft tissue responses that we expect to affect transmission of force to underlying foot bones.

  8. Soft tissue anchor systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M

    1994-04-01

    The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.

  9. Soft-Tissue Infections and Their Imaging Mimics: From Cellulitis to Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Ziai, Pouya; Shehata, Monda L; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Huang, Brady K

    2016-10-01

    Infection of the musculoskeletal system can be associated with high mortality and morbidity if not promptly and accurately diagnosed. These infections are generally diagnosed and managed clinically; however, clinical and laboratory findings sometimes lack sensitivity and specificity, and a definite diagnosis may not be possible. In uncertain situations, imaging is frequently performed to confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the extent of the disease, and aid in treatment planning. In particular, cross-sectional imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, provides detailed anatomic information in the evaluation of soft tissues due to their inherent high spatial and contrast resolution. Imaging findings of soft-tissue infections can be nonspecific and can have different appearances depending on the depth and anatomic extent of tissue involvement. Although many imaging features of infectious disease can overlap with noninfectious processes, imaging can help establish the diagnosis when combined with the clinical history and laboratory findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings of soft-tissue infections to better aid the referring physician in managing these patients. The aim of this article is to review the spectrum of soft-tissue infections using a systematic anatomic compartment approach. We discuss the clinical features of soft-tissue infections, their imaging findings with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging, their potential mimics, and clinical management. © RSNA, 2016.

  10. Validation of a Radiography-Based Quantification Designed to Longitudinally Monitor Soft Tissue Calcification in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie N; Hawley, Gregory D; Smith, Emily N; Mignemi, Nicholas A; Ihejirika, Rivka C; Yuasa, Masato; Cates, Justin M M; Liu, Xulei; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue calcification, including both dystrophic calcification and heterotopic ossification, may occur following injury. These lesions have variable fates as they are either resorbed or persist. Persistent soft tissue calcification may result in chronic inflammation and/or loss of function of that soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms that result in the development and maturation of calcifications are uncertain. As a result, directed therapies that prevent or resorb soft tissue calcifications remain largely unsuccessful. Animal models of post-traumatic soft tissue calcification that allow for cost-effective, serial analysis of an individual animal over time are necessary to derive and test novel therapies. We have determined that a cardiotoxin-induced injury of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the lower extremity represents a useful model in which soft tissue calcification develops remote from adjacent bones, thereby allowing for serial analysis by plain radiography. The purpose of the study was to design and validate a method for quantifying soft tissue calcifications in mice longitudinally using plain radiographic techniques and an ordinal scoring system. Muscle injury was induced by injecting cardiotoxin into the posterior compartment of the lower extremity in mice susceptible to developing soft tissue calcification. Seven days following injury, radiographs were obtained under anesthesia. Multiple researchers applied methods designed to standardize post-image processing of digital radiographs (N = 4) and quantify soft tissue calcification (N = 6) in these images using an ordinal scoring system. Inter- and intra-observer agreement for both post-image processing and the scoring system used was assessed using weighted kappa statistics. Soft tissue calcification quantifications by the ordinal scale were compared to mineral volume measurements (threshold 450.7mgHA/cm3) determined by μCT. Finally, sample-size calculations necessary to discriminate

  11. Validation of a Radiography-Based Quantification Designed to Longitudinally Monitor Soft Tissue Calcification in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephanie N.; Hawley, Gregory D.; Smith, Emily N.; Mignemi, Nicholas A.; Ihejirika, Rivka C.; Yuasa, Masato; Cates, Justin M. M.; Liu, Xulei; Schoenecker, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Soft tissue calcification, including both dystrophic calcification and heterotopic ossification, may occur following injury. These lesions have variable fates as they are either resorbed or persist. Persistent soft tissue calcification may result in chronic inflammation and/or loss of function of that soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms that result in the development and maturation of calcifications are uncertain. As a result, directed therapies that prevent or resorb soft tissue calcifications remain largely unsuccessful. Animal models of post-traumatic soft tissue calcification that allow for cost-effective, serial analysis of an individual animal over time are necessary to derive and test novel therapies. We have determined that a cardiotoxin-induced injury of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the lower extremity represents a useful model in which soft tissue calcification develops remote from adjacent bones, thereby allowing for serial analysis by plain radiography. The purpose of the study was to design and validate a method for quantifying soft tissue calcifications in mice longitudinally using plain radiographic techniques and an ordinal scoring system. Methods Muscle injury was induced by injecting cardiotoxin into the posterior compartment of the lower extremity in mice susceptible to developing soft tissue calcification. Seven days following injury, radiographs were obtained under anesthesia. Multiple researchers applied methods designed to standardize post-image processing of digital radiographs (N = 4) and quantify soft tissue calcification (N = 6) in these images using an ordinal scoring system. Inter- and intra-observer agreement for both post-image processing and the scoring system used was assessed using weighted kappa statistics. Soft tissue calcification quantifications by the ordinal scale were compared to mineral volume measurements (threshold 450.7mgHA/cm3) determined by μCT. Finally, sample-size calculations necessary

  12. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  13. [Fitting of the reconstructed craniofacial hard and soft tissues based on 2-D digital radiographs].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yao-Pu; Qiao, Min; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Yan-Ning; Si, Xin-Qin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we reconstructed the craniofacial hard and soft tissues based on the data from digital cephalometric radiographs and laser scanning. The effective fitting of the craniofacial hard and soft tissues was performed in order to increase the level of orthognathic diagnosis and treatment, and promote the communication between doctors and patients. A small lead point was put on the face of a volunteer and frontal and lateral digital cephalometric radiographs were taken. 3-D reconstruction system of the craniofacial hard tissue based on 2-D digital radiograph was used to get the craniofacial hard tissue model by means of hard tissue deformation modeling. 3-D model of facial soft tissue was obtained by using laser scanning data. By matching the lead point coordinate, the hard tissue and soft tissue were fitted. The 3-D model of the craniofacial hard and soft tissues was rebuilt reflecting the real craniofacial tissue structure, and effective fitting of the craniofacial hard and soft tissues was realized. The effective reconstruction and fitting of the 3-D craniofacial structures have been realized, which lays a foundation for further orthognathic simulation and facial appearance prediction. The fitting result is reliable, and could be used in clinical practice.

  14. ChainMail based neural dynamics modeling of soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-07-20

    Realistic and real-time modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation is a fundamental research issue in the field of surgical simulation. In this paper, a novel cellular neural network approach is presented for modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation by combining neural dynamics of cellular neural network with ChainMail mechanism. The proposed method formulates the problem of elastic deformation into cellular neural network activities to avoid the complex computation of elasticity. The local position adjustments of ChainMail are incorporated into the cellular neural network as the local connectivity of cells, through which the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue deformation are transformed into the neural dynamics of cellular neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed neural network approach is capable of modeling the soft tissues' nonlinear deformation and typical mechanical behaviors. The proposed method not only improves ChainMail's linear deformation with the nonlinear characteristics of neural dynamics but also enables the cellular neural network to follow the principle of continuum mechanics to simulate soft tissue deformation.

  15. Soft Tissue Surgical Procedures for Optimizing Anterior Implant Esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Andreas L.; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; McHale, Michelle G.; Lareau, Donald E.; Hinrichs, James E.; Romanos, Georgios E.

    2015-01-01

    Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth. PMID:26124837

  16. Changes of the peri-implant soft tissue thickness after grafting with a collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George; Deli, Giorgio; Hoffmann, Oliver; John, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of the use of a porcine monolayer collagen matrix (mCM) to increase soft-tissue volume as a part of implant site development. Implants were placed in single sites in 27 patients. In the test group, mCM was used for soft-tissue augmentation. No graft was placed in the control group. Soft-tissue thickness (STTh) was measured at the time of surgery (T0) and 6 months postoperatively (T1) at two sites (STTh 1, 1 mm below the gingival margin; STTh 2, 3 mm below the mucogingival margin). Significant increases ( P < 0.001) in STTh (STTh 1 = 1.06 mm, 117%; STTh 2 = 0.89 mm, 81%) were observed in the test group. Biopsy results showed angiogenesis and mature connective tissue covered by keratinized epithelium. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that mCM leads to a significant increase of peri-implant soft-tissue thickness, with good histological integration and replacement by soft tissue and may serve as an alternative to connective tissue grafting.

  17. Reconstruction of soft tissue after complicated calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Koski, E Antti; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M; Koskinen, Seppo K; Tukiainen, Erkki J

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 flap reconstructions were done to cover exposed calcaneal bones in 31 patients. All patients had calcaneal fractures, 19 of which were primarily open. Soft tissue reconstruction for the closed fractures was indicated by a postoperative wound complication. A microvascular flap was used for reconstruction in 21 operations (gracilis, n = 11; anterolateral thigh, n = 5; rectus abdominis, n = 3; and latissimus dorsi, n = 2). A suralis neurocutaneous flap was used in eight, local muscle flaps in three, and local skin flaps in three cases. The mean follow-up time was 14 months (range 3 months-4 years). One suralis flap failed and was replaced by a latissimus dorsi flap. Necrosis of the edges that required revision affected three flaps. Deep infection developed in two patients and delayed wound healing in another four. During the follow-up the soft tissues healed in all patients and there were no signs of calcaneal osteitis. Flaps were considered too bulky in five patients. Soft tissues heal most rapidly with microvascular flaps. In the long term, gracilis muscle covered with free skin grafts gives a good contour to the foot. The suralis flap is reliable and gives a good final aesthetic outcome. Local muscles can be transposed for reconstruction in small defects.

  18. Augmenting endogenous repair of soft tissues with nanofibre scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Sarah; Dakin, Stephanie; Carr, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    As our ability to engineer nanoscale materials has developed we can now influence endogenous cellular processes with increasing precision. Consequently, the use of biomaterials to induce and guide the repair and regeneration of tissues is a rapidly developing area. This review focuses on soft tissue engineering, it will discuss the types of biomaterial scaffolds available before exploring physical, chemical and biological modifications to synthetic scaffolds. We will consider how these properties, in combination, can provide a precise design process, with the potential to meet the requirements of the injured and diseased soft tissue niche. Finally, we frame our discussions within clinical trial design and the regulatory framework, the consideration of which is fundamental to the successful translation of new biomaterials. PMID:29695606

  19. Soft tissue reconstruction of the oral cavity: a review of current options.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Matthew H; Taylor, S Mark

    2013-08-01

    This article provides an overview of the principles of soft tissue reconstruction of the oral cavity, and reviews the recent clinical outcomes for described options. For small defects of the oral cavity, healing by secondary intention and primary closure are both excellent options and may provide functionally superior results. In defects where a split-thickness skin graft is appropriate, acellular dermis may provide results that are at least as good at lower cost. Free flaps, particularly the radial forearm and the anterolateral thigh, have become the mainstays of oral cavity soft tissue reconstruction for larger defects. Recent clinical series suggest that relatively novel regional flaps provide a reasonable alternative to free flap reconstructions for moderate and some large soft tissue defects. Soft tissue reconstruction of the oral cavity is a complex task with significant functional implications. There are a large number of reconstructive options available. Systematic appraisal of the defect and options allows the reconstructive surgeon to optimize functional potential by choosing the most appropriate reconstructive option.

  20. Soft tissue augmentation with artecoll: 10-year history, indications, techniques, and complications.

    PubMed

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Romano, James J; Busso, Mariano

    2003-06-01

    Most of the biologic filler materials that increase the thickness of the corium in a wrinkle line are phagocytosed within a certain time. Therefore, a lasting effect can only be achieved with nonresorbable synthetic substances. Artefill consists of 20 volume percent microspheres of polymethyl-methacrylate and 80 volume percent of bovine collagen. Beneath the crease, the microspheres with their exceptional surface smoothness stimulate fibroblasts to encapsulate each individual one of the 6-million microspheres contained in 1 mL of Artefill. Collagen is merely a carrier substance that prevents the microspheres from agglomerating during tissue ingrowth. The 20 volume percent of microspheres in Artefill provides the scaffold for the 80% volume of connective tissue deposition, a complete replacement of the injected collagen. The filler material beneath a crease acts like a splint and prevents the possibility of its further folding, thereby allowing the diminished thickness of the corium in a crease to recover. This recovery process is well known even in older patients with facial paralysis or after a stroke, whose facial wrinkles and furrows on the paralyzed side disappear over time.

  1. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Orlandi, C; Cardenas, G; Sazunic, I; Jemec, G B E

    2012-03-01

    While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated with the presence of those agents. We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Fillers are recognizable on ultrasound and generate different patterns of echogenicity and posterior acoustic artefacts. Cosmetic fillers were identified in 118 dermatological patients; most commonly hyaluronic acid among degradable agents and silicone oil among non-degradable. Fillers deposits were loosely scattered throughout the subcutaneous tissue, with occasional infiltration of local muscles and loco-regional lymph nodes. Accompanying dermatopathies were represented by highly localized inflammatory processes unresponsive to conventional treatment, morphea-like reactions, necrosis of fatty tissue and epidermal cysts; in the case of non-degradable agents, the associated dermatopathies were transient, resolving upon disappearance of the filler. Cosmetic filler agents may be detected and identified during routine ultrasound of dermatological lesions; the latter appear to be pathologically related to the cosmetic procedure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Use of a porcine collagen matrix as an alternative to autogenous tissue for grafting oral soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Herford, Alan S; Akin, Lee; Cicciu, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo; Boyne, Philip J

    2010-07-01

    Soft tissue grafting is often required to correct intraoral mucosal deficiencies. Autogenous grafts have disadvantages including an additional harvest site with its associated pain and morbidity and, sometimes, poor quality and limited amount of the graft. Porcine collagen matrices have the potential to be helpful for grafting of soft tissue defects. Thirty consecutive patients underwent intraoral grafting to re-create missing soft tissue. Defects ranged in size from 50 to 900 mm(2). Porcine collagen matrices were used to reconstruct missing tissue. Indications included preprosthetic (22), followed by tumor removal (5), trauma (2), and release of cheek ankylosis (1). The primary efficacy parameters evaluated were the degree of lateral and/or alveolar extension and the evaluation of re-epithelialization and shrinkage of the grafted area. Overall, the percentage of shrinkage of the graft was 14% (range, 5%-20%). The amount of soft tissue extension averaged 3.4 mm (range, 2-10 mm). The secondary efficacy parameters included hemostatic effect, pain evaluation, pain and discomfort, and clinical evaluation of the grafted site. All patients reported minimal pain and swelling associated with the grafted area. No infections were noted. This porcine collagen matrix provides a biocompatible surgical material as an alternative to an autogenous transplant, thus obviating the need to harvest soft tissue autogenous grafts from other areas of the oral cavity. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-01

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  4. Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Neil J; Bryan, Nicholas; Hunt, John A; Daniels, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24648721

  5. Multimodality management of soft tissue tumors in the extremity

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Aimee M.; Lee, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    Most extremity soft tissue sarcomas present as a painless mass. Workup should generally involve cross-sectional imaging with MRI, as well as a core biopsy for pathologic diagnosis. Limb-sparing surgery is the standard of care, and may be supplemented with radiation for histologic subtypes at higher risk for local recurrence and chemotherapy for those at higher risk for distant metastases. This article reviews the work-up and surgical approach to extremity soft tissue sarcomas, as well as the role for radiation and chemotherapy, with particular attention given to the distinguishing characteristics of some of the most common subtypes. PMID:27542637

  6. Soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre

    2009-07-01

    Laser surgery gives the possibility to work remotely which leads to high precision, little trauma and high level sterility. However these advantages are coming with the lack of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Therefore additional means are required to control tissue-specific ablation during laser surgery supporting the surgeon regardless of experience and skills. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from four various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the four tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerve as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating soft tissues as guidance for tissue-specific laser surgery by means of the diffuse reflectance.

  7. Estimating patient-specific soft-tissue properties in a TKA knee.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Joseph A; Kaufman, Michelle K; Hutter, Erin E; Granger, Jeffrey F; Beal, Matthew D; Piazza, Stephen J; Siston, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical technique is one factor that has been identified as critical to success of total knee arthroplasty. Researchers have shown that computer simulations can aid in determining how decisions in the operating room generally affect post-operative outcomes. However, to use simulations to make clinically relevant predictions about knee forces and motions for a specific total knee patient, patient-specific models are needed. This study introduces a methodology for estimating knee soft-tissue properties of an individual total knee patient. A custom surgical navigation system and stability device were used to measure the force-displacement relationship of the knee. Soft-tissue properties were estimated using a parameter optimization that matched simulated tibiofemoral kinematics with experimental tibiofemoral kinematics. Simulations using optimized ligament properties had an average root mean square error of 3.5° across all tests while simulations using generic ligament properties taken from literature had an average root mean square error of 8.4°. Specimens showed large variability among ligament properties regardless of similarities in prosthetic component alignment and measured knee laxity. These results demonstrate the importance of soft-tissue properties in determining knee stability, and suggest that to make clinically relevant predictions of post-operative knee motions and forces using computer simulations, patient-specific soft-tissue properties are needed. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Method for creating ideal tissue fusion in soft-tissue structures using radio frequency (RF) energy.

    PubMed

    Shields, Chelsea A; Schechter, David A; Tetzlaff, Phillip; Baily, Ali L; Dycus, Sean; Cosgriff, Ned

    2004-01-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) energy can successfully seal vascular structures up to 7 mm by fusing collagen and elastin in the lumen. Valleylab has created a system to expand this technology beyond vessel sealing with the development of a closed-loop, feedback-control RF generator that closely monitors tissue fusion. This generator, operating with a loop time of approximately 250 micros, continuously adjusts energy output, creating optimized soft-tissue fusion through structural protein amalgamation. In the first study, RF energy was applied to canine lung using the new-generation generator and lung-prototype device. A lobectomy was completed, sealing the lobar bronchus, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. Chronic performance of the seals was evaluated at necropsy on postoperative days 7 and 14. In a second study, RF energy was applied to porcine small intestine using the same closed-loop generator and anastomosis prototype device. Acute tissue fusion was assessed qualitatively for hemostasis and seal quality. Terminal tissue evaluation was completed on postoperative day 7 and analyzed histopathologically. Histopathology confirmed acute and chronic tissue fusion in both the lung and intestine. Normal pathological healing was substantiated by angiogenesis, granulation, and proliferation of fibroblasts. Preliminary studies using canine lung and porcine small intestine demonstrate the potential of this closed-loop generator for soft-tissue amalgamation. Advanced monitoring capabilities make this fusion system applicable in many soft-tissue structures with adequate collagen and elastin. Further investigation of potential surgical applications needs to be completed.

  9. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Sandro; Gronchi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare and multifaceted group of solid tumours. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used to limit loss of function after wide surgical excision with the ultimate aim of improving patient survival. Recently, advances in the identification of effective treatment strategies and improvements in patient risk stratification have been reached. A randomized trial demonstrated that neoadjuvant epirubicin and ifosfamide improves survival of patients affected by five high-risk soft tissue sarcoma histologies of trunk and extremities, including undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, and leiomyosarcoma. Selection of patients for these treatments is expected to be improved by the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, as it tailors T-stage categories on primary tumour site and considers a prognostic nomogram for retroperitoneal sarcoma, which also includes soft tissue sarcoma histology and other patient and tumour features not directly included in the TNM staging. Within this framework, this article will present neoadjuvant treatment strategies for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma, emphasizing the most recent advances and discussing the need for further research to improve the effectiveness of neoadjuvant treatments. PMID:28607580

  10. Clinical Presentation of Soft-tissue Infections and its Management: A Study of 100 Cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baldev; Singh, Sukha; Khichy, Sudhir; Ghatge, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue infections vary widely in their nature and severity. A clear approach to the management must allow their rapid identification and treatment as they can be life-threatening. Clinical presentation of soft-tissue infections and its management. A prospective study based on 100 patients presenting with soft-tissue infections was done. All the cases of soft-tissue infections were considered irrespective of age, sex, etiological factors, or systemic disorders. The findings were evaluated regarding the pattern of soft-tissue infections in relation to age and sex, clinical presentation, complications, duration of hospital stay, management, and mortality. The most commonly involved age group was in the range of 41-60 years with male predominance. Abscess formation (45%) was the most common clinical presentation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common associated comorbid condition. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common culture isolate obtained. The most common complication seen was renal failure. Patients with surgical site infections had maximum duration of stay in the hospital. About 94% of the cases of soft-tissue infections were managed surgically. Mortality was mostly encountered in the cases of complications of cellulitis. Skin and soft-tissue infections are among the most common infections encountered by the emergency physicians. Ignorance, reluctance to treatment, economic constraints, and illiteracy delay the early detection and the initiation of proper treatment. Adequate and timely surgical intervention in most of the cases is of utmost importance to prevent the complications and reduce the mortality.

  11. Soft-Tissue Reconstruction of the Complicated Knee Arthroplasty: Principles and Predictors of Salvage.

    PubMed

    Colen, David L; Carney, Martin J; Shubinets, Valeriy; Lanni, Michael A; Liu, Tiffany; Levin, L Scott; Lee, Gwo-Chin; Kovach, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is a common orthopedic procedure in the United States and complications can be devastating. Soft-tissue compromise or joint infection may cause failure of prosthesis requiring knee fusion or amputation. The role of a plastic surgeon in total knee arthroplasty is critical for cases requiring optimization of the soft-tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to elucidate factors associated with total knee arthroplasty salvage following complications and clarify principles of reconstruction to optimize outcomes. A retrospective review of patients requiring soft-tissue reconstruction performed by the senior author after total knee arthroplasty over 8 years was completed. Logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests determined factors associated with the primary outcome, prosthesis salvage versus knee fusion or amputation. Seventy-three knees in 71 patients required soft-tissue reconstruction (mean follow-up, 1.8 years), with a salvage rate of 61.1 percent, mostly using medial gastrocnemius flaps. Patients referred to our institution with complicated periprosthetic wounds were significantly more likely to lose their knee prosthesis than patients treated only within our system. Patients with multiple prior knee operations before definitive soft-tissue reconstruction had significantly decreased rates of prosthesis salvage and an increased risk of amputation. Knee salvage significantly decreased with positive joint cultures (Gram-negative greater than Gram-positive organisms) and particularly at the time of definitive reconstruction, which also trended toward an increased risk of amputation. In revision total knee arthroplasty, prompt soft-tissue reconstruction improves the likelihood of success, and protracted surgical courses and contamination increase failure and amputations. The authors show a benefit to involving plastic surgeons early in the course of total knee arthroplasty complications to optimize genicular soft tissues. Therapeutic

  12. Changes of the peri-implant soft tissue thickness after grafting with a collagen matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George; Deli, Giorgio; Hoffmann, Oliver; John, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of the use of a porcine monolayer collagen matrix (mCM) to increase soft-tissue volume as a part of implant site development. Materials and Methods: Implants were placed in single sites in 27 patients. In the test group, mCM was used for soft-tissue augmentation. No graft was placed in the control group. Soft-tissue thickness (STTh) was measured at the time of surgery (T0) and 6 months postoperatively (T1) at two sites (STTh 1, 1 mm below the gingival margin; STTh 2, 3 mm below the mucogingival margin). Results: Significant increases (P < 0.001) in STTh (STTh 1 = 1.06 mm, 117%; STTh 2 = 0.89 mm, 81%) were observed in the test group. Biopsy results showed angiogenesis and mature connective tissue covered by keratinized epithelium. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that mCM leads to a significant increase of peri-implant soft-tissue thickness, with good histological integration and replacement by soft tissue and may serve as an alternative to connective tissue grafting. PMID:28298828

  13. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VIII. Soft Tissue Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on soft tissue injuries is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Six units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the skin; (2) patient assessment for soft-tissue injuries; (3) pathophysiology and management of soft tissue injuries;…

  14. A Computational Modeling Approach for Investigating Soft Tissue Balancing in Bicruciate Retaining Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahram; Wilson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty, although has shown improved functions and patient satisfaction compared to other designs of total knee replacement, remains a technically demanding option for treating severe cases of arthritic knees. One of the main challenges in bicruciate retaining arthroplasty is proper balancing of the soft tissue during the surgery. In this study biomechanics of soft tissue balancing was investigated using a validated computational model of the knee joint with high fidelity definitions of the soft tissue structures along with a Taguchi method for design of experiments. The model was used to simulate intraoperative balancing of soft tissue structures following the combinations suggested by an orthogonal array design. The results were used to quantify the corresponding effects on the laxity of the joint under anterior-posterior, internal-external, and varus-valgus loads. These effects were ranked for each ligament bundle to identify the components of laxity which were most sensitive to the corresponding surgical modifications. The resulting map of sensitivity for all the ligament bundles determined the components of laxity most suitable for examination during intraoperative balancing of the soft tissue. Ultimately, a sequence for intraoperative soft tissue balancing was suggested for a bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty. PMID:23082090

  15. Principles of treatment for soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dernell, W S; Withrow, S J; Kuntz, C A; Powers, B E

    1998-02-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are mesenchymal tumors arising from connective tissue elements and are grouped together based on a common biologic behavior. The most common histologic types include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (schwannoma and neurofibrosarcoma) "hemangiopericytoma," fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. These tumors are relatively slow growing yet locally invasive with a high rate of recurrence following conservative management. Appropriate preoperative planning and aggressive surgical resection often result in long-term remission or cure. Identification and evaluation of resection margins are paramount in appropriate case management. The addition of radiotherapy after surgical resection can aid in remission for incompletely resected masses. Systemic chemotherapy for STS should be considered for high-grade tumors with a moderate metastatic potential. Potential prognostic factors include grade, resection margins, size, location, histologic type, and previous treatment, with grade and margins being the most important. Tumor types classified as STS that differ slightly in their presentation or treatment, including synovial cell sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and vaccine-associated STS in cats, are discussed. Soft tissue sarcomas can be a frustrating disease to treat, but adherence to solid surgical oncology principles can greatly increase the odds of good disease control.

  16. Traumatic hallux varus repair utilizing a soft-tissue anchor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, J M; Kaczander, B I

    2000-01-01

    Hallux varus is usually iatrogenic in nature; however, congenital and acquired etiologies have been described in the literature. The authors present a case of traumatic hallux varus secondary to rupture of the adductor tendon. Surgical correction was performed using a soft tissue anchor for maintenance of the soft tissues utilized for repair.

  17. In vivo soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre

    Remote laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback to operate layer by layer and preserve vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. The aim of this study is identification of soft tissue in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Various soft tissues can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent nerve damage during oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  18. Contact forces in the tibiofemoral joint from soft tissue tensions: Implications to soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Matthias A; Meere, Patrick A; Salvadore, Gaia; Victor, Jan; Walker, Peter S

    2017-06-14

    Proper tension of the knee's soft tissue envelope is important during total knee arthroplasty; incorrect tensioning potentially leads to joint stiffness or instability. The latter remains an important trigger for revision surgery. The use of sensors quantifying the intra-articular loads, allows surgeons to assess the ligament tension at the time of surgery. However, realistic target values are missing. In the framework of this paper, eight non-arthritic cadaveric specimens were tested and the intra-articular loads transferred by the medial and lateral compartment were measured using custom sensor modules. These modules were inserted below the articulating surfaces of the proximal tibia, with the specimens mounted on a test setup that mimics surgical conditions. For both compartments, the highest loads are observed in full extension. While creating knee flexion by lifting the femur and flexing the hip, mean values (standard deviation) of 114N (71N) and 63N (28N) are observed at 0° flexion for the medial and lateral compartment respectively. Upon flexion, both medial and lateral loads decrease with mean values at 90° flexion of 30N (22N) and 6N (5N) respectively. The majority of the load is transmitted through the medial compartment. These observations are linked to the deformation of the medial and lateral collaterals, in addition to the anatomy of the passive soft tissues surrounding the knee. In conclusion, these findings provide tangible clinical guidance in assessing the soft tissue loads when dealing with anatomically designed total knee implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hindfoot containment orthosis for management of bone and soft-tissue defects of the heel.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey E; Rudzki, Jonas R; Janisse, Erick; Janisse, Dennis J; Valdez, Ray R; Hanel, Douglas P; Gould, John S

    2005-03-01

    Bone, soft-tissue, and nerve deficits of the weightbearing surface of the foot are frequent sequelae from foot trauma or diabetes mellitus and present challenging treatment issues. Injury to the specialized, shock-absorbing, heel-pad tissue containing spirally arranged fat chambers is particularly difficult to manage. Appropriate footwear modifications and shoe inserts for protection of this skin are essential to the long-term management of bone and soft-tissue defects of the heel. This study evaluated the performance of a new custom total contact foot orthosis (Hindfoot Containment Orthosis, HCO) which was designed to contain the soft tissues of the heel, reduce shear forces, redistribute weightbearing load, and accommodate bone or soft-tissue deformity of the heel. Twenty-two patients treated with HCO were retrospectively reviewed. Followup averaged 26 months. The effectiveness of the orthosis was assessed by how well the integrity of the soft tissue was maintained (e.g. the number of ulcerations since dispensing the orthosis), the number of refabrications of the orthosis that were required, and whether or not revision surgery was required. Ten patients had superficial ulcerations. No patient required revision surgery. A total of 62 refabrications of the orthoses in 22 patients were required over a 2-year period. Overall results were good in 17 (77%) patients, fair in four (18%), and poor in one. The HCO is effective for preservation of soft-tissue integrity of the heel pad after bony or soft-tissue injury. Important factors in achieving success with the HCO are patient compliance and periodic monitoring for refabrication of the orthosis to accommodate skeletal growth, change in foot size or shape, and compression or wear of insert materials.

  20. Real-time haptic cutting of high-resolution soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Westermann, Rüdiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We present our systematic efforts in advancing the computational performance of physically accurate soft tissue cutting simulation, which is at the core of surgery simulators in general. We demonstrate a real-time performance of 15 simulation frames per second for haptic soft tissue cutting of a deformable body at an effective resolution of 170,000 finite elements. This is achieved by the following innovative components: (1) a linked octree discretization of the deformable body, which allows for fast and robust topological modifications of the simulation domain, (2) a composite finite element formulation, which thoroughly reduces the number of simulation degrees of freedom and thus enables to carefully balance simulation performance and accuracy, (3) a highly efficient geometric multigrid solver for solving the linear systems of equations arising from implicit time integration, (4) an efficient collision detection algorithm that effectively exploits the composition structure, and (5) a stable haptic rendering algorithm for computing the feedback forces. Considering that our method increases the finite element resolution for physically accurate real-time soft tissue cutting simulation by an order of magnitude, our technique has a high potential to significantly advance the realism of surgery simulators.

