Science.gov

Sample records for soft x-ray inelastic

  1. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at double core excitations in solid LiCl

    SciTech Connect

    Agaaker, Marcus; Ahuja, Rajeev; Soederstroem, Johan; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Kaeaembre, Tanel; Glover, Chris; Schmitt, Thorsten; Mattesini, Maurizio

    2006-06-15

    Inelastic soft x-ray scattering in LiCl, resonantly enhanced at states with two Li 1s vacancies, is investigated. States in which both excited electrons are localized during the double core hole lifetime, in which one of the electrons delocalize, as well as triply excited states in which the double core excitation is accompanied by a valence-to-conduction band excitation, contribute to the scattering. The angular momentum symmetry of the involved states and the vibronic coupling during the scattering process are reflected in the angular anisotropy. The effect on the local electronic structure of multiple core holes is theoretically studied by means of supercell band calculations.

  2. The SEXTANTS beamline at SOLEIL: a new facility for elastic, inelastic and coherent scattering of soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, M.; Jaouen, N.; Popescu, H.; Gaudemer, R.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Hague, C. F.; Delmotte, A.; Dubuisson, J. M.; Cauchon, G.; Lagarde, B.; Polack, F.

    2013-03-01

    SEXTANTS is a new SOLEIL beamline dedicated to soft X-ray scattering techniques. The beamline, covering the 50-1700 eV energy range, features two Apple-II undulators for polarization control and a fixed-deviation monochromator. Two branch-lines host three end-stations for elastic, inelastic and coherent scattering experiments.

  3. Rydberg-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering: dynamics at core ionization thresholds.

    PubMed

    Rubensson, J-E; Söderström, J; Binggeli, C; Gråsjö, J; Andersson, J; Såthe, C; Hennies, F; Bisogni, V; Huang, Y; Olalde, P; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Föhlisch, A; Kennedy, B; Pietzsch, A

    2015-04-03

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra excited in the immediate vicinity of the core-level ionization thresholds of N2 have been recorded. Final states of well-resolved symmetry-selected Rydberg series converging to valence-level ionization thresholds with vibrational excitations are observed. The results are well described by a quasi-two-step model which assumes that the excited electron is unaffected by the radiative decay. This threshold dynamics simplifies the interpretation of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra considerably and facilitates characterization of low-energy excited final states in molecular systems.

  4. A setup for resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Schreck, Simon; Foehlisch, Alexander; Eckert, Sebastian; Beye, Martin; Suljoti, Edlira; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe; Kalus, Christian; Nordlund, Dennis; Zhang, Wenkai; Hartsock, Robert W.; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Kennedy, Brian; and others

    2012-12-15

    We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak fluences which currently sets a limit to maximum attainable count rate at FELs. The setup presented here opens up new possibilities to study the structure and dynamics in liquids.

  5. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  6. Nuclear dynamics and spectator effects in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering of gas-phase water molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhardt, Lothar; Benkert, Andreas; Meyer, Frank; Blum, Monika; Wilks, Regan G.; Yang, Wanli; Baer, Marcus; Reinert, Friedrich; and others

    2012-04-14

    The electronic structure of gas-phase H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O molecules has been investigated using resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS). We observe spectator shifts for all valence orbitals when exciting into the lowest three absorption resonances. Strong changes of the relative valence orbital emission intensities are found when exciting into the different absorption resonances, which can be related to the angular anisotropy of the RIXS process. Furthermore, excitation into the 4a{sub 1} resonance leads to nuclear dynamics on the time scale of the RIXS process; we find evidence for vibrational coupling and molecular dissociation in both, the spectator and the participant emission.

  7. Quantifying covalent interactions with resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering: Case study of Ni2+ aqua complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnus, K.; Josefsson, I.; Schreck, S.; Quevedo, W.; Miedema, P. S.; Techert, S.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Föhlisch, A.; Odelius, M.; Wernet, Ph.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the effects of covalent interactions in Ni 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra from aqueous Ni2+ ions and find that the relative RIXS intensities of ligand-to-metal charge-transfer final states with respect to the ligand-field final states reflect the covalent mixing between Ni 3d and water orbitals. Specifically, the experimental intensity ratio at the Ni L3-edge allows to determine that the Ni 3d orbitals have on average 5.5% of water character. We propose that 2p3d RIXS at the Ni L3-edge can be utilized to quantify covalency in Ni complexes without the use of external references or simulations.

  8. Quantifying covalent interactions with resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering: Case study of Ni2+ aqua complex

    DOE PAGES

    Kunnus, K.; Josefsson, I.; Schreck, S.; ...

    2016-12-23

    We analyze the effects of covalent interactions in Ni 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra from aqueous Ni2+ ions and find that the relative RIXS intensities of ligand-to-metal charge-transfer final states with respect to the ligand-field final states reflect the covalent mixing between Ni 3d and water orbitals. Specifically, the experimental intensity ratio at the Ni L3-edge allows to determine that the Ni 3d orbitals have on average 5.5% of water character. Here, we propose that 2p3d RIXS at the Ni L3-edge can be utilized to quantify covalency in Ni complexes without the use of external references or simulations.

  9. Electronic Structure of the ID Conductor K0.3MoO3 studied using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Learmonth, T.; Glans, P.-A.; McGuinness, C.; Plucinski, L.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, J.-H.; Greenblatt, M.; Smith, K.E.

    2008-09-24

    The electronic structure of the quasi-one dimensional conductor K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has been measured using high resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data is compared to that from the related two dimensional insulator {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. Scattering features are observed from both oxides that are explained in terms of the band momentum selectivity of the scattering process, allowing a comparison of the scattering data to recent band structure calculations.

  10. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  11. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy below 100 eV: probing first-row transition-metal M-edges in chemical complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Young, Anthony T; Guo, Jinghua; Cramer, Stephen P; Friedrich, Stephan; Braun, Artur; Gu, Weiwei

    2013-07-01

    X-ray absorption and scattering spectroscopies involving the 3d transition-metal K- and L-edges have a long history in studying inorganic and bioinorganic molecules. However, there have been very few studies using the M-edges, which are below 100 eV. Synchrotron-based X-ray sources can have higher energy resolution at M-edges. M-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) could therefore provide complementary information to K- and L-edge spectroscopies. In this study, M2,3-edge XAS on several Co, Ni and Cu complexes are measured and their spectral information, such as chemical shifts and covalency effects, are analyzed and discussed. In addition, M2,3-edge RIXS on NiO, NiF2 and two other covalent complexes have been performed and different d-d transition patterns have been observed. Although still preliminary, this work on 3d metal complexes demonstrates the potential to use M-edge XAS and RIXS on more complicated 3d metal complexes in the future. The potential for using high-sensitivity and high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction X-ray detectors below 100 eV is also illustrated and discussed.

  12. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  13. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  14. Reaction cell for in situ soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of heterogeneous catalysis up to 1 atm and 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, P. T.; Rocha, T. C. R.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Guo, J. H.; Duda, L. C.

    2013-11-15

    We present a novel in situ reaction cell for heterogeneous catalysis monitored in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). The reaction can be carried out at a total pressure up to 1 atm, a regime that has not been accessible to comparable in situ techniques and thus closes the pressure gap to many industrial standard conditions. Two alternate catalyst geometries were tested: (A) a thin film evaporated directly onto an x-ray transparent membrane with a flowing reaction gas mixture behind it or (B) a powder placed behind both the membrane and a gap of flowing reaction gas mixture. To illustrate the working principle and feasibility of our reaction cell setup we have chosen ethylene epoxidation over a silver catalyst as a test case. The evolution of incorporated oxygen species was monitored by total electron/fluorescence yield O K-XAS as well as O K-RIXS, which is a powerful method to separate contributions from inequivalent sites. We find that our method can reliably detect transient species that exist during catalytic reaction conditions that are hardly accessible using other spectroscopic methods.

  15. Reaction cell for in situ soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of heterogeneous catalysis up to 1 atm and 250 °C.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, P T; Rocha, T C R; Knop-Gericke, A; Guo, J H; Duda, L C

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel in situ reaction cell for heterogeneous catalysis monitored in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). The reaction can be carried out at a total pressure up to 1 atm, a regime that has not been accessible to comparable in situ techniques and thus closes the pressure gap to many industrial standard conditions. Two alternate catalyst geometries were tested: (A) a thin film evaporated directly onto an x-ray transparent membrane with a flowing reaction gas mixture behind it or (B) a powder placed behind both the membrane and a gap of flowing reaction gas mixture. To illustrate the working principle and feasibility of our reaction cell setup we have chosen ethylene epoxidation over a silver catalyst as a test case. The evolution of incorporated oxygen species was monitored by total electron/fluorescence yield O K-XAS as well as O K-RIXS, which is a powerful method to separate contributions from inequivalent sites. We find that our method can reliably detect transient species that exist during catalytic reaction conditions that are hardly accessible using other spectroscopic methods.

  16. Quantifying covalent interactions with resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering: Case study of Ni2+ aqua complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kunnus, K.; Josefsson, I.; Schreck, S.; Quevedo, W.; Miedema, P. S.; Techert, S.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Föhlisch, A.; Odelius, M.; Wernet, Ph.

    2016-12-23

    We analyze the effects of covalent interactions in Ni 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra from aqueous Ni2+ ions and find that the relative RIXS intensities of ligand-to-metal charge-transfer final states with respect to the ligand-field final states reflect the covalent mixing between Ni 3d and water orbitals. Specifically, the experimental intensity ratio at the Ni L3-edge allows to determine that the Ni 3d orbitals have on average 5.5% of water character. Here, we propose that 2p3d RIXS at the Ni L3-edge can be utilized to quantify covalency in Ni complexes without the use of external references or simulations.

  17. Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering for Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Young, Athony; Hexemer, Alexander; Padmore, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Over the past a few years, we have developed Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering (RSoXS) and constructed the first dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering beamline at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL. RSoXS combines soft x-ray spectroscopy with x-ray scattering thus offers statistical information for 3D chemical morphology over a large length scale range from nanometers to micrometers. Its unique chemical sensitivity, large accessible size scale, molecular bond orientation sensitivity with polarized x-rays and high coherence have shown great potential for chemical/morphological structure characterization for many classes of materials. Some recent development of in-situ soft x-ray scattering with in-vacuum sample environment will be discussed. In order to study sciences in naturally occurring conditions, we need to overcome the sample limitations set by the low penetration depth of soft x-rays and requirement of high vacuum. Adapting to the evolving environmental cell designs utilized increasingly in the Electron Microscopy community, customized designed liquid/gas environmental cells will enable soft x-ray scattering experiments on biological, electro-chemical, self-assembly, and hierarchical functional systems in both static and dynamic fashion. Recent RSoXS results on organic electronics, block copolymer thin films, and membrane structure will be presented.

  18. European XFEL: Soft X-Ray instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsov, S. L.

    2011-12-15

    The currently constructed European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will generate new knowledge in almost all the technical and scientific disciplines that are shaping our daily life-including nanotechnology, medicine, pharmaceutics, chemistry, materials science, power engineering and electronics. On 8 January 2009, civil engineering work (tunnels, shafts, halls) has been started at all three construction sites. In this presentation status and parameters of the European XFEL facility and instrumentation as well as planned research applications particularly in the range of soft X-rays are reviewed.

  19. ALFT's Soft X-Ray Source Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panarella, Emilio

    2002-11-01

    ALFT (www.alft.com) was funded by the Federal and Provincial governments of Canada in 1987 to pursue the objective of making soft X-ray sources for microlithography.For 15 years ALFT has successfully pursued this objective. Recently, the company has found that its sources can complement the synchrotron as provider of soft X-rays for applications that range from biotechnology to nanotechnology.A beam from the Canadian Synchrotron (CLS) will deliver 10^13 photons/sec in a collimated output, whereas the weakest of ALFT's sources delivers an average of 10^15 photons/sec, two orders of magnitude higher than the synchrotron, albeit in the 4 pi direction. The most powerful of ALFT's sources delivers pulses carrying an average of 10^16 photons/sec, with peak flux of 10^24 photons/sec, again in the 4 pi.The proprietary technology of ALFT rests not only on the electron bombardment concept of X-ray production but also, by using a special plasma (the Vacuum Spark), on the pinch phenomenon, thus obtaining better efficiency than conventional sources. By discharging a simple condenser in a very low inductance circuit, a metallic plasma is generated in a vacuum vessel between two electrodes, where plasma pinch and micropinch phenomena raise the plasma temperature and density to values that lead to large soft X-ray production.The talk will present an overview of the VSX soft X-ray source development, examining first the physics of the vacuum spark, then the extendibility to higher power outputs, and then to the engineering issues that have been solved leading to the first product, the VSX 400, a machine that delivers 400 mW of soft X-rays, and to the VSX Z10, a prototype machine that delivers 10 W of X-rays.The recent visits to the CLS and follow-up discussions that are leading towards the placement of one VSX 400 machine in Saskatoon will also reported.

  20. RESONANT INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING FROM TRANSITION METAL OXIDES.

    SciTech Connect

    HILL,J.P.

    1999-08-23

    Recent developments in hard x-ray resonant inelastic x-ray scattering as a probe of strongly correlated systems are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to studies of Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. A charge transfer excitation is observed when the incident photon energy is tuned in the vicinity of the copper K-edge. It is shown that the presence of resonant enhancements is controlled by the polarization dependence of the excitation process and by the overlap between a given intermediate state and the particular excitation being studied. This latter observation has shed light on the non-local effects present in certain intermediate states.

  1. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOEpatents

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  2. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOEpatents

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  3. Soft x-ray laser microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, P.I.

    1990-10-01

    The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

  4. Soft X-Ray Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    AND SUBTrI 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Soft X-ray Laser Development 61102F/2301/A8 L AUTHOR(S) ( Szymon Suckewer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS...diDr-uinteg~uior Slack 5 . Funding Numbers. To include contract a-d5( fcanTehil and grant numtners; may include programn Reports. element number(s...g~m x 5 mm line-focus on a length-varying cylindrical target. The target lengths used in this experiment were 1, 2.5, and 4.5 mm ( limited by the

  5. INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING AT ULTRAHIGH PRESSURES.

    SciTech Connect

    MAO, H.K.; HEMLEY, J.; KAO, C.C.

    2000-08-28

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) provides high-pressure research with an arsenal of analytical capabilities for key measurements that were previously unattainable, and high pressure research provides IXS with numerous applications where the technique has unique advantages over other methods. High-pressure investigations can now be conducted using non-resonant IXS, resonant IXS, nuclear resonant IXS, and x-ray emission spectroscopy with energy resolutions of 100 meV to 1 eV for electronic transitions and 1 to 10 meV for phonon studies. By pressure-tuning materials over a wide range, we are able to investigate fundamental physics of electron gases, strongly correlated electron systems, high-energy electronic excitations, and phonons in energy and momentum space. The results will have a profound influence on materials applications as well as providing basic information for understanding the deep interior of the Earth and other planets.

  6. Large Solid Angle Spectrometer for Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gelebart, F.; Morand, M.; Dermigny, Q.; Giura, P.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.-P.

    2007-01-19

    We have designed a large solid angle spectrometer mostly devoted to inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) studies of materials under extreme conditions (high pressure / temperature) in the hard x-ray range. The new IXS spectrometer is designed to optimize the photon throughput while preserving an excellent resolving power of {approx}10000 in the considered energy range. The spectrometer consists of an array of up to 4 spherically bent 0.5 m radius analyzer crystals and a solid-state detector positioned on the Rowland circle. The four analyzers can cover a solid angle more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional spectrometers. The spectrometer is to be installed on the GALAXIES beamline at SOLEIL in the near future.

  7. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; Doeppner, T.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Murphy, C. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Vorberger, J.

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  8. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE PAGES

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; ...

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  9. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  10. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  11. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  12. Effects of Galactic absorption on soft X-ray surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Wolter, A.

    1988-01-01

    A bias in the spectral distribution of X-ray sources detected in X-ray surveys is discussed which is due to the combination of the intrinsic characteristics of X-ray telescopes and the effects of low-energy photoelectric absorption within the Galaxy. A statistical method for obtaining information on the average spectrum of X-ray sources detected in well-defined surveys is presented. This method can be applied to surveys performed with X-ray telescopes working at relatively soft X-ray energies, such as Einstein, Exosat, and Rosat.

  13. A soft X-ray image of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Snowden, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

  14. Dante Soft X-ray Power Diagnostic for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E; Campbell, K; Turner, R; Holder, J; Landen, O; Glenzer, S; Kauffman, R; Suter, L; Landon, M; Rhodes, M; Lee, D

    2004-04-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for measuring spectrally resolved the total x-ray flux, radiation temperature, conversion efficiency and albedo that are important quantities for the energetics of indirect drive hohlraums. At the Nova or Omega Laser Facilities, these measurements are performed mainly with Dante, but also with DMX and photo-conductive detectors (PCD's). The Dante broadband spectrometer is a collection of absolute calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, thin filters and x-ray mirrors used to measure the soft x-ray emission for photon energies above 50 eV.

  15. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Studies of Zeolite Collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Greaves, G. Neville; Kargl, Florian; Ward, David; Holliman, Peter; Meneau, Florian

    2009-01-29

    In situ inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) experiments have been used to probe heterogeneity and deformability in zeolte Y as this thermally collapses to a high density amorphous (HDA) aluminosilicate phase. The Landau-Placzek ratio R{sub LP} falls slowly as amorphisation advances, increasing in the later stages of collapse clearly showing how homogeneity improves non-linearly--behaviour linked closely with the decline in molar volume V{sub Molar}. The Brillouin frequency {omega}{sub Q} also decreases with amorphisation in a similar fashion, signifying a non-uniform decrease in the speed of sound v{sub l}. All of these changes with zeolite amorphisation infer formation of an intermediate low density amorphous (LDA) phase. This low entropy or 'perfect glass' has mechanical properties which are closer to the zeolite rather to the HDA glass--notably a very small value of Poisson's Ratio signifying unusually low resistance to deformation.

  16. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These

  17. The hard X-ray perspective on the soft X-ray excess

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Fabian, Andrew C.; Gallo, Luigi C.; Walton, Dominic

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei exhibit a 'soft excess' below 1 keV, whose physical origin remains unclear. Diverse models have been suggested to account for it, including ionized reflection of X-rays from the inner part of the accretion disk, ionized winds/absorbers, and Comptonization. The ionized reflection model suggests a natural link between the prominence of the soft excess and the Compton reflection hump strength above 10 keV, but it has not been clear what hard X-ray signatures, if any, are expected from the other soft X-ray candidate models. Additionally, it has not been possible up until recently to obtain high-quality simultaneous measurements of both soft and hard X-ray emission necessary to distinguish these models but upcoming joint XMM-NuSTAR programs provide precisely this opportunity. In this paper, we present an extensive analysis of simulations of XMM-NuSTAR observations, using two candidate soft excess models as inputs, to determine whether such campaigns can disambiguate between them by using hard and soft X-ray observations in tandem. The simulated spectra are fit with the simplest 'observer's model' of a blackbody and neutral reflection to characterize the strength of the soft and hard excesses. A plot of the strength of the hard excess against the soft excess strength provides a diagnostic plot which allows the soft excess production mechanism to be determined in individual sources and samples using current state-of-the-art and next generation hard X-ray enabled observatories. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to other candidate models for the soft excess.

  18. Burning DT Plasmas with Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2012-10-01

    Fast ignition with narrowband, coherent ultrafast soft x-ray pulsesfootnotetextS. X. Hu, V. N. Goncharov, and S. Skupsky, ``Burning Plasmas with Ultrashort Soft-X-Ray Flashing,'' to be published in Physics of Plasmas. has been investigated for cryogenic deuterium--tritium (DT) plasma conditions achieved on the OMEGA Laser System. In contrast to using hard x-rays (hν = 3 to 6 keV) proposed in the original x-ray fast-ignition proposal, we find that soft x-ray sources with hν 500-eV photons can be more suitable for igniting the dense DT plasmas. Two-dimensional radiation--hydrodynamics simulations have identified the breakeven conditions for realizing such a ``hybrid'' ignition scheme (direct-drive compression with soft x-ray heating) with 50-μm-offset targets: an ˜10-ps soft x-ray pulse (hν 500 eV) with a total energy of 500 to 1000 J to be focused into a 10-μm spot size. A variety of x-ray pulse parameters have also been investigated for optimization. It is noted that an order of magnitude increase in neutron yield has been predicted even with x-ray energy as low as ˜50 J. Scaling this idea to a 1-MJ large-scale NIF target, a gain above ˜30 can be reached with the same soft x-ray pulse at 1.65-kJ energy. Even though such energetic x-ray sources do not currently exist, we hope that the proposed ignition scheme may stimulate efforts on generating powerful soft x-ray sources in future. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  19. Soft x-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Toleikis, S; Faustlin, R R; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Truong, N X; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

    2009-03-03

    We report on soft x-ray scattering experiments on cryogenic hydrogen and simple metal targets. As a source of intense and ultrashort soft x-ray pulses we have used free-electron laser radiation at 92 eV photon energy from FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. X-ray pulses with energies up to 100 {micro}J and durations below 50 fs provide interaction with the target leading simultaneously to plasma formation and scattering. Experiments exploiting both of these interactions have been carried out, using the same experimental setup. Firstly, recording of soft x-ray inelastic scattering from near-solid density hydrogen plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures confirms the feasibility of this diagnostics technique. Secondly, the soft x-ray excitation of few electronvolt solid-density plasmas in simple metals could be studied by recording soft x-ray line and continuum emission integrated over emission times from fs to ns.

  20. Moon: lunar albedo for soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Albedo of the Moon for soft X-rays (0.1-2 keV photons) is determined on the basis of the X-ray luminosity of the Moon detected and measured for the first time by orbital space telescope ROSAT in 1990. It is found that the lunar albedo for the solar soft X-rays is less than the lunar visual region albedo almost thousand times. The data allow to estimate more correctly X-ray luminosity of dusty comets like Hyakutake C/1996 B2 and Hale-Bopp C/1995 O1 due to scattering of solar soft X-rays and to reveal thus the dominant mechanism for production of X-rays in dusty comets.

  1. Multilayers for EUV, soft x-ray and x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Driven by the requirements in synchrotron radiation applications, astronomical observation, and dense plasma diagnostics, the EUV, soft X-rays and X-rays multilayer optics have been tremendously developed. Based on the LAMP project for soft X-ray polarimetry, Co/C and Cr/C multilayers have been fabricated and characterized. Both Co/C and Cr/C multilayers reveal good optical performance working at 250 eV. Pd/Y multilayers have been successfully fabricated using reactive sputtering with nitrogen working at around 9.4 nm. EUV normal incidence Schwarzschild and soft X-ray grazing incidence KB microscopes were developed for ICF plasma diagnostics. This paper covers the outline of the multilayer optics and the current status in our lab.

  2. Hard X-Ray, Soft X-Ray, and EUV Studies of Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Document study the hard X-ray (HXR), soft X-ray (SXR) ,EUV, and magnetic nature of solar eruptions, with the objective of elucidating the physics of the eruption process. In particular, it was examine the viability of two specific eruption mechanisms, detailed in our proposal. These mechanisms are the "breakout model", and the "tether cutting model". During the second year, it was a significant progress in the goals to Data Sets Utilized. In the publications during this second year of the grant period, the data was used from the E W Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instruments on SOHO, and from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT), and the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) on Yooh.

  3. Burning plasmas with ultrashort soft-x-ray flashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ignition with narrow-band coherent x-ray pulses has been revisited for cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma conditions achieved on the OMEGA Laser System. In contrast to using hard-x-rays (hv = 3-6 keV) proposed in the original x-ray fast-ignition proposal, we find that soft-x-ray sources with hv ≈ 500 eV photons can be suitable for igniting the dense DT-plasmas achieved on OMEGA. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have identified the break-even conditions for realizing such a "hybrid" ignition scheme (direct-drive compression with soft-x-ray heating) with 50-μm-offset targets: ˜10 ps soft-x-ray pulse (hv ≈ 500 eV) with a total energy of 500-1000 J to be focused into a 10 μm spot-size. A variety of x-ray pulse parameters have also been investigated for optimization. It is noted that an order of magnitude increase in neutron yield has been predicted even with x-ray energy as low as ˜50 J. Scaling this idea to a 1 MJ large-scale target, a gain above ˜30 can be reached with the same soft-x-ray pulse at 1.65 kJ energy. Even though such energetic x-ray sources do not currently exist, we hope that the proposed ignition scheme may stimulate efforts on generating powerful soft-x-ray sources in the near future.

  4. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  6. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  7. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  8. First Terrestrial Soft X-ray Auroral Observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ostegaard, Nikolai; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Chang, Shen-Wu; Majeed, Tariq; Metzger, Albert E.

    2004-01-01

    Northern auroral regions of Earth were imaged using the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-1) aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) at 10 epochs (each approx.20 min duration) between mid-December 2003 and mid-April 2004. These observations aimed at searching for Earth s soft (<2 keV) x-ray aurora in a comparative study with Jupiter s x-ray aurora, where a pulsating x-ray "hot-spot" has been previously observed by Chandra. The first Chandra soft x-ray observations of Earth s aurora show that it is highly variable (intense arcs, multiple arcs, diffuse patches, at times absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed near the expected cusp location. A fortuitous overflight of DMSP satellite F13 provided SSJ/4 energetic particle measurements above a bright arc seen by Chandra on 24 January 2004, 20:01-20:22 UT. A model of the emissions expected strongly suggests that the observed soft x-ray signal is produced by electron bremsstrahlung.

  9. First Terrestrial Soft X-Ray Auroral Observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Gladstone, G. Randall; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oestgaard, Nikolai; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Chang, Shen-Wu; Majeed, Tariq; Metzger, Albert E.

    2007-01-01

    Northern auroral regions of Earth were imaged with energetic photons in the 0.1-10keV range using the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-I) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory at 10 epochs (each approx.20 min duration) between mid- December 2003 and mid-April 2004. These observations aimed at searching for Earth's soft (< 2 keV) X-ray aurora in a comparative study with Jupiter's X-ray aurora, where a pulsating X-ray "hot-spot" has been previously observed by Chandra. The first Chandra soft X-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable 0ntense arcs, multiple arcs, diffuse patches, at times absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed near the expected cusp location. A fortuitous overflight of DMSP satellite F13 provided SSJ/4 energetic particle measurements above a bright arc seen by Chandra on 24 January 2004, 20:01-20:22 UT. A model of the emissions expected strongly suggests that the observed soft X-ray signal is bremsstrahlung and characteristic K-shell line emissions of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere produced by electrons.

  10. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  11. Soft x-ray holographic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, Daniel; Froemter, Robert; Stillrich, Holger; Menk, Christian; Oepen, Hans Peter; Tieg, Carsten; Streit-Nierobisch, Simone; Sprung, Michael; Gutt, Christian; Stadler, Lorenz-M.; Leupold, Olaf; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2010-01-25

    We present a new x-ray microscopy technique based on Fourier transform holography (FTH), where the sample is separate from the optics part of the setup. The sample can be shifted with respect to the holography optics, thus large-scale or randomly distributed objects become accessible. As this extends FTH into a true microscopy technique, we call it x-ray holographic microscopy (XHM). FTH allows nanoscale imaging without the need for nanometer-size beams. Simple Fourier transform yields an unambiguous image reconstruction. We demonstrate XHM by studying the magnetic domain evolution of a Co/Pt multilayer film as function of locally varied iron overlayer thickness.

  12. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  13. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  14. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Cravens, T. E.; Howell, R. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Ostgaard, N.; Maurellis, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A wide variety of solar system planetary bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn): bodies having thick atmosphere and with/without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with no/thin atmosphere; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft x-rays from these objects. whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly result from electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

  15. Temperature dependent soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids.

    PubMed

    Meibohm, Jan; Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    A novel sample holder is introduced which allows for temperature dependent soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids in transmission mode. The setup is based on sample cells with x-ray transmissive silicon nitride windows. A cooling circuit allows for temperature regulation of the sample liquid between -10 °C and +50 °C. The setup enables to record soft x-ray absorption spectra of liquids in transmission mode with a temperature resolution of 0.5 K and better. Reliability and reproducibility of the spectra are demonstrated by investigating the characteristic temperature-induced changes in the oxygen K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water. These are compared to the corresponding changes in the oxygen K-edge spectra from x-ray Raman scattering.

  16. Resonant soft X-ray scattering on protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dan; Le, Thinh; Wang, Cheng; Zwart, Peter; Gomez, Esther; Gomez, Enrique

    Protein structure is crucial for biological function, such that characterizing protein folding and packing is important for the design of therapeutics and enzymes. We propose resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSOXS) as an approach to study proteins and other biological assemblies in solution. Calculations of the scattering contrast suggest that soft X-ray scattering is more sensitive than hard X-ray scattering, because of contrast generated at the absorption edges of constituent elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. We have examined the structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in solution by RSOXS. We find that by varying incident X-ray energies, we are able to achieve higher scattering contrast near the absorption edge. From our RSOXS scattering result we are able to reconstruct the structure of BSA in 3D. These RSOXS results also agree with hard X-ray experiments, including crystallographic data. Our study demonstrates the potential of RSOXS for studying protein structure in solution.

  17. Observations of X-ray jets with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Ishido, Yoshinori; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hirayama, Tadashi; Uchida, Yutaka; Mcallister, Alan H.; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Tsuneta, Saku; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The features of the multiple X-ray jets in the solar corona, revealed by the time series of the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope images are described. The typical size of a jet was from 5 x 10 exp 3 to 4 x 10 exp 5 km, the translational velocity was 30-300 km/s, and the corresponding kinetic energy was estimated to be from 10 exp 25 to 10 exp 28 erg. Many of the jets were found to be associated with flares in X-ray bright points, emerging flux regions, or active regions, and they sometimes occurred several times from the same X-ray feature. One of the jets associated with a flaring bright point was identified as being an H-alpha surge.

  18. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism of CeFe2 by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, N.; Chiuzbăian, S. G.; Hague, C. F.; Delaunay, R.; Baumier, C.; Lüning, J.; Rogalev, A.; Schmerber, G.; Kappler, J.-P.

    2010-05-01

    We have measured the CeL x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in ferromagnetic CeFe2 using the partial fluorescence yield given by the Ce2p3d resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrum. The lifetime broadening of the 3d core hole is four times smaller than that of the Ce2p core hole providing improved resolution over earlier experiments. Clear evidence for a 4f2 , 4f1 , 4f0 strongly mixed-valent ground state is observed confirming, by and large, impurity Anderson model predictions which take into account the RIXS XMCD geometrical dependence.

  19. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  20. Resource Letter on Stimulated Inelastic X-ray Scattering at an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Bruce D.; /SLAC

    2010-09-02

    At sufficient X-ray intensity, stimulated effects in inelastic scattering will become important. These coherent, non-linear optical phenomena may be used to impulsively produce a high degree of collective excitation in, for example, correlated electron materials, suitable for performing ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. This Resource Letter collects information on fundamental aspects of stimulated X-ray scattering and evaluates the prospect for successful experiments at a present or future X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility.

  1. Revealing the electronic structure of LiC6 by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Li, X.; Augustsson, A.; Lee, C. M.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Nordgren, J.; Ross, P. N.; Guo, J.-H.

    2017-03-01

    The electronic structure of LiC6 has been investigated by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. The results reveal that upon full lithiation of graphite, the Li 2s electrons are transferred into the carbon π* states in a near rigid-band behavior, resulting in the increased density of states near EF and the shift of σ* states to lower energies. In addition, the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra of LiC6 do not show strong dispersive features as that of graphite, indicating that the crystal momentum is not conserved during the scattering process due to the delocalization of electrons in the intermediate state.

  2. Review of soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1991-03-01

    The emerging technology of soft x-ray lasers is in a transition phase between the first laboratory demonstrations of gain and the acceptance of soft x-ray lasers as practical tools for novel applications. Current research is focused on several fronts. The operational wavelength range has been extended to the water window'', important for applications in the life sciences. Gain has also been generated with substantially simpler technology (such as a 6J laser) and this augurs well for the commercially availability in the near future of soft x-ray lasers for a variety of applications. Advanced soft x-ray laser concepts are being developed from investigations into ultra-high intensity laser/matter interactions. The first paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray microscopy and holography have begun. In this paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray laser development will be followed by a review of recent advances in recombination, collisional and photo-pumped systems and applications. A summary of current gain-length performance achieved in laboratories worldwide is presented. Near term prospects for applications to novel fields are discussed. 81 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. First Terrestrial Soft X-ray Aurora Observations by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chang, Shen-Wu; Metzger, Albert E.; Majeed, Tariq

    2004-01-01

    Northern polar "auroral" regions of Earth was observed by High-Resolution Camera in imaging mode (T32C-I) aboard Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) during mid December 2003 - mid April 2004. Ten CXO observations, each approximately 20 min duration, were made in a non-conventional method (due to CXO technical issues), such that Chandra was aimed at a fixed point in sky and the Earth's polar cusp was allowed to drift through the HRC-I field-of-view. The observations were performed when CXO was near apogee and timed during northern winter mostly near midnight (6 hr), except two observations which occurred around 1200 UT, so that northern polar region is entirely in dark and solar fluoresced x-ray contamination can be avoided. These observations were aimed at searching the Earth's soft x-ray aurora and to do a comparative study with Jupiter's x-ray aurora, where a pulsating x-ray hot-spot near the northern magnetic pole has been observed by Chandra that implies a particle source region near Jupiter's magnetopause, and entry of heavy solar wind ions due to high-latitude reconnection as a viable explanation for the soft x-ray emissions. The first Chandra soft (0.1-2 keV) x-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable (intense arc, multiple arcs, diffuse, at times almost absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed where we expect cusp to be: giving indication of solar wind charge-exchange signature in x-rays. We are comparing the Chandra x-ray observations with observations at other wavelengths and particle data from Earth-orbiting satellites and solar wind measurements from near-Earth ACE and SOH0 spacecraft. Preliminary results from these unique CXO-Earth observations will be presented and discussed.

  4. Soft X-ray spectrographs for solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in soft X-ray spectrometery are reviewed, with emphasis on techniques for studying the windowless region from roughly 1-100 A. Recent technological developments considered include multilayer mirrors, large-format CCD detectors which are sensitive to X-rays, position-sensitive photon counting detectors, new kinds of X-ray films, and optical systems based on gratings with nonuniform ruling spacings. Improvements in the extent and accuracy of the atomic physics data sets on which the analysis of spectroscopic observatons depend are also discussed.

  5. Contact microscopy with a soft x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Rosser, R.J.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Gupta, A.P.; Hirschberg, J.G.