  1. Soft tissue tumors induced by monomeric {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1995-10-01

    Individual records of soft tissue tumor occurrence (lifetime incidence) among 236 beagles injected with {sup 239}Pu citrate as young adults and 131 comparable control beagles given no radioactivity enabled us to analyze the possible effects on soft tissue tumor induction resulting from internal exposure to {sup 239}Pu. A significant trend was identified in the proportion of animals having malignant liver tumors with increasing radiation dose from {sup 239}. There was also a significant difference in the relative numbers of both malignant liver tumors (18.1 expected, 66 observed). Malignant tumors of the mouth, pancreas, and skin were more frequent among controlsmore » than among the dogs given {sup 239}Pu as well as tumors (malignant plus benign) of the mouth, pancreas, testis, and vagina. For all other tumor sites or types, there was no significant difference for both malignant and all (malignant plus benign) tumors. Mammary tumor occurrence appeared not to be associated with {sup 239}Pu incorporation. We conclude that the only soft-tissue neoplasia induced by the intake of {sup 239}Pu directly into blood is probably a liver tumor. 20 refs., 6 tabs.« less

  2. Hydrogel derived from decellularized porcine adipose tissue as a promising biomaterial for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiu-Wen; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Jing-Cong; Zhang, Di; Xiong, Bin-Jun; Yang, Ji-Qiao; Xie, Hui-Qi; Lv, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds from human adipose tissue, characterized by impressive adipogenic induction ability, are promising for soft tissue augmentation. However, scaffolds from autologous human adipose tissue are limited by the availability of tissue resources and the time necessary for scaffold fabrication. The objective of the current study was to investigate the adipogenic properties of hydrogels of decellularized porcine adipose tissue (HDPA). HDPA induced the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro, with significantly increased expression of adipogenic genes. Subcutaneous injection of HDPA in immunocompetent mice induced host-derived adipogenesis without cell seeding, and adipogenesis was significantly enhanced with ADSCs seeding. The newly formed adipocytes were frequently located on the basal side in the non-seeding group, but this trend was not observed in the ADSCs seeding group. Our results indicated that, similar to human adipose tissue, the ECM scaffold derived from porcine adipose tissue could provide an adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue regeneration and is a promising biomaterial for soft tissue augmentation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1756-1764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Plantar soft tissue thickness during ground contact in walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is introduced for the measurement of plantar soft tissue thickness during barefoot walking. Subjects stepped into an adjustable Plexiglas frame which ensured that the required bony landmarks were appropriately positioned relative to a linear ultrasound probe connected to a conventional 7.5 MHz ultrasound scanner. Clear images of the metatarsal condyles or other foot bones were obtained throughout ground contact. Subsequent analysis of the video taped images using a motion analysis system allowed the tissue displacement to be calculated as a function of time. The tissue underneath the second metatarsal head was shown to undergo an average maximum compression of 45.7% during the late stages of ground contact during first step gait in a group of five normal subjects with a mean unloaded tissue thickness of 15.2 mm. The technique has a number of applications, including use in the validation of deformation predicted by finite element models of the soft tissue of the foot, and the study of alterations in the cushioning properties of the heel by devices which constrain the displacement of the heel pad.

  4. Polymer structure-property requirements for stereolithographic 3D printing of soft tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mondschein, Ryan J; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Williams, Christopher B; Verbridge, Scott S; Long, Timothy E

    2017-09-01

    This review highlights the synthesis, properties, and advanced applications of synthetic and natural polymers 3D printed using stereolithography for soft tissue engineering applications. Soft tissue scaffolds are of great interest due to the number of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and connective tissue injuries and replacements humans face each year. Accurately replacing or repairing these tissues is challenging due to the variation in size, shape, and strength of different types of soft tissue. With advancing processing techniques such as stereolithography, control of scaffold resolution down to the μm scale is achievable along with the ability to customize each fabricated scaffold to match the targeted replacement tissue. Matching the advanced manufacturing technique to polymer properties as well as maintaining the proper chemical, biological, and mechanical properties for tissue replacement is extremely challenging. This review discusses the design of polymers with tailored structure, architecture, and functionality for stereolithography, while maintaining chemical, biological, and mechanical properties to mimic a broad range of soft tissue types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Refer prior to biopsy of suspected appendicular soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Robert S J; Flint, Michael; French, Gary

    2012-11-23

    Appendicular soft tissue tumours are rare and inappropriate investigation can result in unnecessary loss of limb or life. We reviewed the investigation and referrals of patients to our institution. This is a review of prospectively collected data stored in a tumour registry database. We included all patients (126) referred to the service for investigation and management with a primary soft tissue tumour in 2006 and 2007. There was a highly significant association (RR=6.2) between pre referral procedures (PRPs) and suffering a complication (P<0.0001) in comparison to non-biopsied referrals (NBRs). Those referred by general surgeons were more likely (RR=2.6) to have undergone PRP (p<0.0017). The median interval between referral and senior author review was 8 days for the PRP group and 10 days for the NBR group (P=0.2574). Biopsy of suspected appendicular soft tissue sarcoma should be performed by a tumour specialist or in prior consultation with, to minimise adverse outcomes. There was minimal delay till review by an orthopaedic tumour specialist at Middlemore Hospital and achieving a tissue diagnosis does not expedite this.

  6. A finite nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic model for soft biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satish Kumar; Buist, Martin Lindsay

    2018-03-01

    Soft tissues exhibit highly nonlinear rate and time-dependent stress-strain behaviour. Strain and strain rate dependencies are often modelled using a hyperelastic model and a discrete (standard linear solid) or continuous spectrum (quasi-linear) viscoelastic model, respectively. However, these models are unable to properly capture the materials characteristics because hyperelastic models are unsuited for time-dependent events, whereas the common viscoelastic models are insufficient for the nonlinear and finite strain viscoelastic tissue responses. The convolution integral based models can demonstrate a finite viscoelastic response; however, their derivations are not consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. The aim of this work was to develop a three-dimensional finite hyper-viscoelastic model for soft tissues using a thermodynamically consistent approach. In addition, a nonlinear function, dependent on strain and strain rate, was adopted to capture the nonlinear variation of viscosity during a loading process. To demonstrate the efficacy and versatility of this approach, the model was used to recreate the experimental results performed on different types of soft tissues. In all the cases, the simulation results were well matched (R 2 ⩾0.99) with the experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia; David, Nathaniel; Mori, Susumu; Taube, Janis M.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal light exposure. Modulating the ratio of synthetic to biological polymer allowed us to tune implant elasticity and volume persistence. In a small-animal model, implanted photocrosslinked PEG-HA showed a dose-dependent relationship between increasing PEG concentration and enhanced implant volume persistence. In direct comparison with commercial HA injections, the PEG-HA implants maintained significantly greater average volumes and heights. Reversibility of the implant volume was achieved with hyaluronidase injection. Pilot clinical testing in human patients confirmed the feasibility of the transdermal photocrosslinking approach for implantation in abdomen soft tissue, although an inflammatory response was observed surrounding some of the materials. PMID:21795587

  8. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Soft Tissue Damage and Failure Using a Combined Particle/Continuum Approach.

    PubMed

    Rausch, M K; Karniadakis, G E; Humphrey, J D

    2017-02-01

    Biological soft tissues experience damage and failure as a result of injury, disease, or simply age; examples include torn ligaments and arterial dissections. Given the complexity of tissue geometry and material behavior, computational models are often essential for studying both damage and failure. Yet, because of the need to account for discontinuous phenomena such as crazing, tearing, and rupturing, continuum methods are limited. Therefore, we model soft tissue damage and failure using a particle/continuum approach. Specifically, we combine continuum damage theory with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Because SPH is a meshless particle method, and particle connectivity is determined solely through a neighbor list, discontinuities can be readily modeled by modifying this list. We show, for the first time, that an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model commonly employed for modeling soft tissue can be conveniently implemented within a SPH framework and that SPH results show excellent agreement with analytical solutions for uniaxial and biaxial extension as well as finite element solutions for clamped uniaxial extension in 2D and 3D. We further develop a simple algorithm that automatically detects damaged particles and disconnects the spatial domain along rupture lines in 2D and rupture surfaces in 3D. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simulating damage and failure under clamped uniaxial extension and in a peeling experiment of virtual soft tissue samples. In conclusion, SPH in combination with continuum damage theory may provide an accurate and efficient framework for modeling damage and failure in soft tissues.

  10. Modeling Soft Tissue Damage and Failure Using a Combined Particle/Continuum Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, M. K.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soft tissues experience damage and failure as a result of injury, disease, or simply age; examples include torn ligaments and arterial dissections. Given the complexity of tissue geometry and material behavior, computational models are often essential for studying both damage and failure. Yet, because of the need to account for discontinuous phenomena such as crazing, tearing, and rupturing, continuum methods are limited. Therefore, we model soft tissue damage and failure using a particle/continuum approach. Specifically, we combine continuum damage theory with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Because SPH is a meshless particle method, and particle connectivity is determined solely through a neighbor list, discontinuities can be readily modeled by modifying this list. We show, for the first time, that an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model commonly employed for modeling soft tissue can be conveniently implemented within a SPH framework and that SPH results show excellent agreement with analytical solutions for uniaxial and biaxial extension as well as finite element solutions for clamped uniaxial extension in 2D and 3D. We further develop a simple algorithm that automatically detects damaged particles and disconnects the spatial domain along rupture lines in 2D and rupture surfaces in 3D. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simulating damage and failure under clamped uniaxial extension and in a peeling experiment of virtual soft tissue samples. In conclusion, SPH in combination with continuum damage theory may provide an accurate and efficient framework for modeling damage and failure in soft tissues. PMID:27538848

  11. Recurrent Soft Tissue Abscesses Caused by Legionella cincinnatiensis

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Jacques G. H.; Schorr, Mirjam; Gaia, V.; Zbinden, R.; Altwegg, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent soft tissue abscesses of the jaw, wrist, and arm developed in a 73-year-old housewife with nephrotic syndrome and immunoglobulin A(κ) gammopathy of unknown etiology. Conventional cultures remained negative, despite visible gram-negative rods on microscopy. Broad-spectrum PCR revealed Legionella cincinnatiensis, which was confirmed by isolation of the organism on special Legionella medium. Infections due to Legionella species outside the lungs are rare. L. cincinnatiensis has been implicated in only four cases of clinical infection; these involved the lungs in three patients and the central nervous system in one patient. We conclude that broad-spectrum PCR can be a valuable tool for the evaluation of culture-negative infections with a high probability of bacterial origin and that Legionella might be an underdiagnosed cause of pyogenic soft tissue infection. PMID:11724886

  12. Facial Soft Tissue Thickness of Midline in an Iranian Sample: MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Johari, Masume; Esmaeili, Farzad; Hamidi, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    To identify human skeletal remains, different methods can be used and using these techniques, important data can be obtained. However, facial reconstruction is the last method to indentify unknown human faces which requires knowledge about facial soft tissue thickness in the different positions of the face. The present study determined the facial soft tissue thickness in the different landmark points on the MRI images of patients referred to Radiology Department of Shahid Madani Hospital. In this descriptive cross-sectional trial, MRI images of 179 patients (61 males, 118 females) in the age range of 18-76 years old who did not show any pathologic lesions, were selected. The measurements of the facial soft tissue were done on 12 landmark points on the midline area by two radiologist observers using specific software on the images. The differences in the soft tissue thickness in these landmark points were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U (in term of gender) and Kruskal-Wallis tests (in terms of Body Mass Index [BMI] and age groups). P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data were compared with the results of other studies. The results obtained in the present study were higher than Turkish and American studies in most of the landmark points. Facial soft tissue thickness in most of the landmarks was more in males than females. In some of the landmarks, significant differences were found between emaciated, normal and overweight patients while in most cases, soft tissue thickness increased with the increased BMI. In some cases, significant differences were noted between soft tissue thickness values among the different age groups, in which the thickness increased or thinned with the increased age. There were statistically significant associations between the presence and surface area of Haller cells and the occurrence of ipsilateral maxillary sinusitis. Neither the angulation of the uncinate process nor the size of the maxillary

  13. Soft-tissue rheumatism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Reveille, J D

    1997-01-27

    Soft tissue rheumatism is one of the most common and most misunderstood categories of disorders facing the primary care physician. Among the more common types are subacromial bursitis, epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, anserine bursitis, and fibromyalgia. The keys to the diagnosis of soft-tissue rheumatism are the history and, more importantly, the physical examination. Extensive laboratory testing and radiographs are not as helpful in evaluating patients with these complaints. Treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and nonnarcotic analgesics. Especially in patients with localized disorders, intralesional injections of corticosteroids are particularly effective and safe and should be part of the armamentarium of the primary care practitioner. Fibromyalgia is a particularly challenging form of nonarticular rheumatism. The clinical presentation is rather characteristic, with the patient typically being a woman 30-60 years of age who presents with diffuse somatic pain. Patients often give a history of sleep disturbance, may be depressed, and show characteristic tender areas, or trigger points. Laboratory findings are normal. Management includes reassurance, correction of the underlying sleep disturbance with low doses of a tricyclic antidepressant, treatment with muscle relaxants and nonnarcotic analgesics or NSAIDs, and an exercise program with a strong aerobic component.

  14. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Soft Tissue Sarcoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    FNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 2; FNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 3; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Stage I Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage II Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IIA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

  15. Arthroscopic evaluation of soft tissue injuries in tibial plateau fractures: retrospective analysis of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed Zaki; Chang, Chung-Hsun; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Lo, Yang-Pin; Huang, Jau-Wen; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2006-06-01

    This investigation arthroscopically assesses the frequency of soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fracture according to the severity of fracture patterns. We hypothesized that use of arthroscopy to evaluate soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fractures would reveal a greater number of associated injuries than have previously been reported. From March 1996 to December 2003, 98 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and osteosynthesis, with precise diagnosis and management of associated soft tissue injuries. Arthroscopic findings for associated soft tissue injuries were recorded, and the relationship between fracture type and soft tissue injury was then analyzed. The frequency of associated soft tissue injury in this series was 71% (70 of 98). The menisci were injured in 57% of subjects (56 in 98), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 25% (24 of 98), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 5% (5 of 98), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 3% (3 of 98), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 3% (3 of 98), and the peroneal nerve in 1% (1 of 98); none of the 98 patients exhibited injury to the arteries. No significant association was noted between fracture type and incidence of meniscus, PCL, LCL, MCL, artery, and nerve injury. However, significantly higher injury rates for the ACL were observed in type IV and VI fractures. Soft tissue injury was associated with all types of tibial plateau fracture. Menisci (peripheral tear) and ACL (bony avulsion) were the most commonly injured sites. A variety of soft tissue injuries are common with tibial plateau fracture; these can be diagnosed with the use of an arthroscope. Level III, diagnostic study.

  16. Prevalence, Type and Etiology of Dental and Soft Tissue Injuries in Children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Škaričić, Josip; Vuletić, Marko; Hrvatin, Sandra; Jeličić, Jesenka; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence, type and etiology of dental and soft tissue injuries and relationship between the time of arrival and sustaining soft tissue injury were analyzed in this retrospective study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University Dental Clinic in Zagreb, Croatia, during the 2010-2014 period using documentation on 447 patients (264 male and 183 female) aged 1-16 years with injuries of primary and permanent teeth. The highest prevalence of traumatic dental injury (TDI) was found in the 7-12 age group and maxillary central incisors were most frequently affected (80.9%) in both primary and permanent dentitions. Enamel-dentin fracture without pulp exposure (31.9%) was the most common TDI of dental hard tissue in both dentitions, whereas subluxation (27.3%) was the most common periodontal tissue injury type. The most frequent location, cause and seasonal variation of trauma were at home, falling and spring. Soft tissue injuries were observed in 203 (45.4%) patients. Soft tissue injuries were less likely when fewer teeth were traumatized (p<0.001). Comparison of children with and without soft tissue injuries yielded a statistically significant difference in the time to arrival between primary and permanent teeth (p<0.01). Because soft tissue injuries include bleeding and clinical presentation appears more dramatic, the time elapsed between injury and initial treatment was shorter than in non-bleeding injuries, pointing to the need of education focused on parents and school teachers regarding the importance of immediate therapy for both bleeding and non-bleeding TDIs.

  17. Practical use of imaging technique for management of bone and soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-05-01

    Imaging modalities including radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are necessary for the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors. The history of imaging began with the discovery of X-rays in the 19th century. The development of CT, MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography (PET) have improved the management of bone and soft tissue tumors. X-ray imaging and CT scans enable the evaluation of bone destruction, periosteal reaction, sclerotic changes in lesions, condition of cortical bone, and ossification. MRI enables the assessment of tissue characteristics, tumor extent, and the reactive areas. Functional imaging modalities including 201 thallium ( 201 Tl) scintigraphy can be used to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions and to assess chemotherapeutic effects. Real-time assessment of soft tissue tumors by ultrasonography enables accurate and safe performance of surgery and biopsy. This article describes useful imaging modalities and characteristic findings in the management of bone and soft tissue tumors. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soft tissue recurrence of giant cell tumor of the bone: Prevalence and radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leilei; Jin, Jing; Hu, Annan; Xiong, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Sun, Qi; Wang, Shoufeng

    2017-11-01

    Recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in the soft tissue is rarely seen in the clinical practice. This study aims to determine the prevalence of soft tissue recurrence of GCTB, and to characterize its radiographic features. A total of 291 patients treated by intralesional curettage for histologically diagnosed GCTB were reviewed. 6 patients were identified to have the recurrence of GCTB in the soft tissue, all of whom had undergone marginal resection of the lesion. Based on the x-ray, CT and MRI imaging, the radiographic features of soft tissue recurrence were classified into 3 types. Type I was defined as soft tissue recurrence with peripheral ossification, type II was defined as soft tissue recurrence with central ossification, and type III was defined as pure soft tissue recurrence without ossification. Demographic data including period of recurrence and follow-up duration after the second surgery were recorded for these 6 patients. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system was used to evaluate functional outcomes. The overall recurrence rate was 2.1% (6/291). The mean interval between initial surgery and recurrence was 11.3 ± 4.1 months (range, 5-17). The recurrence lesions were located in the thigh of 2 patients, in the forearm of 2 patients and in the leg of the other 2 patients. According to the classification system mentioned above, 2 patients were classified with type I, 1 as type II and 3 as type III. After the marginal excision surgery, all patients were consistently followed up for a mean period of 13.4 ± 5.3 months (range, 6-19), with no recurrence observed at the final visit. All the patients were satisfied with the surgical outcome. According to the MSTS scale, the mean postoperative functional score was 28.0 ± 1.2 (range, 26-29). The classification of soft tissue recurrence of GCTB may be helpful for the surgeon to select the appropriate imaging procedure to detect the recurrence. In addition, the marginal resection can produce

  19. Soft tissue augmentation procedures for mucogingival defects in esthetic sites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert A; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Cochran, David L

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review was performed to address the focus question: "In adult patients with soft tissue deficiencies around maxillary anterior implants, what is the effect on esthetic outcomes when a soft tissue procedure is performed?" In addition, this paper reviews the importance of presurgical esthetic risk assessment (ERA) starting with comprehensive team case planning prior to surgical intervention and a restorative-driven approach. A thorough Medline database search performed on related MeSH terms yielded 1,532 titles and selected abstracts that were independently screened. Out of the 351 abstracts selected, 123 full-text articles were obtained for further evaluation. At each level, any disagreements were discussed until a consensus was reached. A total of 18 studies were included in this systematic review of esthetic outcomes following soft tissue procedures around implants with soft tissue deficiencies. A preliminary analysis of the included studies showed that the vast majority were case series studies with most not providing objective outcomes of their results. Moreover, only one randomized controlled trial was identified. Therefore, quantitative data analysis and subsequent meta-analysis could not be performed. The included studies were grouped according to the intervention on the peri-implant soft tissue performed and six groups were identified. The periodontal procedures performed around dental implants gave initial good results from the inflammation involved in wound healing, but in virtually all cases significant recession occurred as healing resolved and the tissues matured. Although success of implant therapy is similar in the anterior maxilla and other areas of the mouth, the majority of studies evaluating this therapy in the esthetic zone are lacking literature support, few in number, devoid of long-term follow-up and number of patients, and are subject to inclusion bias. The use of the ERA tool for all esthetic zone cases can benefit both the

  20. Xenogeneic collagen matrix versus connective tissue graft for buccal soft tissue augmentation at implant site. A randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Francesco; Barbato, Luigi; Tonelli, Paolo; Batalocco, Guido; Pagavino, Gabriella; Nieri, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Peri-implant soft tissue may be critical to prevent inflammation and promote gingival margin stability. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) is to compare xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) versus connective tissue graft (CTG) to increase buccal soft tissue thickness at implant site. Soft tissue augmentation with XCM (test) or CTG (control) was performed at 60 implants in 60 patients at the time of implant uncovering. Measurements were performed by a blinded examiner at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures included buccal soft tissue thickness (GT), apico-coronal keratinized tissue (KT), chair time and post-operative discomfort. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patient satisfaction. After 6 months, the final GT increase was 0.9 ± 0.2 in the XCM group and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm in the CTG group, with a significant difference favouring the control group (0.3 mm; p = .0001). Both procedures resulted in similar final KT amount with no significant difference between treatments. XCM was associated with significant less chair-time (p < .0001), less post-operative pain (p < .0001), painkillers intake (p < .0001) and higher final satisfaction than CTG (p = .0195). CTG was more effective than XCM to increase buccal peri-implant soft tissue thickness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lasers in Esthetic Dentistry: Soft Tissue Photobiomodulation, Hard Tissue Decontamination, and Ceramics Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Karen Müller; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Correa-Aranha, Ana Cecília; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Lopes, Roberta Marques da Graça; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern and the search for conservative dental treatments have resulted in the development of several new technologies. Low and high power lasers can be cited as one of these new technologies. Low power lasers act at cellular level leading to pain reduction, modulation of inflammation, and improvement of tissue healing. High power lasers act by increasing temperature and have the potential to promote microbial reduction and ablation of hard and soft tissues. The clinical application of both low and high power lasers requires specific knowledge concerning laser interaction with biological tissues, so that the correct irradiation protocol can be established. The present case report describes the clinical steps of two metal-ceramic crowns development in a 60-year-old patient. Three different laser wavelengths were applied throughout the treatment with different purposes: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) for dentin decontamination, diode (660 nm) for soft tissue biomodulation, and Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) for inner ceramic surface conditioning. Lasers were successfully applied in the present case report as coadjutant in the treatment. This coadjutant technology can be a potential tool to assist treatment to reach the final success. PMID:25147746

  2. Cixutumumab and Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Unresectable, Locally Advanced, or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated High Grade Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Childhood Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma With Mixed Embryonal and Alveolar Features; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Malignant Childhood Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

  3. Single-stage soft tissue reconstruction and orbital fracture repair for complex facial injuries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng Sen; Matoo, Reshvin; Sun, Hong; Song, Li Yuan; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair. Inclusion criteria were open soft tissue wounds with clinical and radiographic evidence of orbital fractures and repair performed within 48 h after injury. Surgical complications and reconstructive outcomes were assessed over 6 months. The main outcome measures were enophthalmos, pre- and post-CT imaging of orbits, scar evaluation, presence of diplopia, and eyelid position. Enophthalmos was corrected in 16/19 cases and improved in 3/19 cases. 3D reconstruction of CT images showed markedly improved orbital alignment with objective measurements of the optic foramen to cornea distance (mm) in reconstructed orbits relative to intact orbits of 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (lower 0.33, upper 0.99) mm. The mean baseline of Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale was 0.6, 95%CI (0.30-0.92), and for 6 months, the mean score was 3.4, 95%CI (3.05-3.73). Residual diplopia in secondary gazes was present in two patients; one patient had ectropion. Complications included one case of local wound infection. An early single-stage repair of combined soft tissue and orbital fractures yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes. Complications are low and likely related to trauma severity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing fundamental 2-dimensional understanding of basic soft tissue techniques.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Noel; Dobratz, Eric J; Dresner, Harley S; Hilger, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    To develop a written practical examination and scoring system for assessing trainee skills in basic soft-tissue techniques. A brief written practical examination was developed to assess the ability of trainees to sketch preoperative plans and postoperative results for common soft-tissue techniques: simple-excision, M-plasty, geometric broken line closure, Z-plasty, V-to-Y flap, and rhombic flap. A scoring system was developed to assign 0 to 5 points to each of 10 items on the examination for a total score of 0-50. The 15-minute examination was administered as a pretest, posttest, and 3-month posttest assessment as part of a soft-tissue course at our institution. University of Minnesota, Otolaryngology Department. Three raters reviewed all examination answer sheets independently. The pretest scores of examinees correlated strongly with their level of training; the average pretest for junior residents (PGY 1-2) compared with senior residents (PGY 4-5) was 17.3 (of 50) versus 26.0 (p < 0.01). The scoring system showed a high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability with correlation coefficients of r = 0.99 and r = 0.95, respectively and agreement coefficients of κ = 0.82 and κ = 0.77, respectively. This written practical examination and scoring system may be used to assess the skills of trainees accurately in basic soft tissue techniques and to expose areas of deficiency that can be addressed in future training sessions. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  6. Concomitant Correction of a Soft-Tissue Fenestration with Keratinised Tissue Augmentation By Using A Rotated Double-Pedicle Flap During Second-Stage Implant Surgery- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aileni Amarender; Kumar, P. Anoop; Sailaja, Sistla; Chakravarthy, Yshs

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue deficiencies and defects around dental implants have been observed frequently. Soft-tissue defects after implant procedures originate from the process of modelling of periimplant mucosa and often cause aesthetic disharmony, food debris accumulation and soft tissue shrinkage. Periimplant mucogingival surgery focuses on creating an optimum band of keratinized tissue resulting in soft tissue architecture similar to the gingiva around natural teeth. A 23-year-old male reported to the Department of Periodontology with a complaint of gum soreness, foul smell and food accumulation at a site where a 3.75 x 11.5mm implant was placed previously. On clinical examination, fenestration of tissue above the cover screw was observed and there appeared to be a keratinized tissue of 1mm surrounding the implant. The case was managed by use of a rotated double-pedicle flap during second-stage implant surgery to correct the soft-tissue fenestration defect and to obtain a keratinized periimplant soft tissue. A periosteal bed was prepared by giving a horizontal incision at the mucogingival junction to a depth of 4 mm. Two split-thickness keratinized pedicles were dissected from the mesial and distal interproximal tissues near the implant. After rotation, both the pedicles were sutured to each other mid-buccally and the pedicles were rigidly immobilized with sutures. At 1 month, there was a 3mm band of stable and firm keratinized tissue over the underlying tissues. The procedure resulted in an aesthetic improvement due to enhanced soft tissue architecture and optimum integration between the peri-implant soft tissue and the final prosthesis. PMID:26816998

  7. Vertical Ridge Augmentation and Soft Tissue Reconstruction of the Anterior Atrophic Maxillae: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Urban, Istvan A; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    Severe vertical ridge deficiency in the anterior maxilla represents one of the most challenging clinical scenarios in the bone regeneration arena. As such, a combination of vertical bone augmentation using various biomaterials and soft tissue manipulation is needed to obtain successful outcomes. The present case series describes a novel approach to overcome vertical deficiencies in the anterior atrophied maxillae by using a mixture of autologous and anorganic bovine bone. Soft tissue manipulation including, but not limited to, free soft tissue graft was used to overcome the drawbacks of vertical bone augmentation (eg, loss of vestibular depth and keratinized mucosa). By combining soft and hard tissue grafts, optimum esthetic and long-term implant prosthesis stability can be achieved and sustained.

  8. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  9. Reverse radial artery flap for soft tissue defects of hand in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Saeed Ashraf; Talaat, Nabeela

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the usefulness of reverse radial artery flap in covering various soft tissue defects of hand in paediatric age group. A total of 16 reverse radial artery flaps were utilized in a period of three years to cover various soft tissue defects of hand for paediatric age group patients. The age ranged from 5-18 years. The two common causes of soft tissue defects in this series were mechanical trauma and fireworks trauma with five cases in each group. Three of the cases were burn victims and other two presented with earth quake injuries. One patient had wound because of road traffic accident. Soft tissue defects of palm were covered with this flap in eight cases while in three cases it was wrapped around the thumb. First web space defects were covered with this flap in two cases. Two cases required coverage of amputation stump at transmetacarpal level and yet another required a big flap to cover the soft tissue defects at palm, dorsum and thumb. Donor site was covered with split skin graft in all cases but one, which was closed primarily. We had partial loss of flap in one case. Grafted donor sites healed uneventfully and were quite acceptable to the patients in due course of time. Reverse radial artery flap has a quite long arc of rotation which brings it great ease to cover the soft tissue defects of various areas of hand like palm, dorsum, first web space and thumb.

  10. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft-tissue facial profile of Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Pandian, K Saravana; Krishnan, Sindhuja; Kumar, S Aravind

    2018-01-01

    Soft-tissue analysis has become an important component of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Photographic evaluation of an orthodontic patient is a very close representation of the appearance of the person. The previously established norms for soft-tissue analysis will vary for different ethnic groups. Thus, there is a need to develop soft-tissue facial profile norms pertaining to Indian ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to establish the angular photogrammetric standards of soft-tissue facial profile for Indian males and females and also to compare sexual dimorphism present between them. The lateral profile photographs of 300 random participants (150 males and 150 females) between ages 18 and 25 years were taken and analyzed using FACAD tracing software. Inclusion criteria were angles Class I molar occlusion with acceptable crowding and proclination, normal growth and development with well-aligned dental arches, and full complements of permanent teeth irrespective of third molar status. This study was conducted in Indian population, and samples were taken from various cities across India. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out, and sexual dimorphism was evaluated by Student's t-test between males and females. The results of the present study showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) gender difference in 5 parameters out of 12 parameters in Indian population. In the present study, soft-tissue facial measurements were established by means of photogrammetric analysis to facilitate orthodontists to carry out more quantitative evaluation and make disciplined decisions. The mean values obtained can be used for comparison with records of participants with the same characteristics by following this photogrammetric technique.

  11. Soft-tissue imaging with C-arm cone-beam CT using statistical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Webster Stayman, J.; Otake, Yoshito; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Gallia, Gary L.; Khanna, A. Jay; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-02-01

    The potential for statistical image reconstruction methods such as penalized-likelihood (PL) to improve C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue visualization for intraoperative imaging over conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) is assessed in this work by making a fair comparison in relation to soft-tissue performance. A prototype mobile C-arm was used to scan anthropomorphic head and abdomen phantoms as well as a cadaveric torso at doses substantially lower than typical values in diagnostic CT, and the effects of dose reduction via tube current reduction and sparse sampling were also compared. Matched spatial resolution between PL and FBP was determined by the edge spread function of low-contrast (˜40-80 HU) spheres in the phantoms, which were representative of soft-tissue imaging tasks. PL using the non-quadratic Huber penalty was found to substantially reduce noise relative to FBP, especially at lower spatial resolution where PL provides a contrast-to-noise ratio increase up to 1.4-2.2× over FBP at 50% dose reduction across all objects. Comparison of sampling strategies indicates that soft-tissue imaging benefits from fully sampled acquisitions at dose above ˜1.7 mGy and benefits from 50% sparsity at dose below ˜1.0 mGy. Therefore, an appropriate sampling strategy along with the improved low-contrast visualization offered by statistical reconstruction demonstrates the potential for extending intraoperative C-arm CBCT to applications in soft-tissue interventions in neurosurgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgeries by overcoming conventional tradeoffs in noise, spatial resolution, and dose.

  12. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of oral soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Karabut, Maria; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Muraev, Alexander; Fomina, Julia

    2011-03-01

    We consider the capabilities of cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously for diagnosis of oral soft tissues. CP OCT was done for 35 patients with dental implants and 30 patients with inflammatory intestine diseases. Our study showed good diagnostic capabilities of CP OCT for detecting soft tissue pathology in the oral cavity. The cross-polarized images demonstrate the ability of tissue to depolarize. CP OCT demonstrates clinical capabilities for early diagnosis of inflammatory intestine diseases by the state of oral cavity mucosa and for early detection of gingivitis in patients above implant.

  13. Soft tissue reconstruction for calcaneal fractures or osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Attinger, C; Cooper, P

    2001-01-01

    A systematic approach of the surgical management of a calcaneal fracture can minimize the potential of soft tissue complications. When reducing a closed calcaneal fracture, the incision used affects the postoperative complications. The L-shaped incision with the horizontal limb lying on the lateral glabrous junction ensures maximum blood flow to either side of the incision. Whether or not the wound can be closed primarily depends on the preexisting edema, the lost calcaneal height, and the delay between the fracture and reduction (Fig. 20). The wrinkle test is a good indicator that the incision can be closed primarily if the amount of height restored is minimal. If the edema is too great, steps should be taken to reduce it sufficiently to allow successful wound closure. If the wound, after reduction, is too wide to allow primary closure, an ADM flap laterally or an AHM flap medially should be used. For larger defects, a free flap should be considered. The three important steps to reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the calcaneus include good blood supply, a infection-free wound, and the simplest soft tissue reconstructive option that covers the wound successfully. Adequate blood supply can be determined by the use of Doppler. If the supply is inadequate, revascularization is necessary before proceeding. Achieving a clean wound requires aggressive debridement, intravenous antibiotics, and good wound care. Adjuncts that can help in achieving a clean wound include topical antibiotics (silver sulfadiazine), the VAC, and hyperbaric oxygen. Osteomyelitis has to be treated aggressively. Any suspicious bone has to be removed. Only clean, healthy, bleeding bone is left behind. Antibiotic beads can be useful when there is doubt as to whether the cancellous bone is infection-free. The beads are not a substitute for good debridement, however. Soft tissue reconstruction ranges from delayed primary closure to the use of microsurgical free flaps (Fig. 21). When bone or

  14. Soft tissue remodeling technique as a non-invasive alternative to second implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Vela, Xavier; Méndez, Víctor; Rodríguez, Xavier; Segalà, Maribel; Gil, Jaime A

    2012-01-01

    It is currently accepted that success in implant-supported restorations is based not only on osseointegration, but also on achieving the esthetic outcome of natural teeth and healthy soft tissues. The socalled "pink esthetic" has become the main challenge with implant-supported rehabilitations in the anterior area. This is especially difficult in the cases with two adjacent implants. Two components affect the final periimplant gingiva: a correct bone support, and a sufficient quantity and quality of soft tissues. Several papers have emphasized the need to regenerate and preserve the bone after extractions, or after the exposure of the implants to the oral environment. The classical implantation protocol entails entering the working area several times and always involves the surgical manipulation of peri-implant tissues. Careful surgical handling of the soft tissues when exposing the implants and placing the healing abutments (second surgery) helps the clinician to obtain the best possible results, but even so there is a loss of volume of the tissues as they become weaker and more rigid after each procedure. The present study proposes a new protocol that includes the connective tissue graft placement and the soft tissues remodeling technique, which is based on the use of the ovoid pontics. This technique may help to minimize the logical scar reaction after the second surgery and to improve the final emergence profile.

  15. Facial soft tissue thickness of Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Sílvia Virginia; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; de Almeida, Natalie Haddad; de Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra

    2009-12-15

    The auxiliary technique known as Facial Reconstruction enables one to reestablish the contours of the soft tissues over the skull, therefore producing a face and increasing the probability of a facial recognition. The reliability of this technique depends on the evaluation of the mean values of soft tissue thicknesses observed in a given population. Measurements were evaluated in autopsied corpses in "Section of Technical Verification of Deaths" in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil. Thickness was measured manually by puncturing 10 midline craniometrical points and 11 bilateral points on a sample of 40 corpses of both sexes aged between 17 and 90 years, classified by skin color and the nutritional state. The results for the average thickness values are higher for males, variations related to the nutritional state are proportional to the increased fat on the face and age was not significant. The ethnic variable related to skin color when compared to studies with other populations showed differences, with the need for a reference table for a given population application of Facial Reconstruction technique in skulls of non-attributable identity.

  16. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, G Fernandes; Dagli, M Lúcia Zaidan; Meira, S Aparecida; Matera, J Maria

    2013-09-01

    This work aimed to evaluate serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 25 dogs with soft tissue sarcoma, and in 30 healthy dogs. Blood was collected once time from the control animals and three times, in the same way, from animals with sarcoma. Blood count was performed in the blood collected, and serum VEGF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantitative method. Serum VEGF in control animals was similar to patients with soft tissue sarcoma. There was a reduction in serum VEGF after the sarcoma resection. There was positive correlation between serum VEGF and neutrophil counts, and negative between VEGF and hemoglobin content in animals with sarcoma. Animals with hemangiopericytoma showed higher serum VEGF levels compared to the patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath. Circulating blood cells can contribute to elevate VEGF serum concentrations in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas and a possible role of VEGF in the angiogenesis of these tumors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-03-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  18. Pitfalls in soft tissue sarcoma imaging: chronic expanding hematomas.

    PubMed

    Jahed, Kiarash; Khazai, Behnaz; Umpierrez, Monica; Subhawong, Ty K; Singer, Adam D

    2018-01-01

    Solid or nodular enhancement is typical of soft tissue sarcomas although high grade soft tissue sarcomas and those with internal hemorrhage often appear heterogeneous with areas of nonenhancement and solid or nodular enhancement. These MRI findings often prompt an orthopedic oncology referral, a biopsy or surgery. However, not all masses with these imaging findings are malignant. We report the multimodality imaging findings of two surgically proven chronic expanding hematomas (CEH) with imaging features that mimicked sarcomas. A third case of nonenhancing CEH of the lower extremity is also presented as a comparison. It is important that in the correct clinical scenario with typical imaging findings, the differential diagnosis of a chronic expanding hematoma be included in the workup of these patients. An image-guided biopsy of nodular tissue within such masses that proves to be negative for malignancy should not necessarily be considered discordant. A correct diagnosis may prevent a morbid unnecessary surgery and may indicate the need for a conservative noninvasive follow-up with imaging.

  19. Detection of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in non-Ewing soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Trancău, I O; Huică, R; Surcel, M; Munteanu, A; Ursaciuc, C

    2015-01-01

    EWS/FLI-1 fusion mainly appears in Ewing's sarcoma or the primitive neuroectodermal tumors and represents a genomic marker for these tumors. However, it can appear with lower frequency in other soft tissue tumors. The paper investigates the presence of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in clinically diagnosed sarcoma belonging to different non-Ewing connective tissue tumors in order to search for a possible new biomarker valuable for investigators. 20 patients with soft tissue tumors, who underwent surgery, were tested. Intra-operative samples of normal and tumor tissue were collected for histopathological diagnosis and genetics determinations. The patients' RNA from tumor and normal peritumoral tissue was extracted and EWS/FLI-1 fusion screened by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative expression of the fusion in the tumor sample was compared to the similar expression in normal tissue. The amplification in the threshold zone was shown by 5 samples (25%): 2 clear cell sarcoma, 1 fibrosarcoma, 1 malignant tumor of nerve sheath, 1 metastatic adenocarcinoma. We differentiated between the unspecific amplification and concluded that these are weak positive results. Genomic investigation may establish the tumor malignancy and its possible affiliation earlier than histopathology. It can support the screening of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in a larger variety of clinically diagnosed soft tissue tumors.

  20. A Clinicopathological Analysis of Soft Tissue Sarcoma with Telangiectatic Changes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ae, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Taisuke; Gokita, Tabu; Motoi, Noriko; Matsumoto, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Soft tissue sarcoma with a hemorrhagic component that cannot be easily diagnosed by needle biopsy is defined here as soft tissue sarcoma with telangiectatic changes (STST). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathological data of STST from 14 out of 784 patients (prevalence: 1.8%) with soft tissue sarcoma. Results. Tumors were found mostly in the lower leg. Histological diagnoses were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n = 5), synovial sarcoma (n = 5), epithelioid sarcoma (n = 2), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and fibrosarcoma (n = 1). No history of trauma to the tumor site was recorded in any patient. Needle aspiration transiently reduced the tumor volume, but subsequent recovery of tumor size was observed in all cases. Out of 14 patients, 9 presented with a painful mass. MRI characteristics included intratumoral nodules (64.3%). The local recurrence rate was 14.3%, and the 2-year event-free survival rate was poorer (50%) than that of most sarcomas. Conclusions. STST is unique in its clinicopathological presentation. Painful hematomas without a trauma history, intratumoral nodules within a large hemorrhagic component, and subsequent recovery of tumor size after aspiration are indicative of the presence of STST.

  1. A Clinicopathological Analysis of Soft Tissue Sarcoma with Telangiectatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ae, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Taisuke; Gokita, Tabu; Motoi, Noriko; Matsumoto, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Soft tissue sarcoma with a hemorrhagic component that cannot be easily diagnosed by needle biopsy is defined here as soft tissue sarcoma with telangiectatic changes (STST). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathological data of STST from 14 out of 784 patients (prevalence: 1.8%) with soft tissue sarcoma. Results. Tumors were found mostly in the lower leg. Histological diagnoses were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n = 5), synovial sarcoma (n = 5), epithelioid sarcoma (n = 2), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and fibrosarcoma (n = 1). No history of trauma to the tumor site was recorded in any patient. Needle aspiration transiently reduced the tumor volume, but subsequent recovery of tumor size was observed in all cases. Out of 14 patients, 9 presented with a painful mass. MRI characteristics included intratumoral nodules (64.3%). The local recurrence rate was 14.3%, and the 2-year event-free survival rate was poorer (50%) than that of most sarcomas. Conclusions. STST is unique in its clinicopathological presentation. Painful hematomas without a trauma history, intratumoral nodules within a large hemorrhagic component, and subsequent recovery of tumor size after aspiration are indicative of the presence of STST. PMID:26839509

  2. Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Soft Tissue Wound Healing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Miron, Richard J; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Bishara, Mark; Zhang, Yufeng; Hernandez, Maria; Choukroun, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The growing multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering aims at predictably regenerating, enhancing, or replacing damaged or missing tissues for a variety of conditions caused by trauma, disease, and old age. One area of research that has gained tremendous awareness in recent years is that of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), which has been utilized across a wide variety of medical fields for the regeneration of soft tissues. This systematic review gathered all the currently available in vitro, in vivo, and clinical literature utilizing PRF for soft tissue regeneration, augmentation, and/or wound healing. In total, 164 publications met the original search criteria, with a total of 48 publications meeting inclusion criteria (kappa score = 94%). These studies were divided into 7 in vitro, 11 in vivo, and 31 clinical studies. In summary, 6 out of 7 (85.7%) and 11 out of 11 (100%) of the in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively, demonstrated a statistically significant advantage for combining PRF to their regenerative therapies. Out of the remaining 31 clinical studies, a total of 8 reported the effects of PRF in a randomized clinical trial, with 5 additional studies (13 total) reporting appropriate controls. In those clinical studies, 9 out of the 13 studies (69.2%) demonstrated a statistically relevant positive outcome for the primary endpoints measured. In total, 18 studies (58% of clinical studies) reported positive wound-healing events associated with the use of PRF, despite using controls. Furthermore, 27 of the 31 clinical studies (87%) supported the use of PRF for soft tissue regeneration and wound healing for a variety of procedures in medicine and dentistry. In conclusion, the results from the present systematic review highlight the positive effects of PRF on wound healing after regenerative therapy for the management of various soft tissue defects found in medicine and dentistry.

  3. Isolated Limb Perfusion of Melphalan With or Without Tumor Necrosis Factor in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Arm or Leg

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Stage IVB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIC Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IVA Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  4. EF5 to Evaluate Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Mouth Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  5. Soft tissue deformation estimation by spatio-temporal Kalman filter finite element method.

    PubMed

    Yarahmadian, Mehran; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan; Shin, Jaehyun

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue modeling plays an important role in the development of surgical training simulators as well as in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. It has been known that while the traditional Finite Element Method (FEM) promises the accurate modeling of soft tissue deformation, it still suffers from a slow computational process. This paper presents a Kalman filter finite element method to model soft tissue deformation in real time without sacrificing the traditional FEM accuracy. The proposed method employs the FEM equilibrium equation and formulates it as a filtering process to estimate soft tissue behavior using real-time measurement data. The model is temporally discretized using the Newmark method and further formulated as the system state equation. Simulation results demonstrate that the computational time of KF-FEM is approximately 10 times shorter than the traditional FEM and it is still as accurate as the traditional FEM. The normalized root-mean-square error of the proposed KF-FEM in reference to the traditional FEM is computed as 0.0116. It is concluded that the proposed method significantly improves the computational performance of the traditional FEM without sacrificing FEM accuracy. The proposed method also filters noises involved in system state and measurement data.

  6. Laser Surgery of Soft Tissue in Orthodontics: Review of the Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Massoud; Matini, Negin-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, a wide variety of procedures have been done by laser application in orthodontics. Apart from the mentioned range of various treatments, laser has become a tool for many soft tissue surgeries as an alternative to conventional scalpel-based technique during orthodontic treatments in the management of soft tissue. Due to scarce information in the latter subject, this study was designed in order to include clinical trials that included soft tissue ablation by laser in orthodontics. Methods: Literature was searched based on PubMed and Google Scholar databases in 5 years (2010-2015) with English language restriction and clinical trial design. Studies that performed soft tissue application of laser during orthodontic treatment were extracted by the authors. Results: Only eight studies met the inclusion criteria. No significant difference was found between laser ablation and conventional scalpel technique in the matter of treatment outcome. However, few issues remained to clarify the differences in the mentioned procedures. Conclusion: Laser performance can be recommended in case of preceding less bleeding and discomfort during surgical procedure. There are still quandaries among clinical application of scalpel-based surgery in aesthetic region with bracket-bonded teeth. Precaution and knowledge regarding the characteristics of laser beam such as wavelength, frequency, power and timing is extremely needed.

  7. Laser Surgery of Soft Tissue in Orthodontics: Review of the Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Matini, Negin-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, a wide variety of procedures have been done by laser application in orthodontics. Apart from the mentioned range of various treatments, laser has become a tool for many soft tissue surgeries as an alternative to conventional scalpel-based technique during orthodontic treatments in the management of soft tissue. Due to scarce information in the latter subject, this study was designed in order to include clinical trials that included soft tissue ablation by laser in orthodontics. Methods: Literature was searched based on PubMed and Google Scholar databases in 5 years (2010-2015) with English language restriction and clinical trial design. Studies that performed soft tissue application of laser during orthodontic treatment were extracted by the authors. Results: Only eight studies met the inclusion criteria. No significant difference was found between laser ablation and conventional scalpel technique in the matter of treatment outcome. However, few issues remained to clarify the differences in the mentioned procedures. Conclusion: Laser performance can be recommended in case of preceding less bleeding and discomfort during surgical procedure. There are still quandaries among clinical application of scalpel-based surgery in aesthetic region with bracket-bonded teeth. Precaution and knowledge regarding the characteristics of laser beam such as wavelength, frequency, power and timing is extremely needed. PMID:29263776

  8. Cell-assisted lipotransfer in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Wen, Huicai; Jian, Xueping; Liao, Huaiwei; Sui, Yunpeng; Liu, Yanping; Xu, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have experimented with a variety of substances to improve soft tissue deformities of the face. Autologous fat grafting provides significant advantages over other modalities because it leaves no scar, is easy to use and is well tolerated by most patients. Autologous fat grafting has become one of the most popular techniques in the field of facial plastic surgery. Unfortunately, there are still two major problems affecting survival rate and development: revascularization after transplantion; and cell reservation proliferation and survival. Since Zuk and Yosra developed a technology based on adipose-derived stem cells and cell-assisted lipotrophy, researchers have hoped that this technology would promote the survival and reduce the absorption of grafted fat cells. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells may have great potential in skin repair applications, aged skin rejuvenation and other aging-related skin lesion treatments. Recently, the study of adipose-derived stem cells has gained increased attention. More researchers have started to adopt this technology in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. The present article reviews the history of facial soft tissue augmentation and the advent of adipose-derived stem cells in the area of the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. PMID:26361629

  9. Doxorubicin With Upfront Dexrazoxane Plus Olaratumab for the Treatment of Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-08

    Sarcoma, Soft Tissue; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Synovial Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Angiosarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Epithelioid Sarcoma

  10. [Study of susceptibility weighted imaging on MR and pathologic findings to distinguish benign or malignant soft tissue tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Chen, Y; Bao, X M; Ling, X L; Ding, J P; Zhang, Z K

    2017-05-23

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic performance of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)in distinguishing benign or malignant soft tissue tumor, and to study pathological observation. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with soft tissue tumor, who received no previous treatment or invasive examination, received routine preoperative MRI examination and SWI scanning. The graduation and distribution of intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity(ITSS) and proportion of tumor volume were observed.The pathological results were also included for comparative analysis. Results: Fourty of 68 patients were benign and 28 were malignant. 72.5% (29/40) patients with benign soft tissue tumors were ITSS grade 1 and ITSS grade 3 (hemangioma). 89.3%(25/28) patients with malignant soft tissue tumors were ITSS grade 2 and ITSS grade 3. The difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01). The distribution of ITSS in patients with benign soft tissue tumors was dominated by peripheral distribution and diffuse distribution (hemangioma), accounting for 90.0% (36/40). The distribution of ITSS in patients with malignant soft tissue tumors mainly distributed in the central region, accounting for 78.6% (22 /28). The difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01). The proportion of tumor volume occupied by ITSS in benign soft tissue tumors was <1/3 and> 2/3 (hemangioma), accounting for 90.0% (36/40). The volume of malignant soft tissue tumors were predominantly <1/3 , accounting for 82.1% (23/28). The difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01). Conclusion: SWI is sensitive in displaying the vein and blood metabolites in soft tissue lesions, which is helpful for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors in soft tissue.

  11. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and soft tissue infection among high school football players.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; McCord, Gary; Peiffer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Richard R; Parikh, Arpan; Warrington, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections have been documented with increasing frequency in both team and individual sports in recent years. It also seems that the level of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the general population has increased. One hundred ninety athletes from 6 local high school football teams were recruited for this prospective observational study to document nasal colonization and the potential role this plays in skin and soft tissue infections in football players and, in particular, MRSA infections. Athletes had nasal swabs done before their season started, and they filled out questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for skin and soft tissue infections. Those enrolled in the study were then observed over the course of the season for skin and soft tissue infections. Those infected had data about their infections collected. One hundred ninety of 386 available student athletes enrolled in the study. Forty-four of the subjects had nasal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none were colonized with MRSA. There were 10 skin and soft tissue infections (8 bacterial and 2 fungal) documented over the course of the season. All were treated as outpatients with oral or topical antibiotics, and none were considered serious. Survey data from the preseason questionnaire showed 21% with skin infection, 11% with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none with MRSA infection during the past year. Three reported a remote history of MRSA infection. We documented an overall skin infection rate of 5.3% among high school football players over a single season. Our results suggest that skin and soft tissue infection may not be widespread among high school athletes in northeast Ohio.

  12. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    PubMed

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  13. Tracheo-bronchial soft tissue and cartilage resonances in the subglottal acoustic input impedance.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Arsikere, Harish

    2015-06-01

    This paper offers a re-evaluation of the mechanical properties of the tracheo-bronchial soft tissues and cartilage and uses a model to examine their effects on the subglottal acoustic input impedance. It is shown that the values for soft tissue elastance and cartilage viscosity typically used in models of subglottal acoustics during phonation are not accurate, and corrected values are proposed. The calculated subglottal acoustic input impedance using these corrected values reveals clusters of weak resonances due to soft tissues (SgT) and cartilage (SgC) lining the walls of the trachea and large bronchi, which can be observed empirically in subglottal acoustic spectra. The model predicts that individuals may exhibit SgT and SgC resonances to variable degrees, depending on a number of factors including tissue mechanical properties and the dimensions of the trachea and large bronchi. Potential implications for voice production and large pulmonary airway tissue diseases are also discussed.

  14. Efficiency of soft tissue incision with a novel 445-nm semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Braun, Andreas; Kettner, Moritz; Berthold, Michael; Wenzler, Johannes-Simon; Heymann, Paul Günther Baptist; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser for tissue incision, an effective cut is expected due to the special absorption properties of blue laser light in soft tissues. The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of tissue samples after incision with a 445-nm diode laser. Forty soft tissue specimens were obtained from pork oral mucosa and mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. The handpiece of a high-frequency surgery device, a 970-nm semiconductor laser, and a 445-nm semiconductor laser were connected to the slide, allowing a constant linear movement (2 mm/s) and the same distance of the working tip to the soft tissue's surface. Four incisions were made each: (I) 970-nm laser with conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 3-W cw; (II-III): 445-nm laser with non-conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 2-W cw, and non-contact mode (1 mm) at 2 W; and (IV): high-frequency surgery device with straight working tip, 90° angulation, contact mode at 50 W. Histological analysis was performed after H&E staining of the embedded specimens at 35-fold magnification. The comparison of the incision depths showed a significant difference depending on the laser wavelength and the selected laser parameters. The highest incision depth was achieved with the 445-nm laser contact mode (median depth 0.61 mm, min 0.26, max 1.17, interquartile range 0.58) (p < 0.05) with the lowest amount of soft tissue denaturation (p < 0.05). The lowest incision depth was measured for the high-frequency surgical device (median depth 0.36 mm, min 0.12, max 1.12, interquartile range 0.23) (p < 0.05). Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser, a higher cutting efficiency can be expected when compared with a 970-nm diode laser and high-frequency surgery. Even the 445-nm laser application in non-contact mode shows clinically acceptable incision depths without signs of extensive soft tissue denaturation.

  15. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Maetevorakul, Suhatcha; Viteporn, Smorntree

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8-16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3%. Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R(2) = 0.099), whereas protrusion of the lower lip at the labrale inferius was correlated with initial inclination of

  16. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    PubMed

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  17. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: management of soft tissues for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marco; Maghaireh, Hassan; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Ziounas, Ioannis; Worthington, Helen V

    2012-02-15

    Dental implants are usually placed by elevating a soft tissue flap, but in some instances, they can also be placed flapless reducing patient discomfort. Several flap designs and suturing techniques have been proposed. Soft tissues are often manipulated and augmented for aesthetic reasons. It is often recommended that implants are surrounded by a sufficient width of attached/keratinised mucosa to improve their long-term prognosis. To evaluate whether (1a) flapless procedures are beneficial for patients, and (1b) which is the ideal flap design; whether (2a) soft tissue correction/augmentation techniques are beneficial for patients, and (2b) which are the best techniques; whether (3a) techniques to increase the peri-implant keratinised mucosa are beneficial for patients, and (3b) which are the best techniques; and (4) which are the best suturing techniques/materials. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 9 June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 9 June 2011), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 9 June 2011). Several dental journals were handsearched. There were no language restrictions. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of root-form osseointegrated dental implants, with a follow-up of at least 6 months after function, comparing various techniques to handle soft tissues in relation to dental implants. Outcome measures, according to the different hypotheses, were: prosthetic and implant failures, biological complications, aesthetics evaluated by patients and dentists, postoperative pain, marginal peri-implant bone level changes on periapical radiographs, patient preference, ease of maintenance by patient, soft tissue thickness changes and attached/keratinised mucosa height changes. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted at least in

  18. [Delayed reconstructions of soft tissue defects of the face].

    PubMed

    Mest'ák, J

    2007-06-01

    The author describes a non-standard approach to the management of facial soft tissue defects. Significance of delayed reconstructions in defect face injuries and options for their employment in indicated cases are highlighted.

  19. Risk factors for pedicled flap necrosis in hand soft tissue reconstruction: a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xu; Cui, Jianli; Jiang, Ziping; Lu, Laijin; Li, Xiucun

    2018-03-01

    Few clinical retrospective studies have reported the risk factors of pedicled flap necrosis in hand soft tissue reconstruction. The aim of this study was to identify non-technical risk factors associated with pedicled flap perioperative necrosis in hand soft tissue reconstruction via a multivariate logistic regression analysis. For patients with hand soft tissue reconstruction, we carefully reviewed hospital records and identified 163 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The characteristics of these patients, flap transfer procedures and postoperative complications were recorded. Eleven predictors were identified. The correlations between pedicled flap necrosis and risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of 163 skin flaps, 125 flaps survived completely without any complications. The pedicled flap necrosis rate in hands was 11.04%, which included partial flap necrosis (7.36%) and total flap necrosis (3.68%). Soft tissue defects in fingers were noted in 68.10% of all cases. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the soft tissue defect site (P = 0.046, odds ratio (OR) = 0.079, confidence interval (CI) (0.006, 0.959)), flap size (P = 0.020, OR = 1.024, CI (1.004, 1.045)) and postoperative wound infection (P < 0.001, OR = 17.407, CI (3.821, 79.303)) were statistically significant risk factors for pedicled flap necrosis of the hand. Soft tissue defect site, flap size and postoperative wound infection were risk factors associated with pedicled flap necrosis in hand soft tissue defect reconstruction. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. CMG2 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wedler, Alice; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Kehlen, Astrid; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Bache, Matthias; Würl, Peter; Kappler, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), also known as the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), is a transmembrane protein putatively involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and tissue remodeling. CMG2 promotes endothelial cell proliferation and exhibits angiogenic properties. Its downregulation is associated with a worsened survival of breast carcinoma patients. Aim of this study was to analyze the CMG2 mRNA and protein expression in soft tissue sarcoma and their association with patient outcome. CMG2 mRNA was measured in 121 tumor samples of soft tissue sarcoma patients using quantitative real-time PCR. CMG2 protein was evaluated in 52 tumor samples by ELISA. CMG2 mRNA was significantly correlated with the corresponding CMG2 protein expression (rs = 0.31; p = 0.027). CMG2 mRNA expression was associated with the mRNA expressions of several ECM and tissue remodeling enzymes, among them CD26 and components of the uPA system. Low CMG2 mRNA expression was correlated with a worsened patients’ disease-specific survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses (mean patient survival was 25 vs. 96 months; p = 0.013), especially in high-stage tumors. A decreased CMG2 expression is a negative prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcoma patients. CMG2 may be an interesting candidate gene for the further exploration of soft tissue sarcoma genesis and progression. PMID:29215551

  1. CMG2 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Greither, Thomas; Wedler, Alice; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Kehlen, Astrid; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Bache, Matthias; Würl, Peter; Taubert, Helge; Kappler, Matthias

    2017-12-07

    The capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), also known as the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), is a transmembrane protein putatively involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and tissue remodeling. CMG2 promotes endothelial cell proliferation and exhibits angiogenic properties. Its downregulation is associated with a worsened survival of breast carcinoma patients. Aim of this study was to analyze the CMG2 mRNA and protein expression in soft tissue sarcoma and their association with patient outcome. CMG2 mRNA was measured in 121 tumor samples of soft tissue sarcoma patients using quantitative real-time PCR. CMG2 protein was evaluated in 52 tumor samples by ELISA. CMG2 mRNA was significantly correlated with the corresponding CMG2 protein expression (r s = 0.31; p = 0.027). CMG2 mRNA expression was associated with the mRNA expressions of several ECM and tissue remodeling enzymes, among them CD26 and components of the uPA system. Low CMG2 mRNA expression was correlated with a worsened patients' disease-specific survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses (mean patient survival was 25 vs. 96 months; p = 0.013), especially in high-stage tumors. A decreased CMG2 expression is a negative prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcoma patients. CMG2 may be an interesting candidate gene for the further exploration of soft tissue sarcoma genesis and progression.

  2. Congruence of Imaging Estimators and Mechanical Measurements of Viscoelastic Properties of Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Castaneda, Benjamin; Wu, Zhe; Nigwekar, Priya; Joseph, Jean V.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues are important for a wide range of medical applications, such as surgical simulation and planning and detection of lesions by elasticity imaging modalities. Currently, the data in the literature is limited and conflicting. Furthermore, to assess the biomechanical properties of living tissue in vivo, reliable imaging-based estimators must be developed and verified. For these reasons we developed and compared two independent quantitative methods – crawling wave estimator (CRE) and mechanical measurement (MM) for soft tissue characterization. The CRE method images shear wave interference patterns from which the shear wave velocity can be determined and hence the Young’s modulus can be obtained. The MM method provides the complex Young’s modulus of the soft tissue from which both elastic and viscous behavior can be extracted. This article presents the systematic comparison between these two techniques on the measurement of gelatin phantom, veal liver, thermal-treated veal liver, and human prostate. It was observed that the Young’s moduli of liver and prostate tissues slightly increase with frequency. The experimental results of the two methods are highly congruent, suggesting CRE and MM methods can be reliably used to investigate viscoelastic properties of other soft tissues, with CRE having the advantages of operating in nearly real time and in situ. PMID:17604902

  3. Biology of soft tissue wound healing and regeneration--consensus report of Group 1 of the 10th European Workshop on Periodontology.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Giannobile, William V

    2014-04-01

    The scope of this consensus was to review the biological processes of soft tissue wound healing in the oral cavity and to histologically evaluate soft tissue healing in clinical and pre-clinical models. To review the current knowledge regarding the biological processes of soft tissue wound healing at teeth, implants and on the edentulous ridge. Furthermore, to review soft tissue wound healing at these sites, when using barrier membranes, growth and differentiation factors and soft tissue substitutes. Searches of the literature with respect to recessions at teeth and soft tissue deficiencies at implants, augmentation of the area of keratinized tissue and soft tissue volume were conducted. The available evidence was collected, categorized and summarized. Oral mucosal and skin wound healing follow a similar pattern of the four phases of haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and maturation/matrix remodelling. The soft connective tissue determines the characteristics of the overlaying oral epithelium. Within 7-14 days, epithelial healing of surgical wounds at teeth is completed. Soft tissue healing following surgery at implants requires 6-8 weeks for maturation. The resulting tissue resembles scar tissue. Well-designed pre-clinical studies providing histological data have been reported describing soft tissue wound healing, when using barrier membranes, growth and differentiation factors and soft tissue substitutes. Few controlled clinical studies with low numbers of patients are available for some of the treatments reviewed at teeth. Whereas, histological new attachment has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies resulting from some of the treatments reviewed, human histological data commonly report a lack of new attachment but rather long junctional epithelial attachment and connective tissue adhesion. Regarding soft tissue healing at implants human data are very scarce. Oral soft tissue healing at teeth, implants and the edentulous ridge follows the same phases

  4. Hyaluronic acid gel distribution pattern in periocular area with high-resolution ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Goh, Alice S; Kohn, Jocelyne C; Rootman, Daniel B; Lin, Joseph L; Goldberg, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) is a useful tool in defining anatomic and dynamic soft tissue relationships in the periocular area. It also allows visualization of hyaluronic acid (HA) gel within the soft tissue. The authors investigate the difference in the distribution pattern between 2 HA fillers in the periocular tissue using HRUS. The charts of 10 patients who underwent periocular injection using HA gel filler and were subsequently examined with HRUS were reviewed. Half of the patients (n = 5) were treated with Restylane-L (Medicis Aesthetics, Inc, Scottsdale, Arizona) and the remaining 5 with Belotero Balance (Merz Aesthetics, Inc, San Mateo, California). Ultrasonographic evaluation (Logiq p6; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Washington) was performed before and immediately after HA filler injection. The HA appears as a hypoechoic image within the soft tissue plane on HRUS. Restylane-L filler formed a localized hypoechoic image within the tissue, with some spread into bubbles or pearl-like configuration. Belotero Balance spread more widely into the tissue plane and diffused into an elongated or spindle-shaped hypoechoic image. Our preliminary data suggest that HA gel fillers with differing production technologies show distinct spread and distribution patterns in the periocular tissues on HRUS examination.