    1989-03-01

    A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 19.2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. We also present a Composite Optical X- ray Laser Microscope ''COXRALM'' of novel design. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, Harald

    1997-03-01

    The development of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) microscopy^1 and linear dichroism microscopy^2 over the last few years utilizing the X1-Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (X1-STXM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source provides excellent specificity to various functional groups and moieties in organic molecules and polymeric materials at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. This chemical specificity can be utilized to map the distribution of various compounds in a material, or to micro-chemically analyze small sample areas. Examples of applications include the study of various phase-separated polymers (polyurethanes, liquid crystalline polyesters), multicomponent polymer blends, polymer laminates, and other organic materials such as coal^3. Linear dichroism microscopy furthermore explores the polarization dependence of NEXAFS in (partially) oriented materials, and can determine the orientation of specific functional groups. Applications of linear dichroism microscopy have focused so far on determining the relative degree of radial orientation in Kevlar fibers^3. ^1 H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992). ^2 H. Ade and B. Hsiao, Science 262, 1427 (1993). ^3 Acknowledgement: My callaborators are B. Hsiao, S. Subramoney, B. Wood, I. Plotzker, E. Rightor, G. Mitchell, C. Sloop, D.-J. Liu, S.-C. Liu, J. Marti, C. Zimba, A. P. Smith, R. Spontak, R. Fornes, R. Gilbert, C. Cody, A. Hitchcock and S. Urquhart. The X1-STXM is built and maintained by J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen and their groups. Work supported by: NSF Young Investigator Award (DMR-9458060), DuPont Young Professor Grant, and Dow Chemical.

  7. Electronic Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials with Photon-in/Photon-out Soft-X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jinghua

    2008-09-22

    The applications of resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy on a variety of carbon systems have yielded characteristic fingerprints. With high-resolution monochromatized synchrotron radiation excitation, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has emerged as a new source of information about electronic structure and excitation dynamics. Photon-in/photon-out soft-X-ray spectroscopy is used to study the electronic properties of fundamental materials, nanostructure, and complex hydrides and will offer potential in-depth understanding of chemisorption and/or physisorption mechanisms of hydrogen adsorption/desorption capacity and kinetics.

  8. Picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser plasma interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Ng, A; Shlyaptsev, V; Dunn, J; Hunter, J; Keenan, R; Marconi, M; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Smith, R

    2003-12-01

    We describe a soft x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high throughput amplitude division interferometer and a 14.7 nm transient inversion soft x-ray laser that produces {approx} 5 ps pulses. Due to its picosecond resolution and short wavelength scalability, this technique has potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confined fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

  9. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  10. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  11. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction. (LEW)

  12. Fast fluctuations of soft X-rays from active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. F.; Dennis, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    A selection of short lived small soft X-ray bursts is studied using data from the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS), and the results are compared with the data from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with a view to understanding conditions at the onset of flares. Short-lived events provide an opportunity to study the radiation from the primary energy transfer process without confusion from the slowly-varying thermal X-ray emission which characterizes the decay of a large flare. The fast decay of the soft X-rays, only a few tens of seconds, suggests that they occur in the dense chromosphere. The results indicate that the short events may be signatures of several different phenomena, depending on their characteristics. Some events occur in association with reverse-drift type III bursts and simultaneous flaring elsewhere on the Sun, thus suggesting dumping of particles accelerated at a remote site. Some events have hard X-ray bursts and normal type III bursts associated with them, while others have neither. The latter events place strong constraints on the nonthermal electron population present.

  13. Soft X ray properties of the Geminga pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Ruderman, M.

    1993-01-01

    The ROSAT soft x ray spectrum and pulse profile of the Geminga pulsar are analyzed and interpreted in terms of thermal emission from the surface of the neutron star. The x ray spectrum appears to consist of two blackbody components with T1 = (5.2 +/- 1.0) x 10 5 K and T2 approximately 3 x 106 K, respectively. The inferred ratio of surface areas, A2/A1, is approximately 3 x 10-5. Both components are highly modulated at the pulsar rotation period, but the harder x ray pulse is narrower, and leads the main (soft) x ray pulse by about 105 deg of phase. The soft x ray component is interpreted as photospheric cooling of much of the neutron star's surface area, while the small, hot region could be part of the much smaller polar cap heated by energetic particles flowing inward from the magnetospheric accelerator which is responsible for the production of Geminga's gamma rays. Geminga's gamma ray emission is consistent with outer-magnetosphere accelerator models for highly inclined dipoles. These predict the beaming of energetic gamma rays close enough to the star to give copious e(+/-) production in the stellar magnetic field and a large circumstellar pair density from pair inflow toward the surface. These pairs may quench radio emission, and also reflect most of the hard polar cap x rays back to the stellar surface by cyclotron resonance scattering. They are then reemitted from that much larger area at the lower temperature T1. The single-peaked nature of the x ray pulse and its energy-dependent phase suggest an off-center dipole geometry for the surface magnetic field. Under the assumption that the soft x ray emission comes from the full surface of a neutron star of radius R = 10 km, a distance estimate of (150-400) pc is derived. This range is consistent with the fit interstellar column density of (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 1020 cm-2. Distances less than 150 pc are probably ruled out both by the lower limit on the column density, and also by the requirement that the Rayleigh

  14. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of transition metal compounds: a theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokarev, S. I.; Hilal, R.; Aziz, S. G.; Kühn, O.

    2016-12-01

    To date, X-ray spectroscopy has become a routine tool that can reveal highly local and element-specific information on the electronic structure of atoms in complex environments. Here, we report on the development of an efficient and versatile theoretical methodology for the treatment of soft X-ray spectra of transition metal compounds based on the multi-configurational self-consistent field electronic structure theory. A special focus is put on the L-edge photon-in/photon-out and photon-in/electron-out processes, i.e. X-ray absorption, resonant inelastic scattering, partial fluorescence yield, and photoelectron spectroscopy, all treated on the same theoretical footing. The investigated systems range from small prototypical coordination compounds and catalysts to aggregates of biomolecules.

  15. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure

  16. Soft x-ray virtual diagnostics for tokamak simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. S.; Zhao, L.; Bogatu, I. N.; In, Y.; Turnbull, A.; Osborne, T.; Maraschek, M.; Comer, K.

    2009-11-15

    The numerical toolset, FAR-TECH Virtual Diagnostic Utility, for generating virtual experimental data based on theoretical models and comparing it with experimental data, has been developed for soft x-ray diagnostics on DIII-D. The virtual (or synthetic) soft x-ray signals for a sample DIII-D discharge are compared with the experimental data. The plasma density and temperature radial profiles needed in the soft x-ray signal modeling are obtained from experimental data, i.e., from Thomson scattering and electron cyclotron emission. The virtual soft x-ray diagnostics for the equilibriums have a good agreement with the experimental data. The virtual diagnostics based on an ideal linear instability also agree reasonably well with the experimental data. The agreements are good enough to justify the methodology presented here for utilizing virtual diagnostics for routine comparison of experimental data. The agreements also motivate further detailed simulations with improved physical models such as the nonideal magnetohydrodynamics contributions (resistivity, viscosity, nonaxisymmetric error fields, etc.) and other nonlinear effects, which can be tested by virtual diagnostics with various stability modeling.

  17. Lensless imaging of nanoporous glass with soft X-rays

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Joshua J.; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; ...

    2013-06-01

    Coherent soft X-ray diffraction has been used to image nanoporous glass structure in two dimensions using different methods. The merit of the reconstructions was judged using a new method of Fourier phase correlation with a final, refined image. The porous structure was found to have a much larger average size then previously believed.

  18. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  19. High-efficiency in situ resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (iRIXS) endstation at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Ruimin; Li, Qinghao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Sallis, Shawn; Fuchs, Oliver; Blum, Monika; Weinhardt, Lothar; Heske, Clemens; Pepper, John; Jones, Michael; Brown, Adam; Spucces, Adrian; Chow, Ken; Smith, Brian; Glans, Per-Anders; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Pan, Feng; Piper, Louis F. J.; Denlinger, Jonathan; Guo, Jinghua; Hussain, Zahid; Chuang, Yi-De; Yang, Wanli

    2017-03-01

    An endstation with two high-efficiency soft x-ray spectrographs was developed at Beamline 8.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The endstation is capable of performing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, and, in particular, resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS). Two slit-less variable line-spacing grating spectrographs are installed at different detection geometries. The endstation covers the photon energy range from 80 to 1500 eV. For studying transition-metal oxides, the large detection energy window allows a simultaneous collection of x-ray emission spectra with energies ranging from the O K-edge to the Ni L-edge without moving any mechanical components. The record-high efficiency enables the recording of comprehensive two-dimensional RIXS maps with good statistics within a short acquisition time. By virtue of the large energy window and high throughput of the spectrographs, partial fluorescence yield and inverse partial fluorescence yield signals could be obtained for all transition metal L-edges including Mn. Moreover, the different geometries of these two spectrographs (parallel and perpendicular to the horizontal polarization of the beamline) provide contrasts in RIXS features with two different momentum transfers.

  20. A soft X-ray lag detected in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yutaro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shidatsu, Megumi; Arimoto, Makoto; Yoshii, Taketoshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Pike, Sean; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We performed time-lag analysis on the X-ray light curves of Centaurus A (Cen A) obtained by the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) aboard the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) in three energy bands (2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV). We discovered a soft X-ray lag relative to higher energies (soft lag) on a timescale of days in a flaring episode by employing the discrete correlation function (DCF) and the z-transformed discrete correlation function (ZDCF) method. In the episode, a peak and a centroid in the DCF and the ZDCF was observed at a soft lag of ˜ 5 d in 2-4 keV versus 4-10 keV and in 4-10 keV versus 10-20 keV, and ˜ 10 d in 2-4 keV versus 10-20 keV. We found it difficult to explain the observed X-ray variation by a single energy injection with the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the soft lags in these three energy bands reflect the different cooling times of the relativistic electrons, by assuming the magnetic field and minimum Lorentz factor estimated from a broad-band spectral energy distribution. Alternatively, if the phenomenon is interpreted as cooling of Comptonizing electrons in a corona covering the accretion disk, the temperature of the corona producing the variable X-rays should be ˜ 10 keV for reconciliation with the soft lag in the energy range of 2-20 keV.

  1. The Solar-A soft X-ray telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Brown, W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A mission for the study of high energy solar physics is timed to observe the sun during the next activity maximum. This small spacecraft includes a carefully coordinated complement of instruments for flare studies. In particular, the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) will provide X-ray images of flares with higher sensitivity and time resolution than have been available before. This paper describes the scientific capabilities of the SXT and illustrates its application to the study of an impulsive compact flare.

  2. A Feasibility Experiment for a Soft X-Ray Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    AFWL-TR-76-107 ( )FWL-TR- 76-107 A FEASIBILITY EXPERIMENT FOR A SOFT X-RAY LASER September 1976 Final Report Approved for public release...Introduction 29 The Utah Experiment 29 Other Hard X-ray Laser Considerations 29 V SUMMARY Conclusions 31 A4CEUI@N lV Future Directions 31 IT4 whie... Experimental Chamber 23 4 Sketch of Vacuum Chamber 24 ii AFWL-TR-76-107 SECTION I INTRODUCTION 1. SYNOPSIS The purpose of this report is to present an

  3. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals.

  4. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  5. In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Jonathan H.; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Bluhm, Hendrik; Coriton, Bruno; Huang, Erxiong; Osborn, David L.

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility of in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy for imaging carbonaceous species in hydrocarbon flames is demonstrated using synchrotron radiation. Soft X-rays are absorbed by core level electrons in all carbon atoms regardless of their molecular structure. Core electron spectroscopy affords distinct advantages over valence spectroscopy, which forms the basis of traditional laser diagnostic techniques for combustion. In core level spectroscopy, the transition linewidths are predominantly determined by the instrument response function and the decay time of the core-hole, which is on the order of a femtosecond. As a result, soft X-ray absorption measurements can be performed in flames with negligible Doppler and collisional broadening. Core level spectroscopy has the further advantage of measuring all carbonaceous species regardless of molecular structure in the far-edge region, whereas near-edge features are molecule specific. Interferences from non-carbon flame species are unstructured and can be subtracted. In the present study, absorption measurements in the carbon K-edge region are demonstrated in low-pressure ( P total = 20-30 Torr) methane jet flames. Two-dimensional imaging of the major carbonaceous species, CH4, CO2, and CO, is accomplished by tuning the synchrotron radiation to the respective carbon K-edge, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) transitions and scanning the burner.

  6. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Chow, P; Xiao, Y M; Rod, E; Bai, L G; Shen, G Y; Sinogeikin, S; Gao, N; Ding, Y; Mao, H-K

    2015-07-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation.

  7. Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E.; Anderson, E.H.

    2006-10-30

    Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.

  8. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T.

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  9. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuh, David K.

    2000-07-01

    The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft x-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photoemission techniques capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding along with angle-resolving measurements for band structure and surface structure determinations, have clear and immediate applications. Venerable angle-integrating core and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy are valuable for characterization and analytical purposes. Combined with results from NEXAFS measurements, these techniques will provide the information needed to develop improved understandings of the electronic structure of actinide materials and their surface chemistries/physics.

  10. Soft x-ray holographic tomography for biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongyi; Chen, Jianwen; Xie, Honglan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Jiang, Shiping; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present some experimental results on X -ray holography, holographic tomography, and a new holographic tomography method called pre-amplified holographic tomography is proposed. Due to the shorter wavelength and the larger penetration depths, X-rays provide the potential of higher resolution in imaging techniques, and have the ability to image intact, living, hydrated cells w ithout slicing, dehydration, chemical fixation or stain. Recently, using X-ray source in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Hefei, we have successfully performed some soft X-ray holography experiments on biological specimen. The specimens used in the experiments was the garlic clove epidermis, we got their X-ray hologram, and then reconstructed them by computer programs, the feature of the cell walls, the nuclei and some cytoplasm were clearly resolved. However, there still exist some problems in realization of practical 3D microscopic imaging due to the near-unity refractive index of the matter. There is no X-ray optics having a sufficient high numerical aperture to achieve a depth resolution that is comparable to the transverse resolution. On the other hand, computer tomography needs a record of hundreds of views of the test object at different angles for high resolution. This is because the number of views required for a densely packed object is equal to the object radius divided by the desired depth resolution. Clearly, it is impractical for a radiation-sensitive biological specimen. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction effect makes projection data blur, this badly degrades the resolution of the reconstructed image. In order to observe 3D structure of the biological specimens, McNulty proposed a new method for 3D imaging called "holographic tomography (HT)" in which several holograms of the specimen are recorded from various illumination directions and combined in the reconstruction step. This permits the specimens to be sampled over a wide range of spatial

  11. Inelastic X-ray scattering with very high resolution at the ESRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, M.; Sette, F.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of phonon dispersion in crystalline materials and collective atom motions in disordered matter such as liquids and glasses by inelastic X-ray scattering has attracted a diversified user community with the advent of 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The present article provides a short historical account of the research field and discusses selected highlights of research performed on the ESRF inelastic scattering beamlines ID16 and ID28 in the past ten years.

  12. Non-periodic multilayer coatings in EUV, soft x-ray and x-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan

    2008-09-01

    Non-periodic multilayer coatings offer engineer great flexibility to achieve tailored spectral performance in EUV, soft X-ray and X-ray region. We have developed a variety of non-periodic multilayer mirrors for use as optical key components for polarization-sensitive studies, Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope, Earth's magnetosphere observation and reflection of sub-femtosecond pulses. To find optimal distribution of layer thicknesses for a given spectral response, several numerical algorithms, such as simplex, simulated annealing, genetic and Levenberg Marquardt, have been explored to solve the reverse optimization problems. The designed non-periodic multilayers were prepared by use of a direct current magnetron sputtering system and characterized by grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry analysis. The synchrotron measurements of these samples were performed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, China and at the beamline UE56/1-PGM-1 at BESSY II Berlin, Germany. This paper covers our recent results of design and fabrication of non-periodic multilayer coatings. And the mirror performance and limitations were also briefly reviewed.

  13. Ignitron-driven soft flash x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obara, Haruo; Sakamaki, Kimio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1997-12-01

    The fundamental study on a soft flash x-ray generator utilizing an ignitron is described. This generator consists of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a high-voltage pulser having an ignitron, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash x-ray tube. The x-ray tube employs a molybdenum anode rod, a pipe-shaped carbon cathode, a polymethylmeth acrylate tube body, and a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window. The space between the anode and the cathode electrodes (ac space) can be controlled by rotating the anode rod. The high-voltage condenser in the pulser is charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube by the ignitron through a 2.0 m coaxial cable. Because the maximum anode voltage of the ignitron is 50 kV, a free-air gap switch is employed in order to increase the high-voltage durability. In the present work, the anode electrode is connected to the ground, and the negative high-voltage output is applied to the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The peak cathode voltage and tube current had values of minus 56 kV and 11.5 kA, respectively, with a charging voltage of 60 kV and an ac space of 6.0 mm, and the pulse widths were less than 300 ns.

  14. ASTRO-H Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors\\ of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keY, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 micron, 229 micron, and 305 micron of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 micron nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 micron. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-El/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  15. Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment marks the basic unit for magnetic properties of matter. Magnetism, in particular ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism is described by a collective order of these spins, where the interaction between individual spins reflects a competition between exchange, anisotropy and dipolar energy terms. As a result the energetically favored ground state of a ferromagnetic system is a rather complex spin configuration, the magnetic domain structure. Magnetism is one of the eldest scientific phenomena, yet it is one of the most powerful and versatile utilized physical effects in modern technologies, such as in magnetic storage and sensor devices. To achieve highest storage density, the relevant length scales, such as the bit size in disk drives is now approaching the nanoscale and as such further developments have to deal with nanoscience phenomena. Advanced characterization tools are required to fully understand the underlying physical principles. Magnetic microscopes using polarized soft X-rays offer a close-up view into magnetism with unique features, these include elemental sensitivity due to X-ray magnetic dichroism effects as contrast mechanism, high spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art X-ray optics and fast time resolution limited by the inherent time structure of current X-ray sources, which will be overcome with the introduction of ultrafast and high brilliant X-ray sources.

  16. Study of Electronic Structures and Dynamics at High Pressures by Inelastic X-ray Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Eng, P.; Trainor, T.; Newville, M.; Shen, G.; Kao, C.; Schwoerer-Bohning, M.; Macrander, A.; Meng, Y.; Hu, M.; Hemley, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    Due to experimental limitations, electronic structures and dynamics have seldom been probed at high pressure. High-pressure apparati are opaque to photons between 5 eV and 4 keV where most electronic transitions occur, and incompatible with electron spectroscopy which requires high vacuum. Inelastic x-ray scattering provides new access in this area. We conducted reconnaissance experiments using the monochromatic x-ray at the undulator beamline 13-ID of the Advanced Photon Source to irradiate the sample in a Be gasket in a diamond anvil cell. With the new beamline mirrors at GSECARS capable of focusing the entire undulator beam to a spot of 16 mm (vertical) x 60 mm (horizontal), sufficient photons are delivered to the small sample area at high pressures for probing the extremely weak signals of inelastic electronic scattering. The scattered radiation is collected by a spherically bent Si [555] crystal analyzer (10 cm diameter collection area) on 1-m radius, diffracted back at 87.0o, and focused to the detector slit, constraining the photon energy to 9899.2 eV. We studied the high-pressure behavior of the plasmon of elemental Na, an archetypal free-electron system, and observed the increase of Na plasmon energy with increasing compression, the dispersion of plasmon from 6 to 10 eV in the momentum (Q) range of 0.3 - 1.2 {Å}-1, and the spreading of the plasmon above QC. Over a wider range, we observed the inelastic K-edge scattering of Be (111 eV), B (188 eV), C (284 eV), N (410 eV), and O (543 eV) at high pressures. In an experiment starting with graphitic h-BN, the near edge peaks corresponding to the p* and s* bonding of B and N are observed at low pressures. At increasing pressures, the p* of both B and N become aligned with the diamond axis, indicating the development of preferred orientation with the soft c-axis aligned to the compression. Above 12 GPa, the s* grows at the expense of diminishing p*, indicating a transition to a superhard material. In conclusion

  17. The Effect of X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure in Soft X-ray Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Denby, Michael; Wells, Alan; Keay, Adam; Graessle, Dale E.; Blake, Richard L.

    1997-02-01

    Recent in-orbit measurements by high resolution soft X-ray telescopes have revealed low-level fine structure in target spectra that cannot be attributed to a celestial source. Ultimately, this can be traced to the ability of the new high spectral resolution silicon detectors to resolve X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) produced in the various detection subsystems. Based on measurements taken at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), we have modeled the full-up response function of the Joint European X-ray Telescope (JET-X), taking into account edge structure generated in the detectors, filters, and mirrors. It is found that unfolding celestial source spectra using a response function in which the detailed edge shapes are calculated from standard absorption cross sections leads to the generation of spectral artifacts at every absorption edge. These in turn produce unacceptably high values of χ2 in model fits for total source fluxes above ~4 × 104 counts. For JET-X, this corresponds to a source strength of ~0.4 millicrab observed for 105 s. Statistically significant ``linelike'' features are introduced into the derived source spectra with amplitudes as great as 10% of the source flux. For JET-X, these features rise above the 3 σ level for integral source exposures above ~5 × 104 source counts. The largest deviations in the residuals arise near 0.5 keV and 2.2 keV and are attributed to XAFS produced in the oxide surface layers of the CCD and the gold reflective surface of the mirrors, respectively. These results are significant for data interpretation tasks with the ASCA, JET-X, XMM, and Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) telescopes.

  18. Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, P.I.

    1990-10-01

    The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

  19. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.

    My thesis work consisted of the design, fabrication and launch of a sounding rocket payload to observe the spectrum of the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. This payload was designated the Cygnus X-ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) and launched from White Sands Missile Range on November 20th, 2006. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire- grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount which ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto never before flown Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 seconds of usable data between 43-49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log( T )=6.2 ( kT e =0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft x-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave with the walls of a precursor formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop.

  20. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  1. Quantifying the Exospheric Component of Soft X-ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Robertson, Ina; Hansen, Kenneth; Cravens, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    High charge state heavy ions in the solar wind exchange charge with ambient neutral gas. This process creates a product ion in an excited state. During the radiative cascade process, EUV and X-ray photons are emitted with energies in the range of about 100 eV to 1 keV. Because the terrestrial exospheric density at the nominal magnetopause location is relatively high, approx. 10 cu cm, solar wind charge exchange, or SWCX, can be observed by Earth-orbiting soft X-ray instruments such as the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC). In this presentation, we will compare simulated and observed soft Xray emission during an event on August 18-19, 1991 and discuss the role of exospheric SWCX emission for this and other events.

  2. [Soft X-ray reflectometer with laser produced plasma source].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ni, Qi-liang; Cao, Ji-hong

    2005-03-01

    A soft X-ray reflectometor with laser-produced plasma source developed in the authorial lab is presented for the measurements of efficiencies of gratings, transmission of filter and reflectance of multilayer coatings. The reflectometer is composed of a soft X-ray laser-produced plasma source, a grazing incidence monochromator with a constant deviation angle, a vacuum chamber, a sample table, a photo-electronic unit and a computer controlling unit. The working wavelength is from 8 to 30 nm and the maximum sample size is 130 mm long by 120 mm wide by 120 mm high. In order to test the performances of the reflectometer, the reflectivity of multilayer coatings was obtained by using this device. The measured results agree well with the theoretical calculation. The reproducibility of measured reflectance is +/-0.6%.

  3. X-Ray Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Factors for Neutral Atoms Z = 2-92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. H.; Sagar, R. P.; Schmider, H.; Smith, V. H.

    1993-03-01

    X-ray elastic and inelastic scattering factors are calculated for the ground states of the neutral atoms, helium to uranium, from the Roothaan-Hartree-Fock nonrelativistic self-consistent-field wave functions of Clementi and Roetti, (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 14, 177, 1974) and McLean and McLean (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 26, 197, 1981).

  4. Solar EUV, XUV and soft X-ray telescope facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Facility class, high resolution instrumentation can enable maximum spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions and provide understanding of the complex physical conditions in the outer solar atmosphere and the mechanisms responsible for these conditions. The scientific rationale for facility class instruments operating in the EUV, XUV, and soft X ray spectral ranges are discussed. Possible configurations for these facilities and priorities for their development are considered.

  5. Soft x ray properties of the Geminga pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Ruderman, M.

    1993-01-01

    The ROSAT soft x ray spectrum and pulse profile of the Geminga pulsar are analyzed and interpreted in terms of thermal emission from the surface of the neutron star. The x ray spectrum appears to consist of two blackbody components with T(sub 1) = (5.2 +/- 1.0) x 10 (exp 5) K and T(sub 2) approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) K, respectively. The inferred ratio of surface areas, A(sub 2)/A(sub 1), is approximately 3 x 10(exp -5). Both components are highly modulated at the pulsar rotation period, but the harder x ray pulse is narrower, and leads the main (soft) x ray pulse by about 105 deg of phase. The soft x ray component is interpreted as photospheric cooling of much of the neutron star's surface area, while the small, hot region could be part of the much smaller polar cap heated by energetic particles flowing inward from the magnetospheric accelerator which is responsible for the production of Geminga's gamma rays. Geminga's gamma ray emission is consistent with outer-magnetosphere accelerator models for highly inclined dipoles. These predict the beaming of energetic gamma rays close enough to the star to give copious e(+/-) production in the stellar magnetic field and a large circumstellar pair density from pair inflow toward the surface. These pairs may quench radio emission, and also reflect most of the hard polar cap x rays back to the stellar surface by cyclotron resonance scattering. They are then reemitted from that much larger area at the lower temperature T(sub 1). The single-peaked nature of the x ray pulse and its energy-dependent phase suggest an off-center dipole geometry for the surface magnetic field. Under the assumption that the soft x ray emission comes from the full surface of a neutron star of radius R = 10 km, a distance estimate of (150-400) pc is derived. This range is consistent with the fit interstellar column density of (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). Distances less than 150 pc are probably ruled out both by the lower limit on the column

  6. Revealing the insulating gap in α'-NaV (2)O(5) with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Bondino, F; Barla, A; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Henry, J-Y; Sanchez, J-P

    2012-08-15

    We measured the low energy excitation spectrum of α'-NaV (2)O(5) across its charge ordering and crystallographic phase transition with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the V L(3) edge. Exploiting the polarization dependence of the RIXS signal and the high resolution of the data, we reveal the excitation across the insulating gap at 1 eV and identify the excitations from occupied 3d(xy) bonding orbitals to unoccupied bonding 3d(xy) and 3d(yz)/3d(xz) orbitals. Furthermore we observe a progressive change of the electronic structure of α'-NaV (2)O(5) induced by soft x-ray irradiation, with the appearance of features characteristic of sodium deficient Na(x)V (2)O(5) (x < 1).

  7. Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph for X-ray laser research using white beam.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, C; Kawachi, T; Ando, K; Yamaguchi, N; Hara, T

    1998-05-01

    Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph has been performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The calibrated spectrograph was a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph with an X-ray CCD detector for X-ray laser research. Absolute sensitivity of the spectrograph system can be obtained from transmitted spectra using filters made of several different materials, each providing an absorption-edge wavelength standard. The absolute sensitivity determined in this work shows nearly the same behaviour with wavelength as that in another calibration experiment using a laser-produced plasma as an X-ray source.

  8. X-ray microscopy of soft and hard human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Bert Schulz, Georg Deyhle, Hans Stalder, Anja K. Ilgenstein, Bernd Holme, Margaret N. Hieber, Simone E.; Beckmann, Felix

    2016-01-28

    The simultaneous post mortem visualization of soft and hard tissues using absorption-based CT remains a challenge. If the photon energy is optimized for the visualization of hard tissue, the surrounding soft tissue components are almost X-ray transparent. Therefore, the combination with other modalities such as phase-contrast CT, magnetic resonance microscopy, and histology is essential to detect the anatomical features. The combination of the 2D and 3D data sets using sophisticated segmentation and registration tools allows for conclusions about otherwise inaccessible anatomical features essential for improved patient treatments.

  9. X-ray microscopy of soft and hard human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Stalder, Anja K.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Holme, Margaret N.; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Hieber, Simone E.

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous post mortem visualization of soft and hard tissues using absorption-based CT remains a challenge. If the photon energy is optimized for the visualization of hard tissue, the surrounding soft tissue components are almost X-ray transparent. Therefore, the combination with other modalities such as phase-contrast CT, magnetic resonance microscopy, and histology is essential to detect the anatomical features. The combination of the 2D and 3D data sets using sophisticated segmentation and registration tools allows for conclusions about otherwise inaccessible anatomical features essential for improved patient treatments.

  10. Soft x-ray holography and microscopy of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Gao, Hongyi; Xie, Honglan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2003-10-01

    Some experimental results on soft X-ray microscopy and holography imaging of biological specimens are presented in the paper. As we know, due to diffraction effects, there exists a resolution limit determined by wavelength λ and numerical aperture NA in conventional optical microscopy. In order to improve resolution, the num erical aperture should be made as large as possible and the wavelength as short as possible. Owing to the shorter wavelength, X-rays provide the potential of higher resolution in X-ray microscopy, holography image and allow for exam ination the interior structures of thicker specimens. In the experiments, we used synchrotron radiation source in Hefei as light source. Soft X-rays come from a bending magnet in 800 M eV electron storage ring with characteristic wavelength of 2.4 nm. The continuous X-ray spectrums are monochromatized by a zone-plate and a pinhole with 300 m diameter. The experimental set-up is typical contact microscopic system, its main advantage is simplicity and no special optical element is needed. The specimens used in the experiments of microscopic imaging are the colibacillus, the gingko vascular hundle and the fritillaries ovary karyon. The specimen for holographic imaging is the spider filam ents. The basic structures of plant cells such as the cell walls, the cytoplasm and the karyon especially the joint structures between the cells are observed clearly. An experimental study on a thick biological specimen that is a whole sporule w ith the thickness of about 30 μm is performed. In the holographic experiments, the experimental setup is typical Gabor in-line holography. The specimen is placed in line with X-ray source, which provides both the reference w aves and specimen illum ination. The specimen is some spider filament, which adhere to a Si3N4 film. The recording medium is PM M A, which is placed at recording distance of about 400 μm from the specimen. The hologram s were reconstructed by digital method with 300 nm

  11. Soft x-ray measurements from the PDX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.H.; Bitter, M.; Brau, K.; Eames, D.; Greenberger, A.; Hill, K.W.; Meade, D.M.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.R.; von Goeler, S.

    1982-05-01

    Temporally and spatially-resolved profiles of the PDX soft x-ray spectra have been measured during single tokamak pulses of circular and divertor plasmas with a recently developed pulse height analyzer. This detection system incorporates an array of five vertically displaced sets of lithium-drifted silicon detectors, each consisting of three independent channels optimized for rapid data collection in adjacent energy regions. Simultaneous measurement of x-ray emission integrated along five chords of the plasma cross section can thereby be achieved. Abel inversion of these data yields temporally-resolved radial profiles of the local electron temperature from the slope of the continuum, concentrations of high-Z impurities from the characteristic line intensities, and a measure of Z/sub eff/ from the continuum intensity. The techniques of x-ray pulse height analysis, with illustrations featuring the results from the initial PDX circular plasma experiments are discussed in detail. In addition, comparisons between circular and divertor plasmas on PDX, derived from the x-ray measurements, are also presented.

  12. Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Wenger, Marco P.E.; Bean, Richard J.; Bozec, Laurent; Horton, Michael A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2009-09-11

    Coherent X-ray diffraction has been applied in the imaging of inorganic materials with great success. However, its application to biological specimens has been limited to some notable exceptions, due to the induced radiation damage and the extended nature of biological samples, the last limiting the application of most part of the phasing algorithms. X-ray ptychography, still under development, is a good candidate to overcome such difficulties and become a powerful imaging method for biology. We describe herein the feasibility of applying ptychography to the imaging of biological specimens, in particular collagen rich samples. We report here speckles in diffraction patterns from soft animal tissue, obtained with an optimized small angle X-ray setup that exploits the natural coherence of the beam. By phasing these patterns, dark field images of collagen within tendon, skin, bone, or cornea will eventually be obtained with a resolution of 60-70 nm. We present simulations of the contrast mechanism in collagen based on atomic force microscope images of the samples. Simulations confirmed the 'speckled' nature of the obtained diffraction patterns. Once inverted, the patterns will show the disposition and orientation of the fibers within the tissue, by enhancing the phase contrast between protein and no protein regions of the sample. Our work affords the application of the most innovative coherent X-ray diffraction tools to the study of biological specimens, and this approach will have a significant impact in biology and medicine because it overcomes many of the limits of current microscopy techniques.

  13. Soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of actinide particles.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Hans J; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilson, Richard E; Werme, Lars; Shuh, David K

    2005-09-01

    A descriptive account is given of our most recent research on the actinide dioxides with the Advanced Light Source Molecular Environmental Science (ALS-MES) Beamline 11.0.2 soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ALS-MES STXM permits near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and imaging with 30-nm spatial resolution. The first STXM spectromicroscopy NEXAFS spectra at the actinide 4d5/2 edges of the imaged transuranic particles, NpO2 and PuO2, have been obtained. Radiation damage induced by the STXM was observed in the investigation of a mixed oxidation state particle (Np(V,VI)) and was minimized during collection of the actual spectra at the 4d5/2 edge of the Np(V,VI) solid. A plutonium elemental map was obtained from an irregular PuO2 particle with the dimensions of 650 x 650 nm. The Pu 4d5/2 NEXAFS spectra were collected at several different locations from the PuO2 particle and were identical. A representative oxygen K-edge spectrum from UO2 was collected and resembles the oxygen K-edge from the bulk material. The unique and current performance of the ALS-MES STXM at extremely low energies (ca. 100 eV) that may permit the successful measurement of the actinide 5d edge is documented. Finally, the potential of STXM as a tool for actinide investigations is briefly discussed.

  14. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-31

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10{sup 5} resolving power.

  15. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-06-23

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10{sup 5} resolving power.

  16. White-light spacial frequency multiplication using soft x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Max; Gullikson, Eric M.; Underwood, James H.; Gustafson, T. Kenneth; Attwood, David T., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    We have patterned a 0.25-micron period grating in SAL-601 photoresist using soft x-ray white-light spatial frequency multiplication. The configuration is that of a grating interferometer using two transmission gratings having the same period ((Lambda) equals 0.5 micron) and fabricated by electron beam lithography and lift-off. The first transmission grating splits an incoming x-ray beam into two paths and the second grating, operating in higher order, combines the two beams. A standing wave pattern is obtained at the intersection of the two beams and recorded by a photoresist coated substrate. This patterning technique has the advantage of multiplying the spatial frequency of the interferometer gratings by an even integer factor. Furthermore, the recording geometry is insensitive to both the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the illumination. Synchrotron bending magnet radiation from the advanced light source located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used as the source. The grating interferometer geometry has been used in the past to record white-light interference fringes using visible and ultraviolet light sources. We have used a two-grating interferometer to provide an initial demonstration of white-light spatial frequency doubling at soft x-ray wavelengths. By using this technique with shorter period parent gratings, it should be possible to patten gratings with higher resolution than electron beam lithography.

  17. Soft x-ray coherent diffraction imaging on magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Lee, James; Mishra, Shrawan; Parks, Daniel; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Shapiro, David; Roy, Sujoy; Kevan, Steve; Stxm Team At Als Collaboration; Soft X-Ray Microscopy Group At Als Collaboration; Soft X-ray scattering at ALS, LBL Team

    2014-03-01

    Coherent soft X-rays diffraction imaging enable coherent magnetic resonance scattering at transition metal L-edge to be probed so that magnetic domains could be imaged with very high spatial resolution with phase contrast, reaching sub-10nm. One of the overwhelming advantages of using coherent X-rays is the ability to resolve phase contrast images with linearly polarized light with both phase and absorption contrast comparing to real-space imaging, which can only be studied with circularly polarized light with absorption contrast only. Here we report our first results on high-resolution of magnetic domains imaging of CoPd multilayer thin film with coherent soft X-ray ptychography method. We are aiming to resolve and understand magnetic domain wall structures with the highest obtainable resolution here at Advanced Light Source. In principle types of magnetic domain walls could be studied so that Neel or Bloch walls can be distinguished by imaging. This work at LBNL was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the US Department of Energy (contract no. DE-AC02- 05CH11231).