  5. Quantitative diagnostics of soft tissue through viscoelastic characterization using time-based instrumented palpation.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Torralba, Javier; Hammer, Steven; Good, Daniel W; Alan McNeill, S; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert L; Chen, Yuhang

    2015-01-01

    Although palpation has been successfully employed for centuries to assess soft tissue quality, it is a subjective test, and is therefore qualitative and depends on the experience of the practitioner. To reproduce what the medical practitioner feels needs more than a simple quasi-static stiffness measurement. This paper assesses the capacity of dynamic mechanical palpation to measure the changes in viscoelastic properties that soft tissue can exhibit under certain pathological conditions. A diagnostic framework is proposed to measure elastic and viscous behaviors simultaneously using a reduced set of viscoelastic parameters, giving a reliable index for quantitative assessment of tissue quality. The approach is illustrated on prostate models reconstructed from prostate MRI scans. The examples show that the change in viscoelastic time constant between healthy and cancerous tissue is a key index for quantitative diagnostics using point probing. The method is not limited to any particular tissue or material and is therefore useful for tissue where defining a unique time constant is not trivial. The proposed framework of quantitative assessment could become a useful tool in clinical diagnostics for soft tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft Tissue Closure of Grafted Extraction Sockets in the Anterior Maxilla: A Modified Palatal Pedicle Connective Tissue Flap Technique.

    PubMed

    El Chaar, Edgard; Oshman, Sarah; Cicero, Giuseppe; Castano, Alejandro; Dinoi, Cinzia; Soltani, Leila; Lee, Yoonjung Nicole

    Localized ridge resorption, the consequence of socket collapse, following tooth extraction in the anterior maxilla can adversely affect esthetics, function, and future implant placement. Immediate grafting of extraction sockets may help preserve natural ridge contours, but a lack of available soft tissue can compromise the final esthetic outcome. The presented modified rotated palatal pedicle connective tissue flap is a useful technique for simultaneous soft tissue coverage and augmentation of grafted sockets to improve esthetic outcome. This article delineates its advantages through the presentation of a four-case series using this new technique.

  7. Polymicrobial periodontal pathogens transcriptomes in calvarial bone and soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Meka, Archana; Mans, Jeffrey J.; Sathishkumar, Sabapathi; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Boyce, Brendan F.; Baker, Henry V.; Lamont, Richard J.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kesavalu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia are consistently associated with adult periodontitis. This study sought to document the host transcriptome to a P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia challenge as a polymicrobial infection using a murine calvarial model of acute inflammation and bone resorption. Mice were infected with P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia over the calvaria, after which the soft tissues and calvarial bones were excised. A Murine GeneChip® array analysis of transcript profiles showed that 6997 genes were differentially expressed in calvarial bones (P < 0.05) and 1544 genes were differentially transcribed in the inflamed tissues after the polymicrobial infection. Of these genes, 4476 and 1035 genes in the infected bone and tissues were differentially expressed by upregulation. Biological pathways significantly impacted by the polymicrobial infection in calvarial bone included leukocyte transendothelial migration (LTM), cell adhesion molecules, adherens junction, major histocompatibility complex antigen, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction (ECM), and antigen processing and presentation resulting in inflammatory/cytokine/chemokine transcripts stimulation in bone and soft tissue. Intense inflammation and increased activated osteoclasts was observed in calvarias compared to sham-infected controls. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed mRNA level of selected genes corresponded with the microarray expression. The polymicrobial infection regulated several LTM and extracellular membrane (ECM) pathway genes in a manner distinct from monoinfection with P. gingivalis, T. denticola, or T. forsythia. To our knowledge, this is the first definition of the polymicrobial induced transcriptome in calvarial bone and soft tissue in response to periodontal pathogens. PMID:21896157

  8. Age-related changes in dynamic compressive properties of trochanteric soft tissues over the hip.

    PubMed

    Choi, W J; Russell, C M; Tsai, C M; Arzanpour, S; Robinovitch, S N

    2015-02-26

    Hip fracture risk increases dramatically with age, and 90% of fractures are due to falls. During a fall on the hip, the soft tissues overlying the hip region (skin, fat, and muscle) act as shock absorbers to absorb energy and reduce the peak force applied to the underlying bone. We conducted dynamic indentation experiments with young women (aged 19-30; n=17) and older women (aged 65-81; n=17) to test the hypothesis that changes occur with age in the stiffness and damping properties of these tissues. Tissue stiffness and damping were derived from experiments where subjects lay sideways on a bed with the greater trochanter contacting a 3.8cm diameter indenter, which applied sinusoidal compression between 5 to 30Hz with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1mm. Soft tissue thickness was measured using ultrasound. On average, stiffness was 2.9-fold smaller in older than young women (5.7 versus 16.8kN/m, p=0.0005) and damping was 3.5-fold smaller in older than young women (81 versus 282Ns/m, p=0.001). Neither parameter associated with soft tissue thickness. Our results indicate substantial age-related reductions in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues over the hip region, which likely reduce their capacity to absorb and dissipate energy (before "bottoming out") during a fall. Strategies such as wearable hip protectors or compliant flooringmay compensate for age-related reductions in the shock-absorbing properties of soft tissues and decrease the injury potential of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Removal of Neglected Soft Tissue Foreign Bodies by Needle-Guided Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rabiei, Sohrab; kavoussi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The phenomenon of neglected foreign bodies is a significant cause of morbidity in soft tissue injuries and may present to dermatologists as delayed wound healing, localized cellulitis and inflammation, abscess formation, or foreign body sensation. Localization and removal of neglected soft tissue foreign bodies (STFBs) is complex due to possible inflammation, indurations, granulated tissue, and fibrotic scar. This paper describes a simple method for the quick localization and (surgical) removal of neglected STFBs using two 23-gauge needles without ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Materials and Methods: A technique based on the use of two 23-gauge needles was used in 41 neglected STFBs in order to achieve proper localization and fixation of foreign bodies during surgery. Results: Surgical removal was successful in 38 of 41 neglected STFBs (ranging from 2–13mm in diameter). Conclusion: The cross-needle-guided technique is an office-based procedure that allows the successful surgical removal of STFBs using minimal soft tissue exploration and dissection via proper localization, fixation, and propulsion of the foreign body toward the surface of the skin. PMID:24303416

  10. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L.; Crosby, Jessi R.; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R.; Tedesco, Andrew S.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties.

  11. A review of medical robotics for minimally invasive soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Dogangil, G; Davies, B L; Rodriguez y Baena, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends and developments in medical robotics for minimally invasive soft tissue surgery, with a view to highlight some of the issues posed and solutions proposed in the literature. The paper includes a thorough review of the literature, which focuses on soft tissue surgical robots developed and published in the last five years (between 2004 and 2008) in indexed journals and conference proceedings. Only surgical systems were considered; imaging and diagnostic devices were excluded from the review. The systems included in this paper are classified according to the following surgical specialties: neurosurgery; eye surgery and ear, nose, and throat (ENT); general, thoracic, and cardiac surgery; gastrointestinal and colorectal surgery; and urologic surgery. The systems are also cross-classified according to their engineering design and robotics technology, which is included in tabular form at the end of the paper. The review concludes with an overview of the field, along with some statistical considerations about the size, geographical spread, and impact of medical robotics for soft tissue surgery today.

  12. Influence of Microbial Biofilms on the Preservation of Primary Soft Tissue in Fossil and Extant Archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Scherer, Reed P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mineralized and permineralized bone is the most common form of fossilization in the vertebrate record. Preservation of gross soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed. Some of these claims have been challenged, with presentation of evidence suggesting that some of the structures are microbial artifacts, not primary soft tissues. The identification of biomolecules in fossil vertebrate extracts from a specimen of Brachylophosaurus canadensis has shown the interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm to be highly unlikely. These discussions also propose a variety of potential mechanisms that would permit the preservation of soft-tissues in vertebrate fossils over geologic time. Methodology/Principal Findings This study experimentally examines the role of microbial biofilms in soft-tissue preservation in vertebrate fossils by quantitatively establishing the growth and morphology of biofilms on extant archosaur bone. These results are microscopically and morphologically compared with soft-tissue extracts from vertebrate fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of southeastern Montana (Latest Maastrichtian) in order to investigate the potential role of microbial biofilms on the preservation of fossil bone and bound organic matter in a variety of taphonomic settings. Based on these analyses, we highlight a mechanism whereby this bound organic matter may be preserved. Conclusions/Significance Results of the study indicate that the crystallization of microbial biofilms on decomposing organic matter within vertebrate bone in early taphonomic stages may contribute to the preservation of primary soft tissues deeper in the bone structure. PMID:20967227

  13. Influence of microbial biofilms on the preservation of primary soft tissue in fossil and extant archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph E; Lenczewski, Melissa E; Scherer, Reed P

    2010-10-12

    Mineralized and permineralized bone is the most common form of fossilization in the vertebrate record. Preservation of gross soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed. Some of these claims have been challenged, with presentation of evidence suggesting that some of the structures are microbial artifacts, not primary soft tissues. The identification of biomolecules in fossil vertebrate extracts from a specimen of Brachylophosaurus canadensis has shown the interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm to be highly unlikely. These discussions also propose a variety of potential mechanisms that would permit the preservation of soft-tissues in vertebrate fossils over geologic time. This study experimentally examines the role of microbial biofilms in soft-tissue preservation in vertebrate fossils by quantitatively establishing the growth and morphology of biofilms on extant archosaur bone. These results are microscopically and morphologically compared with soft-tissue extracts from vertebrate fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of southeastern Montana (Latest Maastrichtian) in order to investigate the potential role of microbial biofilms on the preservation of fossil bone and bound organic matter in a variety of taphonomic settings. Based on these analyses, we highlight a mechanism whereby this bound organic matter may be preserved. Results of the study indicate that the crystallization of microbial biofilms on decomposing organic matter within vertebrate bone in early taphonomic stages may contribute to the preservation of primary soft tissues deeper in the bone structure.

  14. Microstructure-based modelling of arbitrary deformation histories of filler-reinforced elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Klüppel, M.

    2012-11-01

    A physically motivated theory of rubber reinforcement based on filler cluster mechanics is presented considering the mechanical behaviour of quasi-statically loaded elastomeric materials subjected to arbitrary deformation histories. This represents an extension of a previously introduced model describing filler induced stress softening and hysteresis of highly strained elastomers. These effects are referred to the hydrodynamic reinforcement of rubber elasticity due to strain amplification by stiff filler clusters and cyclic breakdown and re-aggregation (healing) of softer, already damaged filler clusters. The theory is first developed for the special case of outer stress-strain cycles with successively increasing maximum strain. In this more simple case, all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of the cycle and the mechanical energy stored in the strained clusters is completely dissipated, i.e. only irreversible stress contributions result. Nevertheless, the description of outer cycles involves already all material parameters of the theory and hence they can be used for a fitting procedure. In the general case of an arbitrary deformation history, the cluster mechanics of the material is complicated due to the fact that not all soft clusters are broken at the turning points of a cycle. For that reason additional reversible stress contributions considering the relaxation of clusters upon retraction have to be taken into account for the description of inner cycles. A special recursive algorithm is developed constituting a frame of the mechanical response of encapsulated inner cycles. Simulation and measurement are found to be in fair agreement for CB and silica filled SBR/BR and EPDM samples, loaded in compression and tension along various deformation histories.

  15. Reversal of soft-tissue local anesthesia with phentolamine mesylate in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Elliot V; Moore, Paul A; Papas, Athena S; Goodson, J Max; Navalta, Laura A; Rogy, Siegfried; Rutherford, Bruce; Yagiela, John A

    2008-08-01

    The authors conducted two multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, controlled Phase III clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of phentolamine mesylate (PM) in shortening the duration and burden of soft-tissue anesthesia. The study involved 484 subjects who received one of four commercially available local anesthetic solutions containing vasoconstrictors for restorative or scaling procedures. On completion of the dental procedure, subjects randomly received a PM or a sham injection (an injection in which a needle does not penetrate the soft tissue) in the same site as the local anesthetic injection. The investigators measured the duration of soft-tissue anesthesia by using standardized lip- and tongue-tapping procedures every five minutes for five hours. They also evaluated functional measures and subject-perceived altered function, sensation, appearance and safety. Median recovery times in the lower lip and tongue for subjects in the PM group were 70 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively. Median recovery times in the lower lip and tongue for subjects in the sham group were 155 minutes and 125 minutes, respectively. Upper lip median recovery times were 50 minutes for subjects in the PM group and 133 minutes for subjects in the sham group. These differences were significant (P < .0001). Recovery from actual functional deficits and subject-perceived altered function, sensation and appearance also showed significant differences between the PM and the sham groups. PM was efficacious and safe in reducing the duration of local anesthetic- induced soft-tissue numbness and its associated functional deficits. Clinicians can use PM to accelerate reversal of soft-tissue anesthesia and the associated functional deficits.

  16. Soft tissue volume alterations after connective tissue grafting at teeth: the subepithelial autologous connective tissue graft versus a porcine collagen matrix - a pre-clinical volumetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christian M; Matta, Ragai E; Moest, Tobias; Humann, Julia; Gammel, Lisa; Neukam, Friedrich W; Schlegel, Karl A

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates a porcine collagen matrix (CM) for soft tissue thickening in comparison to the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). In eight beagle dogs, soft tissue thickening was performed at the buccal aspects of the upper canines (SCTG and CM). Impressions were taken before augmentation (i1), after surgery (i2), after one (i3), three (i4) and ten month (i5). Casts were optically scanned with a 3D scanner and each augmented region (unit of analysis) evaluated (primary outcome variable: volume increase in mm(3) ; secondary outcome variables: volume increase in percent, mean and maximum thickness increases in mm). 3D tissue measurements after surgery revealed a significant higher volume increase in the CM (86.37 mm(3)  ± 35.16 mm(3) ) than in the SCTG group (47.65 mm(3)  ± 17.90 mm(3) ). After 10 months, volume increase was non-significant between groups (SCTG:11.36 mm(3)  ± 9.26 mm(3) ; CM: 8.67 mm(3)  ± 13.67 mm(3) ). Maximum soft tissue thickness increase (i1-i5) was 0.66 mm ± 0.29 mm (SCTG) and 0.79 mm ± 0.37 mm (CM) with no significant difference. Ten months after soft tissue thickening, the CM is statistically non-inferior to the SCTG in terms of soft tissue volume and thickness increase. Further 3D studies are needed to confirm the data. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  18. Soft-tissue applications of the holmium:YAG laser in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denstedt, John D.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Chun, Samuel S.; Sales, Jack L.

    1995-05-01

    The ideal surgical laser for the treatment of soft tissue pathology should possess both ablative and hemostatic abilities. As well, for use in urologic conditions the laser must also be suitable for endoscopic use. The Holmium:YAG laser possesses these qualities and in preliminary clinical use has demonstrated a variety of potential urologic applications. In this study we review our initial experience with the Holmium:YAG laser over a 18 month period. A total of 51 patients underwent 53 procedures for a variety of soft tissue conditions including: bladder tumor ablation (25), incision of ureteral stricture (15), incision of urethral stricture (6), treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (3), incision of bladder neck contracture (2), and ablation of a ureteral tumor (2). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved in all cases. Procedures were considered successful (no further intervention being required to treat the condition) in 81% of the cases. Two patients with dense bladder neck contractures required electroincision under the same anesthetic for completion of the procedure. A single complication, that of urinary extravasation following incision of a urethral stricture resolved with conservative management. In summary, the Holmium:YAG laser has demonstrated safety and proficiency in the treatment of a variety of urologic soft tissue conditions.

  19. MRI evaluation of anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Ferkel, Richard D; Tyorkin, Max; Applegate, Gregory R; Heinen, Gregory T

    2010-08-01

    The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been questioned in evaluating patients with chronic ankle sprain pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and reliability of routine MR imaging in the diagnosis of anterolateral soft tissue impingement. Inclusion criteria required that the MR examinations be performed by the same musculoskeletal radiologist after the most recent scanner upgrade and using a dedicated ankle/hindfoot coil. The surgical and MRI reports of 24 patients who had an arthroscopic diagnosis of anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle were tabulated and categorized. Unlike previous studies, sagittal T1 and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) images were used primarily in the diagnosis of these lesions. Using this technique, we report a 78.9% accuracy in diagnosis, a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 78.6%. Fifty-eight percent of patients had an associated diagnosis, which in 33% of patients altered our surgical plan. Although not indicated in all cases of anterolateral ankle impingement, we advocate the use of MR imaging in complicated clinical presentations where the exclusion of additional pathology in the ankle or subtalar joint, and the confirmation of anterolateral soft tissue impingement would be beneficial.

  20. Color reproduction for advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kaida; Zardawi, Faraedon; van Noort, Richard; Yates, Julian M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a color reproduction system in advanced manufacture technology for accurate and automatic processing of soft tissue prostheses. The manufacturing protocol was defined to effectively and consistently produce soft tissue prostheses using a 3D printing system. Within this protocol printer color profiles were developed using a number of mathematical models for the proposed 3D color printing system based on 240 training colors. On this basis, the color reproduction system was established and their system errors including accuracy of color reproduction, performance of color repeatability and color gamut were evaluated using 14 known human skin shades. The printer color profile developed using the third-order polynomial regression based on least-square fitting provided the best model performance. The results demonstrated that by using the proposed color reproduction system, 14 different skin colors could be reproduced and excellent color reproduction performance achieved. Evaluation of the system's color repeatability revealed a demonstrable system error and this highlighted the need for regular evaluation. The color gamut for the proposed 3D printing system was simulated and it was demonstrated that the vast majority of skin colors can be reproduced with the exception of extreme dark or light skin color shades. This study demonstrated that the proposed color reproduction system can be effectively used to reproduce a range of human skin colors for application in advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocompatibility and tissue interactions of a new filler material for medical use.

    PubMed

    Zarini, Elena; Supino, Rosanna; Pratesi, Graziella; Laccabue, Diletta; Tortoreto, Monica; Scanziani, Eugenio; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Tunesi, Gianfranco; Nava, Maurizio

    2004-09-15

    Filler materials for medical use present limits, such as the induction of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the search for synthetic materials with improved biocompatible properties, a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, Aquamid (Contura SA, Montreux, Switzerland), has been investigated in preclinical systems. In cell cultures (endothelial cells and fibroblast), no or only transient biological effects were associated with 10% Aquamid exposure. The Aquamid-host interactions were examined in mice (10 mice per group) implanted subcutaneously or in the mammary fat pad with a very large volume (1.5 ml) of the material. Blood analysis, performed after 15 and 94 days (five mice per time for each group) to detect acute or late manifestations of toxicity, did not reveal relevant abnormalities in either group of Aquamid-bearing mice compared with control mice, except for a transient thrombocytopenia and a mild leukocytosis. Histological analysis of the pellet showed the presence of a thin, poorly vascularized cyst wall in implants. Only mild mesenchymal reparative and inflammatory processes were observed, even at longer observation times (more than 400 days). No alterations in any organ were detected. Despite the large volume implanted (approximately 5 percent of mouse body weight), the Aquamid pellet maintained its original size and shape without spreading or sticking to surrounding tissues. In conclusion, the study indicated a good tolerability of the new biopolymer in preclinical systems. The clinical utility of this new compound, if confirmed by clinical randomized trials showing its atoxic properties, could be in the field of aesthetic plastic surgery as a filler material for body contouring and in reconstructive surgery and above all in cancer patients to restore surgical defects.

  2. A new ChainMail approach for real-time soft tissue simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-07-03

    This paper presents a new ChainMail method for real-time soft tissue simulation. This method enables the use of different material properties for chain elements to accommodate various materials. Based on the ChainMail bounding region, a new time-saving scheme is developed to improve computational efficiency for isotropic materials. The proposed method also conserves volume and strain energy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ChainMail method can not only accommodate isotropic, anisotropic and heterogeneous materials but also model incompressibility and relaxation behaviors of soft tissues. Further, the proposed method can achieve real-time computational performance.

  3. Soft tissue balance changes depending on joint distraction force in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kanto; Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Miya, Hidetoshi; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    The influence of joint distraction force on intraoperative soft tissue balance was evaluated using Offset Repo-Tensor® for 78 knees that underwent primary posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The joint center gap and varus ligament balance were measured between osteotomized surfaces using 20, 40 and 60 lbs of joint distraction force. These values were significantly increased at extension and flexion as the distraction force increased. Furthermore, lateral compartment stiffness was significantly lower than medial compartment stiffness. Thus, larger joint distraction forces led to larger varus ligament balance and joint center gap, because of the difference in soft tissue stiffness between lateral and medial compartments. These findings indicate the importance of the strength of joint distraction force in the assessment of soft tissue balance, especially when using gap-balancing technique. © 2014.

  4. A novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws capable of extracting the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Nazarynasab, Dariush; Farahmand, Farzam; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Afshari, Elnaz

    2017-07-01

    Data related to force-deformation behaviour of soft tissue plays an important role in medical/surgical applications such as realistically modelling mechanical behaviour of soft tissue as well as minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and medical diagnosis. While the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue is very complex due to its different constitutive components, some issues increase its complexity like behavioural changes between the live and dead tissues. Indeed, an adequate quantitative description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues requires high quality in vivo experimental data to be obtained and analysed. This paper describes a novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws capable of obtaining compressive force-deformation data related to mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. This new laparoscopic grasper includes four sections as mechanical hardware, sensory part, electrical/electronical part and data storage part. By considering a unique design for mechanical hardware, data recording conditions will be close to unconfined-compression-test conditions; so obtained data can be properly used in extracting the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. Also, the other distinguishing feature of this new system is its applicability during different laparoscopic surgeries and subsequently obtaining in vivo data. However, more preclinical examinations are needed to evaluate the practicality of the novel laparoscopic grasper with two parallel jaws.

  5. The efficacy of the modified classification system of soft tissue injury in extension injury of the lower cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Gyu-Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Bok

    2008-07-01

    To classify comprehensively the severity of soft tissue injury for extension injuries of the lower cervical spine by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To investigate severity of extension injuries using a modified classification system for soft tissue injury by MRI, and to determine the possibility of predicting cord injury by determining the severity of soft tissue injury. It is difficult to diagnose extension injuries by plain radiography and computed tomography. MRI is considered to be the best method of diagnosing soft tissue injuries. The authors examined whether an MRI based diagnostic standard could be devised for extension injuries of the cervical spine. MRI was performed before surgery in 81 patients that had experienced a distractive-extension injury during the past 5 years. Severities of soft tissue injury were subdivided into 5 stages. The retropharyngeal space and the retrotracheal space were measured, and their correlations with the severity of soft tissue injury were examined, as was the relation between canal stenosis and cord injury. Cord injury developed in injuries greater than Grade III (according to our devised system) accompanied by posterior longitudinal ligament rupture (P < 0.01). As the severity of soft tissue injury increased, the cord signal change increased (P < 0.01), the retropharyngeal space and the retrotracheal space increased, and swelling severity in each stage were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In canal stenosis patients, soft tissue damage and cord injury were not found to be associated (P = 0.45). In cases of distractive-extension injury, levels of soft tissue injury were determined accurately by MRI. Moreover, the severity of soft tissue injury was found to be closely associated with the development of cord injury.

  6. [Research on adaptive quasi-linear viscoelastic model for nonlinear viscoelastic properties of in vivo soft tissues].

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Sang, Yuanjun

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical behavior modeling of human soft biological tissues is a key issue for a large number of medical applications, such as surgery simulation, surgery planning, diagnosis, etc. To develop a biomechanical model of human soft tissues under large deformation for surgery simulation, the adaptive quasi-linear viscoelastic (AQLV) model was proposed and applied in human forearm soft tissues by indentation tests. An incremental ramp-and-hold test was carried out to calibrate the model parameters. To verify the predictive ability of the AQLV model, the incremental ramp-and-hold test, a single large amplitude ramp-and-hold test and a sinusoidal cyclic test at large strain amplitude were adopted in this study. Results showed that the AQLV model could predict the test results under the three kinds of load conditions. It is concluded that the AQLV model is feasible to describe the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of in vivo soft tissues under large deformation. It is promising that this model can be selected as one of the soft tissues models in the software design for surgery simulation or diagnosis.

  7. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  8. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  9. Quantitative Imaging of Young's Modulus of Soft Tissues from Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  10. Peri-implant soft tissue colour around titanium and zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cosgarea, Raluca; Gasparik, Cristina; Dudea, Diana; Culic, Bogdan; Dannewitz, Bettina; Sculean, Anton

    2015-05-01

    To objectively determine the difference in colour between the peri-implant soft tissue at titanium and zirconia abutments. Eleven patients, each with two contralaterally inserted osteointegrated dental implants, were included in this study. The implants were restored either with titanium abutments and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, or with zirconia abutments and ceramic crowns. Prior and after crown cementation, multi-spectral images of the peri-implant soft tissues and the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth were taken with a colorimeter. The colour parameters L*, a*, b*, c* and the colour differences ΔE were calculated. Descriptive statistics, including non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients, were used for statistical analyses of the data. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, the peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia (test group), showed distinguishable ΔE both before and after crown cementation. Colour differences around titanium were statistically significant different (P = 0.01) only at 1 mm prior to crown cementation compared to zirconia. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found for all colour parameter, either before or after crown cementation for both abutments; more significant differences were registered for titanium abutments. Tissue thickness correlated positively with c*-values for titanium at 1 mm and 2 mm from the gingival margin. Within their limits, the present data indicate that: (i) The peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia showed colour differences when compared to the soft tissue around natural teeth, and (ii) the peri-implant soft tissue around zirconia demonstrated a better colour match to the soft tissue at natural teeth than titanium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of timing on soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cho-Ying; Chen, Zhaozhao; Pan, Whei-Lin; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a predictable esthetic and functional outcome, soft tissue augmentation has become popular in implant treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the influence of different timing for soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment on soft tissue conditions and its stability. Electronic and manual searches for articles written in English up to September 2017 were performed by two independent reviewers. Human clinical studies with the purpose of evaluating outcomes (at least 3-month follow-up) of autogenous soft tissue graft for augmentation during implant treatment, either simultaneous or after implant placement (staged), were included. Cumulative changes of keratinized tissue width (KTW), soft tissue thickness (STT), and mid-buccal mucosal recession (MR) data were analyzed with a random-effects model to compare the postoperative outcomes. Twenty-nine human studies (eight randomized clinical trials, six cohort studies, and 15 case series) that met the inclusion criteria were included. For the overall data, the weighted mean STT gain (1 year after surgery) was 1.03 mm (95% CI: 0.78-1.29 mm), among which the simultaneous group was 1.12 mm (95% CI: 0.75-1.49 mm) and staged group (3-6 months after implant placement) was 0.95 mm (95% CI: 0.58-1.31 mm). There was no statistically significant difference in KTW and MR between 3 months and more than 3 months after surgery. This review revealed that the stability of soft tissue, in terms of KTW and mid-buccal MR, can be obtained 3 months after surgery. There is no difference between simultaneous and staged soft tissue augmentation during implant treatment, and both procedures significantly enhance KTW and STT. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Soft tissue waxup and mock-up as key factors in a treatment plan: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pedro Couto; Correia, André; Neves, Manuel; Kovacs, Zsolt; Neugbauer, Rudiger

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation of edentulous spaces in esthetic areas is a challenge to the clinician due to the loss of soft tissues. In these clinical situations, it would be desirable to evaluate and predict the gingival architecture to recover in the oral rehabilitation. To fulfill this need, the diagnostic wax should anticipate the final rehabilitation with the integration of hard and soft tissue. Thus, it is essential to produce a diagnostic waxup that integrates these two components that are simultaneously seeking to recreate the harmony of white and pink esthetic. This diagnostic waxup will be the basis for the creation of the provisional prosthesis and a soft tissue mock-up. After placing the provisional prosthesis in the mouth, the soft tissue mock-up can be applied to assess its esthetic impact at facial and intraoral level. Dentist and patient should objectively assess the appearance of the final result. After approval of this rehabilitation concept, the virtual surgical planning can be performed and the surgical guide can be designed, allowing the treatment to take place. This protocol allows the development of a rigorous treatment plan based on the integration of teeth and gingiva component. The waxup and the soft tissue mock-up play a significant role, since they allow an earlier evaluation of the esthetic result, better prosthetic and surgical planning, and it allows us to anticipate the need for gingiva-colored ceramics use. The authors present a clinical case report of the importance of the wax-up and soft tissue mock-up in the treatment plan.

  13. Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W; Gillespie, Lesley D

    2011-07-06

    Overuse soft-tissue injuries occur frequently in runners. Stretching exercises, modification of training schedules, and the use of protective devices such as braces and insoles are often advocated for prevention. This is an update of a review first published in 2001. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2011); The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1966 to January 2011); EMBASE (1980 to January 2011); and international trial registries (17 January 2011). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating interventions to prevent lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias (relating to sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data) and extracted data. Data were adjusted for clustering if necessary and pooled using the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We included 25 trials (30,252 participants). Participants were military recruits (19 trials), runners from the general population (three trials), soccer referees (one trial), and prisoners (two trials). The interventions tested in the included trials fell into four main preventive strategies: exercises, modification of training schedules, use of orthoses, and footwear and socks. All 25 included trials were judged as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias for at least one of the four domains listed above.We found no evidence that stretching reduces lower limb soft-tissue injuries (6 trials; 5130 participants; risk ratio [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.65 to 1.12). As with all non-significant results, this is compatible with either a reduction or an increase in soft-tissue injuries. We found no evidence to support a training regimen of conditioning exercises to improve strength, flexibility and coordination (one trial; 1020 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87).We found no

  14. A homeostatic-driven turnover remodelling constitutive model for healing in soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, T. Christian; Bellomo, Facundo J.

    2016-01-01

    Remodelling of soft biological tissue is characterized by interacting biochemical and biomechanical events, which change the tissue's microstructure, and, consequently, its macroscopic mechanical properties. Remodelling is a well-defined stage of the healing process, and aims at recovering or repairing the injured extracellular matrix. Like other physiological processes, remodelling is thought to be driven by homeostasis, i.e. it tends to re-establish the properties of the uninjured tissue. However, homeostasis may never be reached, such that remodelling may also appear as a continuous pathological transformation of diseased tissues during aneurysm expansion, for example. A simple constitutive model for soft biological tissues that regards remodelling as homeostatic-driven turnover is developed. Specifically, the recoverable effective tissue damage, whose rate is the sum of a mechanical damage rate and a healing rate, serves as a scalar internal thermodynamic variable. In order to integrate the biochemical and biomechanical aspects of remodelling, the healing rate is, on the one hand, driven by mechanical stimuli, but, on the other hand, subjected to simple metabolic constraints. The proposed model is formulated in accordance with continuum damage mechanics within an open-system thermodynamics framework. The numerical implementation in an in-house finite-element code is described, particularized for Ogden hyperelasticity. Numerical examples illustrate the basic constitutive characteristics of the model and demonstrate its potential in representing aspects of remodelling of soft tissues. Simulation results are verified for their plausibility, but also validated against reported experimental data. PMID:27009177

  15. A homeostatic-driven turnover remodelling constitutive model for healing in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Comellas, Ester; Gasser, T Christian; Bellomo, Facundo J; Oller, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Remodelling of soft biological tissue is characterized by interacting biochemical and biomechanical events, which change the tissue's microstructure, and, consequently, its macroscopic mechanical properties. Remodelling is a well-defined stage of the healing process, and aims at recovering or repairing the injured extracellular matrix. Like other physiological processes, remodelling is thought to be driven by homeostasis, i.e. it tends to re-establish the properties of the uninjured tissue. However, homeostasis may never be reached, such that remodelling may also appear as a continuous pathological transformation of diseased tissues during aneurysm expansion, for example. A simple constitutive model for soft biological tissues that regards remodelling as homeostatic-driven turnover is developed. Specifically, the recoverable effective tissue damage, whose rate is the sum of a mechanical damage rate and a healing rate, serves as a scalar internal thermodynamic variable. In order to integrate the biochemical and biomechanical aspects of remodelling, the healing rate is, on the one hand, driven by mechanical stimuli, but, on the other hand, subjected to simple metabolic constraints. The proposed model is formulated in accordance with continuum damage mechanics within an open-system thermodynamics framework. The numerical implementation in an in-house finite-element code is described, particularized for Ogden hyperelasticity. Numerical examples illustrate the basic constitutive characteristics of the model and demonstrate its potential in representing aspects of remodelling of soft tissues. Simulation results are verified for their plausibility, but also validated against reported experimental data. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Timing of soft tissue management around dental implants: a suggested protocol.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Amid, Reza; Kermani, Mehdi Ekhlasmand; Mirakhori, Mahdieh; Hosseinpour, Sepanta

    2017-01-01

    Survival of dental implants depends on several factors; soft tissue (ST) management around dental implants is one of the foremost. Several studies have suggested techniques for ST management around dental implants, but none of them has discussed a suitable timetable for this process. This study aimed to review published articles related to the timing of ST management around dental implants and suggest a customized treatment protocol. A search of the PubMed database was conducted; the search was limited to English-language articles published from January 1995 to July 2015 with available full texts. Only in vivo studies and clinical trials in relation to the terms soft tissue management, management timing, keratinized mucosa, free gingival graft, connective tissue graft, soft tissue, augmentation, and dental implant were included. A total of 492 articles were reviewed, and eventually 42 articles were thoroughly evaluated. Those with treatment protocols in terms of the timing of ST grafting were selected and classified. ST management around dental implants may be done prior to the surgical phase, after the surgical phase, before loading, or even after loading. A thick gingival biotype is more suitable for implant placement, providing more favorable esthetic results. A treatment plan should be based on individual patient needs as well as the knowledge and experience of the clinician. The width and thickness of keratinized tissues, the need for bone management, and local risk factors that influence esthetic results determine the appropriate time for ST augmentation procedures.