  18. X-ray absorption and soft x-ray fluorescence analysis of KDP optics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A J; van Buuren, T; Miller, E; Land, T A; Bostedt, C; Franco, N; Whitman, P K; Baisden, P A; Terminello, L J; Callcott, T A

    2000-08-09

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) is a non-linear optical material used for laser frequency conversion and optical switches. Unfortunately, when KDP crystals are coated with a porous silica anti-reflection coating [1] and then exposed to ambient humidity, they develop dissolution pits [2,3]. Previous investigations [2] have shown that thermal annealing renders KDP optics less susceptible to pitting suggesting that a modification of surface chemistry has occurred. X-ray absorption and fluorescence were used to characterize changes in the composition and structure of KDP optics as a function of process parameters. KDP native crystals were also analyzed to provide a standard basis for interpretation. Surface sensitive total electron yield and bulk sensitive fluorescence yield from the K 2p, P 2p (L{sub 2,3}-edge) and O 1s (K-edge) absorption edges were measured at each process step. Soft X-ray fluorescence was also used to observe changes associated with spectral differences noted in the absorption measurements. Results indicate that annealing at 160 C dehydrates the surface of KDP resulting in a metaphosphate surface composition with K:P:O = 1:1:3.

  19. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; West, M. M.; Cooper, G.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  20. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, A. P. Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G.; West, M. M.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-28

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  1. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-09-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 μm nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  2. Soft x-ray spectroscopy of the Vela supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, Benjamin R.

    The CODEX sounding rocket payload was designed and flown to significantly improve spectral resolution of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) in the soft x-ray (0.1--1.0 keV) bandpass. High spectral resolution (E/Delta E > 40) across its 3.25° x 3.25° field of view would disentangle thermal emission from nonthermal or line emission components to constrain the age when SNRs stop emitting nonthermal x-rays. Relatively recent observations have found significant nonthermal emission from remnants up to several kyr old, but CODEX encountered concurrent problems of higher noise and lower signal than expected, leaving the thermal versus nonthermal question unanswered in the 11 kyr-old Vela SNR. This thesis covers the motivation, design, and post-flight analysis of the CODEX instrument and data from its flight.

  3. Resonant soft X-ray diffraction - in extremis.

    PubMed

    Hatton, P D; Wilkins, S B; Beale, T A W; Johal, T K; Prabhakaran, D; Boothroyd, A T

    2005-07-01

    The use of softer-energy X-rays produced by synchrotron radiation for diffraction is an area of current interest. In this paper, experiments exploiting resonant scattering at the L absorption edges of 3d transition metal elements are reported. Such energies, typically 500-1000 eV, are at the extreme limit of soft X-ray diffraction where absorption effects are so severe that the sample and diffractometer must be placed in a windowless high-vacuum vessel. In addition, the Ewald sphere is so small as to likely contain, at most, only a single Bragg reflection. Advantages of using such radiation for the study of weak diffraction effects such as anomalous scattering, charge ordering, magnetic diffraction and orbital ordering are reported.

  4. Goldhelox: a soft x-ray solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Durfee, D S; Moody, J W; Brady, K D; Brown, C; Campbell, B; Durfee, M K; Early, D; Hansen, E; Madsen, D W; Morey, D B; Roming, P W; Savage, M B; Eastman, P F; Jensen, V

    1995-01-01

    The Goldhelox Project is the construction and use of a near-normal incidence soft x-ray robotic solar telescope by undergraduate students at Brigham Young University. Once it is completed and tested, it will be deployed from a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the bay of a space shuttle. It will image the sun at a wavelength of 171-181Å with a time resolution of 1 sec and a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcsec. The observational bandpass was chosen to image x-rays from highly ionized coronal Fe lines. The data will be an aid in better understanding the beginning phases of solar flares and how flaring relates to the physics of the corona-chromosphere transition region. Goldhelox is tentatively scheduled to fly on a space shuttle sometime in 1995 or 1996. This paper outlines the project goals, basic instrument design, and the unique aspects of making this an undergraduate endeavor.

  5. Diagnostics for an XUV/soft x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Ceglio, N.; Medecki, H.

    1984-03-03

    We have begun investigating the production of an XUV/soft x-ray laser, using our high-powered glass lasers as drivers. A major diagnostic for lasing is the measure of the absolute power produced in the lasing line. I have developed a spectrograph to time-resolved lasing lines in the energy range from 50 eV to greater than 200 eV. the spectrograph combines a transmission grating and x-ray streak camera to produce a flat field instrument. A cylindrical mirror is used in front of the grating to image the source and act as a collecting optic. The efficiency of the components is calibrated so that absolute intensities can be measured. I will compare the performance of this instrument with reflection grating systems. I will also discuss planned improvements to the system which should increase total throughput, image quality, and resolving power.

  6. Soft x-ray emission from classical novae in outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Truran, J.W. . Dept. of Astronomy); Sparks, W.M. ); Krautter, J. ); MacDonald, J. . Dept. of Physics and Ast

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical modeling of novae in outburst predicts that they should be active emitters of radiation at soft x-ray wavelengths twice during their outburst. The first time occurs very early in the outburst when only a very sensitive all sky survey will be able to detect them. This period lasts only a few hours for the very fastest novae. They again become bright in x-rays late in the outburst when the remnant object becomes very hot and is still luminous. Both simulations and observations show that novae can remain very hot for months to years. It is important to observe them at these late times because a measurement both of the flux and temperature can provide information about the mass of the white dwarf, the turn-off time scale, and the energy budget of the outburst. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Soft X-ray photoemission studies of Hf oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzer, S.; Sayan, S.; Banaszak Holl, M.M.; Garfunkel, E.; Hussain, Z.; Hamdan, N.M.

    2002-02-01

    Soft X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy using surface sensitive Synchrotron Radiation has been applied to accurately determine the binding energy shifts and the valence band offset of the HfO2 grown on Hf metal. Charging of oxide films under x-rays (or other irradiation) is circumvented by controlled and sequential in-situ oxidation. Photoemission results show the presence of metallic Hf (from the substrate) with the 4f7/2 binding energy of 14.22 eV, fully oxidized Hf (from HfO2) with the 4f7/2 binding energy of 18.16 eV, and at least one clear suboxide peak. The position of the valence band of HfO2 with respect to the Hf(m) Fermi level is determined as 4.05 eV.

  8. New Developments in Femtosecond Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Erko, A.; Firsov, A.; Holldack, K.

    2010-06-23

    Recent instrumentation developments in X-ray spectroscopy for ultra-fast time-resolved measurements with soft X-rays done in HZB Berlin during the last years are described. The significant performance improvements achieved this way are based on Fresnel diffraction from structures being fabricated on a surface of a total externally reflecting mirror. The first type of this spectrometer, an off-axis reflection zone plate, has been implemented at the BESSY Femtoslicing setup and shows on the order of 20 times higher flux in the focal plane compared to the classical grating monochromator beamline. It has proven to serve very precise experiments with a time resolution down to 100 fs on magnetic materials after optical laser pulse excitation.

  9. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation in Soft X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the interplay of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low-resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power-law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e., L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF)) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power-law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star-forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF))from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF) derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3sigma confidence level. Using the infrared [Ne ii]12.8 micron and [O iv]26 micron lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L(sub x,SF) and L(sub x,AGN) at the 3 sigma level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs.

  10. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the limit of subfemtosecond natural lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Marchenko, T.; Journel, L.; Marin, T.; Guillemin, R.; Carniato, S.; Simon, M.; Zitnik, M.; Kavcic, M.; Bucar, K.; Mihelic, A.; Hoszowska, J.; Cao, W.

    2011-04-14

    We present measurements of the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of the CH{sub 3}I molecule in the hard-x-ray region near the iodine L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} absorption edges. We show that dispersive RIXS spectral features that were recognized as a fingerprint of dissociative molecular states can be interpreted in terms of ultrashort natural lifetime of {approx}200 attoseconds in the case of the iodine L-shell core-hole. Our results demonstrate the capacity of the RIXS technique to reveal subtle dynamical effects in molecules with sensitivity to nuclear rearrangement on a subfemtosecond time scale.

  11. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement

    2016-08-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.

  12. Comparison of hard and soft x-ray photoelectron spectra of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offi, F.; Werner, W. S. M.; Sacchi, M.; Torelli, P.; Cautero, M.; Cautero, G.; Fondacaro, A.; Huotari, S.; Monaco, G.; Paolicelli, G.; Smekal, W.; Stefani, G.; Panaccione, G.

    2007-08-01

    A detailed comparison of the surface sensitivity of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy for hard and soft x rays is presented and discussed. Electron scattering parameters and their energy dependence are given for Si and two Si spectra are analyzed: a MgKα (hν=1253.6eV) excited spectrum of the Si2p and 2s lines and a hard x-ray excited spectrum (hν=5925eV) of the Si1s line. The differential inelastic scattering characteristics for Si are extracted from reflection electron energy loss spectra taken at energies of 1500 and 4000eV . Using these scattering characteristics and electron mean free paths from the literature, simulated spectra are compared with experiment. The experimental spectra are deconvoluted to give the true intrinsic line shape corresponding to the theoretical collision statistics when interference effects between intrinsic and extrinsic scattering are neglected. The magnitude of interference effects cannot be assessed by our analysis. Within the (unknown) uncertainty introduced by neglecting interference effects, it is possible to determine the relative intensity of intrinsic and extrinsic excitations. In this way, it is found that in the case of the soft x-ray excited photoelectron spectrum of the shallower electronic shells ( 2p and 2s ), intrinsic plasmon creation is rather weak, and the apparent asymmetric line shape of the spectrum might be interpreted as the fact that electron-hole pair creation dominates the intrinsic loss spectrum, while an alternative explanation in terms of surface core level shifted components is also proposed. For the deeper core electronic shell, probed with hard x rays, the opposite situation is observed: while intrinsic electron-hole pair creation was not observed, a strong contribution of intrinsic plasmon losses of about 30% was seen.

  13. Soft X-ray Microscopy of Green Cements

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, P. J. M.; Mancio, M.; Chae, R.; Ha, J.; Kirchheim, A. P.; Fischer, P.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2011-09-09

    The present status of the cement and concrete industry is not sustainable. The production of Portland cement is responsible for 7% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the world and existing reinforced concrete infrastructure is deteriorating at a fast pace. The change in the existing technology requires new developments in our understanding of the nanostructure of hydration products and the complex deterioration reactions. We have been developing an elaborate research program to advance the existing cement and concrete science by characterizing its nanostructure by synchrotron radiation. A new generation of green cements is being studied using high-resolution soft x-ray microscopy at the nano-level.

  14. Soft X-ray Charged Piezoelectret for Kinetic Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Cho, HJ; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Piezoelectret polymer attracts much attention for its high piezoelectric coefficient. Multilayered piezoelectret structures are often charged with corona discharge, but it is difficult to get high surface charge density. To address this issue, a multilayered piezoelectret structure with embedded electrode is proposed, which can be efficiently poled with soft X-ray charging. With the aid of embedded electrodes, the bias voltage is directly applied to each unit cell, rather than divided and distributed to multiple layers. With an early PTFE-based prototype, output power of 0.5 μJ has been obtained for 0.3 mm displacement in 0.2 s.

  15. OSO-8 soft X-ray wheel experiment: Data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The soft X-ray experiment hardware and its operation are described. The device included six X-ray proportional counters, two of which, numbers 1 and 4, were pressurized with on-board methane gas supplies. Number 4 developed an excessive leak rate early in the mission and was turned off on 1975 day number 282 except for brief (typically 2-hour) periods up to day 585 after which it as left off. Counter 1 worked satisfactorily until 1975 day number 1095 (January 1, 1978) at which time the on-board methane supply was depleted. The other four counters were sealed and all except number 3 worked satisfactorily throughout the mission which terminated with permanent satellie shut-down on day 1369. This was the first large area thin-window, gas-flow X-ray detector to be flown in orbit. The background problems were severe and consumed a very large portion of the data analysis effort. These background problems were associated with the Earth's trapped electron belts.

  16. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  17. Soft x-ray microscope using Fourier transform holography

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, I.; Kirz, J.; Jacobsen, C.; Anderson, E.; Howells, M.R.; Rarback, H. . Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-01-01

    A Fourier transform holographic microscope with an anticipated resolution of better than 100 nm has been built. Extensive testing of the apparatus has begun. Preliminary results include the recording of interference fringes using 3.6 nm x-rays. The microscope employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array of 576 {times} 384 elements. The system is illuminated by soft x-rays from a high brightness undulator. The reference point source is formed by a Fresnel zone plate with a finest outer zone width of 50 nm. Sufficient temporal coherence for hologram formation is obtained by a spherical grating monochromator. The x-ray hologram intensities at the recording plane are to be collected, digitized and reconstructed by computer. Data acquisition is under CAMAC control, while image display and off-line processing takes place on a VAX graphics workstation. Computational models of Fourier transform hologram synthesis, and reconstruction in the presence of noise, have demonstrated the feasibility of numerical methods in two dimensions, and that three-dimensional information is potentially recoverable. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Recent upgrades to MST's soft-x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, M. D.; Scherer, A. C.; Clark, J.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    In MST RFP plasmas, electron energization during tearing mode reconnection events was recently observed via soft-x-ray (sxr) emission. X-ray measurements from 3-25 keV during these short-lived (< 100 μs) events were achieved with a detector consisting of an avalanche photodiode and a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier (GSA) whose output was digitized at 500 MHz. A radially resolved measurement of x-ray emission from 2-10 keV can also be made with an existing array of six Amptek XR-100CR sxr detectors, each comprised of a Si photodiode, a charge-sensitive preamplifier, a thermoelectric cooler, and a Cremat GSA CR-200-500ns having a pulse FWHM of about 1200 ns. One upgrade to this system entails a CR-200-25ns GSA which will reduce the FWHM to 60 ns. The digitization rate is also increased from 60 MHz to 240 MHz, sufficient to resolve a 60 ns Gaussian pulse. The upgrade will also incorporate improved shielding from IGBT switching noise arising from MST's Bt and Bp programmable power supplies. Housing the detector assembly within Compac-SRF-series enclosures attenuates noise at 20 MHz by 80 dB. Initial measurements will be presented. Work supported by US DOE.

  19. Suborbital Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy with Gaseous Electron Multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Thomas D.

    This thesis consists of the design, fabrication, and launch of a sounding rocket payload to observe the spectrum of the soft X-ray emission (0.1-1 keV) from the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. This instrument, designated the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS), was launched from White Sands Missile Range on May 2nd, 2015. The X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire-grid focuser feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount which dispersed the spectrum onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The gain characteristics of OGRESS's GEM detectors were fully characterized with respect to applied voltage and internal gas pressure, allowing operational settings to be optimized. The GEMs were optimized to operate below laboratory atmospheric pressure, allowing lower applied voltages, thus reducing the risk of both electrical arcing and tearing of the thin detector windows. The instrument recorded 388 seconds of data and found highly uniform count distributions over both detector faces, in sharp contrast to the expected thermal line spectrum. This signal is attributed to X-ray fluorescence lines generated inside the spectrograph. The radiation is produced when thermal ionospheric particles are accelerated into the interior walls of the spectrograph by the high voltages of the detector windows. A fluorescence model was found to fit the flight data better than modeled supernova spectra. Post-flight testing and analysis revealed that electrons produce distinct signal on the detectors which can also be successfully modeled as fluorescence emission.

  20. The Astro-H Soft X-Ray Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Astro-H is led by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with many other institutions including the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard's contributions include two soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs). The telescopes have an effective area of 562 square cm at 1 keV and 425 square cm at 6 keV with an image quality requirement of 1.7 arc-minutes half power diameter (HPD). The engineering model has demonstrated 1.1 arc-minutes HPD error. The design of the SXT is based on the successful Suzaku mission mirrors with some enhancements to improve the image quality. Two major enhancements are bonding the X-ray mirror foils to alignment bars instead of allowing the mirrors to float, and fabricating alignment bars with grooves within 5 microns of accuracy. An engineering model SXT was recently built and subjected to several tests including vibration, thermal, and X-ray performance in a beamline. Several lessons were learned during this testing that will be incorporated in the flight design. Test results and optical performance are discussed, along with a description of the design of the SXT.

  1. Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sokaras, D.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B.; Karydas, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

  2. Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser ampli er perturbed by a strong injected X-ray eld

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Oliva, E; Lu, L; Berrill, Mark A; Yin, Liang; Nejdl, J; Luther, Brad; Proux, C; Le, T. T.; Dunn, James; Ros, D; Zeitoun, Philippe; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Seeding soft X-ray plasma ampli ers with high harmonics has been demonstrated to generate high-brightness soft X-ray laser pulses with full spatial and temporal coherence. The interaction between the injected coherent eld and the swept-gain medium has been modelled. However, no exper- iment has been conducted to probe the gain dynamics when perturbed by a strong external seed eld. Here, we report the rst X-ray pump X-ray probe measurement of the nonlinear response of a plasma ampli er perturbed by a strong soft X-ray ultra-short pulse. We injected a sequence of two time-delayed high-harmonic pulses (l518.9 nm) into a collisionally excited nickel-like molybdenum plasma to measure with femto-second resolution the gain depletion induced by the saturated ampli cation of the high-harmonic pump and its subsequent recovery. The measured fast gain recovery in 1.5 1.75 ps con rms the possibility to generate ultra-intense, fully phase-coherent soft X-ray lasers by chirped pulse ampli cation in plasma ampli ers.

  3. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  4. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchi, M.; Hague, C.F.; Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J.

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  5. Applications of soft x-ray magnetic dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, G.

    2013-04-01

    Applications of x-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism (XMCD and XMLD) are reviewed in the soft x-ray region, covering the photon energy range 0.4-2 keV, which includes important absorption edges such as the 3d transition metal L2,3 and rare earth M4,5. These techniques enable a broad range of novel and exciting studies such as on the electronic properties and magnetic ordering of novel nanostructured systems. XMCD has a sensitivity better than 0.01 monolayer (at the surface) and due to simple detection methods, such as electron yield and fluorescence yield, it has become a workhorse technique in physics and materials science. It is the only element-specific technique able to distinguish between the spin and orbital parts of the magnetic moments. The applications are vast, e.g., in x-ray holographic imaging, XMCD gives a spatial resolution of tens of nm. While many studies in the past were centered on physics, more recently new applications have emerged in areas such as chemistry, biology and earth and environmental sciences. For instance, XMCD allows the determination of the cation occupations in spinels and other ternary oxides. In scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), XMCD enables us to map biogenic magnetite redox changes resulting in a surprising degree of variation on the nanoscale. Another recent development is ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) detected by time-resolved XMCD which opens the door to element-, site- and layer-specific dynamical measurements. By exploiting the time structure of the pulsed synchrotron radiation from the storage ring the relative phase of precession in the individual magnetic layers of a multilayer stack can be determined.

  6. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2011-03-17

    The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. InN Thin Film Lattice Dynamics by Grazing Incidence Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, J.; Bosak, A.; Krisch, M.; Manjón, F. J.; Romero, A. H.; Garro, N.; Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kuball, M.

    2011-05-01

    Achieving comprehensive information on thin film lattice dynamics so far has eluded well established spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate here the novel application of grazing incidence inelastic x-ray scattering combined with ab initio calculations to determine the complete elastic stiffness tensor, the acoustic and low-energy optic phonon dispersion relations of thin wurtzite indium nitride films. Indium nitride is an especially relevant example, due to the technological interest for optoelectronic and solar cell applications in combination with other group III nitrides.

  8. Soft X-Ray Pulsations in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.

    2015-12-01

    The soft X-ray emissions ( hν>1.5 keV) of solar flares mainly come from the bright coronal loops at the highest temperatures normally achieved in the flare process. Their ubiquity has led to their use as a standard measure of flare occurrence and energy, although the overwhelming bulk of the total flare energy goes elsewhere. Recently Dolla et al. ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 749, L16, 2012) noted quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in the soft X-ray signature of the X-class flare SOL2011-02-15, as observed by the standard photometric data from the GOES ( Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) spacecraft. In this article we analyse the suitability of the GOES data for this type of analysis and find them to be generally valuable after September, 2010 (GOES-15). We then extend the result of Dolla et al. to a complete list of X-class flares from Cycle 24 and show that most of them (80 %) display QPPs in the impulsive phase. The pulsations show up cleanly in both channels of the GOES data, making use of time-series of irradiance differences (the digital time derivative on the 2-s sampling). We deploy different techniques to characterise the periodicity of GOES pulsations, considering the red-noise properties of the flare signals, finding a range of characteristic time scales of the QPPs for each event, but usually with no strong signature of a single period dominating in the power spectrum. The QPP may also appear on somewhat longer time scales during the later gradual phase, possibly with a greater tendency towards coherence, but the sampling noise in GOES difference data for high irradiance values (X-class flares) makes these more uncertain. We show that there is minimal phase difference between the differenced GOES energy channels, or between them and the hard X-ray variations on short time scales. During the impulsive phase, the footpoints of the newly forming flare loops may also contribute to the observed soft X-ray variations.

  9. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  10. Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray--selected BL Lacertae Objects: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Simon L.

    1996-07-01

    In the paper, "Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray- selected BL Lacertae Objects" by Eric S. Perlman, John T. Stocke, Q. Daniel Wang, and Simon L. Morris (ApJ, 456,451 [1996]), there is an error in Figure 5 (see Section 4.1). The corrected figure is given below. The discussion in the text and the conclusions of the paper are unaffected by this error, which occurred during the publication process. See Journal.

  11. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  12. High repetition rate laser produced soft x-ray source for ultrafast x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.

    PubMed

    Fourmaux, S; Lecherbourg, L; Harmand, M; Servol, M; Kieffer, J C

    2007-11-01

    Recent progress in high intensity ultrafast laser systems provides the opportunity to produce laser plasma x-ray sources exhibiting broad spectrum and high average x-ray flux that are well adapted to x-ray absorption measurements. In this paper, the development of a laser based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) beamline exhibiting high repetition rate by using the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility 100 Hz laser system (100 mJ, 35 fs at 800 nm) is presented. This system is based on a broadband tantalum solid target soft x-ray source and a grazing incidence grating spectrometer in the 1-5 nm wavelength range. To demonstrate the high potential of this laser based XANES technique in condensed matter physics, material science, or biology, measurements realized with several samples are presented: VO2 vanadium L edge, Si3N4 nitrogen K edge, and BPDA/PPD polyimide carbon K edge. The characteristics of this laser based beamline are discussed in terms of brightness, signal to noise ratio, and compared to conventional synchrotron broadband x-ray sources which allow achieving similar measurements. Apart from the very compact size and the relative low cost, the main advantages of such a laser based soft x-ray source are the picosecond pulse duration and the perfect synchronization between this x-ray probe and a laser pulse excitation which open the way to the realization of time resolved x-ray absorption measurements with picosecond range time resolution to study the dynamics of ultrafast processes and phase transition.

  13. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main

    We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

  14. X-ray emission from cataclysmic variables with accretion disks. I - Hard X-rays. II - EUV/soft X-ray radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J.; Raymond, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical models explaining the hard-X-ray, soft-X-ray, and EUV emission of accretion-disk cataclysmic variables in terms of the disk boundary layer (DBL) are developed on the basis of a survey of the published observational data. The data are compared with model predictions in graphs for systems with high or low (greater than or less than 10-Pg/s) accretion rates. Good agreement is obtained both at low accretion rates, where an optically thin rarefied hot (Te = 10 to the 8th K) DBL radiates most of its energy as hard X-rays, and at high accretion rates, where an optically thick 100,000-K DBL radiates most of its energy in the EUV and as soft X-rays. Detailed analysis of the old nova V603 Aql suggests that previous models predicting more detections of soft-X-ray/EUV emissions from thick-DBL objects (Ferland et al., 1982) used inappropriate dwarf masses, interstellar column densities, or classical-nova space densities.

  15. SAS 3 survey of the soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Clark, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a survey of the soft X-ray sky in the C band (0.10-0.28keV) are reported. The observations were carried out using two independent flow proportional counters on board the SAS 3 X-ray satellite which had a total angular resolution of 2.9 deg FWHM, and a total exposure of 2.2 x 10 to the 4th per sq cm s sr. It is found that C band counting rates were generally inversely correlated with the column density of the neutral hydrogen on all angular scales down to the lowest angular resolution of the detectors. In the region 90-180 deg l and 0-10 deg b, the relation between C-band rates and the column densities of neutral hydrogen was fitted with a residual rms deviation of less than 13 percent by a two-component numerical model of the X-ray background. For the apparent attenuation column density a value of 2.7 x 10 to the 20th per sq cm was obtained. On the basis of a computer simulation of the SAS 3 data, it is shown that the observed clumping of interstellar matter was consistent with the magnitude of spatial fluctuations in the C-band map. When the background rates were subtracted from the survey map, the subsequent map showed foreground emission and absorption features with improved sensitivity and clarity. A series of computer-generated maps incorporating the SAS 3 data is given in an appendix.

  16. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  17. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (∼1μm) and detector pixels (∼5μm) with high line density gratings (∼3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  18. Detection of soft X-rays from Alpha Lyrae and Eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K.; Fabricant, D.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Gorenstein, P.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for observations of Alpha Lyr (Vega) and Eta Boo with an imaging X-ray telescope during two rocket flights. It is found that Vega and Eta Boo are soft X-ray sources with respective luminosities of approximately 3 x 10 to the 28th erg/s (0.15-0.8 keV) and 1 x 10 to the 29th erg/s (0.15-1.5 keV). Surface X-ray luminosities of about 640,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Vega and 300,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Eta Boo are estimated and shown to fall within the range of solar coronal X-ray emission. It is concluded that in view of the substantially larger surface areas of these stars, the relatively large total soft X-ray luminosity (as compared with that of the sun) can in both cases be understood as resulting from a moderately active corona, although the Vega observation is in severe conflict with simple models for X-ray emission from single main-sequence stars.

  19. Soft-x-ray fragmentation studies of molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Andreas; Pedersen, Henrik B.; Lammich, Lutz; Jordon-Thaden, Brandon; Altevogt, Simon; Domesle, Christian; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Förstel, Marko; Heber, Oded

    2010-10-01

    Imaging of photofragments from molecular ions after irradiation by soft x-ray photons has been realized at the ion beam infrastructure TIFF set up at the FLASH facility. Photodissociation of the two-electron system HeH+ at 38.7 eV revealed the electronic excitations and the charge-state ratios for the products of this process, reflecting the non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics through multiple avoided crossings among the HeH+ Rydberg potential curves. Dissociative ionization of the protonated water molecules H3O+ and H5O+2 at 90 eV revealed the main fragmentation pathways after the production of valence vacancies in these ionic species, which include a strong three-body channel with a neutral fragment (OH + H+ + H+) in H3O+ photolysis and a significant two-body fragmentation channel (H3O++ H2O+) in H5O+2 photolysis. The measurements yield absolute cross sections and fragment angular distributions. Increased precision and sensitivity of the technique were realized in recent developments, creating a tool for exploring x-ray excited molecular states under highly controlled target conditions challenging detailed theoretical understanding.

  20. Refraction effects in soft x-ray multilayer blazed gratings.

    PubMed

    Voronov, D L; Salmassi, F; Meyer-Ilse, J; Gullikson, E M; Warwick, T; Padmore, H A

    2016-05-30

    A 2500 lines/mm Multilayer Blazed Grating (MBG) optimized for the soft x-ray wavelength range was fabricated and tested. The grating coated with a W/B4C multilayer demonstrated a record diffraction efficiency in the 2nd blazed diffraction order in the energy range from 500 to 1200 eV. Detailed investigation of the diffraction properties of the grating demonstrated that the diffraction efficiency of high groove density MBGs is not limited by the normal shadowing effects that limits grazing incidence x-ray grating performance. Refraction effects inherent in asymmetrical Bragg diffraction were experimentally confirmed for MBGs. The refraction affects the blazing properties of the MBGs and results in a shift of the resonance wavelength of the gratings and broadening or narrowing of the grating bandwidth depending on diffraction geometry. The true blaze angle of the MBGs is defined by both the real structure of the multilayer stack and by asymmetrical refraction effects. Refraction effects can be used as a powerful tool in providing highly efficient suppression of high order harmonics.

  1. Design and analysis of soft X-ray imaging microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Cheng, Wang; Wu, Jiang; Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The spherical Schwarzschild microscope for soft X-ray applications in microscopy and projection lithography consists of two concentric spherical mirrors configured such that the third-order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Since multilayers are used on the mirror substrates for X-ray applications, it is desirable to have only two reflecting surfaces in a microscope. To reduce microscope aberrations and increase the field of view, generalized mirror surface profiles are here considered. Based on incoherent and sine wave modulation transfer function calculations, the object plane resolution of a microscope has been analyzed as a function of the object height and numerical aperture (NA) of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical Head reflecting two-mirror microscope configurations. The Head microscope with a NA of 0.4 achieves diffraction limited performance for objects with a diameter of 40 microns. Thus, it seems possible to record images with a feature size less than 100 A with a 40x microscope when using 40 A radiation.

  2. Soft X-Ray Thomson Scattering in Warm Dense Hydrogen at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Faustlin, R R; Toleikis, S; Bornath, T; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Mithen, J; Przystawik, A; Redlin, H; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

    2009-07-15

    We present collective Thomson scattering with soft x-ray free electron laser radiation as a method to track the evolution of warm dense matter plasmas with {approx}200 fs time resolution. In a pump-probe scheme an 800 nm laser heats a 20 {micro}m hydrogen droplet to the plasma state. After a variable time delay in the order of ps the plasma is probed by an x-ray ultra violet (XUV) pulse which scatters from the target and is recorded spectrally. Alternatively, in a self-Thomson scattering experiment, a single XUV pulse heats the target while a portion of its photons are being scattered probing the target. From such inelastic x-ray scattering spectra free electron temperature and density can be inferred giving insight on relaxation time scales in plasmas as well as the equation of state. We prove the feasibility of this method in the XUV range utilizing the free electron laser facility in Hamburg, FLASH. We recorded Thomson scattering spectra for hydrogen plasma, both in the self-scattering and in the pump-probe mode using optical laser heating.

  3. Optical, UV and soft x-ray transmission of optical blocking layer for the x-ray CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, K.; Kohmura, T.; Ikeda, S.; Kaneko, K.; watanabe, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Anabuki, N.; Nakajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Tsuru, T. G.; Dotani, T.; Ozaki, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fujinaga, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Murakami, H.; Hiraga, J.; Mori, K.; ASTRO-H SXI Team

    2012-03-01

    We have newly developed the back-illuminated (BI)-CCD which has an Optical Blocking Layer (OBL) directly coating its X-ray illumination surface with Aluminum-Polyimide-Aluminum instead of Optical Blocking Filter (OBF). OBL is composed of a thin polyimide layer sandwiched by two Al layers. Al and Polyimide has a capability to cut visible light and EUV, respectively. To evaluate the performance of OBL that cut off EUV as well as transmit soft X-ray, we measured the EUV and Soft X-ray transmission of both OBL at various energy range between 15-2000 eV by utilizing beam line located at the Photon Factory in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. We obtained the EUV transmission to be ~3% at 41eV which is as same as expected transmission from the designed thickness of polyimide layer, and found no significant change of the EUV transmission of polyimide found during 9month. We also obtained the Soft X-ray transmission of OBL, and found the X-ray transmission of OBL was consistent with the result expected from the thickness of OBL. We also measured the Optical transmission of OBL between 500-900 nm to evaluate the performance of Al that cut off optical light, and obtained the optical transmission to be less than 4×10-5.

  4. Soft X-Ray Observations of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robin; Kuntz, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project, my co-I (K.D. Kuntz) and I plan to extract the soft X-ray spectrum emitted by the hot gas along a high latitude line of sight. We plan to subtract off the local component (garnered from other observations) in order to isolate the halo component. We then plan to combine this spectral information with the ultraviolet resonance line emission produced by slightly cooler gas along the line of sight and use the two observations as a constraint on models. My co-I, K.D., Kuntz has been working on the determination of the instrumental background. I have not yet drawn any of the funds for this project. I have just moved from J h s Hopkins University to the University of Georgia and anticipate finishing the project while at the University of Georgia.

  5. Tracing Chromospheric Evaporation in Radio and Soft X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    1997-01-01

    There are three publications in refereed journals and several presentations at scientific conferences resulted from this work, over a period of 6 months during 1995/1996. In the first paper, the discovery of the chromospheric evaporation process at radio wavelengths is described. In the second paper, the radio detection is used to quantify electron densities in the upflowing heated plasma in flare loops, which is then compared with independent other density measurements from soft X-rays, or the plasma frequency of electron beams originating in the acceleration region. In the third paper, the diagnostic results of the chromospheric evaporation process are embedded into a broader picture of a standard flare scenario. Abstracts of these three papers are attached.

  6. The LNLS soft X-ray spectroscopy beamline.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, H; Compagnon-Cailhol, V; Vicentin, F C; Abbate, M

    1998-05-01

    The soft X-ray spectroscopy beamline installed at a bending-magnet source at the LNLS is described. The optics are designed to cover energies from 800 to 4000 eV with good efficiency. The focusing element is a gold-coated toroidal mirror with an angle of incidence of 17 mrad. The UHV double-crystal monochromator has three pairs of crystals, Si (111), InSb (111) and beryl (101;0), that can be selected by a sliding movement. The UHV workstation is equipped with an ion gun, an electron gun, an electron analyser, LEED optics, an open channeltron and a photodiode array. This beamline is intended for photoemission, photoabsorption, reflectivity and dichroism experiments.

  7. VUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C. G.; Joyce, J. J.; Durakiewicz, T.; Guziewicz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Optical and photoelectron spectroscopies using VUV and Soft X-ray photons are powerful tools for studies of elemental and compound actinides. Large changes in the relative atomic cross sections of the 5f, 6d and sp electrons allow decomposition of the character of the valence bands using photoemission. Resonant enhancement of photoelectrons and Auger electrons at the 5d core threshold further aids the decomposition and gives a measure of elemental specificity. Angle-resolved photoemission can be used to map the momentum dependence of the electronic states. The large changes in relative cross section with photon energy yields further details when the mapping is done at equivalent points in multiple zones. Spectra for well understood rare earth materials will be presented to establish spectral characteristics for known atomic character initial states. These signatures will be applied to the case of USb to investigate f-d hybridization near the Fermi level.

  8. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  9. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  10. Soft x-ray undulator for the Siam Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rugmai, S.; Dasri, T.; Prawanta, S.; Siriwattanapaitoon, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Sooksrimuang, V.; Chachai, W.; Suradet, N.; Juthong, N.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2007-01-19

    An undulator for production of intense soft x-rays has been designed for the Siam Photon Source. The construction of the undulator has been completed. It is now being characterized and prepared for installation. The device, named U60, is a pure permanent magnet planar undulator, consisting of 41 magnetic periods, with 60 mm period length. Utilization of the undulator radiation in the photon energy range of 30 - 900 eV is expected. The design studies of the magnetic structure, including investigation of perturbations arising from the magnetic field of the device, their effects on the SPS storage ring and compensation schemes are described. A magnetic measurement system has been constructed for magnetic characterization of the device. Partial results of magnetic measurements are presented.

  11. Divergence measurements of soft x-ray laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Kim, D.; Valeo, E.; Voorhees, D.; Wouters, A.

    1986-07-01

    The divergence of the CVI 182 A lasing line generated in a rapidly recombining, magnetically confined plasma column was measured using soft x-ray spectrometers equipped with multichannel detectors. In addition to measurements of the relative divergence, an absolute divergence of approx.9 mrad at a magnetic field of 20 kG and approx.5 mrad at a magnetic field of 35 or 50 kG was obtained by a direct scan of the 182 A axial radiation. Based on this data a peak 182 A intensity of approx.100 kW is obtained. Calculations of the spatial distribution of gain in the plasma were in very good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2010-06-23

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  13. Soft X-rays from the Cygnus Loop: Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W H

    1971-04-23

    Two possible interpretations of the recent soft x-ray observation of the Cygnus Loop are discussed. A synchrotron model requires a magnetic field less than 10(-6) gauss and electron energies in excess of 10(14) electron volts. These electrons must either have been reaccelerated or continuously injected into the source for about 50,000 years. The observations are also consistent with the radiation from a hot plasma having the cosmic abundances of the elements. A likely origin for the hot plasma is a blast wave produced by the explosion of a supernova in the interstellar medium. Fitting such a model to the observations implies a kinetic energy release in the explosion of 6x 10(50) ergs for an assumed distance of 770 parsec.

  14. G-133: A soft X ray solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-10-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  15. G-133: A soft x ray solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-01-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  16. Early Results from the YOHKOH Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.; Tsuneta, S.

    1992-05-01

    The The Soft X-ray Telescope on the Yohkoh satellite, launched by Japan on August 30, 1992, has proved to be a resounding success. It is providing a wealth of new information and many surprises, both on flares and on the behavior of the solar corona. Performance of the telescope has met or exceed our most optimistic expectations and it appears to be in perfect focus. Unlike the Skylab instruments, the Yohkoh telescope is not limited by a finite supply of film, permitting long sequences of images to be made with relatively high time resolution. Repetition rates for a given exposure / filter combination are typically a few seconds per frame to a few minutes per frame, depending on the selected field size. Movies assembled from long exposure sequences have shown the corona to be even more dynamic than expected. Major re-structuring, involving large fractions of the visible corona, can take place in an hour or two. Smaller regions are even more dynamic, changing almost continuously. Movies, created from long exposure sequences, have demonstrated the fundamental importance of large-scale coronal loops in connecting widely separated regions such that activity in one region quickly affects the physical conditions at remote sites. The images also show that the majority of the loops have nearly constant cross sections along their lengths, rather than one that increases with height. Several X-class flares have been observed; the surprising result is that they do not appear to be very dynamic in soft X-rays. The flare kernels seem to consist of compact loop structures that brighten and then fade without changing size or shape. Bright points are not as prominent as in the Skylab images; a result of using a CCD (a linear detector) rather than film which has a logarithmic response. The other instruments on Yohkoh are producing equally exciting results; it seems clear that the Yohkoh mission will produce many major advances in our knowledge of the flare mechanism.

  17. Rocket Experiment Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman

    This proposal is the lead proposal. Boston University will submit, via NSPIRES, a Co-I proposal, per instructions for Suborbital proposals for multiple-award. Our scientific goal of the Rocket Experiment Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Polarimeter (REDSoX Polarimeter) is to make the first measurement of the linear X-ray polarization of an extragalactic source in the 0.2-0.8 keV band. The first flight of the REDSoX Polarimeter would target Mk 421, which is commonly modeled as a highly relativistic jet aimed nearly along the line of sight. Such sources are likely to be polarized at a level of 30-60%, so the goal is to obtain a significant detection even if it is as low as 10%. Significant revisions to the models of jets emanating from black holes at the cores of active galaxies would be required if the polarization fraction lower than 10%. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 90%. Using replicated foil mirrors from MSFC and gratings made at MIT, we construct a spectrometer that disperses to three laterally graded multilayer mirrors (LGMLs). The lateral grading changes the wavelength of the Bragg peak for 45 degree reflections linearly across the mirror, matching the dispersion of the spectrometer. By dividing the entrance aperture into six equal sectors, pairs of blazed gratings from opposite sectors are oriented to disperse to the same LGML. The position angles for the LGMLs are 120 degrees to each other. CCD detectors then measure the intensities of the dispersed spectra after reflection and polarizing by the LGMLs, giving the three Stokes parameters needed to determine the source polarization. We will rely on components whose performance has been verified in the laboratory or in space. The CCD detectors are based on Chandra and Suzaku heritage. The mirror fabrication team

  18. Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.

  19. Inelastic x-ray scattering studies on dynamic structure factor of polymeric liquid Se under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, Masanori; Kajihara, Yukio; Kimura, Koji; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Ohara, Koji; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke

    2015-08-17

    Inelastic X-ray scattering measurements at 25 MPa using synchrotron radiation were carried out for semiconducting liquid Se at high temperatures up to 1673 K. The excitation energy of the acoustic mode disperses approximately 10-50 % faster than the ultrasonic sound velocity in the observed temperature range while the ultrasonic sound rapidly slows down with increasing temperature. We carried out X-ray scattering measurements and found that the average coordination number at 1673 K is 1.3, indicating that the high temperature liquid consists of short chain molecules. These results suggest that weakening of the interatomic interaction is correlated with breaking of polymeric chain molecules.

  20. High-efficiency high-energy-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Q.; Tyson, T. A.; Caliebe, W. A.; Kao, C.-C.

    2005-12-01

    A nine-element analyzer system for inelastic X-ray scattering has been designed and constructed. Each individual analyzer crystal is carefully aligned with an inverse joystick goniometer. For the analyzers silicon wafers with 100 mm diameter are spherically bent to 1 or 0.85 m radius, respectively. Additionally, an analyzer with an extra small radius of 0.182 m and diameter of 100 mm was constructed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. All analyzer crystals with large radius have highly uniform focusing property. The total energy resolution is approximately 0.5 eV at backscattering for the 1 m radius Si(440) analyzer array and approximately 4 eV for the 0.182 m radius Si(440) analyzer at 6493 eV.

  1. EUV and Soft X-Ray Emissions From Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed 8 observations of comets with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). A soft X-ray camera in the range of 97-165 eV FWHM with a peak effective area of 28 cm2 and three spectrometers at 80-180, 170-360, and 300-720 Å with peak effective areas of 2.1, 0.5, and 0.8 cm2, respectively, were used for those observations. The detection limit of the X-ray camera corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 1.9x 1014 Δ 2 erg s-1 for photon energy ɛ > 100 eV. (Δ is the geocentric distance in AU.) Five comets were detected with the X-ray camera: Hyakutake, Borrelly, d'Arrest, pre- and postperihelion Hale-Bopp. Their images reveal a crescent-like structure with peak brightness offsets from the nuclei between the sunward and comet orbital velocity directions. X-ray luminosities and their spatial distributions were determined from the observations. The measured luminosities are in excellent correlation with gas production rates in comets, resulting in the efficiency of (6.4 +/- 0.9)x 10-5 AU3/2 in the range of 97-165 eV. Correlation with dust production rates is poor, and this favor a gas-related excitation process. The peak brightnesses scaled to r2 are constant and equal to 26+/- 9 millirayleighs. This means that comae are optically or collisionally thick near the brightness centers. Of a few suggested excitation mechanisms, only charge exchange between solar wind heavy ions and cometary neutrals agrees with both these facts. The EUVE spectra of comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake have been analyzed. Due to the close flyby of Hyakutake at 0.1 AU, its spectra are of exceptionally high quality and exceed the currently published spectra of comets by a factor of 3 in resolving power and by two orders of magnitude in photon statistics. The spectra reveal for the first time the emission lines of multiple charged ions which are brought to the comet by the solar wind and excited in charge exchange with cometary neutral species. The most prominent lines are O4+ 215 Å, C4+ 249

  2. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission From Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25 - 2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fall to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  3. Paramagnon excitations' theory for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in doped plane copper oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    A relaxation function theory with paramagnon excitations for doped S = 1 / 2 two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic system in the paramagnetic state is given in view of magnetic response of high-Tc copper oxide superconductors as obtained by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The results of the theory on Nd(La)-Ba(Sr)-Cu-O and Y-Ba-Cu-O family compounds give fair agreement without especially adjusted parameters to RIXS data. It is shown that RIXS data analysis depends on paramagnon damping and thus affected by approximations made for dynamic spin susceptibility.

  4. Nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of cubic boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Galambosi, S.; Soininen, J. A.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Shirley, Eric L.; Kao, C.-C.

    2001-07-01

    The dynamic structure factor of cubic boron nitride has been measured using nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The experimental data are compared with the results of a recently developed ab initio calculation scheme, which takes into account the interaction between the excited electron and the hole. The agreement between the experiment and theory is good over an extended momentum transfer range, which emphasizes the importance of proper inclusion of the electron-hole interaction. The results are also compared with a reflectance measurement that represents the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The complementary nature of these different experimental methods is discussed in view of the ab initio calculations.

  5. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments on B[subscript 4]C under high static pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Dandekar, Dattatraya; Leithe-Jasper, Andres; Tanaka, Takaho; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Nicol, Malcolm F.; Cornelius, Andrew L.

    2010-05-04

    Boron K-edge inelastic X-ray scattering experiments were performed on clean B{sub 4}C and shock impact recovered boron carbide up to 30 GPa and at ambient temperature to understand the pressure induced bonding changes. The spectral features corresponding to the boron site in the interlinking chain remained unchanged up to 30 GPa. The results of our experiments indicate that pressure induces less distortion to the boron sites and the local amorphization observed in the previous reports are due to the rearrangement of carbon atoms under extreme conditions without affecting the boron environment.

  6. Inelastic X-ray scattering measurement of electronic order in Bi2212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoit, Craig; Gardner, Dillong; Said, Ayman; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John; Lee, Young

    2013-03-01

    We present inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on superconducting Bi2212, showing evidence for a phonon anomaly associated with an underlying electronic density-wave state. We observe an broadening of the longitudinal acoustic phonon at a wavevector comparable to the antinodal nesting wavevector, near (1/4,1/4,0) in orthorhombic notation. An observed asymmetry between phonon creation and annihilation processes indicates breaking of time reversal and inversion symmetry as temperature is lowered. These measurements are consistent with prior work on single layer Bi2201, indicating universality of these features in the family of Bi-based high-Tc materials.

  7. Elastic modulus of supercooled liquid and hot solid silicon measured by inelastic X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Alatas, A.; Said, A. H.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E. E.; Kodituwakku, C. N.; Reinhart, B.; Saboungi, M. -L.; Price, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    We measured the dynamical structure factors of supercooled-liquid and hot-solid silicon by inelastic X-ray scattering at the same temperature, 1620 K. Two significant changes in the averaged longitudinal sound velocities and in the longitudinal modulus are observed. We, first observe a different longitudinal modulus in the polycrystalline hot-solid silicon compared to the extrapolated value obtained from the single-crystal measurement. Furthermore, this reduction of the modulus may be a precursor of the semiconductor-to-metal transition. Second, the increase in the longitudinal modulus in the liquid upon supercooling is consistent with an increase in the degree of the directional bonding.

  8. Enhanced charge excitations in electron-doped cuprates by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohyama, Takami; Tsutsui, Kenji; Mori, Michiyasu; Sota, Shigetoshi; Yunoki, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) tuned for the Cu L edge is a possible tool to detect charge excitations in cuprate superconductors. We theoretically investigate the possibility for observing a collective charge excitation by the RIXS. The RIXS process via the intermediate state inevitably makes the spectral weight of charge excitation stronger in electron doping than in hole doping. Electron-hole asymmetry also appears in the dynamical charge structure factor, showing a new enhanced small-momentum low-energy mode in electron doping. These facts indicate a possibility of detecting the new charge mode by RIXS in electron-doped systems.

  9. Numerical study of Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for cuprates and transition-metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunjing; Wang, Yao; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas

    A theoretical understanding of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements on cuprates and other transition-metal oxides remains an important yet challenging topic, especially for its ability to resolve the momentum and photon-polarization dependence of low energy elementary excitations. Here we present our exact diagonalization studies for RIXS spectra at the Cu L-edge for cuprates, with a focus on the dependence of both incoming and outgoing photon polarization and incoming photon energy. A more general method for calculating RIXS on other transition-metal oxides (such as NiO), which includes the multiplet and charge-transfer effects, will also be discussed.

  10. Chemically selective soft x-ray patterning of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Stover, H.D.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2007-06-19

    The chemically selective modification of polymer mixtures by monochromated soft X-rays has been explored using the high-brightness fine-focused 50 nm beam of a scanning transmission X-ray microscope. Four different polymer systems were examined: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) bilayer film; a PMMA-blend-PAN microphase-separated film; a poly(MMA-co-AN) copolymer film; and a poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) homopolymer film. A high level of chemically selective modification was achieved for the PMMA/PAN bilayer; in particular, irradiation at 288.45 eV selectively removed the carbonyl group from PMMA while irradiation at 286.80 eV selectively reduced the nitrile group of PAN, even when these irradiations were carried out at the same (x,y) position of the sample. In the last two homogeneous polymer systems, similar amounts of damage to the nitrile and carbonyl groups occurred during irradiation at either 286.80 or 288.45 eV. This is attributed to damage transfer between the C=N and C=O groups mediated by primary electrons, secondary electrons or radical/ionic processes, aided by their close spatial proximity. Although the overall thickness of the bilayer sample at 70 nm is smaller than the lateral line spreading of 100 nm, the interface between the layers appears to effectively block the transport of energy, and hence damage, between the two layers. The origins of the line spreading in homogeneous phases and possible origins of the damage blocking effect of the interface are discussed. To demonstrate chemically selective patterning, high-resolution multi-wavelength patterns were created in the PMMA/PAN bilayer system.

  11. The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance of 1991 September 28 using the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, Alan; Uchida, Yutaka; Tsuneta, Saku; Strong, Keith T.; Acton, Loren W.; Hiei, Eijiro; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Watanabe, Takashi; Shibata, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance on September 28, 1991, observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope, is examined as a possible example of the 'eruption-reconnection' model of filament disappearance. The results suggest, however, that this model may not fit. There is a strong possibility that much of the dark filament mass remains in the heated unwinding axial field.

  12. Lattice model of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in metals: relation of a strong core hole to the x-ray edge singularity.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, R S; Rehr, J J; Bansil, A

    2014-06-13

    We show how the classic approach of Nozières and di Domenicis for treating the edge singularity in x-ray absorption and emission can be generalized to treat the more complex case of the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) process, including effects of the intermediate states involved therein in the presence of the core hole. We solve our lattice model essentially exactly (numerically) to obtain a novel form of edge singularity at the RIXS threshold energy. Our RIXS spectrum naturally includes both the well and poorly screened spectral components and their dispersions and allows its separation into pair and multiple-pair excitations.

  13. The GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron: inelastic X-ray scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy in the hard X-ray range.

    PubMed

    Rueff, J P; Ablett, J M; Céolin, D; Prieur, D; Moreno, Th; Balédent, V; Lassalle-Kaiser, B; Rault, J E; Simon, M; Shukla, A

    2015-01-01

    The GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron is dedicated to inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) in the 2.3-12 keV hard X-ray range. These two techniques offer powerful complementary methods of characterization of materials with bulk sensitivity, chemical and orbital selectivity, resonant enhancement and high resolving power. After a description of the beamline components and endstations, the beamline capabilities are demonstrated through a selection of recent works both in the solid and gas phases and using either IXS or HAXPES approaches. Prospects for studies on liquids are discussed.

  14. Toward the development of a soft x-ray reflection imaging microscope in the Schwarzschild configuration using a soft x-ray laser at 18. 2 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dicicco, D.; Rosser, R. ); Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-12-01

    We present the recent results obtained from a soft X-ray reflection imaging microscope in the Schwarzschild configuration. The microscope demonstrated a spatial resolution of 0.7 {mu}m with a magnification of 16 at 18.2 nm. The soft X-ray laser at 18.2 nm was used as an X-ray source. Mo/Si multilayers were coated on the Schwarzschild optics and the normal incidence reflectivity at 18.2 nm per surface was measured to be {approximately} 20 %. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  15. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Misra, Ranjeev; Pawar, Pramod K.

    2016-03-01

    We study X-ray and UV emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 using a 137 ks long and another 13 ks short XMM-Newton observation performed in 2012 and 2001, respectively. Both observations show soft X-ray excess emission contributing 76.9 ± 4.9 per cent in 2012 and 58.8 ± 10.2 per cent in 2001 in the 0.3-2 keV band. We find that both blurred reflection from an ionized disc and Comptonized disc emission describe the observed soft excess well. Time-resolved spectroscopy on scales of ˜20 ks reveals strong correlation between the soft excess and the power-law components. The fractional variability amplitude Fvar derived from EPIC-pn light curves at different energy bands is nearly constant (Fvar ˜ 20 per cent). This is in contrast to other active galactic nuclei where the lack of short term variation in soft X-ray excess emission has been attributed to intense light bending in the framework of the `lamppost' model. Thus, the variations in power-law emission are most likely intrinsic to corona rather than just due to the changes of height of compact corona. The variable UV emission (Fvar ˜ 1 per cent) is uncorrelated to any of the X-ray components on short time-scales suggesting that the UV emission is not dominated by the reprocessed emission. The gradual observed decline in the UV emission in 2012 may be related to the secular decline due to the changes in the accretion rate. In this case, the short term X-ray variability is not due to the changes in the seed photons but intrinsic to the hot corona.

  16. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  17. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at a seeded free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Angela, M.; Hieke, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Sturari, L.; Bajt, S.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Ratanapreechachai, J.; Caretta, A.; Casarin, B.; Glerean, F.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Manzoni, G.; Cilento, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Simoncig, A.; Principi, E.; Masciovecchio, C.; Raimondi, L.; Mahne, N.; Svetina, C.; Zangrando, M.; Passuello, R.; Gaio, G.; Prica, M.; Scarcia, M.; Kourousias, G.; Borghes, R.; Giannessi, L.; Wurth, W.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, we have been witnessing an increased interest for studying materials properties under non-equilibrium conditions. Several well established spectroscopies for experiments in the energy domain have been successfully adapted to the time domain with sub-picosecond time resolution. Here we show the realization of high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) with a stable ultrashort X-ray source such as an externally seeded free electron laser (FEL). We have designed and constructed a RIXS experimental endstation that allowed us to successfully measure the d-d excitations in KCoF3 single crystals at the cobalt M2,3-edge at FERMI FEL (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). The FEL-RIXS spectra show an excellent agreement with the ones obtained from the same samples at the MERIXS endstation of the MERLIN beamline at the Advanced Light Source storage ring (Berkeley, USA). We established experimental protocols for performing time resolved RIXS experiments at a FEL source to avoid X ray-induced sample damage, while retaining comparable acquisition time to the synchrotron based measurements. Finally, we measured and modelled the influence of the FEL mixed electromagnetic modes, also present in externally seeded FELs, and the beam transport with ~120 meV experimental resolution achieved in the presented RIXS setup. PMID:27941842

  19. Extreme ultraviolet resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at a seeded free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell’Angela, M.; Hieke, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Sturari, L.; Bajt, S.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Ratanapreechachai, J.; Caretta, A.; Casarin, B.; Glerean, F.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Manzoni, G.; Cilento, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Simoncig, A.; Principi, E.; Masciovecchio, C.; Raimondi, L.; Mahne, N.; Svetina, C.; Zangrando, M.; Passuello, R.; Gaio, G.; Prica, M.; Scarcia, M.; Kourousias, G.; Borghes, R.; Giannessi, L.; Wurth, W.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-12-01

    In the past few years, we have been witnessing an increased interest for studying materials properties under non-equilibrium conditions. Several well established spectroscopies for experiments in the energy domain have been successfully adapted to the time domain with sub-picosecond time resolution. Here we show the realization of high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) with a stable ultrashort X-ray source such as an externally seeded free electron laser (FEL). We have designed and constructed a RIXS experimental endstation that allowed us to successfully measure the d-d excitations in KCoF3 single crystals at the cobalt M2,3-edge at FERMI FEL (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). The FEL-RIXS spectra show an excellent agreement with the ones obtained from the same samples at the MERIXS endstation of the MERLIN beamline at the Advanced Light Source storage ring (Berkeley, USA). We established experimental protocols for performing time resolved RIXS experiments at a FEL source to avoid X ray-induced sample damage, while retaining comparable acquisition time to the synchrotron based measurements. Finally, we measured and modelled the influence of the FEL mixed electromagnetic modes, also present in externally seeded FELs, and the beam transport with ~120 meV experimental resolution achieved in the presented RIXS setup.

  20. Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Weilun; Fischer, Peter; Tyliszczak, T.; Rekawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-04-24

    Using Fresnel zone plates made with our robust nanofabrication processes, we have successfully achieved 10 nm spatial resolution with soft x-ray microscopy. The result, obtained with both a conventional full-field and scanning soft x-ray microscope, marks a significant step forward in extending the microscopy to truly nanoscale studies.

  1. Soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for X-ray Surveyor and smaller missions with high resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander; Schattenburg, Mark; Kolodziejczak, jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics are addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, e.g. the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the WHIM and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (A > 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance could be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission (A > 4,000 cm2, R > 5,000). CAT gratings combine advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth silicon grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and 30% absolute diffraction efficiency has been acheived with clear paths for further improvement. CAT gratings with sidewalls made of high-Z elements allow extension of blazing to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. X-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and much larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. Measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing optic from GSFC and CAT gratings, taken at the MSFC Stray Light Facility, have demonstrated resolving power > 10,000. Thus currently fabricated CAT gratings are compatible

  2. Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) focus error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anees

    1991-01-01

    The analysis performed on the soft x-ray telescope (SXT) to determine the correct thickness of the spacer to position the CCD camera at the best focus of the telescope and to determine the maximum uncertainty in this focus position due to a number of metrology and experimental errors, and thermal, and humidity effects is presented. This type of analysis has been performed by the SXT prime contractor, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab (LPARL). The SXT project office at MSFC formed an independent team of experts to review the LPARL work, and verify the analysis performed by them. Based on the recommendation of this team, the project office will make a decision if an end to end focus test is required for the SXT prior to launch. The metrology and experimental data, and the spreadsheets provided by LPARL are used at the basis of the analysis presented. The data entries in these spreadsheets have been verified as far as feasible, and the format of the spreadsheets has been improved to make these easier to understand. The results obtained from this analysis are very close to the results obtained by LPARL. However, due to the lack of organized documentation the analysis uncovered a few areas of possibly erroneous metrology data, which may affect the results obtained by this analytical approach.

  3. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, O; Weinhardt, L; Blum, M; Weigand, M; Umbach, E; Bär, M; Heske, C; Denlinger, J; Chuang, Y-D; McKinney, W; Hussain, Z; Gullikson, E; Jones, M; Batson, P; Nelles, B; Follath, R

    2009-06-01

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) microm2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

  5. Observation of soft X-rays from extended sources. [such as Perseus star cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Efforts were directed toward surveying several supernova remnants for the emission of soft X-rays. Rather than attempt to detect such faint X-ray emission, the program was redirected to observe the spectrum and angular structure of the extended X-ray source in the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the super-nova remnant Puppis A. An attempt was made to detect X-ray line emission from Puppis A with a Bragg crystal spectrometer. Observations provide evidence for the presence of X-ray line emission in the spectrum of Puppis A near .65 keV.

  6. Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray--selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Simon L.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT PSPC observations of the X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) in the complete Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EM MS) sample. None of the objects is resolved in their respective PSPC images, but all are easily detected. All BL Lac objects in this sample are well-fitted by single power laws. Their X-ray spectra exhibit a variety of spectral slopes, with best-fit energy power-law spectral indices between α = 0.5-2.3. The PSPC spectra of this sample are slightly steeper than those typical of flat ratio-spectrum quasars. Because almost all of the individual PSPC spectral indices are equal to or slightly steeper than the overall optical to X-ray spectral indices for these same objects, we infer that BL Lac soft X-ray continua are dominated by steep-spectrum synchrotron radiation from a broad X-ray jet, rather than flat-spectrum inverse Compton radiation linked to the narrower radio/millimeter jet. The softness of the X-ray spectra of these XBLs revives the possibility proposed by Guilbert, Fabian, & McCray (1983) that BL Lac objects are lineless because the circumnuclear gas cannot be heated sufficiently to permit two stable gas phases, the cooler of which would comprise the broad emission-line clouds. Because unified schemes predict that hard self-Compton radiation is beamed only into a small solid angle in BL Lac objects, the steep-spectrum synchrotron tail controls the temperature of the circumnuclear gas at r ≤ 1018 cm and prevents broad-line cloud formation. We use these new ROSAT data to recalculate the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of the complete EMSS sample by determining accurate K-corrections for the sample and estimating the effects of variability and the possibility of incompleteness in the sample. Our analysis confirms that XBLs are evolving "negatively," opposite in sense to quasars, with Ve/Va = 0.331±0.060. The statistically significant difference between the values for

  7. Plane-grating flat-field soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, C. F.; Underwood, J. H.; Avila, A.; Delaunay, R.; Ringuenet, H.; Marsi, M.; Sacchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    We describe a soft x-ray spectrometer covering the 120-800 eV range. It is intended for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments performed at third generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and has been developed with SOLEIL, the future French national SR source in mind. The Hettrick-Underwood principle is at the heart of the design using a combination of varied line-spacing plane grating and spherical-mirror to provide a flat-field image. It is slitless for optimum acceptance. This means the source size determines the resolving power. A spot size of ⩽5μm is planned at SOLEIL which, according to simulations, should ensure a resolving power ⩾1000 over the whole energy range. A 1024×1024 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) with a 13μm×13μm pixel size is used. This is an improvement on the use of microchannel-plate detectors, both as concerns efficiency and spatial resolution. Additionally spectral line curvature is avoided by the use of a horizontal focusing mirror concentrating the beam in the nondispersing direction. It allows for readout using a binning mode to reduce the intrinsically large CCD readout noise. Preliminary results taken at beamlines at Elettra (Trieste) and at BESSY (Berlin) are presented.

  8. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  9. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuzbǎian, Sorin G.; Hague, Coryn F.; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Mariot, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 - 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control.

  10. Soft X-ray spectral observations of quasars and high X-ray luminosity Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Krolik, J. H.; Holt, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high X-ray luminosity (L(x) 10 to the 435 power erg/s) quasars and Seyfert type 1 nuclei are presented. The 0.75-4.5 keV spectra are in general well fit by a simple model consisting of a power law plus absorption by cold gas. The averager spectral index alpha is 0.66 + or - .36, consistent with alpha for the spectrum of these objects above 2 keV. In all but one case, no evidence was found for intrinsic absorption, with an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the 21st power/sq cm. Neither was evidence found for partial covering of the active nucleus by dense, cold matter (N(H) 10 to the 22nd power/sq cm; the average upper limit on the partial covering fraction is 0.5. There is no obvious correlation between spectral index and 0175-4.5 keV X-ray luminosity (which ranges from 3 x 10 to the 43rd to 47th powers erg/s or with other source properties. The lack of intrinsic X-ray absorption allows us to place constraints on the density and temperature of the broad-line emission region, and narrow line emission region, and the intergalactic medium.

  11. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  12. Picosecond soft-x-ray pulses from a high-intensity laser-plasma source.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J F; Chaker, M; Kieffer, J C

    1996-07-15

    We report time-resolved spectroscopic analysis of laser-produced plasma x-ray sources. Plasmas produced by a 400-fs 1-TW tabletop laser are characterized with a transmission grating spectrometer coupled to a soft-x-ray streak camera. Soft-x-ray radiation in the 1-6-nm range with durations of 2-7 ps is observed for copper and tantalum plasmas. The effect of incident laser energy on the x-ray pulse duration is also investigated.

  13. The prospects for soft x-ray contact microscopy using laser plasmas as an x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, A.D.; Page, A.M.; Ford, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    Since its invention, a major concern of those using a microscope has been to improve the resolution without the introduction of artifacts. While light microscopy carries little risk of the introduction of artifacts, because the preparative techniques are often minimal, the resolution is somewhat limited. The advent of the electron microscope offered greatly improved resolution but since biological specimens require extensive preparation, the possibility of causing structural damage to the specimen is also increased. The ideal technique for structural studies of biological specimens would enable hydrated material to be examined without any preparation and with a resolution equal to that of electron microscopy. Soft x-ray microscopy certainly enables living material to be examined and whilst the resolution does not equal that of electron microscopy it exceeds that attainable by light microscopy. This paper briefly reviews the limitations of light and electron microscopy for the biologist and considers the various ways that soft x-rays might be used to image hydrated biological material. Consideration is given to the different sources that have been used for soft x-ray microscopy and the relative merits of laser-plasma sources are discussed.

  14. Soft X-ray probes of ultrafast dynamics for heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beye, M.; Föhlisch, A.

    2013-03-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy is one of the best tools to directly address the electronic structure, the driving force of chemical reactions. It enables selective studies on sample surfaces to single out reaction centers in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. With core-hole clock methods, specific dynamics are related to the femtosecond life time of a core-hole. Typically, this method is used with photoemission spectroscopy, but advancements in soft X-ray emission techniques render more specific studies possible. With the advent of bright femtosecond pulsed soft X-ray sources, highly selective pump-probe X-ray emission studies are enabled with temporal resolutions down to tens of femtoseconds. This finally allows to study dynamics in the electronic structure of adsorbed reaction centers on the whole range of relevant time scales - closing the gap between kinetic soft X-ray studies and the atto- to femtosecond core-hole clock techniques.

  15. Inelastic scattering measurements of low energy x-ray photons by organics, soil, water, wood, and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paki Amouzou, P.; Gertsenshteyn, M.; Jannson, T.; Shnitser, P.; Savant, G.

    2006-08-01

    The angular distribution of the inelastic scattering of photons at low energies (<=80 KeV) has been measured in organic material, soil, rocks, wood, steel sheet, and water. The measurements have been performed under air inside an X-ray shield cabinet using X-rays tube as a photon source and a thermoelectrically cooled CdTe detector. Measurements have been taken for both single and combined materials. The contributions of inelastic scattering of photons for the lower Z material in a given configuration have been extracted. The measured signal is primarily Compton scattering. The measured inelastic scattering contributions were compared with the calculated inelastic scattering cross sections according to the Klein-Nishina theory, updated to include a practical energy distribution of an X-ray tube beam. Relatively good agreement was found for all targets under investigation. The slight discrepancy is attributed to photoelectric effect and sample configuration. Present results may act as a guide for optimization of X-ray imaging sensors and in particular of those based on lobster eye X-ray optics suitable for cargo inspection, improvised explosives detection, non-destructive evaluation, and medical imaging.

  16. The SPECIES beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory: a facility for soft X-ray RIXS and APXPS

    PubMed Central

    Urpelainen, Samuli; Såthe, Conny; Grizolli, Walan; Agåker, Marcus; Head, Ashley R.; Andersson, Margit; Huang, Shih-Wen; Jensen, Brian N.; Wallén, Erik; Tarawneh, Hamed; Sankari, Rami; Nyholm, Ralf; Lindberg, Mirjam; Sjöblom, Peter; Johansson, Niclas; Reinecke, Benjamin N.; Arman, M. Alif; Merte, Lindsay R.; Knudsen, Jan; Schnadt, Joachim; Andersen, Jesper N.; Hennies, Franz

    2017-01-01

    SPECIES is an undulator-based soft X-ray beamline that replaced the old I511 beamline at the MAX II storage ring. SPECIES is aimed at high-resolution ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments. The beamline has two branches that use a common elliptically polarizing undulator and monochromator. The beam is switched between the two branches by changing the focusing optics after the monochromator. Both branches have separate exit slits, refocusing optics and dedicated permanent endstations. This allows very fast switching between two types of experiments and offers a unique combination of the surface-sensitive XPS and bulk-sensitive RIXS techniques both in UHV and at elevated ambient-pressure conditions on a single beamline. Another unique property of the beamline is that it reaches energies down to approximately 27 eV, which is not obtainable on other current APXPS beamlines. This allows, for instance, valence band studies under ambient-pressure conditions. In this article the main properties and performance of the beamline are presented, together with selected showcase experiments performed on the new setup. PMID:28009577

  17. The SPECIES beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory: a facility for soft X-ray RIXS and APXPS.

    PubMed

    Urpelainen, Samuli; Såthe, Conny; Grizolli, Walan; Agåker, Marcus; Head, Ashley R; Andersson, Margit; Huang, Shih Wen; Jensen, Brian N; Wallén, Erik; Tarawneh, Hamed; Sankari, Rami; Nyholm, Ralf; Lindberg, Mirjam; Sjöblom, Peter; Johansson, Niclas; Reinecke, Benjamin N; Arman, M Alif; Merte, Lindsay R; Knudsen, Jan; Schnadt, Joachim; Andersen, Jesper N; Hennies, Franz

    2017-01-01

    SPECIES is an undulator-based soft X-ray beamline that replaced the old I511 beamline at the MAX II storage ring. SPECIES is aimed at high-resolution ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments. The beamline has two branches that use a common elliptically polarizing undulator and monochromator. The beam is switched between the two branches by changing the focusing optics after the monochromator. Both branches have separate exit slits, refocusing optics and dedicated permanent endstations. This allows very fast switching between two types of experiments and offers a unique combination of the surface-sensitive XPS and bulk-sensitive RIXS techniques both in UHV and at elevated ambient-pressure conditions on a single beamline. Another unique property of the beamline is that it reaches energies down to approximately 27 eV, which is not obtainable on other current APXPS beamlines. This allows, for instance, valence band studies under ambient-pressure conditions. In this article the main properties and performance of the beamline are presented, together with selected showcase experiments performed on the new setup.

  18. Soft x-ray detection with diamond photoconductive detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, D.R.; Pan, L.; Kornblum, H.; Bell, P.; Landen, O.N.; Pianetta, P.

    1990-05-04

    Photoconductive detectors fabricated from natural lla diamonds have been used to measure the x-ray power emitted from laser produced plasmas. The detector was operated without any absorbing filters to distort the x-ray power measurement. The 5.5 eV bandgap of the detector material practically eliminates its sensitivity to scattered laser radiation thus permitting filterless operation. The detector response time or carrier life time was 90 ps. Excellent agreement was achieved between a diamond PCD and a multichannel photoemissive diode array in the measurement of radiated x-ray power and energy. 4 figs.