  17. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated

  18. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissuemore » specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.« less

  19. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    DOE PAGES

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; ...

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissuemore » specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.« less

  20. Relationship between severity of shoulder subluxation and soft-tissue injury in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Liu, Sen-Yung; Tang, Hao-Wei; Wei, Ta-Sen; Wang, Wei-Te; Yang, Chao-Pin

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether the severity of post-hemiplegic shoulder subluxation in stroke patients correlates with soft-tissue injury; and (ii) to determine the shoulder subluxation measurement cut-off points that are indications for further ultrasound examination for soft-tissue injuries in these patients. Cross-sectional study. A total of 39 stroke patients with shoulder subluxation. Shoulder subluxation was evaluated by physical examination, radiography and ultrasound. Soft-tissue injuries were assessed by ultrasound. Subluxation parameters were entered into stepwise logistic regression analyses to predict biceps and supraspinatus tendonitis. With the assumption that shoulder subluxation can be a predisposing factor for tendonitis, receiver operating characteristic curves for shoulder subluxation parameters of the affected side were used to determine cut-off points for optimal sensitivity and specificity of biceps and supraspinatus tendonitis. Shoulder subluxation lateral distance, measured by physical examination, is a predictor for supraspinatus tendonitis (odds ratio = 34.9, p = 0.036). Further ultrasound investigation for soft-tissue injury is indicated when subluxation lateral distance, measured by physical examination is ≥ 2.25 cm or, measured by radiographic examination, ≥ 3.18 cm for lateral distance, ≥ 3.08 cm for vertical distance, or ≥ 2.65 cm for horizontal distance. When post-hemiplegic shoulder subluxation measurements exceed the above-mentioned cut-off points in physical or radiographic examinations, further ultrasound evaluation for soft-tissue injury is recommended.

  1. Comparing the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in orthodontic soft tissue procedures.

    PubMed

    Ize-Iyamu, I N; Saheeb, B D; Edetanlen, B E

    2013-09-01

    To compare the use of the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in the management of soft tissue mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic patients requiring different soft tissue surgical procedures were randomly assigned to receive conventional surgery or soft tissue diode laser, (wavelength 810 nm). Parameters documented include the type of anaesthesia used, intra and post operative pain, bleeding, the use of scalpel and sutures. The chi-squared test was used to test for significance at 95% confidence level. Probability values (p-values) less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. Only 2(16.7%) of the procedures carried out with the soft tissue laser required infiltration anaesthesia compared to 10 (90.9%) with conventional surgery and this was significant (P<0.001). Post operative pain was significantly reduced in all cases treated with the diode laser (P<0.001). There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) in post operative bleeding in all cases treated with the diode laser. No sutures were used in all soft tissue cases managed with the diode laser and this was significant (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in treatment time in the use of the laser compared with conventional surgery. Orthodontic patients treated with the diode laser required less infiltration anaesthesia, had reduced bleeding during and after surgery, rapid postoperative haemostasis, elimination of the need for sutures and an improved postoperative comfort and healing.

  2. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-Huai; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  3. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-11-27

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

  5. Parry-Romberg reconstruction: optimal timing for hard and soft tissue procedures.

    PubMed

    Slack, Ginger C; Tabit, Christina J; Allam, Karam A; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2012-11-01

    For the treatment of Parry-Romberg syndrome or progressive hemifacial atrophy, we studied 3 controversial issues: (1) optimal timing, (2) need for skeletal reconstruction, and (3) need for soft tissue (medial canthus/lacrimal duct) reconstruction. Patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome (>5 y follow-up) were divided into 2 groups: (1) younger than 14 years and (2) 14 years or older (n = 43). Sex, age, severity of deformity, number of procedures, operative times, and augmentation fat volumes were recorded. Physician and patient satisfaction surveys (5-point scale) were obtained, preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were reviewed, and a digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system was used to determine volume retention. Our results indicate that the younger patient group required more procedures compared with the older patient group (4.3 versus 2.8); however, the younger group had higher patient/family satisfaction scores (3.8 versus 3.0). Skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction resulted in improved symmetry score (60% preoperatively to 93% final) and satisfaction scores (3.4 preoperatively to 3.8 final). Patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome required multiple corrective surgeries but showed improvements even when beginning before puberty. Soft and hard tissue reconstruction was beneficial.

  6. Tissue Integration of a Volume-Stable Collagen Matrix in an Experimental Soft Tissue Augmentation Model.

    PubMed

    Ferrantino, Luca; Bosshardt, Dieter; Nevins, Myron; Santoro, Giacomo; Simion, Massimo; Kim, David

    Reducing the need for a connective tissue graft by using an efficacious biomaterial is an important task for dental professionals and patients. This experimental study aimed to test the soft tissue response to a volume-stable new collagen matrix. The device demonstrated good stability during six different time points ranging from 0 to 90 days of healing with no alteration of the wound-healing processes. The 90-day histologic specimen demonstrates eventual replacement of most of the matrix with new connective tissue fibers.

  7. Unified viscoelasticity: Applying discrete element models to soft tissues with two characteristic times.

    PubMed

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Bucchi, Andrea; Bader, Dan L

    2015-09-18

    Discrete element models have often been the primary tool in investigating and characterising the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. However, studies have employed varied configurations of these models, based on the choice of the number of elements and the utilised formation, for different subject tissues. This approach has yielded a diverse array of viscoelastic models in the literature, each seemingly resulting in different descriptions of viscoelastic constitutive behaviour and/or stress-relaxation and creep functions. Moreover, most studies do not apply a single discrete element model to characterise both stress-relaxation and creep behaviours of tissues. The underlying assumption for this disparity is the implicit perception that the viscoelasticity of soft tissues cannot be described by a universal behaviour or law, resulting in the lack of a unified approach in the literature based on discrete element representations. This paper derives the constitutive equation for different viscoelastic models applicable to soft tissues with two characteristic times. It demonstrates that all possible configurations exhibit a unified and universal behaviour, captured by a single constitutive relationship between stress, strain and time as: σ+Aσ̇+Bσ¨=Pε̇+Qε¨. The ensuing stress-relaxation G(t) and creep J(t) functions are also unified and universal, derived as [Formula: see text] and J(t)=c2+(ε0-c2)e(-PQt)+σ0Pt, respectively. Application of these relationships to experimental data is illustrated for various tissues including the aortic valve, ligament and cerebral artery. The unified model presented in this paper may be applied to all tissues with two characteristic times, obviating the need for employing varied configurations of discrete element models in preliminary investigation of the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Facial Assessment and Injection Guide for Botulinum Toxin and Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Focus on the Lower Face.

    PubMed

    de Maio, Maurício; Wu, Woffles T L; Goodman, Greg J; Monheit, Gary

    2017-09-01

    This third article of a three-part series addresses techniques and recommendations for aesthetic treatment of the lower face. The lower face is considered an advanced area for facial aesthetic treatment. In this region, soft-tissue fillers play a more important role than neuromodulators and should be used first to provide structure and support before neuromodulators are considered for treatment of dynamic lines. Treatment of the lip, perioral region, and chin, in addition to maintaining balance of the lower face with the face overall, is challenging. Procedures on the lip should avoid overcorrection while respecting the projection of the lips on the profile view and the ratio of lip size to chin. The chin is often neglected, but reshaping the jawline can provide dramatic improvement in facial aesthetics. Both profile and anterior views are critical in assessment and treatment of the lower face. Finally, rejuvenation of the neck region requires fillers for structural support of the chin and jawline and neuromodulators for treatment of the masseter and platysma.

  9. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander.

    PubMed

    Tissier, Jérémy; Rage, Jean-Claude; Laurin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei , whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  10. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  11. Soft tissue changes and its stability as a sequlae to mandibular advancement

    PubMed Central

    Uppada, Uday Kiran; Sinha, Ramen; Reddy, D. Sreenatha; Paul, Dushyanth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To predict the changes and evaluate the stability that occurs in the soft tissues following the skeletal movement subsequent to surgical advancement of the mandible through bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and to provide the patient reliable information with regard to esthetic changes that can be expected following the treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult patients diagnosed with skeletal class II malocclusion and underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement by a mean of 8 mm using rigid fixation were included in the study. Soft tissue changes brought about by the surgical procedure and their stability over a period of time were evaluated prospectively using 12 linear (4 vertical and 8 horizontal) and 4 angular measurements on profile cephalograms which were taken preoperatively after the pre-surgical orthodontics (T1) and postoperatively with duration of 1 month (T2) and 6 months (T3) respectively. Results: It was observed that compared to the linear measurements, the angular measurements showed significant changes. The improvement in the esthetic outcome is a direct reflection of the angular changes whereas the linear changes played a contributing role. Following mandibular advancement surgery the profiles of the patients was perceived to have improved with reduction in the facial convexity, an increase in the lower facial height, decrease in the depth of the mentolabial sulcus and improvement in the lip competency with lengthening, straightening and thinning of the lower lip. Conclusion: The soft tissue response and its stability depends on the stability of the surgical procedure itself, postsurgical growth and remodeling of the hard tissues and soft tissue changes as a result of maturation and aging. PMID:25593860

  12. Soft tissue changes and its stability as a sequlae to mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    Uppada, Uday Kiran; Sinha, Ramen; Reddy, D Sreenatha; Paul, Dushyanth

    2014-01-01

    To predict the changes and evaluate the stability that occurs in the soft tissues following the skeletal movement subsequent to surgical advancement of the mandible through bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and to provide the patient reliable information with regard to esthetic changes that can be expected following the treatment. Twenty adult patients diagnosed with skeletal class II malocclusion and underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement by a mean of 8 mm using rigid fixation were included in the study. Soft tissue changes brought about by the surgical procedure and their stability over a period of time were evaluated prospectively using 12 linear (4 vertical and 8 horizontal) and 4 angular measurements on profile cephalograms which were taken preoperatively after the pre-surgical orthodontics (T1) and postoperatively with duration of 1 month (T2) and 6 months (T3) respectively. It was observed that compared to the linear measurements, the angular measurements showed significant changes. The improvement in the esthetic outcome is a direct reflection of the angular changes whereas the linear changes played a contributing role. Following mandibular advancement surgery the profiles of the patients was perceived to have improved with reduction in the facial convexity, an increase in the lower facial height, decrease in the depth of the mentolabial sulcus and improvement in the lip competency with lengthening, straightening and thinning of the lower lip. The soft tissue response and its stability depends on the stability of the surgical procedure itself, postsurgical growth and remodeling of the hard tissues and soft tissue changes as a result of maturation and aging.

  13. Efficacy and durability of hyaluronic acid fillers for malar enhancement: A prospective, randomized, split-face clinical controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki Heon; Gwak, Min Jae; Moon, Sung Kyung; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Min Kyung

    2018-06-01

    Various hyaluronic acid fillers can be used for facial attenuation and rejuvenation. The efficacy and durability of hyaluronic acid fillers are of major concern to dermatologists and patients. This study aimed to evaluate three-dimensional morphology, tissue distribution, and changes in volume after injection of two different hyaluronic acid fillers. Ten Korean women were enrolled in this study. Each subject was injected with monophasic hyaluronic acid filler in one malar area and biphasic filler in the other. Clinical outcome was measured before and after injection, and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, photographs and Moire's topography. Facial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed twice over six months. Both products showed good results after injection and demonstrated good durability over time. MRI was a useful modality for assessing tissue distribution and volume changes. The effects and durability after injection of monophasic hyaluronic acid filler and biphasic hyaluronic acid filler are generally comparable.

  14. Changes in soft tissues around immediate full-arch rehabilitations: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Covani, U; Ricci, M; D'Ambrosio, N; Quaranta, A; Barone, A

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, aesthetic appearance is receiving more and more attention from clinicians and patients. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for the surgeon to maintain or to improve the quality and the stability of the soft tissue-implant interface. The scientific literature supports the idea that the immediate placement and provisionalization of endosseus implants and abutments can indeed offer additional clinical control over the peri-implant tissue architecture. On this basis, this prospective study aims to evaluate the changes in soft tissues around immediately loaded dental implants in full-arch rehabilitations, over a period of 3 months. Fifteen subjects were treated for immediate full-arch rehabilitations. Following implant placement, provisional rehabilitations made of bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) and resin were placed. All records were made using a periodontal probe. The facial soft-tissue level was measured evaluating the distance between the soft-tissue margin and the incisal edge of the crown. Moreover, papilla levels were measured at the mesial and distal sites from a reference line connecting the occlusal edge of the crowns. The average value at the mesial site was -0.035 mm (±1, median 0 mm), while at the midfacial site, it was 0 mm (±0.76, median 0 mm) and at the distal site, -0.05 mm (±0.92, median 0 mm). The plaque score index showed a reduction during the follow-up period. Our data indicate that no differences at the midfacial point were detectable over the observation period. This is in agreement with several studies; it is plausible that these results are linked to a correct position of the implant in the alveolar socket. Moreover, comparing our results with what has been reported by other authors, it is surprising that while other studies highlight that papilla loss at the mesial and distal aspect is an expected consequence of immediate implant restorations, our data do not show any changes. The explanation of these results

  15. Contribution of trochanteric soft tissues to fall force estimates, the factor of risk, and prediction of hip fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Bouxsein, Mary L; Szulc, Pawel; Munoz, Fracoise; Thrall, Erica; Sornay-Rendu, Elizabeth; Delmas, Pierre D

    2007-06-01

    We compared trochanteric soft tissue thickness, femoral aBMD, and the ratio of fall force to femoral strength (i.e., factor of risk) in 21 postmenopausal women with incident hip fracture and 42 age-matched controls. Reduced trochanteric soft tissue thickness, low femoral aBMD, and increased ratio of fall force to femoral strength (i.e., factor of risk) were associated with increased risk of hip fracture. The contribution of trochanteric soft tissue thickness to hip fracture risk is incompletely understood. A biomechanical approach to assessing hip fracture risk that compares forces applied to the hip during a sideways fall to femoral strength may by improved by incorporating the force-attenuating effects of trochanteric soft tissues. We determined the relationship between femoral areal BMD (aBMD) and femoral failure load in 49 human cadaveric specimens, 53-99 yr of age. We compared femoral aBMD, trochanteric soft tissue thickness, and the ratio of fall forces to bone strength (i.e., the factor of risk for hip fracture, phi), before and after accounting for the force-attenuating properties of trochanteric soft tissue in 21 postmenopausal women with incident hip fracture and 42 age-matched controls. Femoral aBMD correlated strongly with femoral failure load (r2 = 0.73-0.83). Age, height, and weight did not differ; however, women with hip fracture had lower total femur aBMD (OR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19-3.56) and trochanteric soft tissue thickness (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.31). Incorporation of trochanteric soft tissue thickness measurements reduced the estimates of fall forces by approximately 50%. After accounting for force-attenuating properties of trochanteric soft tissue, the ratio of fall forces to femoral strength was 50% higher in cases than controls (0.92 +/- 0.44 versus 0.65 +/- 0.50, respectively; p = 0.04). It is possible to compute a biomechanically based estimate of hip fracture risk by combining estimates of femoral strength based on an empirical

  16. A device for characterising the mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissue of the foot.

    PubMed

    Parker, D; Cooper, G; Pearson, S; Crofts, G; Howard, D; Busby, P; Nester, C

    2015-11-01

    The plantar soft tissue is a highly functional viscoelastic structure involved in transferring load to the human body during walking. A Soft Tissue Response Imaging Device was developed to apply a vertical compression to the plantar soft tissue whilst measuring the mechanical response via a combined load cell and ultrasound imaging arrangement. Accuracy of motion compared to input profiles; validation of the response measured for standard materials in compression; variability of force and displacement measures for consecutive compressive cycles; and implementation in vivo with five healthy participants. Static displacement displayed average error of 0.04 mm (range of 15 mm), and static load displayed average error of 0.15 N (range of 250 N). Validation tests showed acceptable agreement compared to a Houndsfield tensometer for both displacement (CMC > 0.99 RMSE > 0.18 mm) and load (CMC > 0.95 RMSE < 4.86 N). Device motion was highly repeatable for bench-top tests (ICC = 0.99) and participant trials (CMC = 1.00). Soft tissue response was found repeatable for intra (CMC > 0.98) and inter trials (CMC > 0.70). The device has been shown to be capable of implementing complex loading patterns similar to gait, and of capturing the compressive response of the plantar soft tissue for a range of loading conditions in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modeling of Soft Poroelastic Tissue in Time-Harmonic MR Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Perriñez, Phillip R.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Van Houten, Elijah E. W.; Weaver, John B.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Elastography is an emerging imaging technique that focuses on assessing the resistance to deformation of soft biological tissues in vivo. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uses measured displacement fields resulting from low-amplitude, low-frequency (10 Hz–1 kHz) time-harmonic vibration to recover images of the elastic property distribution of tissues including breast, liver, muscle, prostate, and brain. While many soft tissues display complex time-dependent behavior not described by linear elasticity, the models most commonly employed in MRE parameter reconstructions are based on elastic assumptions. Further, elasticity models fail to include the interstitial fluid phase present in vivo. Alternative continuum models, such as consolidation theory, are able to represent tissue and other materials comprising two distinct phases, generally consisting of a porous elastic solid and penetrating fluid. MRE reconstructions of simulated elastic and poroelastic phantoms were performed to investigate the limitations of current-elasticity-based methods in producing accurate elastic parameter estimates in poroelastic media. The results indicate that linearly elastic reconstructions of fluid-saturated porous media at amplitudes and frequencies relevant to steady-state MRE can yield misleading effective property distributions resulting from the complex interaction between their solid and fluid phases. PMID:19272864

  18. Clinical applications of perforator-based propeller flaps in upper limb soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shimpei; Sebastin, Sandeep J; Yazaki, Naoya; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Chung, Kevin C

    2011-05-01

    A propeller flap is an island flap that moves from one orientation to another by rotating around its vascular axis. The vascular axis is stationary, and flap movement is achieved by revolving on this axis. Early propeller flaps relied on a thick, subcutaneous pedicle to maintain vascularity, and this limited the flap rotation to 90°. With increasing awareness of the location and the vascular territory perfused by cutaneous perforators, it is now possible to design propeller flaps based on a single perforator, so-called "perforator-based propeller flaps." These flaps permit flap rotation up to 180°. We present the results of upper limb soft tissue reconstruction using perforator-based propeller flaps. We constructed a treatment strategy based on the location of the soft tissue defect and the perforator anatomy for expedient wound coverage in 1 stage. All perforator-based propeller flaps derived from 3 institutions that were used for upper limb soft tissue reconstruction were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters studied included the size and location of the defect, the perforator that was used, the size and shape of the flap, the direction (ie, clockwise or counter-clockwise) of flap rotation, the degree of twisting of the perforator, the management of the donor site (ie, linear closure or skin grafting), and flap survival (recorded as the percentage of the flap area that survived). Twelve perforator-based propeller flaps were used to reconstruct upper limb soft tissue defects in 12 patients. Six different perforators were used as vascular pedicles. The donor defects of 11 flaps could be closed primarily. One flap was partially lost in a patient with electrical burns. Perforator-based propeller flaps provide a reliable option for covering small- to medium-size upper limb soft tissue defects. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of clinical utility of BTC-2000 for measuring soft tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aileen M; Gerrand, Craig; Griffin, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Brian; Hill, Richard P; Wunder, Jay S; Abudu, Adesegun; Bell, Robert S

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate whether mechanical tissue parameters, specifically laxity (in millimeters) and energy absorption (millimeters of mercury multiplied by millimeters) as measured by the BTC-2000, could discriminate levels of fibrosis severity among patients treated for extremity soft tissue sarcoma by surgery alone; preoperative radiotherapy (RT) and surgery; and surgery followed by postoperative RT. A total of 41 patients were treated for extremity soft tissue sarcoma by surgery alone (n = 11); preoperative RT (50 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions) and surgery (n = 15); and surgery followed by postoperative RT (66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions; n = 15). Serial fibrosis measurements were evaluated at equal intervals from the midpoint of the surgical incision along the length of the incision. On the basis of the average of these measurements, differences among the three groups were analyzed using analysis of variance. Pair-wise statistically significant differences were found among the three treatment groups for both laxity and energy absorption as determined by the average of all measurements. The treatment difference remained statistically significant even after adjusting for differences based on the untreated contralateral limb and anatomic site (p <0.001 and p = 0.002 for laxity and energy absorption, respectively). The biomechanical tissue parameters of laxity and energy absorption discriminated fibrosis severity in patients treated with different RT doses. The BTC-2000 may provide a useful quantitative measure of soft tissue fibrosis.

  20. Soft tissue thin-plate spline analysis of pre-pubertal Korean and European-Americans with untreated Angle's Class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess soft tissue facial matrices in subjects of diverse ethnic origins with underlying dentoskeletal malocclusions. Pre-treatment lateral cephalographs of 71 Korean and 70 European-American children aged between 5 and 11 years with Angle's Class III malocclusions were traced, and 12 homologous, soft tissue landmarks digitized. Comparing mean Korean and European-American Class III soft tissue profiles, Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P < 0.001) between the configurations, and this difference was also true at all seven age groups tested (P < 0.001). Comparing the overall European-American and Korean transformation, thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the total spline (deformation) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configurations. For non-affine transformations, partial warp (PW) 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as labio-mental protrusion, predominantly. In addition, PW9, PW4, and PW5 also had high magnitudes, demonstrating labio-mental vertical compression and antero-posterior compression of the lower labio-mental soft tissues. Thus, Korean children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the labio-mental soft tissue complex with respect to their European-American counterparts. Morphological heterogeneity of the soft tissue integument in subjects of diverse ethnic origin may obscure the underlying skeletal morphology, but the soft tissue integument appears to have minimal ontogenetic association with Class III malocclusions.

  1. First Record of Soft Tissue Preservation in the Upper Devonian of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue preservation is reported from Upper Devonian deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland, for the first time. The preserved soft tissues are muscles associated with arthropod cuticle fragments. The muscles are phosphatized with variable states of preservation. Well-preserved specimens display the typical banding of striated muscles. Other muscle fragments are highly degraded and/or recrystallized such that their microstructure is barely visible. The phosphatized muscles and associated cuticle are fragmented, occur in patches and some are scattered on the bedding plane. Due to the state of preservation and the lack of diagnostic features, the cuticle identification is problematic; however, it may have belonged to a phyllocarid crustacean. Taphonomic features of the remains indicate that they do not represent fossilized fecal matter (coprolite) but may represent a regurgitate, but the hypothesis is difficult to test. Most probably they represent the leftover remains after arthropod or fish scavenging. The present study shows that soft tissues, which even earlier were manipulated by scavenger, may be preserved if only special microenvironmental conditions within and around the animal remains are established. PMID:26559060

  2. First Record of Soft Tissue Preservation in the Upper Devonian of Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue preservation is reported from Upper Devonian deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland, for the first time. The preserved soft tissues are muscles associated with arthropod cuticle fragments. The muscles are phosphatized with variable states of preservation. Well-preserved specimens display the typical banding of striated muscles. Other muscle fragments are highly degraded and/or recrystallized such that their microstructure is barely visible. The phosphatized muscles and associated cuticle are fragmented, occur in patches and some are scattered on the bedding plane. Due to the state of preservation and the lack of diagnostic features, the cuticle identification is problematic; however, it may have belonged to a phyllocarid crustacean. Taphonomic features of the remains indicate that they do not represent fossilized fecal matter (coprolite) but may represent a regurgitate, but the hypothesis is difficult to test. Most probably they represent the leftover remains after arthropod or fish scavenging. The present study shows that soft tissues, which even earlier were manipulated by scavenger, may be preserved if only special microenvironmental conditions within and around the animal remains are established.

  3. Biomechanical properties of the forefoot plantar soft tissue as measured by an optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system and tissue ultrasound palpation system.

    PubMed

    Chao, Clare Y L; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yan-Ping; Cheing, Gladys L Y

    2010-07-01

    The forefoot medial plantar area withstand high plantar pressure during locomotion, and is a common site that develops foot lesion problems among elderly people. The aims of the present study were to (1) determine the correlation between the biomechanical properties of forefoot medial plantar soft tissue measured by a newly developed optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system and by tissue ultrasound palpation system, and (2) to compare the biomechanical properties of plantar soft tissues of medial forefoot between a young and old adult group. Thirty healthy subjects were classified as the young or older group. The biomechanical properties of plantar soft tissues measured at the forefoot by the air-jet indentation system and tissue ultrasound palpation system were performed, and the correlation of the findings obtained in the two systems were compared. A strong positive correlation was obtained from the findings in the two systems (r=0.88, P<0.001). The forefoot plantar soft tissue of the older group was significantly stiffer at the second metatarsal head and thinner at both metatarsal heads than that of the young group (all P<0.05). The stiffness coefficient at the second metatarsal head was 28% greater than that at the first metatarsal head in both study groups. Older subjects showed a loss of elasticity and reduced thickness in their forefoot plantar soft tissue, with the second metatarsal head displaying stiffer and thicker plantar tissue than the first metatarsal head. The air-jet indentation system is a useful instrument for characterizing the biomechanical properties of soft tissue. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-stage Reconstruction of Elbow Flexion Associated with Massive Soft-Tissue Defect Using the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Bipolar Rotational Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G.; Ghiassi, Alidad; Sharpe, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the upper extremity, the latissimus dorsi muscle can be used as an ipsilateral rotational muscle flap for soft-tissue coverage or functional reconstruction of arm and elbow. Patients who have both major soft-tissue loss and functional deficits can be successfully treated with a single-stage functional latissimus dorsi rotational muscle transfer that provides simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction. Methods: Our data base was queried for all patients undergoing a rotational latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction of elbow flexion. Four patients were identified. A chart review documented the mechanism of injury, associated injuries, soft-tissue defect size, number of surgical procedures, length of follow-up, last elbow range of motion, and flexion strength. Results: Four patients with loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic loss of the anterior compartment muscles and the overlying soft tissue underwent simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and elbow flexorplasty using the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi as a bipolar muscle rotational tissue transfer. All flaps survived and had a recovery of Medical Research Council Grade 4/5 elbow flexion strength. No additional procedures were required for elbow flexion. The surgical technique is described and supplemented with surgical technique video and patient outcome. Conclusions: This patient series augments the data provided in other series supporting the safety and efficacy of this procedure which provides both soft-tissue coverage and functional restoration of elbow flexion as a single-stage procedure in the setting of massive traumatic soft-tissue loss of the arm. PMID:27757363

  5. Single-stage Reconstruction of Elbow Flexion Associated with Massive Soft-Tissue Defect Using the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Bipolar Rotational Transfer.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, Milan V; Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Ghiassi, Alidad; Sharpe, Frances

    2016-09-01

    In the upper extremity, the latissimus dorsi muscle can be used as an ipsilateral rotational muscle flap for soft-tissue coverage or functional reconstruction of arm and elbow. Patients who have both major soft-tissue loss and functional deficits can be successfully treated with a single-stage functional latissimus dorsi rotational muscle transfer that provides simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction. Our data base was queried for all patients undergoing a rotational latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction of elbow flexion. Four patients were identified. A chart review documented the mechanism of injury, associated injuries, soft-tissue defect size, number of surgical procedures, length of follow-up, last elbow range of motion, and flexion strength. Four patients with loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic loss of the anterior compartment muscles and the overlying soft tissue underwent simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and elbow flexorplasty using the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi as a bipolar muscle rotational tissue transfer. All flaps survived and had a recovery of Medical Research Council Grade 4/5 elbow flexion strength. No additional procedures were required for elbow flexion. The surgical technique is described and supplemented with surgical technique video and patient outcome. This patient series augments the data provided in other series supporting the safety and efficacy of this procedure which provides both soft-tissue coverage and functional restoration of elbow flexion as a single-stage procedure in the setting of massive traumatic soft-tissue loss of the arm.

  6. An improved parameter estimation and comparison for soft tissue constitutive models containing an exponential function.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ankush

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the well-known result that stiffness of soft tissue is proportional to the stress, many of the constitutive laws for soft tissues contain an exponential function. In this work, we analyze properties of the exponential function and how it affects the estimation and comparison of elastic parameters for soft tissues. In particular, we find that as a consequence of the exponential function there are lines of high covariance in the elastic parameter space. As a result, one can have widely varying mechanical parameters defining the tissue stiffness but similar effective stress-strain responses. Drawing from elementary algebra, we propose simple changes in the norm and the parameter space, which significantly improve the convergence of parameter estimation and robustness in the presence of noise. More importantly, we demonstrate that these changes improve the conditioning of the problem and provide a more robust solution in the case of heterogeneous material by reducing the chances of getting trapped in a local minima. Based upon the new insight, we also propose a transformed parameter space which will allow for rational parameter comparison and avoid misleading conclusions regarding soft tissue mechanics.

  7. Automated segmentations of skin, soft-tissue, and skeleton, from torso CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kiryu, Takuji; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2004-05-01

    We have been developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for automatically recognizing human tissue and organ regions from high-resolution torso CT images. We show some initial results for extracting skin, soft-tissue and skeleton regions. 139 patient cases of torso CT images (male 92, female 47; age: 12-88) were used in this study. Each case was imaged with a common protocol (120kV/320mA) and covered the whole torso with isotopic spatial resolution of about 0.63 mm and density resolution of 12 bits. A gray-level thresholding based procedure was applied to separate the human body from background. The density and distance features to body surface were used to determine the skin, and separate soft-tissue from the others. A 3-D region growing based method was used to extract the skeleton. We applied this system to the 139 cases and found that the skin, soft-tissue and skeleton regions were recognized correctly for 93% of the patient cases. The accuracy of segmentation results was acceptable by evaluating the results slice by slice. This scheme will be included in CAD systems for detecting and diagnosing the abnormal lesions in multi-slice torso CT images.