  19. Deconstructing the Spectrum of the Soft X-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    The soft X-ray background in the 0.1-1.0 keV band is known to be produced by at least three sources; the Local Hot Bubble (LHB), the extragalactic power law (EPL), and a seemingly galactic component that lies outside the bulk of the absorption that is due to the ISM of the galactic disk. This last component, which we call the Trans-Absorption Emission (TAE), has been modeled by a number of groups who have derived disparate measures of its temperature. The differences have arisen from differing assumptions about the structure of the emitting gas and unrecognized methodological difficulties. In particular, spectral fitting methods do not uniquely separate the TAE from the foreground emission that is due the LHB. This "degeneracy" can be resolved using the angular variation of the absorption of the TAE. We show that the TAE cannot be characterized by a single thermal component; no single-component model can be consistent with both the spectral energy distribution of the TAE emission and the angular variation due to absorption by the galactic disk. We use the angular anticorrelation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with the galactic absorption to separate local from distant emission components, and to fit the spectral energy distribution of the resulting distant emission. We find that the emission is best described by a two-thermal-component model with logT(sub S) = 6.06(sup +0.14, sub -0.12) and log T(sub H) = 6.42(sup +0.14, sub -0.12). This two-thermal-component TAE fits the ROSAT spectral energy distribution significantly better than single-component models, and is consistent with both angular variation and spectral constraints.

  20. Measurement of collective excitations in VO2 by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    He, Haowei; Gray, A. X.; Granitzka, P.; ...

    2016-10-15

    Vanadium dioxide is of broad interest as a spin-1/2 electron system that realizes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature, due to a combination of strongly correlated and itinerant electron physics. Here, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering is used to measure the excitation spectrum of charge and spin degrees of freedom at the vanadium L edge under different polarization and temperature conditions, revealing excitations that differ greatly from those seen in optical measurements. Furthermore, these spectra encode the evolution of short-range energetics across the metal-insulator transition, including the low-temperature appearance of a strong candidate for the singlet-triplet excitation of a vanadium dimer.

  1. Some notes on data analysis for nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Michael Y.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS) is a spectroscopy method to study atomic vibrations and dynamics, currently done with synchrotron radiation at a few high energy third generation facilities. It finds a wide range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, biophysics, geosciences, and high-pressure researches. Many atomic dynamics and lattice thermodynamics information can be derived from NRIXS measurements. Phonon Density of States (DOS) characterizes lattice dynamics of a material and can be derived under the quasi-harmonic approximation. Combined with modeling and simulations, results from NRIXS can provide unique and clarifying insights into many fields of research. As for a spectroscopic technique, in order to be able to provide reliable information, close attention should be paid to many issues during experiments and data analysis afterwards. Here we discuss several issues relevant to its data analysis, namely, those of multiple sites, background treatments, and error estimates for some derived quantities.

  2. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; ...

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the lowmore » temperature phase.« less

  3. Collective Nature of Spin Excitations in Superconducting Cuprates Probed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Gretarsson, H.; Peng, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Porras, J.; Loew, T.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Huang, Y. B.; Pelliciari, J.; Schmitt, T.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Keimer, B.; Braicovich, L.; Le Tacon, M.

    2015-05-01

    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) with and without analysis of the scattered photon polarization, to study dispersive spin excitations in the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6 +x over a wide range of doping levels (0.1 ≤x ≤1 ). The excitation profiles were carefully monitored as the incident photon energy was detuned from the resonant condition, and the spin excitation energy was found to be independent of detuning for all x . These findings demonstrate that the largest fraction of the spin-flip RIXS profiles in doped cuprates arises from magnetic collective modes, rather than from incoherent particle-hole excitations as recently suggested theoretically [Benjamin et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247002 (2014)]. Implications for the theoretical description of the electron system in the cuprates are discussed.

  4. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-01

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k ) ˜2000 W m-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ˜200 W m-1K-1 . To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single-crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k . This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very-high-quality single-crystal samples can be synthesized.

  5. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; ...

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the mainmore » reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.« less

  6. Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at high pressure and low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Lin, Jung-Fu; Jia, Quanjie; Hu, Michael Y.; Jin, Changqing; Ferry, Richard; Yang, Wenge; Struzhkin, Viktor; Alp, E. Ercan

    2015-01-01

    A new synchrotron radiation experimental capability of coupling nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with the cryogenically cooled high-pressure diamond anvil cell technique is presented. The new technique permits measurements of phonon density of states at low temperature and high pressure simultaneously, and can be applied to studies of phonon contribution to pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic, superconducting and metal–insulator transitions in resonant isotope-bearing materials. In this report, a pnictide sample, EuFe2As2, is used as an example to demonstrate this new capability at beamline 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A detailed description of the technical development is given. The Fe-specific phonon density of states and magnetism from the Fe sublattice in Eu57Fe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature were derived by using this new capability. PMID:25931094

  7. Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at high pressure and low temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Lin, Jung -Fu; ...

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new synchrotron radiation experimental capability of coupling nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with the cryogenically cooled high-pressure diamond anvil cell technique is presented. The new technique permits measurements of phonon density of states at low temperature and high pressure simultaneously, and can be applied to studies of phonon contribution to pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic, superconducting and metal–insulator transitions in resonant isotope-bearing materials. In this report, a pnictide sample, EuFe2As2, is used as an example to demonstrate this new capability at beamline 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A detailed description of the technicalmore » development is given. The Fe-specific phonon density of states and magnetism from the Fe sublattice in Eu57Fe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature were derived by using this new capability.« less

  8. Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at high pressure and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Lin, Jung-Fu; Jia, Quanjie; Hu, Michael Y; Jin, Changqing; Ferry, Richard; Yang, Wenge; Struzhkin, Viktor; Alp, E Ercan

    2015-05-01

    A new synchrotron radiation experimental capability of coupling nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with the cryogenically cooled high-pressure diamond anvil cell technique is presented. The new technique permits measurements of phonon density of states at low temperature and high pressure simultaneously, and can be applied to studies of phonon contribution to pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic, superconducting and metal-insulator transitions in resonant isotope-bearing materials. In this report, a pnictide sample, EuFe2As2, is used as an example to demonstrate this new capability at beamline 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A detailed description of the technical development is given. The Fe-specific phonon density of states and magnetism from the Fe sublattice in Eu(57)Fe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature were derived by using this new capability.

  9. Boron arsenide phonon dispersion from inelastic x-ray scattering: Potential for ultrahigh thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-12-14

    Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.

  10. Structural and microscopic relaxations in glycerol: An inelastic x-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Leu, B. M.; Said, A. H.; Cai, Y. Q.

    2011-05-10

    The THz dynamics of liquid glycerol has been probed by inelastic x-ray scattering at different pressure spanning the 0.66-3 Kbar range. A comparison with ultrasound absorption results available in literature leads us to identify the presence of two different relaxations, a structural (slow) relaxation and a microscopic (fast) one. Although the former has been already thoroughly studied in glycerol by lower frequency spectroscopic techniques, no hints on the latter are so far available in literature. We observe that the characteristic timescale of this fast relaxation ranges in the sub-picosecond, tends to decrease with increasing the wave-vector and seems rather insensitive to pressure changes. Finally, the timescale and strength of the fast relaxation have a direct link revealing the microscopic, single particle, nature of the involved process.

  11. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy-imaging fast spin dynamics inmagnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Mesler, Brooke L.; Chao, Weilun; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; Anderson, Erik H.

    2007-06-01

    Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy combines 15nm spatial resolution with 70ps time resolution and elemental sensitivity. Fresnel zone plates are used as X-ray optics and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism serves as magnetic contrast mechanism. Thus scientifically interesting and technologically relevant low dimensional nanomagnetic systems can be imaged at fundamental length and ultrafast time scales in a unique way. Studies include magnetization reversal in magnetic multilayers, nanopatterned systems, vortex dynamics in nanoelements and spin current induced phenomena.

  12. Partially coherent wavefront propagation simulations for inelastic x-ray scattering beamline including crystal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorov, Alexey; Cai, Yong Q.; Sutter, John P.; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    Up to now simulation of perfect crystal optics in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) wave-optics computer code was not available, thus hindering the accurate modelling of synchrotron radiation beamlines containing optical components with multiple-crystal arrangements, such as double-crystal monochromators and high-energy-resolution monochromators. A new module has been developed for SRW for calculating dynamical diffraction from a perfect crystal in the Bragg case. We demonstrate its successful application to the modelling of partially-coherent undulator radiation propagating through the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The IXS beamline contains a double-crystal and a multiple-crystal highenergy- resolution monochromator, as well as complex optics such as compound refractive lenses and Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for the X-ray beam transport and shaping, which makes it an excellent case for benchmarking the new functionalities of the updated SRW codes. As a photon-hungry experimental technique, this case study for the IXS beamline is particularly valuable as it provides an accurate evaluation of the photon flux at the sample position, using the most advanced simulation methods and taking into account parameters of the electron beam, details of undulator source, and the crystal optics.

  13. Tunable thin film polarizer for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Minghong; Cobet, Christoph; Esser, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    A low pass polarizer that suppresses higher-order diffraction light from vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray monochromators is presented in this paper. This vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray polarizer is based on a concept of sandwiched metal-dielectric-metal triple reflection configuration. By appropriate optimization of material and angle of incidence, the proposed Au-SiC-Au polarizer demonstrates the capability of matching to desired cutoff edge of photon energy. Furthermore, the optimized soft x-ray polarizer shows the possibility to tune cutoff photon energy in a broadband spectral region ranging from 80 down to down to 20 eV.

  14. Soft X-Ray Emission from Alexandrite Laser-Matter-Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-15

    34AD-A267 905 NRL/MR/6681--93-7359 Soft X-ray Emission from Alexandrite Laser-Matter-Interaction P. G. BURKHALTER Dvnamit s of Solids Branch Condensed...Soft X-ray Emission from Alexandrite Laser-Matter-Interaction 6. AUTHOR(S) P.G. Burkhalter, D.J. Harter*, E.F. Gabl**, P. Bado**, and D.A. Newman*** 7...Proscribed by ANSI Std 230-13 290-102 SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM ALEXANDRITE LASER-MATTER-INTERACTION Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced 5

  15. High-average-power water window soft X-rays from an Ar laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Sho

    2016-07-01

    A high average power of 140 mW and high conversion efficiency of 14% were demonstrated in “water window” soft X-rays generated using a laser plasma source developed in-house, when a solid Ar target was irradiated by a commercial Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with an energy of 1 J at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This soft X-ray power compared favorably with that produced using a synchrotron radiation source, and the developed laser plasma source can be used in various applications, such as soft X-ray microscopy, in place of synchrotron facilities.

  16. Energetics and timing of the hard and soft X-ray emissions in white light flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1993-01-01

    By comparing the light curves in optical, hard X-ray, and soft X-ray wavelengths for eight well-observed flares, we confirm previous results indicating that the white light flare (WLF) is associated with the flare impulsive phase. The WLF emission peaks within seconds after the associated hard X-ray peak, and nearly two minutes before the 1-8 A soft X-ray peak. It is further shown that the peak power in nonthermal electrons above 50 keV is typically an order of magnitude larger, and the power in 1-8 A soft X-rays radiated over 2pi sr, at the time of the WLF peak, is an order of magnitude smaller than the peak WLF power.

  17. Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures with polarized soft x-ray photons

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.

    2010-01-18

    Imaging nanoscale magnetic structures and their fast dynamics is scientifically interesting and technologically of highest relevance. The combination of circularly polarized soft X-ray photons which provide a strong X-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect at characteristic X-ray absorption edges, with a high resolution soft X-ray microscope utilizing Fresnel zone plate optics allows to study in a unique way the stochastical behavior in the magnetization reversal process of thin films and the ultrafast dynamics of magnetic vortices and domain walls in confined ferromagnetic structures. Future sources of fsec short and high intense soft X-ray photon pulses hold the promise of magnetic imaging down to fundamental magnetic length and time scales.

  18. A CATALOG OF SOLAR X-RAY PLASMA EJECTIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOFT X-RAY TELESCOPE ON BOARD YOHKOH

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, M.; Chmielewska, E. E-mail: chmielewska@astro.uni.wroc.pl

    2012-03-01

    A catalog of X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite has been recently developed in the Astronomical Institute of University of Wroclaw. The catalog contains records of 368 events observed in years 1991-2001 including movies and cross-references to associated events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One hundred sixty-three XPEs out of 368 in the catalog were not reported until now. A new classification scheme of XPEs is proposed in which morphology, kinematics, and recurrence are considered. The relation between individual subclasses of XPEs and the associated events was investigated. The results confirm that XPEs are strongly inhomogeneous, responding to different processes that occur in the solar corona. A subclass of erupting loop-like XPEs is a promising candidate to be a high-temperature precursor of CMEs.

  19. X-ray Imaging of Mucilaginous Sheath of Phytoplankton in Lake Biwa by Soft X-ray Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, K.; Ichise, S.; Ohigashi, T.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2011-09-01

    In Lake Biwa, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) index is increasing in spite of a decrease in the values of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) index. Picophytoplankton with a mucilaginous sheath is considered an important source of non-biodegradable organic compounds. In order to elucidate the mechanism, x-ray images of planktons inhabiting Lake Biwa were taken. The laboratory-cultured phytoplanktons with sheaths—Synechoccoucs, Microcystis wesenbergii, and Phormidium tenue—were observed by the soft x-ray microscope (BL12) of the Ritsumeikan University SR Center. Synechoccoucs cells were successfully observed with high contrast, and the mucilaginous sheath around the cell was also observed. However, although P. tenu cells were successfully observed with high contrast, it was impossible to confirm the mucilaginous sheath around the cell.

  20. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; ...

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  1. Imaging cochlear soft tissue displacement with coherent x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Christoph; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-10-01

    At present, imaging of cochlear mechanics at mid-cochlear turns has not been accomplished. Although challenging, this appears possible with partially coherent hard x-rays. The present study shows results from stroboscopic x-ray imaging of a test object at audio frequencies. The vibration amplitudes were quantified. In a different set of experiments, an intact and calcified gerbil temporal bone was used to determine displacements of the reticular lamina, tectorial membrane, and Reissner’s membrane with the Lucas and Kanade video flow algorithm. The experiments validated high frequency x-ray imaging and imaging in a calcified cochlea. The present work is key for future imaging of cochlear micromechanics at a high spatial resolution.

  2. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; Sayre, D.

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  3. Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

    2009-05-01

    A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

  4. A von Hamos x-ray spectrometer based on a segmented-type diffraction crystal for single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy and time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Szlachetko, J; Nachtegaal, M; de Boni, E; Willimann, M; Safonova, O; Sa, J; Smolentsev, G; Szlachetko, M; van Bokhoven, J A; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Kayser, Y; Jagodzinski, P; Bergamaschi, A; Schmitt, B; David, C; Lücke, A

    2012-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of a wavelength-dispersive type spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry. The spectrometer is equipped with a segmented-type crystal for x-ray diffraction and provides an energy resolution in the order of 0.25 eV and 1 eV over an energy range of 8000 eV-9600 eV. The use of a segmented crystal results in a simple and straightforward crystal preparation that allows to preserve the spectrometer resolution and spectrometer efficiency. Application of the spectrometer for time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy is demonstrated.

  5. Investigation of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition of chemical solution deposited Pb(Zr30Ti70)O3 thin films by soft x-ray absorption and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, T.; Schneller, T.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Waser, R.; Guo, J.; Denlinger, J.; Learmonth, T.; Glans, Per-Andres; Smith, K. E.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical solution deposited (CSD) complex oxide thin films attract considerable interest in various emerging fields as for example, fuel cells, ferroelectric random access memories or coated conductors. In the present paper the results of soft-x-ray spectroscopy between 100 eV and 500 eV on the amorphous to crystalline phase transition of ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films are presented. Five CSD samples derived from the same wafer coated with a PZT film pyrolyzed at 350 C were heat treated at different temperatures between 400 C and 700 C. At first the sample were morphologically and electrically characterized. Subsequently the soft-x-ray absorption and emission experiments were performed at the undulator beamline 8.0 of the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Soft-x-ray absorption spectra were acquired for the Ti L{sub 2,3-}, O K-, and C K-edge thresholds by using simultaneously the total electron yield (TEY) and total fluorescence yield (TFY) detection methods. For two samples, annealed at 400 C and 700 C, respectively, the resonant inelastic soft-x-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) was applied for various excitation energies near the Ti L-, O K-edges. We observed clear evidence of a rutile phase at untypically low temperatures. This rutile phase transforms into the perovskite phase upon increasing annealing temperature. These results are discussed in the framework of current microscopic models of the PZT (111) texture selection.

  6. Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Kando, M.; Kotaki, H.; Daito, I.; Ma, J.; Chen, L. M.; Homma, T.; Kawase, K.; Kameshima, T.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.; Kato, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-03-01

    The intense soft x-ray light source using the supersonic expansion of the mixed gas of He and CO2, when irradiated by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse, is observed to enhance the radiation of soft x-rays from the CO2 clusters. Using this soft x-ray emissions, nanostructure images of 100-nm-thick Mo foils in a wide field of view (mm2 scale) with high spatial resolution (800nm ) are obtained with high dynamic range LiF crystal detectors. The local inhomogeneities of soft x-ray absorption by the nanometer-thick foils is measured with an accuracy of less than ±3%.

  7. Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Kotaki, H.; Daito, I.; Ma, J.; Chen, L. M.; Homma, T.; Kawase, K.; Kameshima, T.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.; Kato, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.

    2008-03-24

    The intense soft x-ray light source using the supersonic expansion of the mixed gas of He and CO{sub 2}, when irradiated by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse, is observed to enhance the radiation of soft x-rays from the CO{sub 2} clusters. Using this soft x-ray emissions, nanostructure images of 100-nm-thick Mo foils in a wide field of view (mm{sup 2} scale) with high spatial resolution (800 nm) are obtained with high dynamic range LiF crystal detectors. The local inhomogeneities of soft x-ray absorption by the nanometer-thick foils is measured with an accuracy of less than {+-}3%.

  8. Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Emily A; Paul, Ariel; Wagner, Nick; Tobey, Ra'anan; Gaudiosi, David; Backus, Sterling; Christov, Ivan P; Aquila, Andy; Gullikson, Eric M; Attwood, David T; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2003-10-03

    We demonstrate enhanced generation of coherent light in the "water window" region of the soft x-ray spectrum at 4.4 nanometers, using quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion of ultrafast laser pulses. By periodically modulating the diameter of a gas-filled hollow waveguide, the phase mismatch normally present between the laser light and the generated soft x-ray light can be partially compensated. This makes it possible to use neon gas as the nonlinear medium to coherently convert light up to the water window, illustrating that techniques of nonlinear optics can be applied effectively in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum. These results advance the prospects for compact coherent soft x-ray sources for applications in biomicroscopy and in chemical spectroscopy.

  9. Enhanced soft X-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G. W.; Barstow, M. A.; Whiteley, M. J.; Wells, A.

    1982-12-01

    Although the microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers used in X-ray astronomy facilitate X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, their intrinsic soft X-ray detection efficiencies of 1-10 percent are much lower than the near-unity values available with competing gas proportional counters. A high photoelectric yield material may be deposited on the MCP front surface and channel walls in order to enhance X-ray sensitivity at energies below a few keV. High 0.18-1.5 keV X-ray detection efficiencies are reported for MCPs bearing CsI deposition photocathodes, by which efficiency enhancement factors of up to 15 have been obtained. These results are especially pertinent to the sensitivity of such future X-ray astronomy experiments as the Roentgensatellit (Rosat) Wide Field Camera.

  10. Soft X-ray astronomy using grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumental background of X-ray astronomy with an emphasis on high resolution imagery is outlined. Optical and system performance, in terms of resolution, are compared and methods for improving the latter in finite length instruments described. The method of analysis of broadband images to obtain diagnostic information is described and is applied to the analysis of coronal structures.

  11. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  12. The possible effect of solar soft X rays on thermospheric nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siskind, D. E.; Barth, C. A.; Cleary, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    A rocket observation of nitric oxide in the lower thermosphere during a time of high solar activity is compared to the results of calculations from a one-dimensional photochemical model. A solar soft X-ray flux of 0.75 erg/sq cm/s is needed to explain the observed NO densities. This result supports the theory that the variation in the low-latitude thermospheric NO is caused by variation in solar soft X-rays.

  13. The X-ray eclipse geometry of the super-soft X-ray source CAL 87

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, T.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.

    2014-09-01

    We explore XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing super-soft X-ray source CAL 87 in order to map the accretion structures of the system. Indirect imaging techniques were applied in X-ray light curves to provide eclipse maps. The surface brightness distribution exhibits an extended and symmetric emission, and a feature is revealed from the hardest X-rays that is likely due to a bright spot. A rate of P-dot =(+6±2)×10{sup −10} for changes in the orbital period of the system was derived from the eclipses. There is no significant variation of the emission lines even during eclipses, arguing that the lines are formed in an extended region. The continuum emission dominates the decrease in flux that is observed during eclipses. The O VIII Lyα line reveals a broadening velocity that is estimated to be 365{sub −69}{sup +65} km s{sup –1} (at 1σ), marginal evidence for asymmetry in its profile, and sometimes shows evidence of double-peaked emission. Together, the results support that the wind-driven mass transfer scenario is running in CAL 87.

  14. The energy spectrum of anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trümper, J. E.; Zezas, A.; Ertan, Ü.; Kylafis, N. D.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) exhibit characteristic X-ray luminosities (both soft and hard) of around 1035 erg s-1 and characteristic power-law, hard X-ray spectra extending to about 200 keV. Two AXPs also exhibit pulsed radio emission. Aims: Assuming that AXPs and SGRs accrete matter from a fallback disk, we attempt to explain both the soft and the hard X-ray emission as the result of the accretion process. We also attempt to explain their radio emission or the lack of it. Methods: We test the hypothesis that the power-law, hard X-ray spectra are produced in the accretion flow mainly by bulk-motion Comptonization of soft photons emitted at the neutron star surface. Fallback disk models invoke surface dipole magnetic fields of 1012 - 1013 G, which is what we assume here. Results: Unlike normal X-ray pulsars, for which the accretion rate is highly super-Eddington, the accretion rate is approximately Eddington in AXPs and SGRs and thus the bulk-motion Comptonization operates efficiently. As an illustrative example we reproduce both the hard and the soft X-ray spectra of AXP 4U 0142+61 well using the XSPEC package compTB. Conclusions: Our model seems to explain both the hard and the soft X-ray spectra of AXPs and SGRs, as well as their radio emission or the lack of it, in a natural way. It might also explain the short bursts observed in these sources. On the other hand, it cannot explain the giant X-ray outbursts observed in SGRs, which may result from the conversion of magnetic energy in local multipole fields.

  15. A hard X-ray view of the soft excess in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissay, Rozenn; Ricci, Claudio; Paltani, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    An excess of X-ray emission below 1 keV, called soft excess, is detected in a large fraction of Seyfert 1-1.5s. The origin of this feature remains debated, as several models have been suggested to explain it, including warm Comptonization and blurred ionized reflection. In order to constrain the origin of this component, we exploit the different behaviors of these models above 10 keV. Ionized reflection covers a broad energy range, from the soft X-rays to the hard X-rays, while Comptonization drops very quickly in the soft X-rays. We present here the results of a study done on 102 Seyfert 1s (Sy 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and NLSy1) from the Swift BAT 70-Month Hard X-ray Survey catalog. The joint spectral analysis of Swift/BAT and XMM-Newton data allows a hard X-ray view of the soft excess that is present in about 80% of the objects of our sample. We discuss how the soft-excess strength is linked to the reflection at high energy, to the photon index of the primary continuum and to the Eddington ratio. In particular, we find a positive dependence of the soft excess intensity on the Eddington ratio. We compare our results to simulations of blurred ionized-reflection models and show that they are in contradiction. By stacking both XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT spectra per soft-excess strength, we see that the shape of reflection at hard X-rays stays constant when the soft excess varies, showing an absence of link between reflection and soft excess. We conclude that the ionized-reflection model as the origin of the soft excess is disadvantaged in favor of the warm Comptonization model in our sample of Seyfert 1s.

  16. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    PubMed

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  17. Ground Laboratory Soft X-Ray Durability Evaluation of Aluminized Teflon FEP Thermal Control Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    Metallized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) thermal control insulation is mechanically degraded if exposed to a sufficient fluence of soft x-ray radiation. Soft x-ray photons (4-8 A in wavelength or 1.55 - 3.2 keV) emitted during solar flares have been proposed as a cause of mechanical properties degradation of aluminized Teflon FEP thermal control insulation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such degradation can be characterized by a reduction in elongation-to-failure of the Teflon FER Ground laboratory soft x-ray exposure tests of aluminized Teflon FEP were conducted to assess the degree of elongation degradation which would occur as a result of exposure to soft x-rays in the range of 3-10 keV. Tests results indicate that soft x-ray exposure in the 3-10 keV range, at mission fluence levels, does not alone cause the observed reduction in elongation of flight retrieved samples. The soft x-ray exposure facility design, mechanical properties degradation results and implications will be presented.

  18. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  19. Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Richard L; Paul, Ariel; Raymondson, Daisy A; Hädrich, Steffen; Gaudiosi, David M; Holtsnider, Jim; Tobey, Ra'anan I; Cohen, Oren; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Song, Changyong; Miao, Jianwei; Liu, Yanwei; Salmassi, Farhad

    2007-08-31

    We present the first experimental demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging using coherent soft x rays generated by a tabletop soft-x-ray source. A 29 nm high harmonic beam illuminates an object, and the subsequent diffraction is collected on an x-ray CCD camera. High dynamic range diffraction patterns are obtained by taking multiple exposures while blocking small-angle diffraction using beam blocks of varying size. These patterns reconstruct to images with 214 nm resolution. This work demonstrates a practical tabletop lensless microscope that promises to find applications in materials science, nanoscience, and biology.

  20. The Soft X-ray Telescope for Solar-A - Design evolution and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A satellite mission's Soft X-ray Telescope uses grazing-incidence optics, a CCD detector, and a pair of filter wheels for wavelength selection. A coaxially-mounted visible-light lens furnished sunspot and magnetic plage images, together with aspect information which aids in aligning the soft X-ray images with those from the satellite's Hard X-ray Telescope. Instrument electronics are microprocessor-based, and imbedded in a tightly integrated distributed system. Control software is divided between the instrument microprocessor and the spacecraft control computer.

  1. Progress in compact soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ultra-high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. A crucial factor in the availability of these devices is their scale and cost. Recent breakthroughs in this field has brought closer the advent of table-top devices, suitable for applications to fields such as x-ray microscopy, chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography. In this article we review recent progress in the development of compact (table-top) soft x-ray lasers.

  2. Electronic structure of Lu1-xLaxVO3 single crystals using soft x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Laverock, Jude; McNulty, James; Newby, Dave; Smith, Kevin; Glans, Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Singh, Ravi

    2012-02-01

    The rare-earth vanadates, RVO3, offer a rich phase diagram of both orbital and spin ordering phenomena, stemming from their two-fold occupation of the three-fold degenerate V t2g orbitals. It has been discussed that, in RVO3, which shows the t2g orbital ordering, the Jahn-Teller coupling suppression is much weaker than that in the eg electron systems. In order to address the orbital ordering effects, we report soft x-ray measurements of Lu1-xLaxVO3 single crystals, which approach both the smallest and largest rare-earth ionic sizes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray emission spectroscopy, which reveal both the unoccupied and occupied partial density of states, are employed to observe the changes in the V 3d and O 2p states, across the orbital ordering transitions and R-site ionic radii. Also, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering is applied to probe the O 2p-V 3d* charge transfer excitations and V 3d-3d* transitions. Together, these complementary techniques provide a picture of the electronic structure of Lu1-xLaxVO3 to test the role of the orbital ordering during phase transitions with varying rare-earth ionic sizes.

  3. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. |; Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  4. Time-resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on photo-induced phase transitions using a tabletop soft-x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Moré, R.; Norpoth, J.; Techert, S.; Jooss, C.; Mann, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    We present a table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer for the wavelength range λ = 1-5 nm based on a stable laser-driven x-ray source, making use of a gas-puff target. With this setup, optical light-pump/soft-x-ray probe near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments with a temporal resolution of about 230 ps are feasible. Pump-probe NEXAFS measurements were carried out in the "water-window" region (2.28 nm-4.36 nm) on the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, investigating diminutive changes of the oxygen K edge that derive from an optically induced phase transition. The results show the practicability of the table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer on demanding investigations so far exclusively conducted at synchrotron radiation sources.

  5. Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

    2010-05-12

    A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

  6. OSO-8 soft X-ray experiment (Wisconsin)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information for operating and reducing data from the experiment which was designed to map low energy X-ray background emissions from 130 eV to 35 keV is presented. The detectors, counters, data system, and the gas system are discussed along with the functional operation of the subsystems. A command list indicating preconditions and resulting telemetry response for each command is included.

  7. Emission Angles for Soft X-Ray Coherent Transition Radiation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    possible sources of error are cited. Acceso ;i For NTIS CRA&I i IC TAB L AW 4i 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION...addition of radiation from multiple foil stacks and the use of transition radiation as a particle beam detector [Ref. 2:p. 3594). E Use of transition...radiation to measure the energy of * electrons in early studies was restricted by the absorption of the x-rays by multiple dielectric foil stacks. The high 7

  8. Design considerations for soft X-ray television imaging detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalata, Kenneth; Golub, Leon

    1988-01-01

    Television sensors for X-rays can be coupled to converters and image intensifiers to obtain active areas, high flux capabilities, quantum efficiency, high time resolution, or ease of construction and operation that may not be obtained with a directly illuminated sensor. A general purpose system which makes use of these capabilities for a number of applications is decribed. Some of the performance characteristics of this type of system are examined, and the expected future developments for such systems are briefly addressed.

  9. Bond cleavages of adenosine 5'-triphosphate induced by monochromatic soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Narita, A.; Yokoya, A.

    2014-04-01

    To investigate which type of bond is likely to be cleaved by soft X-ray exposure to an adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), we observed spectral changes in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) around nitrogen and oxygen K-edge of an ATP film by soft X-ray irradiation. Experiments were performed at a synchrotron soft X-ray beamline at SPring-8, Japan. The XANES spectra around the nitrogen and oxygen .K-edge slightly varied by exposure to 560 eV soft X-rays. These changes are originated from the cleavage of C-N bonds between a sugar and a nucleobase site and of C-O, P-O or O-H bond of sugar and phosphate site. From the comparison between the change in XANES intensity of σ* peak at nitrogen and that at oxygen K-edges, it is inferred that the C-O, P-O or O-H bond of sugar and phosphate is much efficiently cleaved than the C-N of N-glycoside bond by the exposure of 560 eV soft X-ray to ATP film.

  10. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-01

    We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. This will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  11. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; ...

    2016-11-10

    Here we present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction formore » the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. Lastly, this will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.« less

  12. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-10

    Here we present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. Lastly, this will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  13. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm−1 spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm−1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s−1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS. PMID:26917127

  14. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm(-1) spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm(-1) are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10(12) photons s(-1) in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  15. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  16. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; ...

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seedingmore » and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.« less

  17. Correlative Analysis of hard and Soft X-rays in Solar Flares using CGRO/BATSE and YOHKOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarro, Dominic M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study different mechanisms of solar flare heating by comparing their predictions with simultaneous hard and soft X-ray observations. The datasets used in this work consist of hard X-ray observations from the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and Soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on the Japanese Yohkoh spacecraft.

  18. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering as a probe of band structure effects in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanász-Nagy, M.; Shi, Y.; Klich, I.; Demler, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze within quasiparticle theory a recent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiment on YBa2Cu3O6+x with the incoming photon energy detuned at several values from the resonance maximum [Minola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 217003 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.217003]. Surprisingly, the data show a much weaker dependence on detuning than expected from recent measurements on a different cuprate superconductor, Bi2Sr2CuO6+x [Guarise et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5760 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms6760]. We demonstrate here that this discrepancy, originally attributed to collective magnetic excitations, can be understood in terms of the differences between the band structures of these materials. We find good agreement between theory and experiment over a large range of dopings, both in the underdoped and overdoped regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the RIXS signal depends sensitively on excitations at energies well above the Fermi surface that are inaccessible to traditionally used band structure probes, such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This makes RIXS a powerful probe of band structure, not suffering from surface preparation problems and small sample sizes, making it potentially applicable to a number of cuprate materials.

  19. Signatures of strong correlation effects in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies on cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wan-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Ju; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    2016-08-01

    Recently, spin excitations in doped cuprates have been measured using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The paramagnon dispersions show the large hardening effect in the electron-doped systems and seemingly doping independence in the hole-doped systems, with the energy scales comparable to that of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) magnons. This anomalous hardening effect and the lack of softening were partially explained by using the strong-coupling t -J model but with a three-site term [Nat. Commun. 5, 3314 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4314], although the hardening effect is already present even without the latter. By considering the t -t'-t''-J model and using the slave-boson mean-field theory, we obtain, via the spin-spin susceptibility, the spin excitations in qualitative agreement with the experiments. The doping-dependent bandwidth due to the strong correlation physics is the origin of the hardening effect. We also show that dispersions in the AFM regime, different from those in the paramagnetic (PM) regime, hardly vary with dopant density. These excitations are mainly collective in nature instead of particle-hole-like. We further discuss the interplay and different contributions of these two kinds of excitations in the PM phase and show that the dominance of the collective excitation increases with decreasing dopant concentrations.

  20. Structural and dynamical properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons studied with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Bohinc, R; Žitnik, M; Bučar, K; Kavčič, M; Carniato, S; Journel, L; Guillemin, R; Marchenko, T; Kawerk, E; Simon, M; Cao, W

    2016-04-07

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on a large group of chlorinated hydrocarbons: CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3CH2Cl, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH3CHCl2, CH3CCl3, C2H2Cl2-iso, C2H2Cl2-cis, C2H2Cl2-trans, and C6H5Cl. Differences in structural and dynamical properties of the molecules generated by diverse chemical environments are observed in the measured Cl(K(α)) spectral maps as well as in the Cl(K) total fluorescence yield spectra. The energy position, relative intensity, and the width of the Franck-Condon distribution of low-lying σ* and π* resonances are extracted by a fitting procedure taking into account the experimental broadening. The theoretical values obtained with the transition potential and Δ Kohn-Sham methods are in good agreement with the experimental parameters indicating subtle differences due to variations in the molecular structure.

  1. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Wu, W. B.; Okamoto, J.; Lee, W. S.; Hashimoto, M.; He, Y.; Shen, Z. X.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Mou, C. Y.; Chen, C. T.; Huang, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors. PMID:26794437

  2. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering as a band structure probe of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanasz-Nagy, Marton; Shi, Yifei; Klich, Israel; Demler, Eugene

    I will analyze recent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experimental data on YBa2Cu3O6 + x [Minola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 217003 (2015)] within quasi-particle theory. This measurement has been performed with the incoming photon energy detuned at several values from the resonance maximum, and, surprisingly, the data shows much weaker dependence on detuning than expected from recent measurements on a different cuprate superconductor, Bi2Sr2CuO6 + x [Guarise et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5760 (2014)]. I will demonstrate, that this discrepancy, originally attributed to collective magnetic excitations, can be understood in terms of the differences between the band structures of these materials. We found good agreement between theory and experiment over a large range of dopings [M. Kanasz-Nagy et al., arXiv:1508.06639]. Moreover, I will demonstrate that the RIXS signal depends sensitively on excitations at energies well above the Fermi surface, that are inaccessible to traditionally used band structure probes, such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This makes RIXS a powerful probe of band structure, not suffering from surface preparation problems and small sample sizes, making it potentially applicable to a wide range of materials. The work of M. K.-N. was supported by the Harvard-MIT CUA, NSF Grant No. DMR-1308435, AFOSR Quantum Simulation MURI, the ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, and ARO MURI Quism program.

  3. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Wu, W. B.; Okamoto, J.; Lee, W. S.; Hashimoto, M.; He, Y.; Shen, Z. X.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Mou, C. Y.; Chen, C. T.; Huang, D. J.

    2016-01-22

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  4. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast,more » the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.« less

  5. Effective orbital symmetry of CuO: Examination by nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. B.; Hiraoka, N.; Huang, D. J.; Huang, S. W.; Tsuei, K. D.; van Veenendaal, Michel; van den Brink, Jeroen; Sekio, Y.; Kimura, T.

    2013-11-01

    We report on measurements of nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) to unravel the effective symmetry of Cu 3d orbitals in the ground state of CuO. A clear feature of energy loss at about 2 eV exists in the NIXS spectrum, arising from dd excitations; the intensities of these excitations display a pronounced anisotropy. The comparison between the measured angular distributions of scattering and those from theoretical predictions by the tesseral harmonics indicates that, in terms of a hole picture, the lowest-energy dd excitation is the orbital transition x2-y2 → xy. In addition, the transition x2-y2 → 3z2-r2 has an energy higher than x2-y2 → yz/zx, in contrast to a previous interpretation. Our results imply a large Jahn-Teller-like splitting between x2-y2 and 3z2-r2 orbitals. The theory assuming a C4h symmetry explains the angular dependence of the NIXS spectra fairly well, implying that this symmetry is a reasonable approximation. This demonstrates that NIXS can provide important information for modeling of the electronic structure of d ions embedded in a complicated crystal field.

  6. Probing orbitons in YTiO3 with Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ament, Lucas; Khaliullin, Giniyat; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2009-03-01

    In YTiO3, a strongly correlated electron system with degenerate orbitals, orbitons are predicted to exist [1]. The hallmark of collective excitations is dispersion. To observe the orbiton dispersion, the rapidly developing technique of Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is especially well suited. We analyze recent experimental RIXS data on YTiO3 in the Ultrashort Core hole Lifetime framework [2]. The Ti ions in this material have a 3d^1 configuration, and the electron occupies one of the three degenerate t2g orbitals. Many of this compound's ground state properties are explained by assuming that the orbitals on these Ti ions talk to each other through a superexchange mechanism [1]. RIXS could couple to the orbital excitations (orbitons) in these kind of materials in two ways: via modulation of the superexchange interactions [3] and via a shakeup process. We compare our theoretical RIXS spectra to experimental ones, giving strong evidence for the existence of orbitons. // [1] G. Khaliullin and S. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. B 68, 205109 (2003) // [2] J. van den Brink and M. van Veenendaal, Europhys. Lett. 73, 121 (2006); L. J. P. Ament, F. Forte and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. B 75, 115118 (2007) // [3] compare F. Forte, L. J. P. Ament and J. van den Brink, PRL (2008)

  7. Density functional simulation of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in liquids: acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Johannes; Kooser, Kuno; Koskelo, Jaakko; Käämbre, Tanel; Kunnus, Kristjan; Pietzsch, Annette; Quevedo, Wilson; Hakala, Mikko; Föhlisch, Alexander; Huotari, Simo; Kukk, Edwin

    2016-09-21

    In this paper we report an experimental and computational study of liquid acetonitrile (H3C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the N K-edge. The experimental spectra exhibit clear signatures of the electronic structure of the valence states at the N site and incident-beam-polarization dependence is observed as well. Moreover, we find fine structure in the quasielastic line that is assigned to finite scattering duration and nuclear relaxation. We present a simple and light-to-evaluate model for the RIXS maps and analyze the experimental data using this model combined with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to polarization-dependence and scattering-duration effects, we pinpoint the effects of different types of chemical bonding to the RIXS spectrum and conclude that the H2C-C[double bond, length as m-dash]NH isomer, suggested in the literature, does not exist in detectable quantities. We study solution effects on the scattering spectra with simulations in liquid and in vacuum. The presented model for RIXS proved to be light enough to allow phase-space-sampling and still accurate enough for identification of transition lines in physical chemistry research by RIXS.

  8. Collective Chain Dynamics in Lipid Bilayers by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Thomas M.; Chen, Poe-Jou; Sinn, Harald; Alp, Ercan E.; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Huang, Huey W.

    2003-06-01

    We investigated the application of inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to lipid bilayers. This technique directly measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,{omega}) which is the space-time Fourier transform of the electron density correlation function of the measured system. For a multiatomic system, the analysis of S(q,{omega}) is usually complicated. But for multiple bilayers of lipid, S(q,{omega}) is dominated by chain-chain correlations within individual bilayers. Thus IXS provides a unique probe for the collective dynamics of lipid chains in a bilayer that cannot be obtained by any other method. IXS of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine + cholesterol at two different concentrations were measured. S(q,{omega}) was analyzed by three-mode hydrodynamic equations, including a thermal diffusive mode and two propagating acoustic modes. We obtained the dispersion curves for the phonons that represent the collective in-plane excitations of lipid chains. The effect of cholesterol on chain dynamics was detected. Our analysis shows the importance of having a high instrument resolution as well as the requirement of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to obtain meaningful results from such an IXS experiment. The requirement on signal-to-noise also applies to molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. A new method to derive electronegativity from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Carniato, S.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Simon, M.; Stolte, W. C.; Lindle, D. W.

    2012-10-14

    Electronegativity is a well-known property of atoms and substituent groups. Because there is no direct way to measure it, establishing a useful scale for electronegativity often entails correlating it to another chemical parameter; a wide variety of methods have been proposed over the past 80 years to do just that. This work reports a new approach that connects electronegativity to a spectroscopic parameter derived from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The new method is demonstrated using a series of chlorine-containing compounds, focusing on the Cl 2p{sup -1}LUMO{sup 1} electronic states reached after Cl 1s{yields} LUMO core excitation and subsequent KL radiative decay. Based on an electron-density analysis of the LUMOs, the relative weights of the Cl 2p{sub z} atomic orbital contributing to the Cl 2p{sub 3/2} molecular spin-orbit components are shown to yield a linear electronegativity scale consistent with previous approaches.

  10. Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering: Methodology and extraction of vibrational properties of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M. Y.; Alp, E. E.; Bi, W.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T. S.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) is a synchrotron radiation based experimental method [1]. Since its introduction almost 20 years ago [2], NRIXS has found an expanding range of applications of studying lattice dynamics in condensed matter physics, materials science, high-pressure research, geosciences, and biophysics. After the first high pressure application in geophysics of measuring sound velocity of iron up to 153 GPa [3], it has become a widely used method to investigate deep earth compositions through sound velocity measurements [4,5]. Thermodynamic properties are also explored, in particular Grueneisen parameters [6]. Later, it was realized that isotope fractionaton factors can be derived from NRIXS measurements [7,8]. Sum rules and moments of NRIXS is a critical part of this methodology [9,10]. We will discuss this and in general the data analysis of NRIXS which enables the above mentioned applications. [1] Alp et al. Hyperfine Interactions 144/145, 3 (2002) [2] Sturhahn et al., PRL 74, 3832 (1995) [3] Mao et al., Science 292, 914 (2001) [4] Hu et al., PRB 67, 094304 (2003) [5] Sturhahn & Jackson, GSA special paper 421 (2007) [6] Murphy et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24306 (2011) [7] Polyakov, Science 323, 912 (2009) [8] Dauphas et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 94, 254 (2012) [9] Lipkin, PRB 52, 10073 (1995) [10] Hu et al., PRB 87, 064301 (2013)

  11. Electromagnon dispersion probed by inelastic X-ray scattering in LiCrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Sándor; Wehinger, Björn; Rolfs, Katharina; Birol, Turan; Stuhr, Uwe; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Rüegg, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering with meV energy resolution (IXS) is an ideal tool to measure collective excitations in solids and liquids. In non-resonant scattering condition, the cross-section is strongly dominated by lattice vibrations (phonons). However, it is possible to probe additional degrees of freedom such as magnetic fluctuations that are strongly coupled to the phonons. The IXS spectrum of the coupled system contains not only the phonon dispersion but also the so far undetected magnetic correlation function. Here we report the observation of strong magnon-phonon coupling in LiCrO2 that enables the measurement of magnetic correlations throughout the Brillouin zone via IXS. We find electromagnon excitations and electric dipole active two-magnon excitations in the magnetically ordered phase and heavily damped electromagnons in the paramagnetic phase of LiCrO2. We predict that several (frustrated) magnets with dominant direct exchange and non-collinear magnetism show surprisingly large IXS cross-section for magnons and multi-magnon processes.

  12. Structural and dynamical properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons studied with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohinc, R.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Kavčič, M.; Carniato, S.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Marchenko, T.; Kawerk, E.; Simon, M.; Cao, W.

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on a large group of chlorinated hydrocarbons: CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3CH2Cl, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH3CHCl2, CH3CCl3, C2H2Cl2-iso, C2H2Cl2-cis, C2H2Cl2-trans, and C6H5Cl. Differences in structural and dynamical properties of the molecules generated by diverse chemical environments are observed in the measured Cl(Kα) spectral maps as well as in the Cl(K) total fluorescence yield spectra. The energy position, relative intensity, and the width of the Franck-Condon distribution of low-lying σ∗ and π∗ resonances are extracted by a fitting procedure taking into account the experimental broadening. The theoretical values obtained with the transition potential and Δ Kohn-Sham methods are in good agreement with the experimental parameters indicating subtle differences due to variations in the molecular structure.

  13. Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Abbamonte, Peter; Graber, Tim; Reed, James P.; Smadici, Serban; Yeh, Chen-Lin; Shukla, Abhay; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Ku, Wei

    2008-11-03

    The absorption of light by materials proceeds through the formation of excitons, which are states in which an excited electron is bound to the valence hole it vacated. Understanding the structure and dynamics of excitons is important, for example, for developing technologies for light-emitting diodes or solar energy conversion. However, there has never been an experimental means to study the time-dependent structure of excitons directly. Here, we use causality-inverted inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to image the charge-transfer exciton in the prototype insulator LiF, with resolutions {Delta}t = 20.67 as (2.067 x 10{sup -17} s) in time and {Delta}x = 0.533 {angstrom} (5.33 x 10{sup -11} m) in space. Our results show that the exciton has a modulated internal structure and is coherently delocalized over two unit cells of the LiF crystal ({approx}8 {angstrom}). This structure changes only modestly during the course of its life, which establishes it unambiguously as a Frenkel exciton and thus amenable to a simplified theoretical description. Our results resolve an old controversy about excitons in the alkali halides and demonstrate the utility of IXS for imaging attosecond electron dynamics in condensed matter.

  14. Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at high pressure and low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Lin, Jung -Fu; Jia, Quanjie; Hu, Michael Y.; Jin, Changqing; Ferry, Richard; Yang, Wenge; Struzhkin, Viktor; Alp, E. Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new synchrotron radiation experimental capability of coupling nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with the cryogenically cooled high-pressure diamond anvil cell technique is presented. The new technique permits measurements of phonon density of states at low temperature and high pressure simultaneously, and can be applied to studies of phonon contribution to pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic, superconducting and metal–insulator transitions in resonant isotope-bearing materials. In this report, a pnictide sample, EuFe2As2, is used as an example to demonstrate this new capability at beamline 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A detailed description of the technical development is given. The Fe-specific phonon density of states and magnetism from the Fe sublattice in Eu57Fe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature were derived by using this new capability.

  15. Electromagnon dispersion probed by inelastic X-ray scattering in LiCrO2

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Sándor; Wehinger, Björn; Rolfs, Katharina; Birol, Turan; Stuhr, Uwe; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Rüegg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering with meV energy resolution (IXS) is an ideal tool to measure collective excitations in solids and liquids. In non-resonant scattering condition, the cross-section is strongly dominated by lattice vibrations (phonons). However, it is possible to probe additional degrees of freedom such as magnetic fluctuations that are strongly coupled to the phonons. The IXS spectrum of the coupled system contains not only the phonon dispersion but also the so far undetected magnetic correlation function. Here we report the observation of strong magnon–phonon coupling in LiCrO2 that enables the measurement of magnetic correlations throughout the Brillouin zone via IXS. We find electromagnon excitations and electric dipole active two-magnon excitations in the magnetically ordered phase and heavily damped electromagnons in the paramagnetic phase of LiCrO2. We predict that several (frustrated) magnets with dominant direct exchange and non-collinear magnetism show surprisingly large IXS cross-section for magnons and multi-magnon processes. PMID:27882928

  16. Atomic-scale roughness of Li metal surface evident in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, David; Wan, Liwen; Liang, Yufeng; Chuang, Yi-De; Qiao, Ruimin; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2015-03-01

    Realizing Li metal electrodes depends on fundamental understanding and efficient control of surface properties, which requires reliable characterization of the Li metal surface. Controlled experiments of Li K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveal evidence of steady oxidation of the Li metal surface even under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The XAS of the short-lived Li metal surface, prepared by in-situ scratching, exhibits a prominent peak at 55.6 eV, more intense and at a slightly higher energy than the first peak expected for bulk Li metal at 55 eV. First-principles XAS calculations explain the origin of both the increased intensity and energy shift. This required the use of surface structural models with under-coordinated Li atoms and an estimated 4 Åinelastic mean-free-path for Auger electrons, implying extreme surface sensitivity of the measurements to the first 2-3 atomic layers. This work provides a benchmark on both experiment and theory for further studies of Li and other reactive metal surfaces, which are currently under scrutiny for next-generation energy storage devices. DP, LW, and YL acknowledge support from the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. The soft X-ray excess in Einstein quasar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masnou, J. L.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J. C.; Arnaud, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    An SNR-limited subsample of 14 quasars from the Wilkes and Elvis (1987) sample is presently investigated for low-energy excess above a high-energy power law in the X-ray spectra obtained by the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter. A significant excess that is 1-6 times as strong as the high-energy component at 0.2 keV is noted in eight of the 14 objects. In the case of 3C273, multiple observations show the excess to be variable.

  18. Young Stellar Objects from Soft to Hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Magnetically active stars are the sites of efficient particle acceleration and plasma heating, processes that have been studied in detail in the solar corona. Investigation of such processes in young stellar objects is much more challenging due to various absorption processes. There is, however, evidence for violent magnetic energy release in very young stellar objects. The impact on young stellar environments (e.g., circumstellar disk heating and ionization, operation of chemical networks, photoevaporation) may be substantial. Hard X-ray devices like those carried on Simbol-X will establish a basis for detailed studies of these processes.

  19. Soft X-ray bremsstrahlung and fluorescent line production in the atmosphere by low energy electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of low energy quasi-trapped or precipitating electrons which impact on the counter windows of soft X-ray detectors are discussed. The errors caused by X-rays produced in the residual atmosphere above a rocket-borne detector because of the resemblance to X-rays of cosmic origin are examined. The design and development of counter windows which make it possible to identify the atmospherically produced X-rays are described. Curves are presented to show the following: (1) preliminary low energy electron data from Atmospheric Explorer C, (2) X-ray flux in electron-excited nitrogen and oxygen, (3) typical proportional counter response to low energy cosmic rays, and (4) proportional counter response to X-radiation produced by electrons incident upon a gas of oxygen to nitrogen number of 0.4.

  20. On the Nature of Soft X-Ray Radiation in Comet Hyakutake 1996 B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    1996-09-01

    EUVE and ROSAT observations of comet Hyakutake revealed radiation in the soft X-ray with an intensity in the order of 0.03 ph cm(-2) s(-1) at 0.12 a.u. from the comet. We discuss and develop methods to calculate emission of soft X-ray photons in cometary dust and gas by the following processes: (1) scattering and (2) fluorescence of solar X-rays; (3) K- and L-shell ionization by solar-wind protons and (4) electrons; (5) bremsstrahlung of solar-wind electrons; (6) cometary magnetospheric substorms; (7) collisions with interplanetary dust particles; and (8) the presence of very small particles with mass in the order of 10(-19) g in comets. These particles were detected in comet Halley by Utterback and Kissel (Astron. J. 100, 1315, 1990) using the PUMA and PIA dust analyzers from the Vega and Giotto spacecraft. Of all these processes, only very strong substorms and scattering, to a lesser extent, fluorescence and bremsstrahlung by very small particles are capable to produce the measured intensity of soft X-ray. Appearance of strong substorms during each observation event is not probable. Very small particles are a more plausible explanation of the observed soft X-ray emission. However, the mean particle mass of 4.6x 10(-19) g suggested by Utterback and Kissel implies that the total production of these particles exceeds that of gas by a factor of 3.6 (in mass) and is inconsistent with the polarization and color of comet Halley. Both polarization and color require a reduction of the mean mass to (1-2)x 10(-19) g. This reduction strongly affects the visible brightness of the particles, which is proportional to m(2) , with a relatively weak effect on the soft X-ray. Spatial distribution of soft X-ray in comet Hyakutake is consistent with the sunward ejection of dust (Krasnopolsky et al., Astron. Astrophys. 187, 707, 1987). Soft X-ray observations of comets may be a tool for the study and diagnostics of very small particles. According to current models, solar soft X-ray

  1. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Jovian system for about 24 hours on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and for about 10 hours on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. Analysis of these data have revealed soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays is about an order of magnitude too weak even during flares from the active Sun to account for the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains both fall by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, we calculate that bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range accounts for roughly one third of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Extension of the far ultraviolet (FUV) IPT spectrum likely also contributes.

  2. The Onset Phase of "Soft" X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb Swank, Jean; Shaposhnikov, N.; Shrader, C. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Beckmann, V.; Markwardt, C. B.; Smith, D. A.

    2006-09-01

    Transient outbursts of black holes and neutron stars in X-ray binaries with low-mass companions start with a flickering hard power-law flux that contains a low frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO). The frequency of the QPO may reflect the outer boundary of the coronal emission and its inward motion toward the compact object. It has also been proposed that the hard flux is related to the base of a radio emitting outflow or compact jet. We had detailed observations of the beginning of the 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40 with RXTE, INTEGRAL, the VLA and ROTSE. We use the X-ray, radio, and optical results in the context of these models to address their applicability to the onset of the outburst and to specify the physical parameters. Decline of the radio flux as both the power-law and disk flux increased constrains the amount of synchrotron self-Compton emission. Values are compared to those of other black hole and neutron star transients. We are glad to acknowledge support by a NASA INTEGRAL Guest Observer Grant and by the RXTE project, NRAO, and ROTSE.

  3. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of cobalt uptake by cement.

    PubMed

    Dähn, Rainer; Vespa, Marika; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wieland, Erich; Shuh, David K

    2011-03-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy was used to investigate the speciation and spatial distribution of Co in a Co(II)-doped cement matrix. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the heavy metals immobilization process in cement on the molecular level. The Co-doped cement samples hydrated for 30 days with a Co loading of 5000 mg/kg were prepared under normal atmosphere to simulate conditions used for cement-stabilized waste packages. Co 2p(3/2) absorption edge signals were used to determine the spatial distributions of the metal species in the Co(II)-doped cement. The speciation of Co was determined by collecting near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. On the basis of the shape of the absorption spectra, it was found that Co(II) is partly oxidized to Co(III). The correlation, respectively the anticorrelation with elements such as Al, Si, and Mn, show that Co(II) is predominantly present as Co-hydroxide-like phase as well as Co-phyllosilicate, whereas Co(III) tends to be incorporated only into a CoOOH-like phase. Thus, this study suggests that thermodynamic calculations of Co(II)-immobilization by cementitious systems should take into consideration not only the solubility of Co(II)-hydroxides but also Co(III) phases.

  4. A novel monochromator for ultrashort soft x-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Firsov, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Kachel, Torsten; Mitzner, Rolf; Pontius, Niko; Stamm, Christian; Schmidt, Jan-Simon; Föhlisch, Alexander; Erko, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Reflection zone plates (RZP), which consist of elliptical zone plates fabricated on a total external reflection mirror surface, can be effectively used to produce a monochromatic x-ray beam and to focus it at photon energies below 1400 eV. However, as RZPs are highly chromatic, they can be designed only for one specific photon energy. We alleviate this problem by using a novel approach: a Reflection Zone Plate Array (RZPA). Here, we report about successful implementation of novel monochromator based on RZPAs for experiments with 100 fs time resolution at the upgraded Femtoslicing facility at BESSY-II. Aiming at minimum losses in x-ray flux up to 2000 resolution, we fabricated and used an RZPA as a single optical element for diffraction and focusing. Nine Fresnel lenses, designed for the energies of 410 eV, 543 eV, 644 eV, 715 eV, 786 eV, 861 eV, 1221 eV and 1333 eV which correspond to the absorption edges of NK, O-K, Mn-L, Fe-L, Co-L, Ni-L, Gd-M and Dy-M, were fabricated on the same substrate with a diameter of 100 mm. At resolution E/ΔE up to 2000 all edges of other elements in that range (400-1400 eV) are covered, too.

  5. Coordinated soft X-ray and H-alpha observation of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Metcalf, T. R.; Lemen, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, Ca XIX, and H-alpha observations obtained for a set of four solar flares in the impulsive phase are analyzed. A blue asymmetry was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft-Xray rise phase in all of the events. A red asymmetry was observed simultaneously in chromospheric H-alpha at spatial locations associated with enhanced flare heating. It is shown that the impulsive phase momentum of upflowing soft X-ray plasma equalled that of the downflowing H-alpha plasma to within an order of magnitude. This supports the explosive chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares.

  6. Observations of the structure and evolution of solar flares with a soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpahl, J. A.; Gibson, E. G.; Landecker, P. B.; Mckenzie, D. L.; Underwood, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Soft X ray flare events were observed with the S-056 X-ray telescope that was part of the ATM complement of instruments aboard SKYLAB. Analyses of these data are reported. The observations are summarized and a detailed discussion of the X-ray flare structures is presented. The data indicated that soft X-ray emitted by a flare come primarily from an intense well-defined core surrounded by a region of fainter, more diffuse emission. An analysis of flare evolution indicates evidence for preliminary heating and energy release prior to the main phase of the flare. Core features are found to be remarkably stable and retain their shape throughout a flare. Most changes in the overall configuration seem to be result of the appearance, disappearance or change in brightness of individual features, rather than the restructuring or reorientation of these features. Brief comparisons with several theories are presented.

  7. The soft x-ray instrument for materials studies at the linac coherent light source x-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Rowen, M.; Holmes, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Moeller, S.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, S.; Coffee, R.; Hays, G.; Heimann, P.; Krupin, O.; Soufli, R.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hau-Riege, S.; Kelez, N.; Beye, M.; Gerken, N.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Wurth, W.; and others

    2012-04-15

    The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse scientific topics such as: ultrafast chemistry, surface science, highly correlated electron systems, matter under extreme conditions, and laboratory astrophysics. Preliminary commissioning results are presented including the first soft x-ray single-shot energy spectrum from a free electron laser.

  8. STELLAR WIND INDUCED SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Lammer, H.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Holmström, M.; Zaitsev, V. V.

    2015-01-30

    In this Letter, we estimate the X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets. We show that the Solar/Stellar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism (SWCX), which produces soft X-ray emission, is very effective for hot Jupiters. In this mechanism, X-ray photons are emitted as a result of the charge exchange between heavy ions in the solar wind and the atmospheric neutral particles. In the solar system, comets produce X-rays mostly through the SWCX mechanism, but it has also been shown to operate in the heliosphere, in the terrestrial magnetosheath, and on Mars, Venus, and the Moon. Since the number of emitted photons is proportional to the solar wind mass flux, this mechanism is not very effective for the solar system giants. Here we present a simple estimate of the X-ray emission intensity that can be produced by close-in extrasolar giant planets due to charge exchange with the heavy ions of the stellar wind. Using the example of HD 209458b, we show that this mechanism alone can be responsible for an X-ray emission of ≈10{sup 22} erg s{sup –1}, which is 10{sup 6} times stronger than the emission from the Jovian aurora. We discuss also the possibility of observing the predicted soft X-ray flux of hot Jupiters and show that despite high emission intensities they are unobservable with current facilities.

  9. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes} area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition.

  10. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mosendz, O.; Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L{sub 3} absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-rays at the Co and Cu L{sub 3} absorption edges.

  11. Soft x-ray excited optical luminescence from poly(N-vinylcarbazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftel, S. J.; Kim, P.-S. G.; Sham, T. K.; Sammynaiken, R.; Yates, B. W.; Hu, Y.-F.

    2003-05-01

    X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) using tunable soft x rays from a synchrotron light source, together with x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of thin films of poly(N-vinylcarbazole). It is found that carbon core level excitation enhances the formation of excimers emitting at 380 and 410 nm. A third excimer at 310 nm is also noted. In addition, excitations across the C K edge and the N K edge show noticeably different optical response. These results are interpreted in terms of the site specificity of the XEOL technique.

  12. The soft X-ray telescope for the SOLAR-A mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuneta, S.; Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Lemen, J.; Brown, W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R.; Freeland, S.; Jurcevich, B.; Owens, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) of the SOLAR-A mission is designed to produce X-ray movies of flares with excellent angular and time resolution as well as full-disk X-ray images for general studies. A selection of thin metal filters provide a measure of temperature discrimination and aid in obtaining the wide dynamic range required for solar observing. The co-aligned SXT aspect telescope will yield optical images for aspect reference, white-light flare and sunspot studies, and, possibly, helioseismology. This paper describes the capabilities and characteristics of the SXT for scientific observing.

  13. Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Magee, E W; Dunn, J; Brown, G V; Cone, K V; Park, J; Porter, F S; Kilbourne, C A; Kelley, R L; Beiersdorfer, P

    2010-10-01

    The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 Å waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources.

  14. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; ...

    2011-05-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  15. Ultra soft X-ray Microbeam: optical analysis and intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Palladino, L.; Del Grande, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, optical analysis and intensity measurements of the Ultra Soft x-ray microbeam (100 eV-1 keV) are presented. X-ray emission at 500 eV are generated from a plasma produced by focusing Nd-YAG laser beam on the Yttrium target. In particular, we will report the study of x-ray intensity and the measurement of focal spot dimension. Moreover, the software/hardware control of sample holder position and the alignment of biological sample to the microbeam will be described.

  16. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens. PMID:21547016

  17. Thickness variations along coronal loops observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on Yohkoh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; Lemen, James R.; Feldman, Uri; Tsuneta, Saku; Uchida, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of an investigation of thickness variations along coronal loops observed with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), using observations from ten loops selected from the SXT data. The quantitative results indicate that coronal X-ray loops do not expand. This contradicts the expectation that, if plasma loops coincide with magnetic loops, many loops must be significantly broader at their tops than at their foot points. Possible interpretations of the obtained results are proposed.

  18. The Soft X-ray research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Dakovski, Georgi L.; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael; ...

    2015-04-02

    The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280–2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  19. Emission Line Spectra in the Soft X-ray Region 20 - 75 Angstroms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Behar, E.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a project to complete a comprehensive catalogue of astrophysically relevant emission lines in support of new-generation X-ray observatories using the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EDIT-II, emission lines of argon and sulfur in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet region were studied. Observations of Ar IX through Ar XVI and S VII through S XIV between 20 and 75 Angstrom are presented to illustrate our work.

  20. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  1. Phonon modes at the 2H-NbSe2 surface observed by grazing incidence inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B M; Requardt, H; Stettner, J; Serrano, J; Krisch, M; Müller, M; Press, W

    2005-12-16

    We have determined the dispersion of acoustic and optical surface phonon modes 2H-NbSe2 at the by inelastic x-ray scattering under grazing incidence conditions. Already, at room temperature, an anomaly is observed close to the charge density wave -vector position located at about one-third along the Gamma-M direction of the Brillouin zone. Our results indicate that the anomaly for the surface mode occurs at a lower energy than that measured in bulk sensitive geometry in the same experiment, showing evidence of a modified behavior in the uppermost layers. We demonstrate that inelastic x-ray scattering in grazing incidence conditions provides a unique tool to selectively study either surface or bulk lattice dynamics in a single experiment.

  2. Assessment of surface roughness by use of soft x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan-li; Wang, Yong-gang; Chen, Shu-yan; Chen, Bo

    2009-08-01

    A soft x-ray reflectometer with laser produced plasma source has been designed, which can work from wavelength 8nm to 30 nm and has high performance. Using the soft x-ray reflectometer above, the scattering light distribution of silicon and zerodur mirrors which have super-smooth surfaces could be measured at different incidence angle and different wavelength. The measurement when the incidence angle is 2 degree and the wavelength is 11nm has been given in this paper. A surface scattering theory of soft x-ray grazing incidence optics based on linear system theory and an inverse scattering mathematical model is introduced. The vector scattering theory of soft x-ray scattering also is stated in detail. The scattering data are analyzed by both the methods above respectively to give information about the surface profiles. On the other hand, both the two samples are measured by WYKO surface profiler, and the surface roughness of the silicon and zerodur mirror is 1.3 nm and 1.5nm respectively. The calculated results are in quantitative agreement with those measured by WYKO surface profiler, which indicates that soft x-ray scattering is a very useful tool for the evaluation of highly polished surfaces. But there still some difference among the results of different theory and WYKO, and the possible reasons of such difference have been discussed in detail.

  3. Soft X-ray imaging techniques for calculating the Earth's dayside boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Hyunju; Kuntz, Kip; Sibeck, David; Collier, Michael; Aryan, Homayon; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Collado-Vega, Yaireska; Porter, Frederick; Purucker, Michael; Snowden, Steven; Raeder, Joachim; Thomas, Nicholas; Walsh, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Charged particles and neutral atoms exchange electrons in many space plasma venues. Soft X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions, such as C6+. O7+, and Fe13+, interact with Hydrogen and Helium atoms. Soft X-ray images can be a powerful technique to remotely probe the plasma and neutral density structures created when the solar wind interacts with planetary exospheres, such as those at the Earth, Moon, Mars, Venus, and comets. The recently selected ESA-China joint spacecraft mission, "Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE)" will have a soft X-ray imager on board and provide pictures of the Earth's dayside system after its launch in 2021. In preparation for this future mission, we simulate soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside system, using the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere MHD model and the Hodges model of the Earth's exosphere. Then, we discuss techniques to determine the location of the Earth's dayside boundaries (bow shock and magnetopause) from the soft X-ray images.

  4. Technological aspects of GEM detector design and assembling for soft x-ray application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Chernyshova, M.

    2016-09-01

    Various types of Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) found applications as tracking detectors in high energy particle physics experiments and as well as imaging detectors, especially for soft X-rays. These detectors offer several advantages like high count rate capability, good spatial and energy resolution, low cost and possibility of constructing large area detectors with very small dead area. Construction, like the triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector has become a standard detector, which is widely used for different imaging applications. Some examples of such applications are: monitoring the impurity in plasma, imaging system for mapping of some parameters like pigment distributions using X-ray fluorescence technique[1], proton range radiography system for quality assurance in hadron therapy. Measuring of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation of magnetic fusion plasma is a standard way of accessing valuable information, for example, about particle transport and MHD. The paper is focused on the design of GEM based soft Xray radiation detecting system which is under development. It is dedicated to study soft X-ray emission of plasma radiation with focus on tungsten emission lines energy region. The paper presents the designing, construction and assembling of a prototype of two triple-GEM detectors for soft-X ray application on the WEST device.

  5. Ground calibration of the Astro-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, M. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Haas, D.; den Herder, J. W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Porter, F. S.; Sato, K.; Sawada, M.; Seta, H.; Sneiderman, G. A.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV energy resolution at 6 keV. The instrument used a microcalorimeter array at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope to enable high-resolution non-dispersive spectroscopy in the soft x-ray waveband (0:3-12 keV). We present the suite of ground calibration measurements acquired from 2012-2015, including characterization of the detector system, anti-coincidence detector, optical blocking filters, and filter-wheel filters. The calibration of the 36-pixel silicon thermistor microcalorimeter array includes parameterizations of the energy gain scale and line spread function for each event grade over a range of instrument operating conditions, as well as quantum efficiency measurements. The x-ray transmission of the set of five Al/polyimide thin-film optical blocking filters mounted inside the SXS dewar has been modeled based on measurements at synchrotron beamlines, including with high spectral resolution at the C, N, O, and Al K-edges. In addition, we present the x-ray transmission of the dewar gate valve and of the filters mounted on the SXS filter wheel (external to the dewar), including beryllium, polyimide, and neutral density filters.

  6. Progress toward a soft x-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Remlinger, Brian; Gentry, Eric S.; Windt, David L.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing instrumentation for a telescope design capable of measuring linear X-ray polarization over a broad-band using conventional spectroscopic optics. Multilayer-coated mirrors are key to this approach, being used as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By laterally grading the multilayer mirrors and matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve modulation factors over 50% over the entire 0.2-0.8 keV band. We present progress on laboratory work to demonstrate the capabilities of an existing laterally graded multilayer coated mirror pair. We also present plans for a suborbital rocket experiment designed to detect a polarization level of 12-17% for an active galactic nucleus in the 0.1-1.0 keV band.

  7. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH_2^+ fragment.

  8. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine.

    PubMed

    Itälä, E; Kooser, K; Rachlew, E; Huels, M A; Kukk, E

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH(2)(+) fragment.

  9. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C–C{sub α} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  10. SOFT CORONAL X-RAYS FROM {beta} PICTORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Drake, J. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2012-05-01

    A-type stars are expected to be X-ray dark, yet weak emission has been detected from several objects in this class. We present new Chandra/HRC-I observations of the A5 V star {beta} Pictoris. It is clearly detected with a flux of (9 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} counts s{sup -1}. In comparison with previous data this constrains the emission mechanism and we find that the most likely explanation is an optically thin, collisionally dominated, thermal emission component with a temperature around 1.1 MK. We interpret this component as a very cool and dim corona, with log L{sub X} /L{sub bol} = -8.2 (0.2-2.0 keV). Thus, it seems that {beta} Pictoris shares more characteristics with cool stars than previously thought.

  11. Electronic Raman scattering with excitation between localized states observed in the zinc M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray spectra of ZnS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Callcott, T.A.; Jia, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    Zn M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectra of ZnS and ZnS{sub .5}Se{sub .5} excited near threshold show strong inelastic scattering effects that can be explained using a simple model and an inelastic scattering theory based on second order perturbation theory. This scattering is often called electronic resonance Raman scattering. Tulkki and Aberg have developed this theory in detail for atomic systems, but their treatment can be applied to solid systems by utilizing electronic states characteristic of solids rather than of atomic systems.

  12. Constraining the redshifted 21-cm signal with the unresolved soft X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We use the observed unresolved cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) in the 0.5-2 keV band and existing upper limits on the 21-cm power spectrum to constrain the high-redshift population of X-ray sources, focusing on their effect on the thermal history of the Universe and the cosmic 21-cm signal. Because the properties of these sources are poorly constrained, we consider hot gas, X-ray binaries and mini-quasars (i.e. sources with soft or hard X-ray spectra) as possible candidates. We find that (1) the soft-band CXRB sets an upper limit on the X-ray efficiency of sources that existed before the end of reionization, which is one-to-two orders of magnitude higher than typically assumed efficiencies, (2) hard sources are more effective in generating the CXRB than the soft ones, (3) the commonly assumed limit of saturated heating is not valid during the first half of reionization in the case of hard sources, with any allowed value of X-ray efficiency, (4) the maximal allowed X-ray efficiency sets a lower limit on the depth of the absorption trough in the global 21-cm signal and an upper limit on the height of the emission peak, while in the 21-cm power spectrum it sets a minimum amplitude and frequency for the high-redshift peaks, and (5) the existing upper limit on the 21-cm power spectrum sets a lower limit on the X-ray efficiency for each model. When combined with the 21-cm global signal, the CXRB will be useful for breaking degeneracies and helping constrain the nature of high-redshift heating sources.