  8. Eccentric Exercise Versus Eccentric Exercise and Soft Tissue Treatment (Astym) in the Management of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Joshua R.; Underwood, Frank B.; Slaven, Emily J.; Cappaert, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eccentric exercise is commonly used in the management of Achilles tendinopathy (AT) but its effectiveness for insertional AT has been questioned. Soft tissue treatment (Astym) combined with eccentric exercise could result in better outcomes than eccentric exercise alone. Hypothesis: Soft tissue treatment (Astym) plus eccentric exercise will be more effective than eccentric exercise alone for subjects with insertional AT. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a soft tissue treatment (Astym) and eccentric exercise group or an eccentric exercise–only group. Intervention was completed over a 12-week period, with outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Outcomes included the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Achilles-Specific Questionnaire (VISA-A), the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and the global rating of change (GROC). Results: Significantly greater improvements on the VISA-A were noted in the soft tissue treatment (Astym) group over the 12-week intervention period, and these differences were maintained at the 26- and 52-week follow-ups. Both groups experienced a similar statistically significant improvement in pain over the short and long term. A significantly greater number of subjects in the soft tissue treatment (Astym) group achieved a successful outcome at 12 weeks. Conclusion: Soft tissue treatment (Astym) plus eccentric exercise was more effective than eccentric exercise only at improving function during both short- and long-term follow-up periods. Clinical Relevance: Soft tissue treatment (Astym) plus eccentric exercise appears to be a beneficial treatment program that clinicians should consider incorporating into the management of their patients with insertional AT. PMID:26893309

  9. The application of diode laser in the treatment of oral soft tissues lesions. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Concepción, Daniel; Cano-Durán, Jorge A; Peña-Cardelles, Juan-Francisco; Paredes-Rodríguez, Víctor-Manuel; González-Serrano, José; López-Quiles, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Since its appearance in the dental area, the laser has become a treatment of choice in the removal of lesions in the oral soft tissues, due to the numerous advantages they offer, being one of the most used currently the diode laser. The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and predictability of diode laser as a treatment of soft tissue injuries compared to other surgical methods. A literature review of articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2017 was performed. "Diode laser", "soft tissue", "oral cavity" and "oral surgery" were employed for the search strategy. Only articles published English or Spanish were selected. The diode laser is a minimally invasive technology that offers great advantages, superior to those of the conventional scalpel, such as reduction of bleeding, inflammation and the lower probability of scars. Its effectiveness is comparable to that of other types of lasers, in addition to being an option of lower cost and greater ease of use. Its application in the soft tissues has been evaluated, being a safe and effective method for the excision of lesions like fibromas, epulis fissuratum and the accomplishment of frenectomies. The diode laser can be used with very good results for the removal of lesions in soft tissues, being used in small exophytic lesions due to their easy application, adequate coagulation, no need to suture and the slightest inflammation and pain. Key words: Diode laser, soft tissues, oral cavity, oral surgery.

  10. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods. PMID:25427880

  11. NUTM1 Gene Fusions Characterize a Subset of Undifferentiated Soft Tissue and Visceral Tumors.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brendan C; Sung, Yun-Shao; Rosenblum, Marc K; Reuter, Victor E; Harb, Mohammed; Wunder, Jay S; Swanson, David; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2018-05-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive tumor that occurs mainly in the head and neck and, less frequently, the mediastinum and lung. Following identification of an index case of a NUTM1 fusion positive undifferentiated soft tissue tumor, we interrogated additional cases of primary undifferentiated soft tissue and visceral tumors for NUTM1 abnormalities. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and results validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes. Six patients were identified: mean age of 42 years (range, 3 to 71 y); equal sex distribution; and, tumors involved the extremity soft tissues (N=2), kidney (N=2), stomach, and brain. On systemic work-up at presentation all patients lacked a distant primary tumor. Morphologically, the tumors were heterogenous, with undifferentiated round-epithelioid-rhabdoid cells arranged in solid sheets, nests, and cords. Mitotic activity was generally brisk. Four cases expressed pancytokeratin, but in only 2 cases was this diffuse. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated the following fusions: BRD4-NUTM1 (3 cases), BRD3-NUTM1, MXD1-NUTM1, and BCORL1-NUTM1. Independent testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of NUTM1 and partner gene rearrangement. This study establishes that NUT-associated tumors transgress the midline and account for a subset of primitive neoplasms occurring in soft tissue and viscera. Tumors harboring NUTM1 gene fusions are presumably underrecognized, and the extent to which they account for undifferentiated mesenchymal, neuroendocrine, and/or epithelial neoplasms is unclear. Moreover, the relationship, if any, between NUT-associated tumors in soft tissue and/or viscera, and conventional NUT carcinoma, remains to be elucidated.

  12. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  13. A review of techniques for visualising soft tissue microstructure deformation and quantifying strain Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Disney, C M; Lee, P D; Hoyland, J A; Sherratt, M J; Bay, B K

    2018-04-14

    Many biological tissues have a complex hierarchical structure allowing them to function under demanding physiological loading conditions. Structural changes caused by ageing or disease can lead to loss of mechanical function. Therefore, it is necessary to characterise tissue structure to understand normal tissue function and the progression of disease. Ideally intact native tissues should be imaged in 3D and under physiological loading conditions. The current published in situ imaging methodologies demonstrate a compromise between imaging limitations and maintaining the samples native mechanical function. This review gives an overview of in situ imaging techniques used to visualise microstructural deformation of soft tissue, including three case studies of different tissues (tendon, intervertebral disc and artery). Some of the imaging techniques restricted analysis to observational mechanics or discrete strain measurement from invasive markers. Full-field local surface strain measurement has been achieved using digital image correlation. Volumetric strain fields have successfully been quantified from in situ X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) studies of bone using digital volume correlation but not in soft tissue due to low X-ray transmission contrast. With the latest developments in micro-CT showing in-line phase contrast capability to resolve native soft tissue microstructure, there is potential for future soft tissue mechanics research where 3D local strain can be quantified. These methods will provide information on the local 3D micromechanical environment experienced by cells in healthy, aged and diseased tissues. It is hoped that future applications of in situ imaging techniques will impact positively on the design and testing of potential tissue replacements or regenerative therapies. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. A study of cephalometric soft tissue profile among adolescents from the three West African countries of Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fadeju, A D; Otuyemi, O D; Ngom, P I; Newman-Nartey, M

    2013-03-01

    Since the introduction of cephalometry, numerous studies have established normal values for Caucasian populations. In Africa, most investigations have established norms and ethnic variations associated with the skeletal pattern. To date, there has been no study comparing soft tissue patterns among adolescents in the West African sub-region. The objective of this investigation was to determine and compare soft tissue patterns among 12- to 16-year-old Nigerian, Ghanaian and Senegalese adolescents, establish any gender dimorphism and compare them with published Caucasian norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of adolescents with a normal incisor relationship aged between 12 and 16 years from Nigeria, Ghana, and Senegal were taken under standardized conditions and traced to determine soft tissue patterns. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The total sample consisted of 165 females and 135 males with a mean age of 13·96 (1·58) years. A number of soft tissue parameters showed significant differences (P<0·05). These included comparison between males and females, and Nigerian, Ghanaian and Senegalese, including lip separation, upper lip length, upper lip exposure, Li-esthetic line, lower lip-NP, nasal tip angle, N-Pr-Pg, Pg-Ls, B-N pogonion and pogonion-mandibular angle. Differences also existed between these West African soft tissue values and published Caucasian norms, including nasolabial angle, mentolabial angle, nasal depth, nose tip, total soft tissue facial convexity and nasal depth angle. The comparative analysis of soft tissue patterns among 12- to 16-year-old adolescents from Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal demonstrated statistically significant differences in soft tissue value between these West African adolescents and published Caucasian soft tissue norms. This study provides useful data in relation to soft tissue parameters for subjects originating from the West African sub-region.

  15. Soft Tissue Structure Modelling for Use in Orthopaedic Applications and Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audenaert, E. A.; Mahieu, P.; van Hoof, T.; Pattyn, C.

    2009-12-01

    We present our methodology for the three-dimensional anatomical and geometrical description of soft tissues, relevant for orthopaedic surgical applications and musculoskeletal biomechanics. The technique involves the segmentation and geometrical description of muscles and neurovascular structures from high-resolution computer tomography scanning for the reconstruction of generic anatomical models. These models can be used for quantitative interpretation of anatomical and biomechanical aspects of different soft tissue structures. This approach should allow the use of these data in other application fields, such as musculoskeletal modelling, simulations for radiation therapy, and databases for use in minimally invasive, navigated and robotic surgery.

  16. Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adult soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treatment is determined by the tumor grade and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Get comprehensive information for newly diagnosed and recurrent STS and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  17. Biomimetic Silk Scaffolds with an Amorphous Structure for Soft Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yonghuan; Li, Meirong; Liu, Jiejie; Yao, Yuling; Ding, Zhaozhao; Wang, Lili; Xiao, Liying; Lu, Qiang; Fu, Xiaobing; Kaplan, David L

    2018-03-21

    Fine tuning physical cues of silk fibroin (SF) biomaterials to match specific requirements for different soft tissues would be advantageous. Here, amorphous SF nanofibers were used to fabricate scaffolds with better hierarchical extracellular matrix (ECM) mimetic microstructures than previous silk scaffolds. Kinetic control was introduced into the scaffold forming process, resulting in the direct production of water-stable scaffolds with tunable secondary structures and thus mechanical properties. These biomaterials remained with amorphous structures, offering softer properties than prior scaffolds. The fine mechanical tunability of these systems provides a feasible way to optimize physical cues for improved cell proliferation and enhanced neovascularization in vivo. Multiple physical cues, such as partly ECM mimetic structures and optimized stiffness, provided suitable microenvironments for tissue ingrowth, suggesting the possibility of actively designing bioactive SF biomaterials. These systems suggest a promising strategy to develop novel SF biomaterials for soft tissue repair and regenerative medicine.

  18. Microscopic histological characteristics of soft tissue sarcomas: analysis of tissue features and electrical resistance.

    PubMed

    Tosi, A L; Campana, L G; Dughiero, F; Forzan, M; Rastrelli, M; Sieni, E; Rossi, C R

    2017-07-01

    Tissue electrical conductivity is correlated with tissue characteristics. In this work, some soft tissue sarcomas (STS) excised from patients have been evaluated in terms of histological characteristics (cell size and density) and electrical resistance. The electrical resistance has been measured using the ex vivo study on soft tissue tumors electrical characteristics (ESTTE) protocol proposed by the authors in order to study electrical resistance of surgical samples excised by patients in a fixed measurement setup. The measurement setup includes a voltage pulse generator (700 V, 100 µs long at 5 kHz, period 200 µs) and an electrode with 7 needles, 20 mm-long, with the same distance arranged in a fixed hexagonal geometry. In the ESTTE protocol, the same voltage pulse sequence is applied to each different tumor mass and the corresponding resistance has been evaluated from voltage and current recorded by the equipment. For each tumor mass, a histological sample of the volume treated by means of voltage pulses has been taken for histological analysis. Each mass has been studied in order to identify the sarcoma type. For each histological sample, an image at 20× or 40× of magnification was acquired. In this work, the electrical resistance measured for each tumor has been correlated with tissue characteristics like the type, size and density of cells. This work presents a preliminary study to explore possible correlations between tissue characteristics and electrical resistance of STS. These results can be helpful to adjust the pulse voltage intensity in order to improve the electrochemotherapy efficacy on some histotype of STS.

  19. Endotine Midface for Soft Tissue Suspension in Zygoma Fracture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie F; Rha, Eun-Young; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2015-09-01

    Treatment of zygomatic fractures necessitates dissection beneath the soft tissues of the cheek. Inadequate resuspension may lead to deformities, including cheek ptosis, lower lid ectropion, and lateral canthal dystopia. The authors present their experience using a biodegradable suspension device for cheek flap resuspension. Patients who received open reduction for unilateral zygomatic fracture between January, 2006 and December, 2013 at a single center were included in the study. Patients could choose whether or not to have Endotine midface inserted. Patients rated satisfaction on facial symmetry. Computed tomography (CT) at 15 months was assessed for soft tissue thickness at the level of the midpoint of the nasolabial fold on each side. Photographs at 15 months were viewed by 3 blinded plastic surgeons and rated for cheek drooping. The results for all 3 parameters were compared between the Endotine group and the control group. A total of 83 patients were included (43 in the Endotine group and 39 in the control group). Patient satisfaction scores were statistically higher (P = 0.03) in the Endotine group (3.70 ± 0.76) than the control group (2.85 ± 0.96). Computed tomography soft tissue thickness score ratio between affected and unaffected side was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the Endotine group than the ratio in the control group. Photography evaluation score difference between affected and unaffected side for the Endotine group (0.70 ± 0.77) was significantly (P = 0.041) smaller than the control group (1.92 ± 1.24). Endotine midface is easy to apply and effective in repositioning the elevated cheek flap in zygomatic fracture patients.

  20. Novel on-demand bioadhesion to soft tissue in wet environments.

    PubMed

    Mogal, Vishal; Papper, Vladislav; Chaurasia, Alok; Feng, Gao; Marks, Robert; Steele, Terry

    2014-04-01

    Current methods of tissue fixation rely on mechanical-related technologies developed from the clothing and carpentry industries. Herein, a novel bioadhesive method that allows tuneable adhesion and is also applicable to biodegradable polyester substrates is described. Diazirine is the key functional group that allows strong soft tissue crosslinking and on-demand adhesion based on a free radical mechanism. Plasma post-irradiation grafting makes it possible to graft diazirine onto PLGA substrates. When the diazirine-PLGA films, placed on wetted ex vivo swine aortas, are activated with low intensity UV light, lap shear strength of up to 450 ± 50 mN cm(-2) is observed, which is one order of magnitude higher than hydrogel bioadhesives placed on similar soft tissues. The diazirine-modified PLGA thin films could be added on top of previously developed technologies for minimally invasive surgeries. The present work is focused on the chemistry, grafting, and lap shear strength of the alkyl diazirine-modified PLGA bioadhesive films. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The use of acellular dermal matrix membrane for vertical soft tissue augmentation during submerged implant placement: a case series.

    PubMed

    Puisys, Algirdas; Vindasiute, Egle; Linkevciene, Laura; Linkevicius, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of acellular dermal matrix membrane to augment vertical peri-implant soft tissue thickness during submerged implant placement. Forty acellular dermal matrix-derived allogenic membranes (AlloDerm, BioHorizons, Birmingham, AL, USA) and 42 laser-modified surface internal hex implants (BioHorizons Tapered Laser Lok, Birmingham, AL, USA) were placed in submerged approach in 40 patients (15 males and 25 females, mean age 42.5 ± 1.7) with a thin vertical soft tissue thickness of 2 mm or less. After 3 months, healing abutments were connected to implants, and the augmented soft tissue thickness was measured with periodontal probe. The gain in vertical soft tissue volume was calculated. Mann-Whitney U-test was applied and significance was set to 0.05. All 40 allografts healed successfully. Thin soft tissue before augmentation had an average thickness of 1.54 ± 0.51 mm SD (range, 0.5-2.0 mm, median 1.75 mm), and after soft tissue augmentation with acellular dermal matrix, thickness increased to 3.75 ± 0.54 mm SD (range, 3.0-5.0 mm, median 4.0 mm) at 3 months after placement. This difference between medians was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Mean increase in soft tissue thickness was 2.21 ± 0.85 mm SD (range, 1.0-4.5 mm, median 2.0 mm). It can be concluded that acellular dermal matrix membrane can be successfully used for vertical soft tissue augmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Histology-specific therapy for advanced soft tissue sarcoma and benign connective tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Silk, Ann W; Schuetze, Scott M

    2012-09-01

    Molecularly targeted agents have shown activity in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and benign connective tissue tumors over the past ten years, but response rates differ by histologic subtype. The field of molecularly targeted agents in sarcoma is increasingly complex. Often, clinicians must rely on phase II data or even case series due to the rarity of these diseases. In subtypes with a clear role of specific factors in the pathophysiology of disease, such as giant cell tumor of the bone and diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor, it is reasonable to treat with newer targeted therapies, when available, in place of chemotherapy when systemic treatment is needed to control disease. In diseases without documented implication of a pathway in disease pathogenesis (e.g. soft tissue sarcoma and vascular endothelial growth factor), clear benefit from drug treatment should be established in randomized phase III trials before implementation into routine clinical practice. Histologic subtype will continue to emerge as a critical factor in treatment selection as we learn more about the molecular drivers of tumor growth and survival in different subtypes. Many of the drugs that have been recently developed affect tumor growth more than survival, therefore progression-free survival may be a more clinically relevant intermediate endpoint than objective response rate using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) in early phase sarcoma trials. Because of the rarity of disease and increasing need for multidisciplinary management, patients with connective tissue tumors should be evaluated at a center with expertise in these diseases. Participation in clinical trials, when available, is highly encouraged.

  3. Avoiding Complications in Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, A. Nicholas, E-mail: kurup.anil@mayo.edu; Schmit, Grant D., E-mail: schmit.grant@mayo.edu; Morris, Jonathan M., E-mail: morris.jonathan@mayo.edu

    As with percutaneous ablation of tumors in the liver, lungs, and kidneys, ablation of bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors carries risk, primarily from collateral damage to vital structures in proximity to the target tumor. Certain risks are of particular interest when ablating bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors, namely neural or skin injury, bowel injury, fracture, and gas embolism from damaged applicators. Ablation of large volume tumors also carries special risk. Many techniques may be employed by the interventional radiologist to minimize complications when treating tumors in the musculoskeletal system. These methods include those to depict, displace, or monitormore » critical structures. Thus, measures to provide thermoprotection may be active, such as careful ablation applicator placement and use of various displacement techniques, as well as passive, including employment of direct temperature, radiographic, or neurophysiologic monitoring techniques. Cementoplasty should be considered in certain skeletal locations at risk of fracture. Patients treated with large volume tumors should be monitored for renal dysfunction and properly hydrated. Finally, ablation applicators should be cautiously placed in the constrained environment of intact bone.« less

  4. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  5. The compressive mechanical properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Pai, Shruti; Ledoux, William R

    2010-06-18

    Diabetic subjects are at an increased risk of developing plantar ulcers. Knowledge of the physiologic compressive properties of the plantar soft tissue is critical to understanding the possible mechanisms of ulcer formation and improving treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the compressive mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissue in both diabetic and non-diabetic specimens from six relevant locations beneath the foot, namely the hallux (big toe), first, third, and fifth metatarsal heads, lateral midfoot, and calcaneus (heel). Cylindrical specimens (1.905 cm diameter) from these locations were excised and separated from the skin and bone from 4 diabetic and 4 non-diabetic age-matched, elderly, fresh-frozen cadaveric feet. Specimens were then subjected to biomechanically realistic strains of approximately 50% in compression using triangle wave tests conducted at five frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz to determine tissue modulus, energy loss, and strain rate dependence. Diabetic vs. non-diabetic results across all specimens, locations, and testing frequencies demonstrated altered mechanical properties with significantly increased modulus (1146.7 vs. 593.0 kPa) but no change in energy loss (68.5 vs. 67.9%). All tissue demonstrated strain rate dependence and tissue beneath the calcaneus was found to have decreased modulus and energy loss compared to other areas. The results of this study could be used to generate material properties for all areas of the plantar soft tissue in diabetic or non-diabetic feet, with implications for foot computational modeling efforts and potentially for pressure alleviating footwear that could reduce plantar ulcer incidence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The compressive mechanical properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Shruti; Ledoux, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic subjects are at an increased risk of developing plantar ulcers. Knowledge of the physiologic compressive properties of the plantar soft tissue is critical to understanding possible mechanisms of ulcer formation and improving treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the compressive mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissue in both diabetic and non-diabetic specimens from six relevant locations beneath the foot, namely the hallux (big toe), first, third, and fifth metatarsal heads, lateral midfoot, and calcaneus (heel). Cylindrical specimens (1.905cm diameter) from these locations were excised and separated from the skin and bone from 4 diabetic and 4 non-diabetic age-matched, elderly, fresh-frozen cadaveric feet. Specimens were then subjected to biomechanically realistic strains of ∼50% in compression using triangle wave tests conducted at five frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz to determine tissue modulus, energy loss, and strain rate dependence. Diabetic vs. non-diabetic results across all specimens, locations, and testing frequencies demonstrated altered mechanical properties with significantly increased modulus (1146.7 vs. 593.0kPa) but no change in energy loss (68.5 vs. 67.9%). All tissue demonstrated strain rate dependence and tissue beneath the calcaneus was found to have decreased modulus and energy loss compared to other areas. The results of this study could be used to generate material properties for all areas of the plantar soft tissue in diabetic or non-diabetic feet, with implications for foot computational modeling efforts and potentially for pressure alleviating footwear that could reduce plantar ulcer incidence. PMID:20207359

  7. Soft tissue massage: early intervention for relatives whose family members died in palliative cancer care.

    PubMed

    Cronfalk, Berit S; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Strang, Peter

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores how bereaved relatives experienced soft tissue massage during the first four months after the death of a family member who was in palliative cancer care. Death of a close family member or friend is recognised as being an emotional and existential turning point in life. Previous studies emphasise need for various support strategies to assist relatives while they are grieving. Qualitative design. Eighteen bereaved relatives (11 women and seven men) received soft tissue massage (25 minutes, hand or foot) once a week for eight weeks. In-depth interviews were conducted after the end of the eight-week periods. Interviews were analysed using a qualitative descriptive content analysis method. Soft tissue massage proved to be helpful and to generate feelings of consolation in the first four months of grieving. The main findings were organised into four categories: (1) a helping hand at the right time, (2) something to rely on, (3) moments of rest and (4) moments of retaining energy. The categories were then conceptualised into this theme: feelings of consolation and help in learning to restructure everyday life. Soft tissue massage was experienced as a commendable source of consolation support during the grieving process. An assumption is that massage facilitates a transition toward rebuilding identity, but more studies in this area are needed. Soft tissue massage appears to be a worthy, early, grieving-process support option for bereaved family members whose relatives are in palliative care.

  8. Preliminary assessment of facial soft tissue thickness utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography models of living individuals.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2014-04-01

    Facial approximation is the technique of developing a representation of the face from the skull of an unknown individual. Facial approximation relies heavily on average craniofacial soft tissue depths. For more than a century, researchers have employed a broad array of tissue depth collection methodologies, a practice which has resulted in a lack of standardization in craniofacial soft tissue depth research. To combat such methodological inconsistencies, Stephan and Simpson 2008 [15] examined and synthesized a large number of previously published soft tissue depth studies. Their comprehensive meta-analysis produced a pooled dataset of averaged tissue depths and a simplified methodology, which the researchers suggest be utilized as a minimum standard protocol for future craniofacial soft tissue depth research. The authors of the present paper collected craniofacial soft tissue depths using three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography scans of living males and females of four self-identified ancestry groups from the United States ranging in age from 18 to 62 years. This paper assesses the differences between: (i) the pooled mean tissue depth values from the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Stephan 2012 [21] and (ii) the mean tissue depth values of two demographically similar subsets of the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16]. Statistical test results indicate that the tissue depths collected from the sample evaluated in this paper are significantly and consistently larger than those published by Stephan 2012 [21]. Although a lack of published variance data by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16] precluded a direct statistical assessment, a substantive difference was also concluded. Further, the dataset presented in this study is representative of modern American adults and is, therefore, appropriate for use in constructing contemporary facial approximations. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Nabumetone in the treatment of skin and soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Jenner, P N

    1987-10-30

    Nabumetone, a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been evaluated for the treatment of skin and soft tissue injury, including sports injury, in clinical trials involving nearly 1,000 patients. Its efficacy, safety, and tolerance in these patients is reviewed. The efficacy of nabumetone in the treatment of soft tissue injury has been demonstrated to be similar to that of soluble aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. It was not possible in these studies to demonstrate a definite advantage over placebo, and the reasons for this are discussed along with some suggestions for future studies. There were no serious adverse experiences reported, and nabumetone was well tolerated and compared favorably with the other agents used, including placebo. It caused significantly fewer gastrointestinal side effects than soluble aspirin. Nabumetone is an appropriate choice of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of sports injury.

  10. Acellular dermal matrix in soft tissue reconstruction prior to bone grafting. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Magaz, Vanessa; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Díaz-Carandell, Artur; Biosca-Gómez-de-Tejada, María-José

    2010-01-01

    When hard tissue augmentation is scheduled as a part of an oral rehabilitation, prior to the treatment, it is important to assess if the quality of the underlying gingiva at the recipient site can support the bone grafting procedure. The most frequent complication during autologous onlay grafts are wound dehiscences in the recipient site, so the integrity of soft tissues is a basic aspect of successful reconstructive and plastic surgical procedure. Connective tissue grafts can improve the quality and quantity of soft tissue in oral sites where a hard tissue reconstruction is going to take place. However, particularly when large grafts are harvested, the autogenous donor site can present significant postoperative morbidity, such as necrosis of the palate fibromucosa and bone exposition, pain and bleeding. Another important limitation with the use of autogenous grafts is the limited supply of donor connective tissue. If a large site needs to be grafted, more than one surgical procedure may be required. An Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) graft has become increasingly popular as a substitute for donor connective tissue, eliminating the disadvantages described for the autogenous donor graft. The amount of tissue harvested is unlimited, so it gives an option for treating patients that have inadequate harvestable tissue or that present a large defect to be treated. The outcome of using ADM as a matrix for soft tissue reconstruction 12 weeks before bone grafting can reduce the risk of exposure and failure of the bone graft.

  11. Epidemiology and survivorship of soft tissue sarcomas in adults: a national cancer database reporta

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Robert M; Swett, Katrina; Ward, William G

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons gather demographic and survival data on ∼70% of cancers in the USA. We wanted to investigate the demographic and survivorship data on this potentially more representative cohort of patients with soft tissue sarcomas. We selected 34 of the most commonly encountered soft tissue sarcomas reported to the NCDB, provided that each entity contained a minimum of 50 cases. This report summarizes the demographic and survivorship data on 63,714 patients with these 34 histologically distinct soft tissue sarcomas reported to the NCDB from 1998 to 2010. The overall survivorships of these sarcomas were near the lower limits of many prior reports due to the all-inclusive, minimally biased inclusion criteria. The overall best prognosis was Dermatofibrosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified). (5-year survivorship 92%). The worst prognosis was Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma (5-year survivorship 19%). New observations included Biphasic Synovial Sarcoma demonstrating a better 5-year survivorship (65%) compared to spindle-cell synovial sarcoma (56%, P < 0.031) and Synovial Sarcoma, NOS (52%, P < 0.001). The demographic and 2- and 5-year survivorship data for all 34 soft tissue sarcomas are presented herein. This extent of demographic and survival data in soft tissue sarcomas is unprecedented. Because of the large number of cases and the inclusive nature of the NCDB, without restriction to certain stages, categories, or treatments, it is less subject to selection bias. Therefore, these data are thought to be more reflective of the true overall prognosis given the current management of sarcoma across the NCDB contributing sites. PMID:25044961

  12. Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Versus Soft-Tissue Allograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher D; Randall, Kyle L; Mariscalco, Michael W; Magnussen, Robert A; Flanigan, David C

    2016-02-01

    To describe the outcomes of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and soft-tissue allografts in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to graft failure risk, physical examination findings, instrumented laxity, and patient-reported outcomes. A search of the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Complete, Cochrane Collaboration, and SPORTDiscus databases was performed. English-language studies with outcome data on primary ACL reconstruction with nonirradiated BPTB and soft-tissue allografts were identified. Outcome data included failure risk, physical examination findings, instrumented laxity measurements, and patient-reported outcome scores. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 11 reported on BPTB allografts exclusively, 5 reported on soft-tissue allografts exclusively, and 1 compared both types. The comparative study showed no difference in failure risk, Lachman grade, pivot-shift grade, instrumented laxity, or overall International Knee Documentation Committee score between the 2 allograft types. Data from all studies yielded a failure risk of 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5% to 18.1%) in the soft-tissue group and 15.2% (95% CI, 11.3% to 19.6%) in the BPTB group. The risk of a Lachman grade greater than 5 mm was 6.4% (95% CI, 1.7% to 13.7%) in the soft-tissue group and 8.6% (95% CI, 6.3% to 11.2%) in the BPTB group. The risk of a grade 2 or 3 pivot shift was 1.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 3.3%) in the soft-tissue group and 4.1% (95% CI, 1.9% to 7.2%) in the BPTB group. One comparative study showed no difference in results after ACL reconstruction with nonirradiated BPTB and soft-tissue allografts. Inclusion of case series in the analysis showed qualitatively similar outcomes with the 2 graft types. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soft tissue response in orthognathic surgery patients treated by bimaxillary osteotomy: cephalometry compared with 2-D photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Martin, Alice

    2013-03-01

    Since improvement of facial aesthetics after orthognathic surgery moves increasingly into the focus of patients, prediction of soft tissue response to hard tissue movement becomes essential for planning. The aim of this study was to assess the facial soft tissue response in skeletal class II and III patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and to compare the potentials of cephalometry and two-dimensional (2-D) photogrammetry for predicting soft tissue changes. Twenty-eight patients with class II relationship and 33 with class III underwent bimaxillary surgery. All subjects had available both a traced lateral cephalogram and a traced lateral photogram taken pre- and postsurgery in natural head position (median follow-up, 9.4 ± 0.6 months). Facial convexity and lower lip length were highly correlated with hard tissue movements cephalometrically in class III patients and 2-D photogrammetrically in both classes. In comparison, cephalometric correlations for class II patients were weak. Correlations of hard and soft tissue movements between pre- and postoperative corresponding landmarks in horizontal and vertical planes were significant for cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry. No significant difference was found between cephalometry and 2-D photogrammetry with respect to soft to hard tissue movement ratios. This study revealed that cephalometry is still a feasible standard for evaluating and predicting outcomes in routine orthognathic surgery cases. Accuracy could be enhanced with 2-D photogrammetry, especially in class II patients.

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Version 2.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

    PubMed

    von Mehren, Margaret; Randall, R Lor; Benjamin, Robert S; Boles, Sarah; Bui, Marilyn M; Conrad, Ernest U; Ganjoo, Kristen N; George, Suzanne; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Heslin, Martin J; Kane, John M; Koon, Henry; Mayerson, Joel; McCarter, Martin; McGarry, Sean V; Meyer, Christian; O'Donnell, Richard J; Pappo, Alberto S; Paz, I Benjamin; Petersen, Ivy A; Pfeifer, John D; Riedel, Richard F; Schuetze, Scott; Schupak, Karen D; Schwartz, Herbert S; Tap, William D; Wayne, Jeffrey D; Bergman, Mary Anne; Scavone, Jillian

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare solid tumors of mesenchymal cell origin that display a heterogenous mix of clinical and pathologic characteristics. STS can develop from fat, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, and other connective tissues. The evaluation and treatment of patients with STS requires a multidisciplinary team with demonstrated expertise in the management of these tumors. The complete NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma (available at NCCN.org) provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of extremity/superficial trunk/head and neck STS, as well as intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal STS, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, desmoid tumors, and rhabdomyosarcoma. This manuscript discusses guiding principles for the diagnosis and staging of STS and evidence for treatment modalities that include surgery, radiation, chemoradiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  15. Components of soft tissue deformations in subjects with untreated angle's Class III malocclusions: thin-plate spline analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1998-01-01

    While the dynamics of maxillo-mandibular allometry associated with treatment modalities available for the management of Class III malocclusions currently are under investigation, developmental aberration of the soft tissues in untreated Class III malocclusions requires specification. In this study, lateral cephalographs of 124 prepubertal European-American children (71 with untreated Class III malocclusion; 53 with Class I occlusion) were traced, and 12 soft-tissue landmarks digitized. Resultant geometries were scaled to an equivalent size and mean Class III and Class I configurations compared. Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P < 0.001) between the mean configurations. Comparing the overall untreated Class III and Class I configurations, thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the deformation (total spline) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configuration. For non-affine transformations, partial warp 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as a combination of columellar retrusion and lower labial protrusion. In addition, partial warp 5 also had a high magnitude, demonstrating upper labial vertical compression with antero-inferior elongation of the lower labio-mental soft tissue complex. Thus, children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the maxillary soft tissue complex in combination with antero-inferior mandibular soft tissue elongation. This pattern of deformations may represent gene-environment interactions, resulting in Class III malocclusions with characteristic phenotypes, that are amenable to orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic manipulations.