  13. 3D simulation of the image formation in soft x-ray microscopes.

    PubMed

    Selin, Mårten; Fogelqvist, Emelie; Holmberg, Anders; Guttmann, Peter; Vogt, Ulrich; Hertz, Hans M

    2014-12-15

    In water-window soft x-ray microscopy the studied object is typically larger than the depth of focus and the sample illumination is often partially coherent. This blurs out-of-focus features and may introduce considerable fringing. Understanding the influence of these phenomena on the image formation is therefore important when interpreting experimental data. Here we present a wave-propagation model operating in 3D for simulating the image formation of thick objects in partially coherent soft x-ray microscopes. The model is compared with present simulation methods as well as with experiments. The results show that our model predicts the image formation of transmission soft x-ray microscopes more accurately than previous models.

  14. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; Read, A. M.; Sembay, S.; Thomas, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  15. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  16. Error analysis of ellipsoidal mirrors for soft X-ray focusing by wave-optical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, Hiroto; Saito, Takahiro; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2014-02-01

    The ellipsoidal mirror is an ideal soft X-ray focusing optic that enables achromatic and highly efficient focusing to a nanometer spot size; however, a high-quality surface is necessary for ideal focusing. Knowledge of the required figure accuracy is important for fabrication. In this paper, we analyze the effects of figure errors on the focusing performance through wave-optical calculations based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, assuming coherent soft X-rays. Figure errors are classified into three types from the viewpoint of manufacturing. The effect of the alignment error is also investigated. The analytical results quantitatively indicate criteria regarding figure accuracy, which are expected to be essential for the development of high-performance ellipsoidal soft X-ray focusing mirrors.

  17. [Development of soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet spectrum sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ni, Qi-liang; Cao, Jian-lin; Li, Fu-tian; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-03-01

    The soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet sources developed in CIOMP are presented. The wall-stabilized argon arc source with spectrum stability and repeatability of +/-0.3% is applied to the calibration of spectrum intensity distribution of the vacuum ultraviolet instruments as an absolute standard source. The Penning source, duobplasma source and hollow cathode source are able to produce atomic and ionic line spectra as a wavelength standard source, which covers a few nanometers to several tens nanometers with spectrum radiation stability and repeatability of +/-1.0%. In particular, the low debris laser produced plasma source with liquid aerosol spray target recently developed can emit stronger soft X-ray for soft X-ray lithography and metrology, which has a transfer efficiency as high as 0.75%/2pi x sr/2% bandwidth.

  18. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P. E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  19. Critical Reexamination of Resonant Soft X-Ray Bragg Forbidden Reflections in Magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S.B.; Di Matteo, S.; Beale, T.A.W.; Joly, Y.; Mazzoli, C.; Hatton, P.D.; Bencok, P.; Yakhou, F.; Brabers, V.A.M.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, displays a highly complex low-temperature crystal structure that may be charge and orbitally ordered. Many of the recent experimental claims of such ordering rely on resonant soft x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K and iron L edges. We have reexamined this system and undertaken soft x-ray diffraction experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Contrary to previous claims in the literature, we show that the intensity observed at the Bragg forbidden (001/2){sub c} reflection can be explained purely in terms of the low-temperature structural displacements around the resonant atoms. This does not necessarily mean that magnetite is not charge or orbitally ordered but rather that the present sensitivity of resonant soft x-ray experiments does not allow conclusive demonstration of such ordering.

  20. A hard X-ray view of the soft-excess in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissay, R.; Paltani, S.; Ricci, C.

    2015-07-01

    The origin of the soft-excess in many Seyfert 1-1.5s spectra remains debated, as several models have been suggested to explain it, including warm Comptonization and blurred ionized reflection. In order to constrain the origin of this component, we use the fact that these models predict different behaviors in the hard X-rays. Ionized reflection indeed covers a broad energy range, from the soft X-rays to the hard X-rays around a few tens of keV, while Comptonization from a warm plasma drops very quickly above a few keV. We present here the results of a study done on 102 Seyfert 1s (Sy 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, and NLSy1) from the Swift BAT 70-Month Hard X-ray Survey catalog. The joint spectral analysis of Swift/BAT and XMM-Newton PN and MOS data allows a hard X-ray view of the soft-excess that is present in about 80% of the objects of our sample. We discuss how the soft-excess strength is linked to the reflection at high energy and to the photon index of the primary continuum, and show that our results are in contradiction with those obtained from simulations of blurred ionized-reflection models.

  1. A linear motion machine for soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, R.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Lauritzen, T.; McGill, R.

    1997-07-01

    A Fourier Transform X-ray Spectrometer has been designed and built for use at the Advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The design requires a total rectilinear motion of 15 mm with a maximum pitch error of the stage below {+-}0.4 {mu}radians, to achieve this the authors chose to build the entire machine as a single monolithic flexure. A hydraulic driver with sliding O-ring seals was developed with the intention to provide motion with a stick-slip position error of less than 0.8 nm at a uniform velocity of 20 {mu}m/sec. The machine is comprised of two pairs of nested linear motion flexures, all explained by means of a theory published earlier by Hathaway. Certain manufacturing errors were successfully corrected by an extra weak-link feature in the monolith frame. The engineering details of all the subsystems of the linear motion machine are described and measured performance reported.

  2. A new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Liu, Shenye; Li, Jin; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Ming; Guo, Luting; Yao, Li; Xiao, Shali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera (SXRSC). The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. In addition, two sets of holographic flat-field grating spectrometers are chosen as the spectral discrimination systems of the SXRSC and the X-ray CCD. The absolute sensitivity of the SXRSC is obtained by comparing the signal counts of the SXRSC to the output counts of the X-ray CCD. Results show that the calibrated spectrum covers the range from 200 eV to 1040 eV. The change of the absolute sensitivity in the vicinity of the K-edge of the carbon can also be clearly seen. The experimental values agree with the calculated values to within 29% error. Compared with previous calibration methods, the proposed method has several advantages: a wide spectral range, high accuracy, and simple data processing. Our calibration results can be used to make quantitative X-ray flux measurements in laser fusion research.

  3. Development of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): Engineering Model Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instuments onboard, with a sensitive energy band below 12 keV. One is for an X-ray micorocalorimeter detector and the other for a X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. It is similar to the Suzaku XRT, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Goal of the angular resolution and effective area are 1 arcmin and 390 cm$A2$ at 6 keV, respectively. We made serveral improvements from Suzaku to ASTRO-H, such as thicker substrates, more forming mandrels, thinner epoxy layer for replication, stiffer housings, precise alignment bars, etc. With all these changes, we have fabricated the engineering test unit of the SXT. In this paper, we will discuss all the changes made, their effects, and report X-ray performance of the SXT test unit. An angular resolution of the test unit was measured at new Goddard X-ray calibration facility (100 m X-ray beamline) and was found to be 1.1 arcmin. We will also discuss further improvements toward the flight unit to be delivered to JAXA in 2012.

  4. Soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering from an imprinted magnetic domain pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Kinane,C.; Suszka, A.; Marrows, C.; Hickey, B.; Arena, D.; Dvorak, J.; Charlton, T.; Langridge, S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the use of a Co/Pt multilayer, which exhibits strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, to magnetostatically imprint a domain pattern onto a 50 Angstroms thick Permalloy layer. Element specific soft x-ray magnetic scattering experiments were then performed so as to be sensitive to the magnetic structure of the Permalloy only. Off-specular magnetic satellite peaks, corresponding to a periodic domain stripe width of 270 nm, were observed, confirmed by magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic modeling. Thus the authors have exploited the element specificity of soft x-ray scattering to discern the purely magnetic correlations in a structurally flat Permalloy film.

  5. Multilayer films with sharp, stable interfaces for use in EUV and soft X-ray application

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Bajt, Sasa

    2002-01-01

    The reflectivity and thermal stability of Mo/Si (molybdenum/silicon) multilayer films, used in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region, is enhanced by deposition of a thin layer of boron carbide (e.g., B.sub.4 C) between alternating layers of Mo and Si. The invention is useful for reflective coatings for soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics, multilayer for masks, coatings for other wavelengths and multilayers for masks that are more thermally stable than pure Mo/Si multilayers

  6. Numerical Experiments on Oxygen Plasma Focus: Scaling Laws of Soft X-Ray Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akel, M.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical experiments have been investigated on UNU/ICTP PFF low energy plasma focus device with oxygen filling gas. In these numerical experiments, the temperature window of 119-260 eV has been used as a suitable temperature range for generating oxygen soft X-rays. The Lee model was applied to characterize the UNU/ICTP PFF plasma focus. The optimum soft X-ray yield (Ysxr) was found to be 0.75 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.03 % at pressure of 2.36 Torr and the end axial speed was va = 5 cm/μs. The practical optimum combination of p0, z0 and `a' for oxygen Ysxr was found to be 0.69 Torr, 4.8 cm and 2.366 cm respectively, with the outer radius b = 3.2 cm. This combination gives Ysxr ~ 5 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.16 %. Thus we expect to increase the oxygen Ysxr of UNU/ICTP PFF, without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and operating pressure. Scaling laws on oxygen soft X-ray yield, in terms of storage energies E0, peak discharge current Ipeak and focus pinch current Ipinch were found over the range from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. It was found that the oxygen soft X-ray yields scale well with and for the low inductance (L0 = 30 nH) (where yields are in J and currents in kA). While the soft X-ray yield scaling laws in terms of storage energies were found to be as (E0 in kJ and Ysxr in J) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E0 rises over the range. The oxygen soft X-ray yield emitted from plasma focus is found to be about 8.7 kJ for storage energy of 1 MJ. The optimum efficiency for soft X-ray yield (1.1 %) is with capacitor bank energy of 120 kJ. This indicates that oxygen plasma focus is a good soft X-ray source when properly designed.

  7. Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography

    PubMed Central

    Conesa, Jose Javier; Otón, Joaquín; Chiappi, Michele; Carazo, Jose María; Pereiro, Eva; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Carrascosa, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We used soft X-ray three-dimensional imaging to quantify the mass of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) within whole cells, by exploiting the iron oxide differential absorption contrast. Near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography (NEASXT) combines whole-cell 3D structure determination at 50 nm resolution, with 3D elemental mapping and high throughput. We detected three-dimensional distribution of SPIONs within cells with 0.3 g/cm3 sensitivity, sufficient for detecting the density corresponding to a single nanoparticle. PMID:26960695

  8. A search for soft X-ray emission from red-giant coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Mason, K. O.; Sanford, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    Hills has pointed out that if red-giant coronae are weak sources of soft X-rays, then the problems of the identification of the local component of the soft X-ray background and the observed lack of gas in globular clusters may be simultaneously resolved. Using instrumentation aboard OAO Copernicus, we have searched unsuccessfully for emission in the 10-100 A band from four nearby red giants. In all cases, our upper limits are of the order of the minimum theoretically predicted fluxes.

  9. Explosive Device for Generation of Pulsed Fluxes of Soft X-Ray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selemir, V. D.; Demidov, V. A.; Ivanovsky, A. V.; Yermolovich, V. F.; Kornilov, V. G.; Chelpanov, V. I.; Kazakov, S. A.; Vlasov, Y. V.; Orlov, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    The concept and realization of the explosive electrophysical device EMIR to generate soft x-ray radiation pulses are described. EMIR is based on the development of VNIIEF technologies in high-power flux compression generators, and on transforming systems based on lines with distributed parameters and current opening switches. Vacuum lines with magnetic insulation or water coaxial lines are considered for transmission of the energy pulses to the load. Transformation of magnetic energy to kinetic energy, thermalization and soft x-ray radiation are performed in a z-pinch with a double liner system.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; ...

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  11. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; Behrens, C.; Bohler, D.; Bouchard, G.; Bostedt, C.; Boyes, M.; Chow, K.; Cocco, D.; Decker, F. J.; Ding, Y.; Eckman, C.; Emma, P.; Fairley, D.; Feng, Y.; Field, C.; Flechsig, U.; Gassner, G.; Hastings, J.; Heimann, P.; Huang, Z.; Kelez, N.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Marcus, G.; Maxwell, T.; Moeller, S.; Morton, D.; Nuhn, H. D.; Rodes, N.; Schlotter, W.; Serkez, S.; Stevens, T.; Turner, J.; Walz, D.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Ratner, D; Abela, R; Amann, J; Behrens, C; Bohler, D; Bouchard, G; Bostedt, C; Boyes, M; Chow, K; Cocco, D; Decker, F J; Ding, Y; Eckman, C; Emma, P; Fairley, D; Feng, Y; Field, C; Flechsig, U; Gassner, G; Hastings, J; Heimann, P; Huang, Z; Kelez, N; Krzywinski, J; Loos, H; Lutman, A; Marinelli, A; Marcus, G; Maxwell, T; Montanez, P; Moeller, S; Morton, D; Nuhn, H D; Rodes, N; Schlotter, W; Serkez, S; Stevens, T; Turner, J; Walz, D; Welch, J; Wu, J

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added a self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report the demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10(-4), and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50-fold higher brightness to users.

  13. Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong Woo; Kwon, Youngman; Nam, Ki-Yong; Lim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Kyu-Gyum; Chon, Kwon Su; Kim, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Dong Eon; Kim, JinGon; Ahn, Byoung Nam; Shin, Hyun Joon; Rah, Seungyu; Kim, Ki-Ho; Chae, Jin Seok; Gweon, Dae Gab; Kang, Dong Woo; Kang, Sung Hoon; Min, Jin Young; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Yoon, Seong Eon; Kim, Eun-A; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-03-21

    In this paper, the development of compact transmission soft x-ray microscopy (XM) with sub-50 nm spatial resolution for biomedical applications is described. The compact transmission soft x-ray microscope operates at lambda = 2.88 nm (430 eV) and is based on a tabletop regenerative x-ray source in combination with a tandem ellipsoidal condenser mirror for sample illumination, an objective micro zone plate and a thinned back-illuminated charge coupled device to record an x-ray image. The new, compact x-ray microscope system requires the fabrication of proper x-ray optical devices in order to obtain high-quality images. For an application-oriented microscope, the alignment procedure is fully automated via computer control through a graphic user interface. In imaging studies using our compact XM system, a gold mesh image was obtained with 45 nm resolution at x580 magnification and 1 min exposure. Images of a biological sample (Coscinodiscus oculoides) were recorded.

  14. Soft X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui; Vilmer, Nicole; Brun, Allan Sacha

    Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in simulated kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. The magnetic flux-rope reconnects with the background flux after the triggering of the kink instability and is then allowed to relax to a lower energy state. Strong ohmic heating leads to strong and quick heating (up to more than 15 MK), to a strong peak of X-ray emission and to the hardening of the thermal X-ray spectrum. The emission pattern is often filamentary and the amount of twist deduced from the X-ray emission alone is considerably lower than the maximum twist in the simulated flux-ropes. The flux-rope plasma becomes strongly multi-thermal during the flaring episode. The emission measure evolves into a bi-modal distribution as a function of temperature during the saturation phase, and later converges to the power-law distribution mathrm{EM}~ T(-4.2) (during the relaxation/cooling) phase. These soft X-ray emission properties are maintained for a large range of coronal magnetic field strength, plasma density and flux-rope twist values.

  15. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, MacCallum J.; Agostino, Christopher J.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Chen, Gong; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  16. Observation of Actin Filaments in Leydig Cells with a Contact-type Soft X-ray Microscope with Laser Plasma X-ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Masataka; Ishino, Masahiko; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Kishimoto, Maki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Kunio

    Actin filaments in Leydig cells from mouse testes have been observed with a contact-type soft x-ray microscope with laser plasma x-ray source. The Leydig cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde, stained with Phalloidin, and observed with a confocal laser microscope prior to the observation with x-ray microscope. Obtained images by both of the confocal laser microscopy and the x-ray microscopy were directly compared and revealed that not only position of actin filaments but also the shapes can be identified each other. The actin filaments in the x-ray images were clearly recognized and their structures were obtained in more detail compared to those in the confocal laser microscope images.

  17. Soft x-ray radiation from laser-produced plasmas: characterization of radiation emission and its use in x-ray lithography.

    PubMed

    Kühne, M; Petzold, H C

    1988-09-15

    Laser pulses of 15 ns and soft x-ray radiation pulses. The plasma generation is described, and the x-ray emission is spectrally and spatially characterized. Using this plasma as an x-ray source, FBM120 resist was exposed through a gold patterned 2-microm silicon mask. Exposing the same resist to a primary standard source (electron storage ring BESSY) the plasma x-ray emission was evaluated resulting in conversion efficiencies (laser into x-ray radiation) of up to 3.4% for 1064 nm and up to 5.0% for 532-nm laser radiation pulses.

  18. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, MacCallum J.; Agostino, Christopher J.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Chen, Gong; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter

    2015-05-07

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  19. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  20. A model for the distribution of material generating the soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Cox, D. P.; Mccammon, D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The observational evidence relating to the soft X-ray diffuse background is discussed, and a simple model for its source and spatial structure is presented. In this simple model with one free parameter, the observed 1/4 keV X-ray intensity originates as thermal emission from a uniform hot plasma filling a cavity in the neutral material of the Galactic disk which contains the sun. Variations in the observed X-ray intensity are due to variations in the extent of the emission volume and therefore the emission measure of the plasma. The model reproduces the observed negative correlation between X-ray intensity and H I column density and predicts reasonable values for interstellar medium parameters.

  1. Versatile soft X-ray-optical cross-correlator for ultrafast applications.

    PubMed

    Schick, Daniel; Eckert, Sebastian; Pontius, Niko; Mitzner, Rolf; Föhlisch, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Sorgenfrei, Florian

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray-optical cross-correlator for the soft ([Formula: see text]) up to the hard X-ray regime based on a molybdenum-silicon superlattice. The cross-correlation is done by probing intensity and position changes of superlattice Bragg peaks caused by photoexcitation of coherent phonons. This approach is applicable for a wide range of X-ray photon energies as well as for a broad range of excitation wavelengths and requires no external fields or changes of temperature. Moreover, the cross-correlator can be employed on a 10 ps or 100 fs time scale featuring up to 50% total X-ray reflectivity and transient signal changes of more than 20%.

  2. Single-shot calibration of soft x-ray mirrors using a sinusoidal transmission grating.

    PubMed

    Shpilman, Z; Ehrlich, Y; Maman, S; Levy, I; Shussman, T; Oren, G; Zakosky Nueberger, I; Hurvitz, G

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of soft x-ray diagnostics is a challenge due to the lack of laboratory-size calibrated sources. An in situ calibration method for newly developed x-ray mirrors, is presented. The x-ray source is produced by laser-matter interaction, and twin transmission gratings which create two identical dispersion lines. The gratings have a sinusoidal transmission function, which produces a highly precise high-orders free spectrum. An x-ray mirror interacts with one of the dispersion lines, and the mirror efficiency curve as a function of wavelength is extracted. Mirror efficiency shows good agreement with the literature, and evidence of water layer may justify the need of in situ calibration.

  3. Prototype high resolution multienergy soft x-ray array for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.

    2010-10-15

    A novel diagnostic design seeks to enhance the capability of multienergy soft x-ray (SXR) detection by using an image intensifier to amplify the signals from a larger set of filtered x-ray profiles. The increased number of profiles and simplified detection system provides a compact diagnostic device for measuring T{sub e} in addition to contributions from density and impurities. A single-energy prototype system has been implemented on NSTX, comprised of a filtered x-ray pinhole camera, which converts the x-rays to visible light using a CsI:Tl phosphor. SXR profiles have been measured in high performance plasmas at frame rates of up to 10 kHz, and comparisons to the toroidally displaced tangential multi-energy SXR have been made.

  4. A sample holder for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids in transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Gavrila, Gianina; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    A novel sample holder for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids in transmission mode based on sample cells with x-ray transparent silicon nitride membranes is introduced. The sample holder allows for a reliable preparation of ultrathin liquid films with an adjustable thickness in the nm-μm range. This enables measurements of high quality x-ray absorption spectra of liquids in transmission mode, as will be shown for the example of liquid H(2)O, aqueous solutions of 3d-transition metal ions and alcohol-water mixtures. The fine structure of the x-ray absorption spectra is not affected by the sample thickness. No effects of the silicon nitride membranes were observed in the spectra. It is shown how an inhomogeneous thickness of the sample affects the spectra and how this can be avoided.

  5. The photoelectric effect from CsI by polarized soft X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ping S.; Church, Eric D.; Hanany, Shaul; Liu, Yee; Fleischman, Judith; Kaaret, Philip; Novick, Robert; Manzo, Giuseppe

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect produced by soft X-rays from CsI indicate that the geometrical effects in these experiments can often mimic the polarization signature. This paper presents a detailed calculation of these geometrical effects that are produced when the X-ray beam is not precisely aligned on a rotatable plane photocathode. The experimentally observed geometrical effects were used to precisely determine the realignment of the incident beam of polarized X-rays on a rotatable photocathode. The results allow determinations of the true polarization dependence of the photoemission from CsI. It is shown that the photoelectric effect in CsI depends on the polarization state of the X-rays.

  6. Versatile soft X-ray-optical cross-correlator for ultrafast applications

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Daniel; Eckert, Sebastian; Pontius, Niko; Mitzner, Rolf; Föhlisch, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Sorgenfrei, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We present an X-ray-optical cross-correlator for the soft (>150 eV) up to the hard X-ray regime based on a molybdenum-silicon superlattice. The cross-correlation is done by probing intensity and position changes of superlattice Bragg peaks caused by photoexcitation of coherent phonons. This approach is applicable for a wide range of X-ray photon energies as well as for a broad range of excitation wavelengths and requires no external fields or changes of temperature. Moreover, the cross-correlator can be employed on a 10 ps or 100 fs time scale featuring up to 50% total X-ray reflectivity and transient signal changes of more than 20%. PMID:27795974

  7. Simulation of the fundamental and nonlinear harmonic output from an FEL amplifier with a soft x-ray seed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Li, Y.; Milton, S. V.

    2000-07-05

    A single-pass, high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) x-ray amplifier was simulated using the 3D, polychromatic simulation code MEDUSA. The seed for the system is a table-top, soft x-ray laser. The simulated fundamental and nonlinear harmonic x-ray output wavelengths are discussed.

  8. Soft x-ray studies of plasma-focus pinch structures in PF-1000U experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, M. J.; Paduch, M.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Surala, W.; Zaloga, D.; Miklaszewski, R.; Zielinska, E.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2015-10-01

    This work reports on recent experiments performed at the modernized PF-1000U plasma-focus facility. In contrast to earlier studies the main attention was focussed on measurements of the soft x-ray emission. Detailed time-integrated x-ray measurements, carried out using filtered pinhole cameras with sensitive x-ray films, are presented and analysed. The fine structure of the collapsing current sheath and dense pinch column is investigated. Observations of ‘plasma filaments’ are discussed and compared with those from the old POSEIDON facility. New results are time-integrated x-ray images of PF-1000U discharges with additional gas puffing, which in many cases show distinct plasma filaments and/or ‘hot spots’ formed inside the dense pinch column. The formation of such ‘hot-spots’ is explained by necking and breaking of the plasma filaments. Results of time-resolved x-ray measurements, performed outside the experimental chamber by means of scintillation probes, and inside with PIN-diodes placed behind pinholes and absorption filters, are also presented Time-resolved measurements, carried out using an old XUV framing-camera and a new soft x-ray four-frame camera (SXRFFC), are also presented and discussed. Correlations of the time-integrated x-ray images (of plasma filaments and hot spots) with time-resolved x-ray signals are discussed. The hypothesis that plasma-current filaments appear in almost all PF-type discharges is supported by pictures of radial erosion tracks on the anode front-plate after many discharges.

  9. The high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments at ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, K.; Fondacaro, A.; Jimenez, E.; Velez-Fort, E.; Amorese, A.; Aspbury, M.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; van der Linden, P.; Brookes, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    A new high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments has been installed and commissioned at the ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32. The magnet consists of two split-pairs of superconducting coils which can generate up to 9 T along the beam and up to 4 T orthogonal to the beam. It is connected to a cluster of ultra-high-vacuum chambers that offer a comprehensive set of surface preparation and characterization techniques. The endstation and the beam properties have been designed to provide optimum experimental conditions for X-ray magnetic linear and circular dichroism experiments in the soft X-ray range between 400 and 1600 eV photon energy. User operation started in November 2014. PMID:26917134

  10. XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray soft polar QS Telescopii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, I.; Reinsch, K.; Schwope, A. D.; Burwitz, V.; Dreizler, S.; Schwarz, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2011-05-01

    Context. On the basis of XMM-Newton observations, we investigate the energy balance of selected magnetic cataclysmic variables, which have shown an extreme soft-to-hard X-ray flux ratio in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Aims: We intend to establish the X-ray properties of the system components, their flux contributions, and the accretion geometry of the X-ray soft polar QS Tel. In the context of high-resolution X-ray analyses of magnetic cataclysmic variables, this study will contribute to better understanding the accretion processes on magnetic white dwarfs. Methods: During an intermediate high state of accretion of QS Tel, we have obtained 20 ks of XMM-Newton data, corresponding to more than two orbital periods, accompanied by simultaneous optical photometry and phase-resolved spectroscopy. We analyze the multi-wavelength spectra and light curves and compare them to former high- and low-state observations. Results: Soft emission at energies below 2 keV dominates the X-ray light curves. The complex double-peaked maxima are disrupted by a sharp dip in the very soft energy range (0.1-0.5 keV), where the count rate abruptly drops to zero. The EPIC spectra are described by a minimally absorbed black body at 20 eV and two partially absorbed mekal plasma models with temperatures around 0.2 and 3 keV. The black-body-like component arises from one mainly active, soft X-ray bright accretion region nearly facing the mass donor. Parts of the plasma emission might be attributed to the second, virtually inactive pole. High soft-to-hard X-ray flux ratios and hardness ratios demonstrate that the high-energy emission of QS Tel is substantially dominated by its X-ray soft component. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  11. Resolving the Origin of the Diffuse Soft X-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.; Edgar, Ricard J.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Sanders, Wilton T.

    2012-01-01

    In January 1993, the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS) measured the first high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse soft X-ray background between 44-80A. A line-dominated spectrum characteristic of a 10(exp 6)K collisionally ionized plasma' was expected but while the observed spectrum was clearly line-dominated, no model would fit. Then in 2003 the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) launched and observed the diffuse extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum between 90- 265A. Although many emission lines were again expected; only Fe IX at 171.1A was detected. The discovery of X-rays from comets led to the realization that heavy ions (Z=6-28) in the solar wind will emit soft X-rays as the ions interact via charge exchange with neutral atoms in the heliosphere and geocorona. Using a new model for solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, we show that the diffuse soft X-ray background can be understood as a combination of emission from charge exchange onto the slow and fast solar wind together with a more distant and diffuse hot (10(exp 6)K) plasma.

  12. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT.

    PubMed

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain.

  13. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S.; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain. PMID:27022608

  14. Absolute, soft x-ray calorimetry on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Fehl, D.L.; Muron, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1998-05-01

    Simple and reliable x-ray fluence measurements, in addition to time-resolved diagnostics, are needed to understand the physics of hot Z-pinch plasmas. A commercially available laser calorimeter has been modified for measuring soft x-ray fluence from the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The x-ray absorber of this calorimeter is an aluminum disk, attached to a two-dimensional thermopile and surrounded by an isoperibol shroud. The time-integral and the maximum of the thermopile voltage signal are both proportional to the x-ray energy deposited. Data are collected for 90 seconds, and the instrument has, thus far, been used in the 1--25 mJ range. A wider dynamic measuring range for x-ray fluence (energy/area) can be achieved by varying the area of the defining aperture. The calorimeter is calibrated by an electrical substitution method. Calibrations are performed before and after each x-ray experiment on the Z facility. The calibration of the time-integral of the thermopile voltage vs. energy deposited (or the peak of thermopile voltage vs. energy deposited) is linear with zero offset at the 95% confidence level. The irreproducibility of the calibration is <2%, and the imprecision in the measurement of the incident x-ray energy (inferred from signal noise and the calibration) is estimated to be {approximately}0.9 mJ (95% confidence level). The inaccuracy is estimated at {+-}10%, due to correctable systematic errors (e.g., baseline shifts). Comparisons have been made of the calorimeter to time-resolved x-ray diagnostics, e.g., bolometers and XRD (x-ray diode) arrays, by integrating the flux measured by these instruments over time.

  15. Detection of soft X-rays with NEA III-V photocathodes. [Negative Electron Affinity X-ray detector for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Kellogg, E.; Murray, S.; Enck, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of tests on an X-ray photomultiplier containing a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode. This device makes it possible to investigate the response of the NEA photocathode to X-rays of various energies. The obtained data provide a basis for the determination of the photoelectron yield and energy resolution of the considered photocathode as a function of energy in the range from 0.8 to 3 keV. The investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using an NEA III-V photocathode for the detection of soft X-rays.

  16. Energetics of impulsive solar flares: Correlating BATSE hard x-ray bursts and the solar atmosphere's soft x-ray response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    This investigation has involved the correlation of BATSE-observed solar hard X-ray emission with the characteristics of soft X-ray emitting plasma observed by the Yohkoh Bragg Crystal Spectrometers. The goal was to test the hypothesis that localized electron beam heating is the dominant energy transport mechanism in impulsive flares, as formulated in the thick-target electron-heated model of Brown.

  17. The use of undulator radiation in VUV and soft x-ray radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1991-11-01

    A new generation of synchrotron radiation light sources covering the VUV, soft x-ray and hard x-ray and spectral regions is under construction in several countries, designed specifically to use periodic magnetic undulators and low-emittance electron or positron beams to produce high-brightness near-diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation beams. It should be possible to use specially designed undulators and wigglers in the new synchrotron light facilities as tunable narrow band radiometric sources in the VUV and soft x-ray regions. An introduction to the physics of undulator radiation is followed by a discussion of some of the consequences of maximizing source performance, including high beam power, harmonics, optics contamination, and the unusual spectral and angular properties of undulator radiation. The limitations of the presently planned undulators as radiometric sources and the design criteria for a possible radiometry undulator will be discussed.

  18. Comparison of coronal holes observed in soft X-ray and HE I 10830 A spectroheliograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Davis, J. M.; Harvey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Coronal holes observed in solar soft X-ray images obtained with rocket-borne telescopes during 1974 to 1981 are compared with holes observed on nearly simultaneous 10830 A maps. Hole boundaries are frequently poorly defined, and after 1974 the brightness contrast between the large scale structure and holes appears substantially diminished in both X-rays and 10830 A. Good agreement is found between soft X-rays and 10830 A for large area holes but poor agreement for mid and low latitude small area holes, which are generally of low contrast. These results appear inconsistent with the popular view that the quiet corona is sharply separated into open magnetic field regions consisting of coronal holes and closed field regions consisting of the large scale structure.

  19. Development of ellipsoidal focusing mirror for soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Takei, Yoshinori; Saito, Takahiro; Kume, Takehiro; Motoyama, Hiroto; Egawa, Satoru; Takeo, Yoko; Higashi, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Mirrors are key devices for creating various systems in optics. Focusing X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light requires mirror surfaces with an extremely high accuracy. The figure of an ellipsoidal mirror is obtained by rotating an elliptical profile, and using such a mirror, soft X-ray and EUV light can be focused to dimensions on the order of nanometers without chromatic aberration. Although the theoretical performance of ellipsoidal mirrors is extremely high, the fabrication of an ideal ellipsoidal mirror remains problematic. Based on this background, we have been working to develop a fabrication system for ellipsoidal mirrors. In this proceeding, we briefly introduce the fabrication process and the soft X-ray focusing performance of the ellipsoidal mirror fabricated using the proposed process.

  20. Soft X-ray radiation due to a nanosecond diffuse discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    A source of soft X-rays with an effective photon energy of 9 keV and a subnanosecond pulse width is built around a gas diode filled with atmospheric-pressure air and a UAEB-150 generator. A collector placed behind a grounded mesh electrode detects an electron beam and a pulse with positive polarity, the latter being due to an electric field surrounding the mesh. It is shown that the intensity of soft X-rays from the gas-diode-based source depends on the material of a massive potential anode; namely, it grows with an increase in the atomic number of the cathode material. In the case of a tantalum anode, X-ray photons with an effective energy of 9 and 17 keV contribute to the exposure dose.

  1. Resolving the origin of the diffuse soft X-ray background

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.; Edgar, Richard J.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2014-05-20

    The ubiquitous diffuse soft (1/4 keV) X-ray background was one of the earliest discoveries of X-ray astronomy. At least some of the emission may arise from charge exchange between solar wind ions and neutral atoms in the heliosphere, but no detailed models have been fit to the available data. Here, we report on a new model for charge exchange in the solar wind, which, when combined with a diffuse hot plasma component, filling the Local Cavity provides a good fit to the only available high-resolution soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectra using plausible parameters for the solar wind. The implied hot plasma component is in pressure equilibrium with the local cloud that surrounds the solar system, creating for the first time a self-consistent picture of the local interstellar medium.

  2. Compact high-resolution differential interference contrast soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bertilson, Michael C.; Hofsten, Olov von; Lindblom, Magnus; Hertz, Hans M.; Vogt, Ulrich

    2008-02-11

    We demonstrate high-resolution x-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) in a compact soft x-ray microscope. Phase contrast imaging is enabled by the use of a diffractive optical element objective which is matched to the coherence conditions in the microscope setup. The performance of the diffractive optical element objective is evaluated in comparison with a normal zone plate by imaging of a nickel siemens star pattern and linear grating test objects. Images obtained with the DIC optic exhibit typical DIC enhancement in addition to the normal absorption contrast. Contrast transfer functions based on modulation measurements in the obtained images show that the DIC optic gives a significant increase in contrast without reducing the spatial resolution. The phase contrast operation mode now available for our compact soft x-ray microscope will be a useful tool for future studies of samples with low absorption contrast.

  3. Closed source experimental system for soft x-ray spectroscopy of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Modin, A.; Butorin, S. M.; Vegelius, J.; Olsson, A.; Englund, C.-J.; Andersson, J.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.; Kaeaembre, T.; Skarnemark, G.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-09-15

    An instrumental and experimental setup for soft x-ray spectroscopy meeting the requirements of a closed source for radioactivity is described. The system consists of a vacuum sealed cell containing the sample, mounted on a tubing system to ensure compatibility with most standard manipulators. The soft x rays penetrate a thin x-ray window separating the interior of the cell from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Our first results for single crystal PuO{sub 2} confirm the feasibility of experiments using the setup. The results are consistent with results of first principles calculations and previously recorded spectra obtained using a standard open source setup. The results show that the closed source experimental system can be used to collect valuable experimental data from radioactive materials.