  16. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    PubMed

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α < .05). Both solutions contained 5% NaOCl. One milliliter of the standard and the stabilized solution consumed 4.0 mL and 13.7 mL of a 0.1-mol/L HCl solution before they reached a pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a lidocaine and tetracaine (7%/7%) cream for induction of local dermal anesthesia for facial soft tissue augmentation with hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Gold, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Injection of dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure with growing popularity. However, patients often express concern about pain with such procedures. A topical anesthetic cream formulated with lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2006 and recently reintroduced to the market for use during superficial dermatological procedures. A Phase 3 study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream versus placebo cream when used to induce local dermal anesthesia during injections with hyaluronic acid. Mean visual analog scale scores significantly favored lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream. A significant percent of subjects also indicated that lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream provided adequate pain relief and that they would use lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream again. Investigators also rated lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream significantly better than placebo cream for providing adequate pain relief and on the assessment of pain scale. Lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream was safe and well tolerated with most subjects reporting no erythema, edema, or blanching. No related adverse events were reported with lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream; one related adverse event of erythema was reported with placebo cream. The results of this study indicate that lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream is efficacious and safe at providing pain relief for soft tissue augmentation with hyaluronic acid.

  18. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine and Tetracaine (7%/7%) Cream for Induction of Local Dermal Anesthesia for Facial Soft Tissue Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Injection of dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure with growing popularity. However, patients often express concern about pain with such procedures. A topical anesthetic cream formulated with lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2006 and recently reintroduced to the market for use during superficial dermatological procedures. A Phase 3 study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream versus placebo cream when used to induce local dermal anesthesia during injections with hyaluronic acid. Mean visual analog scale scores significantly favored lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream. A significant percent of subjects also indicated that lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream provided adequate pain relief and that they would use lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream again. Investigators also rated lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream significantly better than placebo cream for providing adequate pain relief and on the assessment of pain scale. Lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream was safe and well tolerated with most subjects reporting no erythema, edema, or blanching. No related adverse events were reported with lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream; one related adverse event of erythema was reported with placebo cream. The results of this study indicate that lidocaine/tetracaine 7%7% cream is efficacious and safe at providing pain relief for soft tissue augmentation with hyaluronic acid. PMID:25371769

  19. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique.

    PubMed

    Ramnarayan, Bk; Manjunath, M; Joshi, Anagha Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.

  20. Is ice right? Does cryotherapy improve outcome for acute soft tissue injury?

    PubMed

    Collins, N C

    2008-02-01

    The use of ice or cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injuries is widely accepted and widely practised. This review was conducted to examine the medical literature to investigate if there is evidence to support an improvement in clinical outcome following the use of ice or cryotherapy. A comprehensive literature search was performed and all human and animal trials or systematic reviews pertaining to soft tissue trauma, ice or cryotherapy were assessed. The clinically relevant outcome measures were (1) a reduction in pain; (2) a reduction in swelling or oedema; (3) improved function; or (4) return to participation in normal activity. Six relevant trials in humans were identified, four of which lacked randomisation and blinding. There were two well conducted randomised controlled trials, one showing supportive evidence for the use of a cooling gel and the other not reaching statistical significance. Four animal studies showed that modest cooling reduced oedema but excessive or prolonged cooling is damaging. There were two systematic reviews, one of which was inconclusive and the other suggested that ice may hasten return to participation. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that cryotherapy improves clinical outcome in the management of soft tissue injuries.

  1. Histologic effects of a high-repetition pulsed Nd:YAG laser on intraoral soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Goodis, Harold E.; Yessik, Michael J.; Myers, Terry D.

    1995-05-01

    High-repetition rate, fiberoptic-delivered Nd:YAG lasers have increased oral soft tissue laser applications. This study focused on three parameters: the temperature rise occurring in deeper tissue during excision, the histology of thermal coagulation during excision of oral tissue, and effects of accidental exposure to adjacent hard tissue. Thermocouples were placed 5.0 +/- 0.5 mm in bone below fresh bovine gingiva and at the same depth in tongue; temperatures in the underlying tissue were measured during laser excision. An Nd:YAG laser with 100 microsecond(s) pulse duration was used to excise the tissue using a 200 or 300 micrometers diameter fiber in contact with the tissue. The soft tissue was excised using constant force and rate with laser powers of 1.5, 3, 5, and 10 W, and a variety of pulse rates. The tissue was bioprepared, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The width and depth of the tissue removed as well as lateral and deep thermal coagulation were measured in histologic sections with a measuring microscope (10x). Multifactor randomized ANOVA showed that probe diameter and repetition rates were not significant variables (p soft tissue.

  2. Soft-tissue and phase-contrast imaging at the Swiss Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Mohan, Nishant; Stampanoni, Marco; Muller, Ralph

    2004-05-01

    Recent results show that bone vasculature is a major contributor to local tissue porosity, and therefore can be directly linked to the mechanical properties of bone tissue. With the advent of third generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, micro-computed tomography (μCT) with resolutions in the order of 1 μm and better has become feasible. This technique has been employed frequently to analyze trabecular architecture and local bone tissue properties, i.e. the hard or mineralized bone tissue. Nevertheless, less is known about the soft tissues in bone, mainly due to inadequate imaging capabilities. Here, we discuss three different methods and applications to visualize soft tissues. The first approach is referred to as negative imaging. In this case the material around the soft tissue provides the absorption contrast necessary for X-ray based tomography. Bone vasculature from two different mouse strains was investigated and compared qualitatively. Differences were observed in terms of local vessel number and vessel orientation. The second technique represents corrosion casting, which is principally adapted for imaging of vascular systems. The technique of corrosion casting has already been applied successfully at the Swiss Light Source. Using the technology we were able to show that pathological features reminiscent of Alzheimer"s disease could be distinguished in the brain vasculature of APP transgenic mice. The third technique discussed here is phase contrast imaging exploiting the high degree of coherence of third generation synchrotron light sources, which provide the necessary physical conditions for phase contrast. The in-line approach followed here for phase contrast retrieval is a modification of the Gerchberg-Saxton-Fienup type. Several measurements and theoretical thoughts concerning phase contrast imaging are presented, including mathematical phase retrieval. Although up-to-now only phase images have been computed, the approach is now ready to

  3. Computational Modeling for Enhancing Soft Tissue Image Guided Surgery: An Application in Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Miga, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications.

  4. Denoised and texture enhanced MVCT to improve soft tissue conspicuity

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu; Qi, Sharon X.; Gou, Shuiping

    Purpose: MVCT images have been used in TomoTherapy treatment to align patients based on bony anatomies but its usefulness for soft tissue registration, delineation, and adaptive radiation therapy is limited due to insignificant photoelectric interaction components and the presence of noise resulting from low detector quantum efficiency of megavoltage x-rays. Algebraic reconstruction with sparsity regularizers as well as local denoising methods has not significantly improved the soft tissue conspicuity. The authors aim to utilize a nonlocal means denoising method and texture enhancement to recover the soft tissue information in MVCT (DeTECT). Methods: A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adaptedmore » to reduce the noise while keeping the texture information of the MVCT images. Following imaging denoising, a saliency map was created to further enhance visual conspicuity of low contrast structures. In this study, BM3D and saliency maps were applied to MVCT images of a CT imaging quality phantom, a head and neck, and four prostate patients. Following these steps, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were quantified. Results: By applying BM3D denoising and saliency map, postprocessed MVCT images show remarkable improvements in imaging contrast without compromising resolution. For the head and neck patient, the difficult-to-see lymph nodes and vein in the carotid space in the original MVCT image became conspicuous in DeTECT. For the prostate patients, the ambiguous boundary between the bladder and the prostate in the original MVCT was clarified. The CNRs of phantom low contrast inserts were improved from 1.48 and 3.8 to 13.67 and 16.17, respectively. The CNRs of two regions-of-interest were improved from 1.5 and 3.17 to 3.14 and 15.76, respectively, for the head and neck patient. DeTECT also increased the CNR of prostate from 0.13 to 1.46 for the four prostate patients. The results are substantially better than a local denoising method using anisotropic diffusion

  5. Two-dimensional real-time blood flow and temperature of soft tissue around maxillary anterior implants.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Kanao, Masato; Kondo, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Norihiro; Masaki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the basic nature of soft tissue surrounding maxillary anterior implants by simultaneous measurements of blood flow and surface temperature and (2) analyze differences with and without bone grafting associated with implant placement to try to detect the signs of surface morphology change. Twenty maxillary anterior implant patients, 10 bone grafting and 10 graftless, were involved in this clinical trial. Soft tissue around the implant was evaluated with 2-dimensional laser speckle imaging and a thermograph. Blood flow was significantly lower in attached gingiva surrounding implants in graftless patients (P = 0.0468). On the other hand, it was significantly lower in dental papillae (P = 0.0254), free gingiva (P = 0.0198), and attached gingiva (P = 0.00805) in bone graft patients. Temperature was significantly higher in free gingiva (P = 0.00819) and attached gingiva (P = 0.00593) in graftless patients, whereas it was significantly higher in dental papilla and free gingiva in implants with bone grafting. The results suggest that simultaneous measurements of soft-tissue blood flow and temperature is a useful technique to evaluate the microcirculation of soft tissue surrounding implants.

  6. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  7. A mechano-acoustic indentor system for in vivo measurement of nonlinear elastic properties of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Koo, Terry K; Cohen, Jeffrey H; Zheng, Yongping

    2011-11-01

    Soft tissue exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior under compression. Characterizing its nonlinear elasticity may aid detection, diagnosis, and treatment of soft tissue abnormality. The purposes of this study were to develop a rate-controlled Mechano-Acoustic Indentor System and a corresponding finite element optimization method to extract nonlinear elastic parameters of soft tissue and evaluate its test-retest reliability. An indentor system using a linear actuator to drive a force-sensitive probe with a tip-mounted ultrasound transducer was developed. Twenty independent sites at the upper lateral quadrant of the buttock from 11 asymptomatic subjects (7 men and 4 women from a chiropractic college) were indented at 6% per second for 3 sessions, each consisting of 5 trials. Tissue thickness, force at 25% deformation, and area under the load-deformation curve from 0% to 25% deformation were calculated. Optimized hyperelastic parameters of the soft tissue were calculated with a finite element model using a first-order Ogden material model. Load-deformation response on a standardized block was then simulated, and the corresponding area and force parameters were calculated. Between-trials repeatability and test-retest reliability of each parameter were evaluated using coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients, respectively. Load-deformation responses were highly reproducible under repeated measurements. Coefficients of variation of tissue thickness, area under the load-deformation curve from 0% to 25% deformation, and force at 25% deformation averaged 0.51%, 2.31%, and 2.23%, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.959 and 0.999, indicating excellent test-retest reliability. The automated Mechano-Acoustic Indentor System and its corresponding optimization technique offers a viable technology to make in vivo measurement of the nonlinear elastic properties of soft tissue. This technology showed excellent between

  8. Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) arise in any of the extremities, trunk, retroperitoneum, or head and neck. Treatment is determined by the tumor grade and options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get comprehensive information for STS and treatment in this clinician summary.

  9. Treatment of Vascular Soft Tissue Sarcomas With Razoxane, Vindesine, and Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rhomberg, Walter; Wink, Anna; Pokrajac, Boris

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: In previous studies, razoxane and vindesine together with radiotherapy was proved to be effective in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Because razoxane leads to a redifferentiation of pathological tumor blood vessels, it was of particular interest to study the influence of this drug combination in vascular soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: This open multicenter Phase II study was performed by the Austrian Society of Radiooncology. Among 13 evaluable patients (10 angiosarcomas and 3 hemangio-pericytomas), 9 had unresectable measurable disease, 3 showed microscopic residuals, and 1 had a resection with clear margins. They received a basic treatment with razoxane andmore » vindesine supported by radiation therapy. Outcome measures were objective response rates, survival time, and the incidence of distant metastases. Results: In nine patients with measurable vascular soft tissue sarcomas (eight angiosarcomas and one hemangiopericytoma), 6 complete remissions, 2 partial remissions, and 1 minor remission were achieved, corresponding to a major response rate of 89%. A maintenance therapy with razoxane and vindesine of 1 year or longer led to a suppression of distant metastases. The median survival time from the start of the treatment is 23+ months (range, 3-120+) for 12 patients with macroscopic and microscopic residual disease. The progression-free survival at 6 months was 75%. The combined treatment was associated with a low general toxicity, but attention must be given to increased normal tissue reactions. Conclusions: This trimodal treatment leads to excellent response rates, and it suppresses distant metastases when given as maintenance therapy.« less

  10. Cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and factors associated with soft tissue scarring after the removal of miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-ah; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of distinguishable soft tissue scarring after the removal of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) such as orthodontic miniscrews and to analyze the factors associated with scar formation. The prevalence of soft tissue scarring in 66 patients (202 miniscrew removal sites) was clinically investigated at least 1 year after miniscrew removal. To determine the clinical factors associated with soft tissue scar formation, miniscrew stability; host factors including age, gender, and gingival biotype; and miniscrew-related factors such as insertion site, vertical position, and insertion period were evaluated. The prevalence of a distinguishable scar remaining at least 1 year after miniscrew removal was 44.6%. Patients with flat gingiva showed a significantly higher prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those with pronounced scalloped gingiva (P < .05). Maxillary buccal removal sites showed a significantly higher prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those in the mandible or palatal slope (P < .05). Miniscrew sites at the alveolar mucosa showed a significantly lower prevalence of soft tissue scar formation than did those in the mucogingival junction or the attached gingiva (P < .01). The prevalence of distinguishable scarring after miniscrew removal was fairly high. On the basis of our results, patients with flat gingiva and buccal interdental gingival insertion sites are more susceptible to scar formation.

  11. Evaluation of Molecular and Immunohistochemical Adjunct Modalities in the Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2015-12-01

    The accurate diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms has crucial therapeutic and prognostic importance. There is frequent morphologic overlap between entities, and ancillary modalities are used in the vast majority of diagnoses. Immunohistochemistry is rapid and inexpensive, and in addition to the older markers that mainly detected cytoplasmic proteins, antibodies can indirectly detect tumor-specific genetic and molecular abnormalities. The use of molecular diagnostic techniques is now widespread, with molecular services often integrated into routine histopathology laboratories; as their cost and turnaround times begin to parallel those for immunohistochemistry, we compared the usefulness of ancillary immunohistochemistry, molecular genetic, and molecular cytogenetic techniques in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions. We evaluated the number and contribution of immunohistochemical tests and panels and of ancillary molecular techniques in the primary histopathologic diagnosis of 150 soft tissue lesions. Ninety of 150 cases required either only one immunohistochemical panel or minimal immunohistochemistry for diagnosis, while 39/150 required 2 to 4 panels. In 5/150, ancillary molecular tests alone (without immunohistochemistry) were diagnostically sufficient. The majority of cases required one immunohistochemical panel for diagnosis, with a smaller proportion requiring a second, and a minority requiring a third or fourth (which mainly comprised neoplasms for which the final diagnosis was uncertain). Certain neoplasms required both extensive immunohistochemistry and ancillary molecular testing, despite which the final diagnosis was inconclusive. Ancillary molecular techniques now make a significant contribution to soft tissue tumor diagnosis, being required in over one third (52/150) of cases, and were useful in confirming or excluding tumors that were not possible to conclusively diagnose with histology and immunohistochemistry. Only a small proportion of soft tissue

  12. High-level expression of podoplanin in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors: immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjun; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ariizumi, Takashi; Li, Guidong; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2011-03-01

    Podoplanin is a 38 kDa mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified in rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). It is expressed in normal lymphatic endothelium, but is absent from vascular endothelial cells. D2-40 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody which binds to an epitope on human podoplanin. D2-40 immunoreactivity is therefore highly sensitive and specific for lymphatic endothelium. Recent investigations have shown widespread applications of immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 in evaluating podoplanin expression as an immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis and prognosis in various tumors. To determine whether the podoplanin (D2-40) antibody may be useful for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, 125 cases, including 4 kinds of benign tumors, 15 kinds of malignant tumors and 3 kinds of tumor-like lesions were immunostained using the D2-40 antibody. Total RNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue obtained from 41 corresponding soft tissue tumor patients and 12 kinds of soft tissue tumor cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions were performed. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expression of the podoplanin protein and mRNA in the majority of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions examined, with the exception of alveolar soft part sarcoma, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and lipoma, which were completely negative for podoplanin. Since it is widely and highly expressed in nearly all kinds of soft tissue tumors, especially in spindle cell sarcoma, myxoid type soft tissue tumors and soft tissue tumors of the nervous system, podoplanin is considered to have little value in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

  13. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  14. A rate insensitive linear viscoelastic model for soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Henry Y.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many biological soft tissues behave as viscoelastic materials with hysteresis curves being nearly independent of strain rate when loading frequency is varied over a large range. In this work, the rate insensitive feature of biological materials is taken into account by a generalized Maxwell model. To minimize the number of model parameters, it is assumed that the characteristic frequencies of Maxwell elements form a geometric series. As a result, the model is characterized by five material constants: μ0, τ, m, ρ and β, where μ0 is the relaxed elastic modulus, τ the characteristic relaxation time, m the number of Maxwell elements, ρ the gap between characteristic frequencies, and β = μ1/μ0 with μ1 being the elastic modulus of the Maxwell body that has relaxation time τ. The physical basis of the model is motivated by the microstructural architecture of typical soft tissues. The novel model shows excellent fit of relaxation data on the canine aorta and captures the salient features of vascular viscoelasticity with significantly fewer model parameters. PMID:17512585

  15. Pediatric Benign Soft Tissue Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Alexandra; Karlis, Vasiliki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the many types of oral pathologic lesions found in infants and children, the most commonly encountered are benign soft tissue lesions. The clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment algorithms of pathologies in the age group from birth to 18 years of age are summarized based on their prevalence in each given age distribution. Treatment modalities include both medical and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents.

  17. Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Silk Gels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Olivier; Schneider, Aurore; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Claire; Polidori, Camille; Leisk, Gary G.; Kaplan, David L.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Egles, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Restoration of a three-dimensional shape with soft tissue augmentation is a challenge for surgical reconstruction and esthetic improvement of intraoral mucosa and perioral skin tissues. A connective tissue graft or free gingival graft, classically used for such indications, requires a donor site, which may lead to various clinical complications. Methods In this article, a new three-dimensional scaffold made of silk fibroin that could be of great interest for these indications was studied. Mechanical tests were conducted to characterize the physical properties of the materials. The biocompatibility of such scaffolds was positively assessed in vitro using a combination of immunostaining, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and histologic staining. Finally, the shaped material was grafted subcutaneously in nude mice for a long-time implantation study. Results Human fibroblasts embedded in this material had a survival rate up to 68.4% and were able to proliferate and synthesize proteins. One month after subcutaneous implantation, the three-dimensional soft tissue augmentation was stable, and histologic analysis revealed revascularization of the area through the biomaterial. A mild inflammatory reaction disappeared after 12 weeks. Conclusion The results indicate that silk-gel material was able to create a lasting three-dimensional soft tissue augmentation and is a promising biomaterial for periodontal and maxillofacial therapies, either as a scaffold for cells or alone as a biomaterial. PMID:19905955

  18. Segmentation of bone and soft tissue regions in digital radiographic images of extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakin, S. Kubilay; Gaborski, Roger S.; Barski, Lori L.; Foos, David H.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmentation of computed radiography (CR) images of extremities into bone and soft tissue regions. The algorithm is a region-based one in which the regions are constructed using a growing procedure with two different statistical tests. Following the growing process, tissue classification procedure is employed. The purpose of the classification is to label each region as either bone or soft tissue. This binary classification goal is achieved by using a voting procedure that consists of clustering of regions in each neighborhood system into two classes. The voting procedure provides a crucial compromise between local and global analysis of the image, which is necessary due to strong exposure variations seen on the imaging plate. Also, the existence of regions whose size is large enough such that exposure variations can be observed through them makes it necessary to use overlapping blocks during the classification. After the classification step, resulting bone and soft tissue regions are refined by fitting a 2nd order surface to each tissue, and reevaluating the label of each region according to the distance between the region and surfaces. The performance of the algorithm is tested on a variety of extremity images using manually segmented images as gold standard. The experiments showed that our algorithm provided a bone boundary with an average area overlap of 90% compared to the gold standard.

  19. The effect of sterilization on mechanical properties of soft tissue allografts.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Bryan P; Rappé, Matthew; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Farmer, Kevin W; Indelicato, Peter A

    2013-09-01

    One major concern regarding soft tissue allograft use in surgical procedures is the risk of disease transmission. Current techniques of tissue sterilization, such as irradiation have been shown to adversely affect the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Grafts processed using Biocleanse processing (a proprietary technique developed by Regeneration Technologies to sterilize human tissues) will have better biomechanical characteristics than tissues that have been irradiated. Fifteen pairs of cadaveric Achilles tendon allografts were obtained and separated into three groups of 10 each. Three treatment groups were: Biocleanse, Irradiated, and Control (untreated). Each specimen was tested to determine the biomechanical properties of the tissue. Specimens were cyclically preloaded and then loaded to failure in tension. During testing, load, displacement, and optical strain data were captured. Following testing, the cross sectional area of the tendons was determined. Tendons in the control group were found to have a higher extrinsic stiffness (slope of the load-deformation curve, p = .005), have a higher ultimate stress (force/cross sectional area, p = .006) and higher ultimate failure load (p = .003) than irradiated grafts. Biocleanse grafts were also found to be stiffer than irradiated grafts (p = .014) yet were not found to be statistically different from either irradiated or non-irradiated grafts in terms of load to failure. Biocleanse processing seems to be a viable alternative to irradiation for Achilles tendon allografts sterilization in terms of their biomechanical properties.

  20. Soft tissue rapid prototyping in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vloeberghs, M; Hatfield, F; Daemi, F; Dickens, P

    1998-01-01

    As part of our research into the fluid hydrodynamics of the human ventricular system, a fused deposition model of the human ventricular system was made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. This article describes the manufacturing of a positive cast of the ventricles as a first step in the construction of a hollow model. After decryption of the original MRI file (ACR-Nema format), the MRI slices were reassembled semiautomatically and a rapid prototyping station produced a resin model. Because of its ease and speed, this method harbors great potential for teaching purposes, research, and preoperative planning in complex three-dimensional soft tissue targets.

  1. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  2. Composite elastomeric polyurethane scaffolds incorporating small intestinal submucosa for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Da, Lincui; Gong, Mei; Chen, Anjing; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Yizhou; Guo, Zhijun; Li, Shengfu; Li-Ling, Jesse; Zhang, Li; Xie, Huiqi

    2017-09-01

    Although soft tissue replacement has been clinically successful in many cases, the corresponding procedure has many limitations including the lack of resilience and mechanical integrity, significant donor-site morbidity, volume loss with time, and fibrous capsular contracture. These disadvantages can be alleviated by utilizing bio-absorbable scaffolds with high resilience and large strain, which are capable of stimulating natural tissue regeneration. Hence, the chemically crosslinked tridimensional scaffolds obtained by incorporating water-based polyurethane (PU) (which was synthesized from polytetramethylene ether glycol, isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid) into a bioactive extracellular matrix consisting of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) have been tested in this study to develop a new approach for soft tissue engineering. After characterizing the structure and properties of the produced PU/SIS composites, the strength, Young's modulus, and resilience of wet PU/SIS samples were compared with those of crosslinked PU. In addition, the fabricated specimens were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells to evaluate their ability to enhance cell attachment and proliferation. As a result, the synthesized PU/SIS samples exhibited high resilience and were capable of enhancing cell viability with no evidence of cytotoxicity. Subcutaneous implantation in animals and the subsequent testing conducted after 2, 4, and 8weeks indicated that sound implant integration and vascularization occurred inside the PU/SIS composites, while the presence of SIS promoted cell infiltration, angiogenesis, and ultimately tissue regeneration. The obtained results revealed that the produced PU/SIS composites were characterized by high bioactivity and resilience, and, therefore, could be used for soft tissue engineering applications. Hybrid composites containing synthetic polymers with high mechanical strength and naturally derived components, which

  3. Prediction of Difficult Laryngoscopy in Obese Patients by Ultrasound Quantification of Anterior Neck Soft Tissue1

    PubMed Central

    Ezri, T.; Gewürtz, G.; Sessler, D.I.; Medalion, B.; Szmuk, P.; Hagberg, C.; Susmallian, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients is challenging. In 50 morbidly obese patients, we quantified the neck soft tissue from skin to anterior aspect of trachea at the vocal cords using ultrasound. Thyromental distance <6 cm, mouth opening <4 cm, limited neck mobility, Mallampati score >2, abnormal upper teeth, neck circumference >45 cm, and sleep apnoea were considered predictors of difficult laryngoscopy. Of the nine (18%) difficult laryngoscopy cases, seven had obstructive sleep apnoea history; whereas, only 2 of the 41 easy laryngoscopy patients did (P<0.001). Difficult laryngoscopy patients had larger neck circumference [50 (3.8) vs. 43.5 (2.2) cm; P<0.001] and more pre-tracheal soft tissue [28 (2.7) mm vs. 17.5 (1.8) mm; P<0.001] [mean (SD)]. Soft tissue values completely separated difficult and easy laryngoscopies. None of the other predictors correlated with difficult laryngoscopy. Thus, an abundance of pretracheal soft tissue at the level of vocal cords is a good predictor of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients. PMID:14616599

  4. Randomized controlled clinical study evaluating effectiveness and safety of a volume-stable collagen matrix compared to autogenous connective tissue grafts for soft tissue augmentation at implant sites.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Zeltner, Marco; Hilbe, Monika; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Hüsler, Jürg; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-10-01

    To test whether or not the use of a collagen matrix (VCMX) results in short-term soft tissue volume increase at implant sites non-inferior to an autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), and to evaluate safety and tissue integration of VCMX and SCTG. In 20 patients with a volume deficiency at single-tooth implant sites, soft tissue volume augmentation was performed randomly allocating VCMX or SCTG. Soft tissue thickness, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and safety were assessed up to 90 days (FU-90). At FU-90 (abutment connection), tissue samples were obtained for histological analysis. Descriptive analysis was computed for both groups. Non-parametric tests were applied to test non-inferiority for the gain in soft tissue thickness at the occlusal site. Median soft tissue thickness increased between BL and FU-90 by 1.8 mm (Q1:0.5; Q3:2.0) (VCMX) (p = 0.018) and 0.5 mm (-1.0; 2.0) (SCTG) (p = 0.395) (occlusal) and by 1.0 mm (0.5; 2.0) (VCMX) (p = 0.074) and 1.5 mm (-2.0; 2.0) (SCTG) (p = 0.563) (buccal). Non-inferiority with a non-inferiority margin of 1 mm could be demonstrated (p = 0.020); the difference between the two group medians (1.3 mm) for occlusal sites indicated no relevant, but not significant superiority of VCMX versus SCTG (primary endpoint). Pain medication consumption and pain perceived were non-significantly higher in group SCTG up to day 3. Median physical pain (OHIP-14) at day 7 was 100% higher for SCTG than for VCMX. The histological analysis revealed well-integrated grafts. Soft tissue augmentation at implant sites resulted in a similar or higher soft tissue volume increase after 90 days for VCMX versus SCTG. PROMs did not reveal relevant differences between the two groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pilot study of facial soft tissue thickness differences among three skeletal classes in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Yoshino, Mineo; Oohigashi, Shina; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2010-02-25

    Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to estimate the appearance of the antemortem face from unknown human skeletal remains. This requires accurate skull assessment (for variables such as age, sex, and race) and soft tissue thickness data. However, the skull can provide only limited information, and further data are needed to reconstruct the face. The authors herein obtained further information from the skull in order to reconstruct the face more accurately. Skulls can be classified into three facial types on the basis of orthodontic skeletal classes (namely, straight facial profile, type I, convex facial profile, type II, and concave facial profile, type III). This concept was applied to facial tissue measurement and soft tissue depth was compared in each skeletal class in a Japanese female population. Differences of soft tissue depth between skeletal classes were observed, and this information may enable more accurate reconstruction than sex-specific depth alone. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures on peri-implant health or disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Naenni, Nadja; Figuero, Elena; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Schwarz, Frank; Jung, Ronald E; Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio

    2018-03-01

    To review the dental literature in terms of soft tissue augmentation procedures and their influence on peri-implant health or disease in partially and fully edentulous patients. A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2016 was performed to identify controlled clinical studies comparing soft tissue grafting versus no soft tissue grafting (maintenance) or two types of soft tissue grafting procedures at implant sites. The soft tissue grafting procedures included either an increase of keratinized tissue or an increase of the thickness of the peri-implant mucosa. Studies reporting on the peri-implant tissue health, as assessed by bleeding or gingival indices, were included in the review. The search was complemented by an additional hand search of all selected full-text articles and reviews published between 2011 and 2016. The initial search yielded a total number of 2,823 studies. Eligible studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria (finally included: four studies on gain of keratinized tissue; six studies on gain of mucosal thickness) and quality assessments conducted. Meta-analyses were applied whenever possible. Soft tissue grafting procedures for gain of keratinized tissue resulted in a significantly greater improvement of gingival index values compared to maintenance groups (with or without keratinized tissue) [n = 2; WMD = 0.863; 95% CI (0.658; 1.067); p < .001]. For final marginal bone levels, statistically significant differences were calculated in favor of an apically positioned flap (APF) plus autogenous grafts versus all control treatments (APF alone; APF plus a collagen matrix; maintenance without intervention [with or without residual keratinized tissue]) [n = 4; WMD = -0.175 mm; 95% CI: (-0.313; -0.037); p = .013]. Soft tissue grafting procedures for gain of mucosal thickness did not result in significant improvements in bleeding indices over time, but in significantly less marginal bone loss over time [WMD = 0.110; 95% CI: 0.067; 0.154; p

  7. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, S; Collard, M; Wood, B

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence. PMID:11833653

  8. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, S; Collard, M; Wood, B

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence.

  9. Peri-implant plastic surgery techniques to hard and soft tissue augmentation in implant rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Baltacioğlu, Esra; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Aydin, Güven; Sukuroglu, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the clinical results of peri-implant plastic surgical approaches for hard and soft tissues before and during the implant placement in a patient with vertical ridge deformation and a shallow vestibule sulcus, and the subsequently performed prosthetic rehabilitation. The surgical approaches used in this case reduced the crown-height space and crown-to-implant ratio and ensured that the implants were placed in their ideal positions, and peri-implant tissue health was maintained. In conclusion, developments in the peri-implant plastic surgery enable the successful augmentation of hard and soft tissue defects and provide the implant-supported fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:29386805

  10. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy.

  11. Soft tissue changes from maxillary distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft lip and palate--a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hannah Daile P; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the soft tissue changes after maxillary advancement using conventional orthognathic surgery (CO) and distraction osteogenesis (DO) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The study group of 39 CLP patients with maxillary hypoplasia underwent either CO or DO with 4 to 10 mm of maxillary advancement. Lateral cephalographs were taken preoperatively and postoperatively at regular intervals. A series of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue landmarks was used to evaluate the changes in the soft tissue and the correlation of hard and soft tissue changes and ratios. Significant differences were found between the CO and DO patients at A point in both maxillary advancement and downgrafting in the early follow-up period. On soft tissue landmarks of pronasale, subnasale, and labial superius, significant differences were found between the 2 groups at 6 months postoperatively only with maxillary advancement. There was better correlation of hard and soft tissue changes with maxillary advancement. The nasal projection was significantly different between the 2 groups at the early and intermediate period. There was much more consistent hard to soft tissue ratios in maxillary advancement with DO than with CO. Both CO and DO can induce significant soft tissue changes of the upper lip and nose, particularly with maxillary advancement. DO generates more consistent hard to soft tissue ratios. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional virtual planning in orthognathic surgery enhances the accuracy of soft tissue prediction.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelen, Geert; Van Genechten, Maarten; Renier, Lieven; Desmedt, Maria; Verbruggen, Elric; Nadjmi, Nasser

    2015-07-01

    Throughout the history of computing, shortening the gap between the physical and digital world behind the screen has always been strived for. Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgery programs have reduced this gap significantly. Although 3D assisted surgery is now widely available for orthognathic surgery, one might still argue whether a 3D virtual planning approach is a better alternative to a conventional two-dimensional (2D) planning technique. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of a traditional 2D technique and a 3D computer-aided prediction method. A double blind randomised prospective study was performed to compare the prediction accuracy of a traditional 2D planning technique versus a 3D computer-aided planning approach. The accuracy of the hard and soft tissue profile predictions using both planning methods was investigated. There was a statistically significant difference between 2D and 3D soft tissue planning (p < 0.05). The statistically significant difference found between 2D and 3D planning and the actual soft tissue outcome was not confirmed by a statistically significant difference between methods. The 3D planning approach provides more accurate soft tissue planning. However, the 2D orthognathic planning is comparable to 3D planning when it comes to hard tissue planning. This study provides relevant results for choosing between 3D and 2D planning in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Early Changes in Facial Profile Following Structured Filler Rhinoplasty: An Anthropometric Analysis Using a 3-Dimensional Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Rho, Nark Kyoung; Park, Je Young; Youn, Choon Shik; Lee, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hei Sung

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative measurements are important for objective evaluation of postprocedural outcomes. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is known as an objective, accurate, and reliable system for quantifying the soft tissue dimensions of the face. To compare the preprocedural and acute postprocedural nasofrontal, nasofacial, nasolabial, and nasomental angles, early changes in the height and length of the nose, and nasal volume using a 3D surface imaging with a light-emitting diode. The 3D imaging analysis of 40 Korean women who underwent structured nonsurgical rhinoplasty was conducted. The 3D assessment was performed before, immediately after, 1 day, and 2 weeks after filler rhinoplasty with a Morpheus 3D scanner (Morpheus Co., Seoul, Korea). There were significant early changes in facial profile following nonsurgical rhinoplasty with a hyaluronic acid filler. An average increase of 6.03° in the nasofrontal angle, an increase of 3.79° in the nasolabial angle, increase of 0.88° in the nasomental angle, and a reduction of 0.83° in the nasofacial angle was observed at 2 weeks of follow-up. Increment in nasal volume and nose height was also found after 2 weeks. Side effects, such as hematoma, nodules, and skin necrosis, were not observed. The 3D surface imaging quantitatively demonstrated the early changes in facial profile after structured filler rhinoplasty. The study results describe significant acute spatial changes in nose shape following treatment.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor and soft tissue sarcomas: tumor expression correlates with grade.

    PubMed

    Chao, C; Al-Saleem, T; Brooks, J J; Rogatko, A; Kraybill, W G; Eisenberg, B

    2001-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial-specific mitogen overexpressed in various epithelial malignancies is thought to be a potent regulator of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that some soft tissue sarcomas, due to their high propensity for hematogenous metastases (1) would overexpress VEGF, (2) that the degree of expression may represent a significant biologic predictor for disease-specific survival, and (3) that recurrent tumor would express as high or higher VEGF compared with the primary tumor. Selected paraffin-embedded tissue of surgical specimens from 79 patients with soft tissue sarcomas, treated between 1989 and 1995 were stained with a rabbit polyclonal anti-VEGF antibody at a concentration of 2 microg/ml. Slides were assessed for VEGF expression as high or low by two investigators blinded to the clinicopathologic data. Twelve patients had VEGF expression of their primary tumors, and their recurrent tumors were compared. The Fishers' exact test assessed for differences in VEGF expression; survival analyses were performed according to the methods of Kaplan and Meier. Seventy-eight percent (29 of 37) of patients who died of disease had high VEGF expression. However, VEGF expression was not an independent predictor of either overall or disease-free survival. Tumor grade correlated with VEGF expression significantly. For the low-grade tumors, 7 of 13 expressed low VEGF, whereas for high-grade tumors, 53 of 66 expressed high VEGF (P = .016). Seven of the 12 paired tumor samples expressed identical VEGF immunostaining. The majority of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas in this study have high intensity VEGF expression. This finding may provide useful information on individual soft tissue sarcomas and offer the basis for therapeutic and biologic targeting in high-risk patients using anti-angiogenesis strategies. However, in our analysis, after accounting for tumor grade, VEGF does not seem to be an independent predictor of clinical outcome.

  16. Effect of Initiators on Thermal Changes in Soft Tissues Using a Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Sacks, Danielle; Montanaro, Nicholas; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Javed, Fawad

    2018-06-15

    The aim was to determine the effect of various initiators on the thermal changes that occur during incisions performed in soft tissues using a diode laser. There are no studies that have assessed the effect of various initiators on the thermal changes that occur during incisions performed in soft tissues using a diode laser. Thermal changes were observed during standardized incisions in chicken breast (without skin) via thermoelements over a 10-sec irradiation period. Incisions were created using a 975 nm diode laser with a 320 μ fiber tip diameter. Incisions (10 in each group) were performed with and without an initiator (control group). Red/blue articulating paper, cork, and SureStep ® were used as initiators. The tissue was irradiated in a continuous wave mode at 3 and 6 W in room temperature (21°C). At 3 and 6 W without any initiator, the mean temperature increased by 5.7°C versus 12.4°C, respectively. Cork initiator at 3 and 6 W resulted in temperature increase by 4.88°C versus 6.21°C, respectively. Incisions made using the blue/red articulating paper-initiated tip resulted in temperature increase by 2.9/5.8°C versus 8.2/7.6°C at 3 and 6 W power settings, respectively. Initiation with SureStep resulted in temperature increase by 2.3°C and at 6 W by 4.1°C. No significant differences were recorded between the different groups, but higher temperatures were associated with higher power settings. The power settings of the diode laser and type of initiator used, both effect the degree to which the temperature of the soft tissue increases during incisions and have to be considered for the safety in soft tissue applications.

  17. GPU-based real-time soft tissue deformation with cutting and haptic feedback.

    PubMed

    Courtecuisse, Hadrien; Jung, Hoeryong; Allard, Jérémie; Duriez, Christian; Lee, Doo Yong; Cotin, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a series of contributions in the field of real-time simulation of soft tissue biomechanics. These contributions address various requirements for interactive simulation of complex surgical procedures. In particular, this article presents results in the areas of soft tissue deformation, contact modelling, simulation of cutting, and haptic rendering, which are all relevant to a variety of medical interventions. The contributions described in this article share a common underlying model of deformation and rely on GPU implementations to significantly improve computation times. This consistency in the modelling technique and computational approach ensures coherent results as well as efficient, robust and flexible solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissue with Ultrasound Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadich, I.; Bernal, M.; Greenleaf, J. F.

    The cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure have been related to stiffening of vessels and myocardium. Noninvasive measurements of mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue would facilitate detection and treatment of disease in early stages, thus reducing mortality and possibly reducing cost of treatment. While techniques capable of measuring tissue elasticity have been reported, the knowledge of both elasticity and viscosity is necessary to fully characterize mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this article, we summarize the Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method developed by our group and report on advances made in characterizing stiffness of large vessels and myocardium. The method uses radiation forceFadiation force to excite shear waves in soft tissue and pulse echo ultrasound to measure the motion. The speed of propagation of shear waves at different frequencies is used to generate dispersions curves for excised porcine left-ventricular free-wall myocardium and carotid arteries. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the LV myocardium dispersion curves to obtain elasticity and viscosity moduli. The results suggest that the speed of shear wave propagation in four orthogonal directions on the surface of the excised myocardium is similar. These studies show that the SDUV method has potential for clinical application in noninvasive quantification of elasticity and viscosity of vessels and myocardium.

  19. Soft-tissue volumetric changes following monobloc distraction procedure: analysis using digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system (3dMD).

    PubMed

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Federico, Christina; Bradley, James P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis resulted in decreased morbidity and greater advancement with less relapse compared with acute monobloc advancement with bone grafting. In this study, we examine the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric soft-tissue changes in monobloc distraction.Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent monobloc distraction from 2002 to 2010 at University of California-Los Angeles Craniofacial Center were studied (n = 12). We recorded diagnosis, indications for the surgery, and volumetric changes for skeletal and soft-tissue midface structures (preoperative/postoperative [6 weeks]/follow-up [>1 year]). Computed tomography scans and a digital 3D photogrammetry system were used for image analysis.Patients ranged from 6 to 14 years of age (mean, 10.1 years) at the time of the operation (follow-up 2-11 years); mean distraction advancement was 19.4 mm (range, 14-25 mm). There was a mean increase in the 3D volumetric soft-tissue changes: 99.5 ± 4.0 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 94.9 ± 3.6 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 1-year follow-up. When comparing soft-tissue changes at 6 weeks postoperative to 1-year follow-up, there were minimal relapse changes. The overall mean 3D skeletal change was 108.9 ± 4.2 cm. For every 1 cm of skeletal gain, there was 0.78 cm(3) of soft-tissue gain.Monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis using internal devices resulted in increased volumetric soft-tissue changes, which remained stable at 1 year. The positive linear correlation between soft-tissue increments and bony advancement can be incorporated during the planning of osteotomies to achieve optimum surgical outcomes with monobloc distraction.

  20. The effects of penile girth enhancement using injectable hyaluronic acid gel, a filler.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Tae Il; Oh, MiMi; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2011-12-01

    Despites the debates on penile girth enhancement (PGE), demands for enhancement are increasing. Recently, various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation with proven efficacy and safety. To identify the feasibility and efficacy of PGE by injection of filler. Fifty patients with subjective small penis who visited Korea University Guro outpatient clinic were enrolled and prospectively followed. Restylane Sub-Q (Q-med, Upssala, Sweden) was injected into the fascial layer of penile body via 21G cannula with "Back & Forth Technique" and homogenized with a roller. From April 2006 to February 2008, 50 patients were enrolled and 41 patients were followed until 18 months after PGE. Changes in penile girth at midshaft were measured by tapeline at 1 and 18 months. Patient's visual estimation of residual volume (Gr 0-4), patient's satisfaction (Gr 0-4), and any adverse reactions were also evaluated. Mean injected volume was 20.56 cc (18-22). Compared with basal girth of 7.48 ± 0.35 cm, maximal circumference was significantly increased to 11.41 ± 0.34 cm at 1 month (P < 0.0001) and maintained as 11.26 ± 0.33 cm until 18 months. In patient's visual estimation, two patients complained the decrease as Gr 3 with focal depression at 1 month. At 18 months, all patients answered as Gr 4 without asymmetry. Patient's and partner's satisfaction score was 3.71 ± 0.46 and 3.65 ± 0.48 at 1 month and 3.34 ± 0.53 and 3.38 ± 0.49 at 18 months. There were no inflammatory signs or serious adverse reactions in all cases. Considering the property of material, methods, and follow-up results of 18 months, PGE using filler is a very effective and safe technique for penile augmentation. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Factors that influence soft tissue thickness over the greater trochanter: application to understanding hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Levine, Iris C; Minty, Lauren E; Laing, Andrew C

    2015-03-01

    Fall-related hip injuries are a concern for the growing population of older adults. Evidence suggests that soft tissue overlying the greater trochanter attenuates the forces transmitted to the proximal femur during an impact, reducing mechanical risk of hip fracture. However, there is limited information about the factors that influence trochanteric soft tissue thickness. The current study used ultrasonography and electromyography to determine whether trochanteric soft tissue thickness could be quantified reproducibly and whether it was influenced by: (1) gender; (2) hip postures associated with potential falling configurations in the sagittal plane (from 30° of extension to 60° of flexion, at 15° intervals), combined adduction-flexion, and combined adduction-extension; and (3) activation levels of the tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Our results demonstrated that soft tissue thickness can be measured reliably in nine hip postures and three muscle activation conditions (for all conditions, ICC >0.98). Mean (SD) thickness in quiet stance was 2.52 cm. Thickness was 27.0% lower for males than females during quiet stance. It was 16.4% greater at maximum flexion than quiet standing, 27.2% greater at maximum extension, and 12.5% greater during combined adduction-flexion. However, there was no significant difference between combined adduction-extension and quiet standing. Thickness was not affected by changes in muscle activity. Forces applied to the femoral neck during a lateral fall decrease as trochanteric soft tissue thickness increases; gender and postural configuration at impact could influence the loads applied to the proximal femur (and thus hip fracture risk) during falls on the hip. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Radiologic-Pathologic Features, Part 1-Common Sarcomas: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Angela D; Manning, Maria A; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Miettinen, Markku M

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas are a diverse group of rare mesenchymal malignancies that can arise at any location in the body and affect all age groups. These sarcomas are most common in the extremities, trunk wall, retroperitoneum, and head and neck. In the adult population, soft-tissue sarcomas arising in the abdomen and pelvis are often large masses at the time of diagnosis because they are usually clinically silent or cause vague or mild symptoms until they invade or compress vital organs. In contrast, soft-tissue sarcomas arising from the abdominal wall come to clinical attention earlier in the course of disease because they cause a palpable mass, abdominal wall deformity, or pain that is more clinically apparent. The imaging features of abdominal and pelvic sarcomas and abdominal wall sarcomas can be nonspecific and overlap with more common pathologic conditions, making diagnosis difficult or, in some cases, delaying diagnosis. Liposarcoma (well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas), leiomyosarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) are the most common intra-abdominal primary sarcomas. Any soft-tissue sarcoma can arise in the abdominal wall. Knowledge of the classification and pathologic features of soft-tissue sarcomas, the anatomic locations where they occur, and their cross-sectional imaging features helps the radiologist establish the diagnosis or differential diagnosis so that patients with soft-tissue sarcomas can receive optimal treatment and management. In part 1 of this article, the most common soft-tissue sarcomas (liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and GIST) are reviewed, with a discussion on anatomic locations, classification, clinical considerations, and differential diagnosis. Part 2 will focus on the remainder of the soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis.

  3. The in vivo plantar soft tissue mechanical property under the metatarsal head: implications of tissues׳ joint-angle dependent response in foot finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2014-12-01

    Material properties of the plantar soft tissue have not been well quantified in vivo (i.e., from life subjects) nor for areas other than the heel pad. This study explored an in vivo investigation of the plantar soft tissue material behavior under the metatarsal head (MTH). We used a novel device collecting indentation data at controlled metatarsophalangeal joint angles. Combined with inverse analysis, tissues׳ joint-angle dependent material properties were identified. The results showed that the soft tissue under MTH exhibited joint-angle dependent material responses, and the computed parameters using the Ogden material model were 51.3% and 30.9% larger in the dorsiflexed than in the neutral positions, respectively. Using derived parameters in subject-specific foot finite element models revealed only those models that used tissues׳ joint-dependent responses could reproduce the known plantar pressure pattern under the MTH. It is suggested that, to further improve specificity of the personalized foot finite element models, quantitative mechanical properties of the tissue inclusive of the effects of metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomized controlled clinical study comparing a volume-stable collagen matrix to autogenous connective tissue grafts for soft tissue augmentation at implant sites: linear volumetric soft tissue changes up to 3 months.

    PubMed

    Zeltner, Marco; Jung, Ronald E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Hüsler, Jürg; Thoma, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    To test whether or not the use of a volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX) results in soft tissue volume increase at implant sites non-inferior to an autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). In 20 patients, soft tissue augmentation at implant sites was performed using VCMX or SCTG. Casts obtained prior to augmentation (BL), at 30 (FU-30) and 90 days (FU-90) were digitized and transferred to stereolithography (STL) files. BL, FU-30 and FU-90 STL files were superimposed and linear volumetric changes evaluated in crestal and buccal regions of interest (ROI). Descriptive analysis was computed for both groups and a test for non-inferiority was performed. The median linear changes from BL to FU-90 in the crestal ROI amounted to 0.175 mm (0.06; 0.51) for VCMX (p = 0.002 over time) and to 0.51 mm (0.23; 0.94) for SCTG (p = 0.129). The differences between the two groups were not significant (p = 0.287). The respective values in the buccal ROI were 0.59 mm (0.26; 1.06) for VCMX (p = 0.002) and 0.94 mm (0.66; 1.13) for SCTG (p = 0.004). The differences between the two groups were not significant (crestal: p = 0.287; buccal: p = 0.534). Non-inferiority could be concluded for VCMX compared to SCTG for both ROI. VCMX and SCTG can be used for soft tissue augmentation at implant sites resulting in an at least short-term increase in volume. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histomorphometrical analysis following augmentation of infected extraction sites exhibiting severe bone loss and primarily closed by intrasocket reactive soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Mardinger, Ofer; Vered, Marilena; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Intrasocket reactive soft tissue can be used for primary closure during augmentation of infected extraction sites exhibiting severe bone loss prior to implant placement. The present study evaluated the histological characteristics of the initially used intrasocket reactive soft tissue, the overlying soft tissue, and the histomorphometry of the newly formed bone during implant placement. Thirty-six consecutive patients (43 sites) were included in the study. Extraction sites demonstrating extensive bone loss on preoperative periapical and panoramic radiographs served as inclusion criteria. Forty-three implants were inserted after a healing period of 6 months. Porous bovine xenograft bone mineral was used as a single bone substitute. The intrasocket reactive soft tissue was sutured over the grafting material to seal the coronal portion of the socket. Biopsies of the intrasocket reactive soft tissue at augmentation, healed mucosa, and bone cores at implant placement were retrieved and evaluated. The intrasocket reactive soft tissue demonstrated features compatible with granulation tissue and long junctional epithelium. The mucosal samples at implant placement demonstrated histopathological characteristics of keratinized mucosa with no residual elements of granulation tissue. Histomorphometrically, the mean composition of the bone cores was - vital bone 40 ± 19% (13.7-74.8%); bone substitute 25.7 ± 13% (0.6-51%); connective tissue 34.3 ± 15% (13.8-71.9%). Intrasocket reactive soft tissue used for primary closure following ridge augmentation is composed of granulation tissue and long junctional epithelium. At implant placement, clinical and histological results demonstrate its replacement by keratinized gingiva. The histomorphometrical results reveal considerable bone formation. Fresh extraction sites of hopeless teeth demonstrating chronic infection and severe bone loss may be grafted simultaneously with their removal. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The duration of hyaluronidase and optimal timing of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler reinjection after hyaluronidase injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Kwon, S B; Whang, K U; Lee, J S; Park, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2018-02-01

    Hyaluronidase injection is a commonly performed treatment for overcorrection or misplacement of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Many patients often wants the HA filler reinjection after the use of hyaluronidase, though the optimal timing of reinjection of HA filler still remains unknown. To provide the optimal time interval between hyaluronidase injections and HA filler reinjections. 6 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with single monophasic HA filler. 1 week after injection, the injected sites were treated with hyaluronidase. Then, HA fillers were reinjected sequentially with differing time intervals from 30 minutes to 14 days. 1 hour after the reinjection of the last HA filler, all injection sites were excised for histologic evaluation. 3 hours after reinjection of HA filler, the appearance of filler material became evident again, retaining its shape and volume. 6 hours after reinjection, the filler materials restored almost its original volume and there were no significant differences from the positive control. Our data suggest that the hyaluronidase loses its effect in dermis and subcutaneous tissue within 3-6 hours after the injection and successful engraftment of reinjected HA filler can be accomplished 6 hours after the injection.

  10. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  11. Quantitative validation of a computer-aided maxillofacial planning system, focusing on soft tissue deformations.

    PubMed

    Nadjmi, Nasser; Defrancq, Ellen; Mollemans, Wouter; Hemelen, Geert Van; Bergé, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D soft tissue predictions generated by a computer-aided maxillofacial planning system in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Twenty patients with dentofacial dysmorphosis were treated with orthognathic surgery after a preoperative orthodontic treatment. Fourteen patients had an Angle Class II malocclusion; three patients had an Angle class III malocclusion, and three patients had an Angle Class I malocclusion. Skeletal asymmetry was observed in six patient. The surgeries were planned using the Maxilim software. Computer assisted surgical planning was transferred to the patient by digitally generated splints. The validation procedures were performed in the following steps: (1) Standardized registration of the pre- and postoperative Cone Beam CT volumes; (2) Automated adjustment of the bone-related planning to the actual operative bony displacement; (3) Simulation of soft tissue changes; (4) Calculation of the soft tissue differences between the predicted and the postoperative results by distance mapping. Eighty four percent of the mapped distances between the predicted and actual postoperative results measured between -2 mm and +2 mm. The mean absolute linear measurements between the predicted and actual postoperative surface was 1.18. Our study shows the overall prediction was dependent on neither the surgical procedures nor the dentofacial deformity type. Despite some shortcomings in the prediction of the final position of the lower lip and cheek area, this software promises a clinically acceptable soft tissue prediction for orthognathic surgical procedures.

  12. Morphological Evaluation of Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Porous Poly-DL-Lactic Acid With Straight Holes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Yukawa; Noriko, Tachikawa; Furuichi, Akiko; Shohei, Kasugai

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the biological reaction to porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) scaffolds with holes for soft tissue augmentation. The control group was porous PDLLA with a diameter of 5.0 mm and a height of 2.0 mm. For the 2 test groups, 7 holes were drilled from the upper to the lower base of the scaffolds; the holes had diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 mm. A scaffold was placed in the periosteum of the cranium. The height and molecular weight (Mw) of the scaffolds were measured at 4 and 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to measure the connective tissue and blood vessel areas. All groups had similar scaffold heights, but the Mw decreased significantly over time. There were significant differences in the connective tissue and blood vessel areas among the control, 0.5-mm, and 1.0-mm groups at the same time point. The soft tissue was increased by drilling holes in the scaffolds. Porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) contributed favorable prognosis for soft tissue. A wider hole was associated with increased connective tissue and blood vessel areas. The scaffold height and Mw were not impacted by size of the holes.

  13. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  14. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler.

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon; Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-08-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure.

  15. Soft tissue molding technique in cleft lip and palate patient using laser surgery in combination with orthodontic appliance: A case report.

    PubMed

    Theerasopon, Pornpat; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Sattayut, Sajee

    2017-03-31

    Although surgical treatment protocols for cleft lip and palate patients have been established, many patients still have some soft tissue defects after complete healing from surgical interventions. These are excess soft tissue, high attached fraena and firmed tethering scares. These soft tissue defects resulted shallowing of vestibule, restricted tooth movement, compromised periodontal health and trended to limit the maxillary growth. The aim of this case report was to present a method of correcting soft tissue defects after conventional surgery in cleft lip and palate patient by using combined laser surgery and orthodontic appliance. A bilateral cleft lip and palate patient with a clinical problem of shallow upper anterior vestibule after alveolar bone graft received a vestibular extension by using CO 2 laser with ablation and vaporization techniques at 4 W and continuous wave. A customized orthodontic appliance, called a buccal shield, was placed immediately after surgery and retained for 1 month to 3 months until complete soft tissue healing. The procedures were performed 2 episodes. Both interventions used the same CO 2 laser procedure. The first treatment resulted in partial re-attachment of soft tissue at surgical area. The second laser operation with the proper design of buccal shield providing passive contact with more extended flange resulting in a favorable outcome from 1 year follow up. Then the corrective orthodontic treatment could be continued effectively. The CO 2 laser surgery was a proper treatment for correcting soft tissue defects and the design of buccal shield was a key for success in molding surgical soft tissue.

  16. Phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Poklepovic, Andrew; Youssefian, Leena E; Youseffian, Leena; Winning, Mary; Birdsell, Christine A; Crosby, Nancy A; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Ernstoff, Marc S; Roberts, John D

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical studies in human melanoma cell lines and murine xenograft tumor models suggest that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib enhances the activity of the cytotoxic agent dacarbazine. We performed a phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors. The primary objective was to identify recommended phase II doses for the combination. Bortezomib and dacarbazine were both administered intravenously once weekly. All patients received prophylactic antiemetics. Dose escalation proceeded using a standard 3 + 3 design. Response was assessed according to NCI RECIST v1.0. Twenty eight patients were enrolled to six dose levels. Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) are the recommended phase II weekly doses. The combination was generally well tolerated. Among 15 patients with melanoma there was one durable complete response in a patient with an exon-11 cKIT mutation, and one partial response. Among 12 patients with soft tissue sarcoma there was one partial response. Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) administered intravenously once weekly is well tolerated and has at least minimal activity in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.

  17. Integration of soft tissue model and open haptic device for medical training simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasum, G. F.; Ramdhania, L. N.; Suprijanto; Widyotriatmo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been widely used to perform any surgical procedures nowadays. Currently, MIS has been applied in some cases in Indonesia. Needle insertion is one of simple MIS procedure that can be used for some purposes. Before the needle insertion technique used in the real situation, it essential to train this type of medical student skills. The research has developed an open platform of needle insertion simulator with haptic feedback that providing the medical student a realistic feel encountered during the actual procedures. There are three main steps in build the training simulator, which are configure hardware system, develop a program to create soft tissue model and the integration of hardware and software. For evaluating its performance, haptic simulator was tested by 24 volunteers on a scenario of soft tissue model. Each volunteer must insert the needle on simulator until rearch the target point with visual feedback that visualized on the monitor. From the result it can concluded that the soft tissue model can bring the sensation of touch through the perceived force feedback on haptic actuator by looking at the different force in accordance with different stiffness in each layer.

  18. Imaging of rare appendicular non-acral soft-tissue chondromas in adults with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Amr, Hanan Abd El-Aziz; Ali, Rola H

    2018-06-01

    Background Soft-tissue chondroma (STC) is a rare benign soft tissue tumor that arises primarily in acral extra-skeletal locations. Occasionally, STCs may arise in more proximal non-acral locations, accompanied by non-classic features that label them as indeterminate lesions and pose diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and pathologists alike. Purpose To explicate the potential of diagnostic imaging in the identification and characterization of appendicular non-acral STCs with emphasis on their morphologic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Material and Methods Our clinical database records were searched for patients with histologically proven primary soft-tissue chondroid lesions over a five-year period. Two musculoskeletal (MSK) trained radiologists evaluated the imaging studies and an MSK pathologist revised the pathological findings. Results The study included six cases of appendicular non-acral STCs (mean age = 40.5 years). The mean size of the tumors was 5.6 cm, with four localized to the knee region, one in the thigh, and one in the sternoclavicular region. All cases showed high signal intensity matrix with low-signal intensity septa on T2-weighted MRI and post-contrast marginal/septal enhancement. The lesions were lobulated and lacked host tissue reaction except for one showing subjacent mild soft-tissue edema. Histologically, the cases lacked overt features of malignancy although one was originally misdiagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Conclusion Non-acral STCs are benign cartilaginous tumors that may pose a diagnostic challenge, both radiologically and pathologically. Collaborative imaging and pathologic workup is needed for better characterization of non-aggression of these lesions, and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and unnecessary radical resections.

  19. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P; Goodwin, Mark B; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C

    2014-01-22

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 > +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues.

  20. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem ‘tissue fixation’ by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB − O2 > −O2 ≫ +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  1. The Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Coverage for Large and Complex Soft Tissue Injuries Around the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Hacquebord, Jacques H; Hanel, Douglas P; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

    2017-08-01

    The pedicled latissimus flap has been shown to provide effective coverage of wounds around the elbow with an average size of 100 to 147 cm 2 but with complication rates of 20% to 57%. We believe the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is an effective and safe technique that provides reliable and durable coverage of considerably larger soft tissue defects around the elbow and proximal forearm. A retrospective review was performed including all patients from Harborview Medical Center between 1998 and 2012 who underwent coverage with pedicled latissimus dorsi flap for defects around the elbow. Demographic information, injury mechanism, soft tissue defect size, complications (minor vs major), and time to surgery were collected. The size of the soft tissue defect, complications, and successful soft tissue coverage were the primary outcome measures. A total of 18 patients were identified with variable mechanisms of injury. Average defect size around the elbow was 422 cm 2 . Three patients had partial necrosis of the distal most aspect of the flap, which was treated conservatively. One patient required a secondary fasciocutaneous flap, and another required conversion to a free latissimus flap secondary to venous congestion. Two were lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. In all, 88% (14 of 16) of the patients had documented (>3-month follow-up) successful soft tissue coverage with single-stage pedicled latissimus dorsi flap. The pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is a reliable option for large and complex soft tissue injuries around the elbow significantly larger than previous reports. However, coverage of the proximal forearm remains challenging.

  2. Toward soft-tissue elastography using digital holography to monitor surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiguang; Mohan, Karan D.; Sanders, William W.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2011-11-01

    Measuring the elasticity distribution inside the human body is of great interest because elastic abnormalities can serve as indicators of several diseases. We present a method for mapping elasticity inside soft tissues by imaging surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with digital holographic interferometry. With this method, we show that SAWs are consistent with Rayleigh waves, with velocities proportional to the square root of the elastic modulus greater than 2-40 kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms. In two-layer phantoms, the SAW velocity transitions approximately from that of the lower layer to that of the upper layer as frequency is increased in agreement with the theoretical relationship between SAW dispersion and the depth-dependent stiffness profile. We also observed deformation in the propagation direction of SAWs above a stiff inclusion placed 8 mm below the surface. These findings demonstrate the potential for quantitative digital holography-based elastography of soft tissues as a noninvasive method for disease detection.

  3. Role of intraoperative varus stress test for lateral soft tissue release during chevron bunion procedure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyong-Nyun; Suh, Dong-Hyun; Hwang, Pil-Sung; Yu, Sun-O; Park, Yong-Wook

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of distal chevron osteotomy performed in conjunction with selective lateral soft tissue release. The criterion for doing a lateral soft tissue release was assessed by determining the ease and completeness of passive hallux valgus correction at the time of surgery. Between August 2005 and November 2007, 48 feet in 43 patients classified as having mild to moderate hallux valgus were retrospectively studied. Distal chevron osteotomy without lateral soft tissue release was performed in 26 cases (Group 1) when passive correction of the hallux valgus deformity was possible. Distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release was performed in 22 cases (Group 2) when passive correction was not possible. Average followup was 23 (range, 12 to 28) months. Clinical results were assessed using radiographic parameters [hallux valgus angle (HVA), first and second intermetatarsal angle (1,2 IMA)], AOFAS scale and patient's subjective satisfaction. For Group 1: the average correction of HVA was 12.8 degrees, the average correction of IMA was 4.7 degrees, and the AOFAS score improved an average of 29.2 points at the last followup. Thirteen patients were very