  4. Soft x-ray response of the x-ray CCD camera directly coated with optical blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Kohmura, T.; Kawai, K.; Kaneko, K.; watanabe, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Anabuki, N.; Nakajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Tsuru, T. G.; Dotani, T.; Ozaki, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fujinaga, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Murakami, H.; Hiraga, J.; Mori, K.; ASTRO-H SXI Team

    2012-03-01

    We have developed the back-illuminated X-ray CCD camera (BI-CCD) to observe Xray in space. The X-ray CCD has a sensitivity not only for in X-ray but also in both Optical and UV light, X-ray CCD has to equip a filter to cut off optical light as well as UV light. The X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) onboard Suzaku satellite equipped with a thin film (OBF: Optical Blocking Filter) to cut off optical light and UV light. OBF is always in danger tearing by the acousmato or vibration during the launch, and it is difficult to handle on the ground because of its thickness. Instead of OBF, we have newly developed and produced OBL (Optical Blocking Layer), which is directly coating on the X-ray CCD surface.

  5. Soft X-ray spectrum of laser-produced aluminum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vergunova, G. A.; Grushin, A. S.; Kologrivov, A. A.; Novikov, V. G.; Osipov, M. V.; Puzyrev, V. N. Rozanov, V. B. Starodub, A. N. Yakushev, O. F.

    2015-05-15

    Soft X-ray spectra (30–70 Å) of aluminum plasma have been measured in experiments carried out at the Kanal-2 laser facility at laser intensities of (1–7) × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. It is shown that the measured spectra satisfactory agree with those calculated using the RADIAN numerical code.

  6. Soft x-ray laser gain measurements in a recombining plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Milchberg, H.; Keane, C.; Voorhees, D.

    1985-03-01

    An enhancement of approx. 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 A line (one-pass gain approx. = 6.5) was measured in a recombining, magnetically confined plasma column by two independent techniques using intensity calibrated XUV monochromators. Additional confirmation that the enhancement was due to stimulated emission has been obtained with a soft x-ray mirror.

  7. Gain dynamics measurement in injection-seeded soft x-ray laser plasma amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, S.; Li, L.; Oliva, E.; Thuy Le, T. T.; Ros, D.; Berrill, M.; Dunn, J.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Yin, L.; Luther, B.; Rocca, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Herein we report the first measurement of the gain dynamics in a soft x-ray plasma amplifier seeded by high harmonic pulses. A sequence of two time-delayed spatially-overlapping high harmonic pulses was injected into a λ = 18.9 nm Ni-like Mo plasma amplifier to measure the regeneration of the population inversion that follows the gain depletion caused by the amplification of the first seed pulse. Collisional excitation is observed to re-establish population inversion depleted during the amplification of the seed pulse in about ~1.75 ps. The measured gain-recovery time is compared to model simulations to gain insight on the population inversion mechanisms that create the transient gain in these amplifiers. This result supports the concept of a soft x-ray laser amplification scheme based on the continuous extraction of energy from a soft x-ray plasma-based amplifier by an stretched seed pulse has the potential to generate ultra-intense fully phase-coherent soft x-ray laser pulses. Work supported by AMOS program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US DoE, and the NSF ERC Program with equipment developed under NSF Award MRI-ARRA 09-561, and by LASERLAB3-INREX European project and SHYLAX plus CIBORG RTRA `Triangle de la Physique.'

  8. Overview of nanoscale NEXAFS performed with soft X-ray microscopes.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, Peter; Bittencourt, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Today, in material science nanoscale structures are becoming more and more important. Not only for the further miniaturization of semiconductor devices like carbon nanotube based transistors, but also for newly developed efficient energy storage devices, gas sensors or catalytic systems nanoscale and functionalized materials have to be analysed. Therefore, analytical tools like near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy has to be applied on single nanostructures. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM) as well as full-field transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM) allow the required spatial resolution to study individual nanostructures. In the soft X-ray energy range only STXM was used so far for NEXAFS studies. Due to its unique setup, the TXM operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II is the first one in the soft X-ray range which can be used for NEXAFS spectroscopy studies which will be shown in this review. Here we will give an overview of the different microscopes used for NEXAFS studies and describe their advantages and disadvantages for different samples.

  9. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Benstead, J.; Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; ...

    2016-05-27

    Here, a new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters weremore » used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.« less

  10. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benstead, J.; Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Pardini, T.; Soufli, R.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, III, M. J.; Reagan, S.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R.; Schmidt, D. W.; Kot, L. B.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubbery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W.; Gullikson, E.; Salmassi, F.

    2016-05-27

    Here, a new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  11. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Benstead, J; Moore, A S; Ahmed, M F; Morton, J; Guymer, T M; Soufli, R; Pardini, T; Hibbard, R L; Bailey, C G; Bell, P M; Hau-Riege, S; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Reagan, S; Agliata, T; Jungquist, R; Schmidt, D W; Kot, L B; Garbett, W J; Rubery, M S; Skidmore, J W; Gullikson, E; Salmassi, F

    2016-05-01

    A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF's x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300-510 eV and 200-400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  12. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm.

  13. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source

    PubMed Central

    Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. PMID:20198115

  14. Soft x-ray generation in gases with an ultrashort pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmire, Todd Raymond

    1996-01-08

    An experimental investigation of soft x-ray production resulting from the interaction of intense near infra-red laser radiation with gases is presented in this thesis. Specifically, soft x-ray generation through high order harmonic generation or exploiting intense inverse bremsstrahlung heating is examined. Most of these studies are conducted with femtosecond, terawatt class Cr:LiSrAlF6 (LiSAF) laser, though results derived from studies with other laser systems are presented as well. The majority of this work is devoted to experimental investigations, however, theoretical and computational models are developed to interpret the data. These studies are motivated by the possibility of utilizing the physics of intense laser/matter interactions as a potential compact source of bright x-rays. Consequently, the thrust of many of the experiments conducted is aimed at characterizing the x-rays produced for possible use in applications. In general, the studies of this manuscript fall into three categories. First, a unique 130 fs, 8 TW laser that is based on chirped pulse amplification, is described, and its performance is evaluated. The generation of x-rays through high order harmonics is then discussed with emphasis on characterizing and optimizing harmonic generation. Finally, the generation of strong, incoherent x-ray radiation by the intense irradiation of large (>1,000 atom) clusters in gas jets, is explored. The physics of laser energy absorption by clusters illuminated with intensities of 1015 to 1017 W/cm2 is considered in detail. X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas that result from the irradiation of the clusters is conducted, and energy transport and kinetics issues in these plasmas are discussed.

  15. Soft X-ray study of solar wind charge exchange from the Earth's magnetosphere : Suzaku observations and a future X-ray imaging mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Terada, N.; Kasahara, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Nishijo, K.; Noda, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission from the Earth's magnetosphere using the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are shown, together with our X-ray imaging mission concept to characterize the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere. In recent years, the SWCX emission from the Earth's magnetosphere, originally discovered as unexplained noise during the soft X-ray all sky survey (Snowden et al. 1994), is receiving increased attention on studying geospace. The SWCX is a reaction between neutrals in exosphere and highly charged ions in the magnetosphere originated from solar wind. Robertson et al. (2005) modeled the SWCX emission as seen from an observation point 50 Re from Earth. In the resulting X-ray intensities, the magnetopause, bow shock and cusp were clearly visible. High sensitivity soft X-ray observation with CCDs onboard recent X-ray astronomy satellites enables us to resolve SWCX emission lines and investigate time correlation with solar wind as observed with ACE and WIND more accurately. Suzaku is the 5th Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite launched in 2005. The line of sight direction through cusp is observable, while constraints on Earth limb avoidance angle of other satellites often limits observable regions. Suzaku firstly detected the SWCX emission while pointing in the direction of the north ecliptic pole (Fujimoto et al. 2007). Using the Tsyganenko 1996 magnetic field model, the distance to the nearest SWCX region was estimated as 2-8 Re, implying that the line of sight direction can be through magnetospheric cusp. Ezoe et al. (2010) reported SWCX events toward the sub-solar side of the magnetosheath. These cusp and sub-solar side magnetosheath regions are predicted to show high SWCX fluxes by Robertson et al. (2005). On the other hand, Ishikawa et al. (2013) discovered a similarly strong SWCX event when the line of sight direction did not transverse these two regions. Motivated by these detections

  16. Thermally activated charge transfer in a Prussian blue derivative probed by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrige, I.; Cai, Y. Q.; Ishii, H.; Hiraoka, N.; Bleuzen, A.

    2008-08-01

    Charge-transfer excitation is at the source of the photoinduced magnetism observed in several Prussian blue molecule-based magnets. Using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we probe directly the thermally activated charge transfer in a photomagnetic Fe-Co cyanide, Cs0.7Co4[Fe(CN)6]2.9[◻]1.1.16H2O, where [◻] represents [Fe(CN)6] vacancies. The temperature dependence of both Co and Fe valence ratios is estimated for the first time in one cooling run, thus yielding a more complete picture of the temperature-induced cooperative electronic modifications. This novel approach, benefiting from relatively short acquisition times, opens the possibility for realtime characterization of the photoinduced magnetism in molecule-based magnets.

  17. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; ...

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore » RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  18. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; Hill, J. P.

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.

  19. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Alexander; Kronast, Florian; Papp, Christian; Yang, See-Hun; Cramm, Stefan; Krug, Ingo P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Hilken, Dawn L.; Anderson, Erik H.; Fischer, Peter; Durr, Hermann A.; Schneider, Claus M.; Fadley, Charles S.

    2010-10-29

    We demonstrate the addition of depth resolution to the usual two-dimensional images in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), with application to a square array of circular magnetic Co microdots. The method is based on excitation with soft x-ray standing-waves generated by Bragg reflection from a multilayer mirror substrate. Standing wave is moved vertically through sample simply by varying the photon energy around the Bragg condition. Depth-resolved PEEM images were obtained for all of the observed elements. Photoemission intensities as functions of photon energy were compared to x-ray optical calculations in order to quantitatively derive the depth-resolved film structure of the sample.

  20. Soft X-ray emission from the Lupus Loop and Sn 1006 supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. F., Jr.; Hearn, D. R.; Richardson, J. A.; Behnken, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray maps of the Lupus region have been obtained in a raster scan observation from SAS 3. These show the Lupus Loop to be a faint extended source of soft X-rays with a temperature about 2.5 million K. The most prominent feature of the region is the A.D. 1006 supernova remnant, which is unexpectedly bright at 0.2-1.0 keV. One speculative interpretation of the low-energy flux from SN 1006 is as blackbody radiation from a hot neutron star.

  1. Interaction of soft-x-ray thermal radiation with foam-layered targets.

    PubMed

    Batani, D; Desai, T; Löwer, Th; Hall, T A; Nazarov, W; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A

    2002-06-01

    We have studied the interaction of soft-x-ray thermal radiation with foam-layered metal targets. X-ray radiation was produced by focusing a high-energy laser inside a small size hohlraum. An increment in shock pressure, up to a factor of approximately 4 for 50 mg/cm(3) foam density, was observed with the foam layer as compared to bare metal targets. This follows from the propagation of radiation-driven shock wave in the foam and the impedance mismatch at the foam-payload interface.

  2. Aplanatic Three-Mirror Objective for High-Magnification Soft X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, M.; Jinno, T.; Yanagihara, M.

    2011-09-09

    An innovative solution for high-magnification microscopy, based on attaching afocal optics for focal length reduction, is proposed. The solution, consisting of three spherical mirrors, allows one to enhance a magnification of a laboratory based soft x-ray microscope over 1000x, where movies with diffraction-limited resolution can be observed with an x-ray CCD. The design example, having a numerical aperture of 0.25, was successfully demonstrated both a high magnification and a large field of view.

  3. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  4. In situ fine tuning of bendable soft x-ray mirrors using a lateral shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merthe, Daniel J.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; MacDougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; Padmore, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Broadly applicable, in situ at-wavelength metrology methods for x-ray optics are currently under development at the Advanced Light Source. We demonstrate the use of quantitative wavefront feedback from a lateral shearing interferometer for the suppression of aberrations. With the high sensitivity provided by the interferometer we were able to optimally tune the bending couples of a single elliptical mirror (NA=2.7 mrad) in order to focus a beam of soft x-rays (1.24 keV) to a nearly diffraction-limited beam waist size of 156(±10) nm.

  5. Structural mechanics of the solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.; Gowen, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is one of four major instruments that constitute the payload of the NASA-Japanese mission YOHKOH (formerly known as Solar-A), scheduled to be launched in August, 1991. This paper describes the design of the SXT, the key system requirements, and the SXT optical and structural systems. Particular attention is given to the design considerations for stiffness and dimensional stability, temperature compensation, and moisture sensitivyty control. Consideration is also given to the X-ray mirror, the aspect telescope, the entrance filters, the mechanical structure design, the aft support plate and mount, the SXT finite element model, and other subsystems.

  6. Condenser optics, partial coherence, and imaging for soft-x-ray projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Sommargren, G E; Seppala, L G

    1993-12-01

    A condenser system couples the radiation source to an imaging system, controlling the uniformity and partial coherence at the object, which ultimately affects the characteristics of the aerial image. A soft-x-ray projection lithography system based on a ring-field imaging system and a laser-produced plasma x-ray source places considerable constraints on the design of a condenser system. Two designs are proposed, critical illumination and Köhler illumination, each of which requires three mirrors and scanning for covering the entire ring field with the required uniformity and partial coherence. Images based on Hopkins' formulation of partially coherent imaging are simulated.

  7. Iridium/Iridium Silicide as an Oxidation Resistant Capping Layer for Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Prisbrey, S; Vernon, S

    2004-04-05

    Rust on a sword, tarnish on the silverware, and a loss in reflectivity for soft x-ray mirrors are all caused by oxidation that changes the desired characteristics of a material. Methods to prevent the oxidation have varied over the centuries with the default method of a protective coating being the most common. The protective coating for x-ray mirrors is usually a self-limiting oxidized layer on the surface of the material that stops further oxidation of the material by limiting the diffusion of oxygen to the material underneath.

  8. A search for coronal soft X-ray emission from cool stars with HEAO 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Garmire, G.; Cordova, F.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A search of the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment all-sky survey for coronal soft X-ray emission from a sample of active chromosphere G-M stars including six dwarfs, eight giants, four supergiants, and 10 dMe flare stars is summarized. Point sources were detected near the positions of several of the stars considered. However, of these, only the flare stars BY Draconis (dM0e) and AD Leonis (dM3.5e) appear to be likely candidates for the detected X-rays.

  9. Soft x-ray-controlled dose deposition in yeast cells: techniques, model, and biological assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Batani, Dimitri; Conti, Aldo; Masini, Alessandra; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Turcu, I. C. Edmond

    1996-12-01

    A procedure is presented to release soft x-rays onto yeast cell membrane allegedly damaging the resident enzymatic processes connected with fermentation. The damage is expected to be restricted to regulating fermentation processes without interference with respiration. By this technique fermentation is followed leading to CO2 production, and respiration resulting in global pressure measurements. A solid state pressure sensor system has been developed linked to a data acquisition system. Yeast cells cultures have been investigated at different concentrations and with different nutrients. A non-monotone response in CO2 production as a function of the delivered x-ray dose is observed.

  10. A multiwavelength study of the Eridanus soft X-ray enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, D. N.; Singh, K. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Garmire, G. P.; Good, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present soft X-ray, N(H), and IR maps of the Eridanus soft X-ray enhancement. Soft X-ray maps from the HEAO 1 A-2 LED experiment, processed with a maximum entropy method (MEM) algorithm, show that the enhancement consists of two distinct components: a large hook-shaped component and a small circular component at different temperatures. Both of these are located in 'holes' in the IR emission, and they correspond to N(H) features at very different velocities. The dust surrounding the X-ray enhancements appears to be associated with several high-latitude molecular clouds, which allow us to obtain a probable distance of about 130 pc to the near edge of the main enhancement. The total power emitted by the hot gas is then about 10 exp 35 to 10 exp 36 ergs/s. We consider alternative interpretations of these objects as adiabatic supernova remnants or as stellar wind bubbles and conclude that they are more likely to be stellar wind bubbles, possibly reheated by a SN explosion in the case of the main, hook-shaped object.

  11. Yields of strand breaks and base lesions induced by soft X-rays in plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, A; Fujii, K; Ushigome, T; Shikazono, N; Urushibara, A; Watanabe, R

    2006-01-01

    The yields of soft-X-ray-induced DNA damages have been measured by using closed-circular plasmid DNA. Several DNA solutions with three kinds of radical scavenger capacity and also fully hydrated DNA samples were irradiated to compare the contribution by indirect reaction of diffusible water radicals, such as OH*, with those by direct action of secondary electrons. The yields of prompt single- (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) decrease with increasing scavenging capacity. The SSB yields for soft X-rays are approximately midway those between gamma-ray and ultrasoft X-ray data previously reported. Heat labile sites are observed only in the low scavenger condition. The yields of the base lesions revealed by post irradiation treatment with base excision repair enzymes showed a similar value for Nth and Fpg protein except in the hydrated sample. These results indicate that the direct effect of soft X-rays induces the damages with different efficiency from those by indirect effect.

  12. Soft x-ray submicron imaging detector based on point defects in LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Flora, F.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Lai, A.; Marolo, T.; Montereali, R.M.; Murra, D.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Nichelatti, E.; Tomassetti, G.; Reale, A.; Reale, L.; Ritucci, A.; Limongi, T.; Palladino, L.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.

    2005-11-15

    The use of lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals and films as imaging detectors for EUV and soft-x-ray radiation is discussed. The EUV or soft-x-ray radiation can generate stable color centers, emitting in the visible spectral range an intense fluorescence from the exposed areas. The high dynamic response of the material to the received dose and the atomic scale of the color centers make this detector extremely interesting for imaging at a spatial resolution which can be much smaller than the light wavelength. Experimental results of contact microscopy imaging of test meshes demonstrate a resolution of the order of 400 nm. This high spatial resolution has been obtained in a wide field of view, up to several mm{sup 2}. Images obtained on different biological samples, as well as an investigation of a soft x-ray laser beam are presented. The behavior of the generated color centers density as a function of the deposited x-ray dose and the advantages of this new diagnostic technique for both coherent and noncoherent EUV sources, compared with CCDs detectors, photographic films, and photoresists are discussed.

  13. Study of NbC thin films for soft X-ray multilayer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S. N.

    2015-06-24

    Compound materials are being used in soft x-ray and Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics applications. Structural properties of compound materials changes drastically when ultrathin films are formed from bulk material. Structural properties need to be investigated to determine the suitability of compound materials in soft x-ray multilayer applications. In the present study Niobium carbide (NbC) thin films were deposited using ion beam sputtering of an NbC target on Si (100) substrate. Thickness roughness and film mass density was determined from the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) data. XRR data revealed that the film mass density was increasing with increase in film thickness. For 500Ǻ thick film, mass density of 6.85 g/cm{sup 3}, close to bulk density was found. Rms roughness for all the films was less than 10Å. Local structure of NbC thin films was determined from EXAFS measurements. The EXAFS data showed an increase in Nb-C and Nb-(C)-Nb peak ratio approaches towards bulk NbC with increasing thickness of NbC. From the present study, NbC thin films were found suitable for actual use in soft x-ray multilayer applications.

  14. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer with 25meV resolution at the Cu K -edge

    DOE PAGES

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Harder, Manuel; Klementiev, Konstantin; ...

    2015-06-27

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at the CuK-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single-crystal quartz (SiO2) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25meV (FWHM) at 8981eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray-tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium single-crystal.

  15. Influence of magnetism on phonons in CaFe2As2 as seen via inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.E.; Lee, Y.; Ni, N.; Canfield, P.C.; Goldman, A.I.; McQueeney, R.J.; Harmon, B.N.; Alatas, A.; Leu, B.M.; Alp, E.E.; Chung, D.Y.; Todorov, I.S.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    2009-06-19

    In the iron pnictides, the strong sensitivity of the iron magnetic moment to the arsenic position suggests a significant relationship between phonons and magnetism. We measured the phonon dispersion of several branches in the high-temperature tetragonal phase of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} using inelastic x-ray scattering on single-crystal samples. These measurements were compared to ab initio calculations of the phonons. Spin-polarized calculations imposing the antiferromagnetic order present in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase dramatically improve agreement between theory and experiment. This is discussed in terms of the strong antiferromagnetic correlations that are known to persist in the tetragonal phase.

  16. The single particle dynamics of iodine in the Sachs-Teller regime: An inelastic x-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, M. G.; Bencivenga, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Cunsolo, A.; Verbeni, R.; De Lorenzo, R. Gimenez

    2010-09-28

    The high frequency dynamics of liquid iodine has been investigated by deep inelastic x-ray scattering at exchanged wave-vectors (q) ranging from 2.5 to 15 A{sup -1}. The experimental data have been analyzed in the frame of the Sachs-Teller theory of the molecular spectrum while accounting for final state corrections to the lineshape. The performed data analysis carries insights on physical quantities as relevant as the mean rototranslational kinetic energy and the mean square Laplacian of the intermolecular potential. In both cases the measured values are consistent with corresponding theoretical expectations.

  17. Imaging interfacial micro- and nano-bubbles by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Binyu; Xue, Lian; Guo, Zhi; Dong, Yaming; Fang, Haiping; Tai, Renzhong; Hu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Synchrotron-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) with nanometer resolution was used to investigate the existence and behavior of interfacial gas nanobubbles confined between two silicon nitride windows. The observed nanobubbles of SF6 and Ne with diameters smaller than 2.5 µm were quite stable. However, larger bubbles became unstable and grew during the soft X-ray imaging, indicating that stable nanobubbles may have a length scale, which is consistent with a previous report using atomic force microscopy [Zhang et al. (2010), Soft Matter, 6, 4515-4519]. Here, it is shown that STXM is a promising technique for studying the aggregation of gases near the solid/water interfaces at the nanometer scale.

  18. Ionized Absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei and Very Steap Soft X-Ray Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Steep soft X-ray (0.1-2 keV) quasars share several unusual properties: narrow Balmer lines, strong Fe II emission, large and fast X-ray variability, and a rather steep 2-10 keV spectrum. These intriguing objects have been suggested to be the analogues of Galactic black hole candidates in the high, soft state. We present here results from ASCA observations for two of these quasars: NAB 0205 + 024 and PG 1244 + 026. Both objects show similar variations (factor of approximately 2 in 10 ks), despite a factor of approximately 10 difference in the 0.5-10 keV luminosity (7.3 x 10(exp 43) erg/s for PG 1244 + 026 and 6.4 x 10(exp 44) erg/s for NAB 0205 + 024, assuming isotropic emission, H(sub 0) = 50.0 and q(sub 0) = 0.0). The X-ray continuum of the two quasars flattens by 0.5-1 going from the 0.1-2 keV band towards higher energies, strengthening recent results on another half-dozen steep soft X-ray active galactic nuclei. PG 1244 + 026 shows a significant feature in the '1-keV' region, which can be described either as a broad emission line centered at 0.95 keV (quasar frame) or as edge or line absorption at 1.17 (1.22) keV. The line emission could be a result of reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc, in line with the view that steep soft X-ray quasars are emitting close to the Eddington luminosity. Photoelectric edge absorption or resonant line absorption could be produced by gas outflowing at a large velocity (0.3-0.6 c).

  19. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2014-06-10

    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10(-18) s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum.

  20. A CANDIDATE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS WITH A PURE SOFT THERMAL X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Terashima, Yuichi; Kamizasa, Naoya; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kubota, Aya; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-20

    We report the discovery of a candidate active galactic nucleus (AGN), 2XMM J123103.2+110648 at z = 0.13, with an X-ray spectrum represented purely by soft thermal emission reminiscent of Galactic black hole (BH) binaries in the disk-dominated state. This object was found in the second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog as a highly variable X-ray source. In three separate observations, its X-ray spectrum can be represented either by a multicolor disk blackbody model with an inner temperature of kT{sub in} Almost-Equal-To 0.16-0.21 keV or a Wien spectrum Comptonized by an optically thick plasma with kT Almost-Equal-To 0.14-0.18 keV. The soft X-ray luminosity in the 0.5-2 keV band is estimated to be (1.6-3.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Hard emission above {approx}2 keV is not detected. The ratio of the soft to hard emission is the strongest among AGNs observed thus far. Spectra selected in high/low-flux time intervals are examined in order to study spectral variability. In the second observation with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the low-energy (below 0.7 keV) spectral regime flattens when the flux is high, while the shape of the high-energy part (1-1.7 keV) remains unchanged. This behavior is qualitatively consistent with being caused by strong Comptonization. Both the strong soft excess and spectral change consistent with Comptonization in the X-ray spectrum imply that the Eddington ratio is large, which requires a small BH mass (smaller than {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }).

  1. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10−18 s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum. PMID:24850866

  2. Transverse dynamics of water across the melting point: A parallel neutron and x-ray inelastic scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo A.; Kodituwakku C.; Bencivenga, F.; Frontzek, M.; Leu, b.M.; Said, A.H.

    2012-05-29

    Joint inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering measurements have been performed on heavy water across the melting point. The spectra bear clear evidence of low- and high-frequency inelastic shoulders related to transverse and longitudinal modes, respectively. Upon increasing the momentum transfer, the spectral shape evolves from a viscoelastic regime, where the low-frequency mode is clearly over-damped, toward an elastic one where its propagation becomes instead allowed. The crossover between the two regimes occurs whenever both the characteristic frequency and the linewidth of the low-frequency mode match the inverse of the structural relaxation time. Furthermore, we observe that the frequency of the transverse mode undergoes a discontinuity across the melting, whose extent reduces upon increasing the exchanged momentum.

  3. Photospheric soft X-ray emission from hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesemael, F.; Raymond, J. C.; Kahn, S. M.; Liebert, J.; Steiner, J. E.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's imaging proportional counter has detected 150-eV soft X-ray radiation from the four hot DA white dwarfs EG 187, Gr 288 and 289, and LB 1663. The observed pulse height spectra suggest that the emission is generated by hot photospheres whose T(eff) lie in the 30,000-60,000 K range. The IUE spacecraft UV spectra and H-beta line profiles for the four stars have been fitted, along with the X-ray fluxes, with a grid of hot, high gravity, homogeneous model atmospheres of mixed H-He composition. In all cases, the data require the presence of some X-ray opacity in the photosphere. Attention is given to the implications of this result in the context of white dwarf surface layer diffusion theories. Also noted are the limits imposed on the hot white dwarf population by the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey.

  4. Influence of the soft X-ray plasma focus radiation on live microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapryanov, S.; Goltsev, V.; Galutsov, B.; Gelev, M.; Blagoev, A.

    2012-04-01

    A 3 kJ plasma focus device was used to study the influence of the soft X-ray on live microorganisms. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae - (yeast) was treated with a dose of 65 mSv of the X-ray radiation (14 shots), no difference in the fertility activity between the control probe and the sample was observed. Also no change in the survival enzyme activity was found after irradiation through a 100 μm Al foil of another type of yeast - Kluyveromyces marxiamus. The irradiation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii samples by the PF-X-ray emission through 20 μm Al foil with a dose of 11 mSv produces a considerable change of the photosynthesis parameters. This result is similar to the results of previous studies with plasma focus radiation where strong effects were derived with low doses but with a high dose power.

  5. Construction of focusing soft x-ray beamline BL1A at the UVSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraya, A.; Horigome, T.; Okada, N.; Mizutani, N.; Sakai, K.; Matsudo, O.; Hasumoto, M. ); Fukui, K. ); Watanabe, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A focusing soft x-ray beam line equipped with a focusing premirror and a double crystal monochromator (DXM) has been constructed at BL1A in the UVSOR. An elliptically bent cylindrical mirror was used as the focusing premirror in order to attain both horizontal and vertical focusing at the sample position. Ray tracing shows that the size and shape of the focused spot at sample position with an elliptically bent cylindrical mirror is almost the same as that of an ellipsoidal mirror. Measured spot size of the monochromatic x-ray beam at the sample position was about 2 mm wide and 1 mm high, which is in good agreement with the result of ray tracing. Monochromatic x rays were observed up to 4 keV even after reflection by a platinum coated premirror with grazing angle of 1{degree}.

  6. Supercrystallization of KCl from solution irradiated by soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Rinkūnas, R.; Purlys, R.

    2016-10-01

    The X-rays influence on KCl crystallization in a saturated water solution has been investigated for the aim of comparing it with previously considered NaCl crystallization. The rate of crystallization has been measured in the drying drop in the solution activated by the irradiation. We have measured the influence of the irradiation time of the solution on the rates of KCl crystallization as well as the beginning of the crystallization processes on drying drops. For a longer irradiation time of the solution early crystallization in the drops occurs. A saturated water solution of KCl was irradiated with the diffractometer DRON-3M (Russian device) and this had a great influence on the two-step processes of crystallization. The ionization of the solution by soft X-rays can produce ions, metastable radicals in water, excited crystals' seeds and vacancies in growing crystals by Auger's effect. The X-rays generate a very fast crystallization in the drying drop.

  7. Soft X-ray observations of Centaurus X-3 from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Mason, K. O.; Hawkins, F. J.; Sanford, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    We have detected soft X-ray emission from Centaurus X-3 in the 0.6-1.9 keV band, using the focusing telescope aboard OAO Copernicus. The flux is compatible with an extrapolation of the harder X-ray spectrum, attenuated by (3-4) times 10 to the 22nd atoms per sq cm of interstellar and/or circumstellar matter. The data are consistent with the distance estimate of 5-10 kpc derived from the spectroscopic modulus of the optical component, and obviate the need to postulate the primary to be an anomalously subluminous hot star. There is currently no compelling evidence that such models must be invoked to explain any of the observed compact X-ray sources.

  8. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A; May, M J; Purvis, M A; Scott, H A; Schneider, M B

    2012-05-02

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  9. Cooling system for the soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Murakami, Masahide; Kitamoto, Shunji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamagawa, Toru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Sato, Kosuke; Hoshino, Akio; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Dipirro, Michael; Shirron, Peter; Sneiderman, Gary; Kelley, Richard L.; Porter, F. Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Crow, John; Mattern, Andrea; Kashani, Ali; McCammon, Dan

    2010-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a cryogenic high resolution X-ray spectrometer onboard the X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H. The detector array is cooled down to 50 mK using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The cooling chain from room temperature to the ADR heat-sink is composed of superfluid liquid He, a 4He Joule-Thomson cryocooler, and 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers. It is designed to keep 30 L of liquid He for more than 3 years in the nominal case. It is also designed with redundant subsystems throughout from room temperature to the ADR heat-sink, to alleviate failure of a single cryocooler or loss of liquid He.

  10. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measured at the Fe K-edge with a reduced intrinsic broadening: x-ray absorption spectroscopy versus resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhin, Amélie; Sainctavit, Philippe; Ollefs, Katharina; Sikora, Marcin; Filipponi, Adriano; Glatzel, Pieter; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is measured at the Fe K pre-edge in yttrium iron garnet using two different procedures that allow reducing the intrinsic broadening due to the 1s corehole lifetime. First, deconvolution of XMCD data measured in total fluorescence yield (TFY) with an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio enables a factor of 2.4 to be gained in the XMCD intensity. Ligand field multiplet calculations performed with different values of intrinsic broadening show that deconvolving such high quality XMCD data is similar to reducing the lifetime broadening from a 1s corehole to a 2p corehole. Second, MCD is measured by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy as a function of incident energy and emission energy. Selection of a fixed emission energy, instead of using the TFY, allows enhancing the MCD intensity up to a factor of  ∼4.7. However, this significantly changes the spectral shape of the XMCD signal, which cannot be interpreted any more as an absorption spectrum.

  11. Dysprosium compounds studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and high-resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, K J; Cui, M Q; Hua, W; Ma, C Y; Zhao, Y D; Huang, Y Y; He, W; Wu, Z Y

    2008-11-15

    A set of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) studies focusing on the 2p64f(n)-->2p54f(n)5d1(2p54f(n+1)5d0)-->2p63d94f(n)5d1(2p63d94f(n+1)5d0) channel of dysprosium in Dy metal, Dy2O3, DyNi3 and Dy25Fe18 compounds have been carried out. Data showed with high statistics and resolution, the different delocalization degree of the 5d band of dysprosium in these compounds, e.g., decreasing from Dy metal to DyNi3, Dy25Fe18 and to dysprosium oxide, in agreement with the high-resolution XANES (HRXANES) spectra. Band structure calculations performed on Dy metal and Dy2O3 confirm both RIXS and HRXANES results in the increasing delocalization of the dysprosium 5d band in Dy metal with respect to Dy2O3. The 5d orbital occupancies of DyNi3 and Dy25Fe18 alloys have been also studied by comparison of the HRXANES white line (WL) area with the behavior of the final states energy position in RIXS spectra and we show that DyNi3 has a higher 5d orbital occupancy than Dy25Fe18.

  12. Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Kim, Junghee

    2014-11-15

    Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 2–40 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

  13. Band gap states in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M. B.; Kristiansen, P. T.; Duda, L.; Niklasson, G. A.; Österlund, L.

    2016-11-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering have been studied using soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveal band gap states in sub-stoichiometric γ-WO3-x with x  =  0.001-0.005. The energy positions of these states are in good agreement with recently reported density functional calculations. The results were compared with optical absorption measurements in the near infrared spectral region. An optical absorption peak at 0.74 eV is assigned to intervalence transfer of polarons between W sites. A less prominent peak at energies between 0.96 and 1.16 eV is assigned to electron excitation of oxygen vacancies. The latter results are supported by RIXS measurements, where an energy loss in this energy range was observed, and this suggests that electron transfer processes involving transitions from oxygen vacancy states can be observed in RIXS. Our results have implications for the interpretation of optical properties of WO3, and the optical transitions close to the band gap, which are important in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

  14. Correlative analysis of hard and soft x ray observations of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarro, Dominic M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a promising new technique for jointly analyzing BATSE hard X-ray observations of solar flares with simultaneous soft X-ray observations. The technique is based upon a model in which electric currents and associated electric fields are responsible for the respective heating and particle acceleration that occur in solar flares. A useful by-product of this technique is the strength and evolution of the coronal electric field. The latter permits one to derive important flare parameters such as the current density, the number of current filaments composing the loop, and ultimately the hard X-ray spectrum produced by the runaway electrons. We are continuing to explore the technique by applying it to additional flares for which we have joint BATSE/Yohkoh observations. A central assumption of our analysis is the constant of proportionality alpha relating the hard X-ray flux above 50 keV and the rate of electron acceleration. For a thick-target model of hard X-ray production, it can be shown that cv is in fact related to the spectral index and low-energy cutoff of precipitating electrons. The next step in our analysis is to place observational constraints on the latter parameters using the joint BATSE/Yohkoh data.

  15. Wavelength dispersing devices for soft and ultrasoft x-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Tomoya; Ryon, R.W.; Shoji, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Monochromatization combining total reflection by a selected mirror and an appropriate filter offered an alternative approach in order to increase measurable intensity with reasonable spectral resolution. Recently, the use of synthetic multilayers, which are prepared by sputter/evaporation techniques, has been introduced for the detection of soft and ultrasoft x-rays. Studies on the use of these new wavelength dispersing devices have been conducted and it has been found that the reflectivity of these devices is very high compared with single crystals and soap multilayers and that their resolving power is fairly good. This report makes comparisons regarding efficiency of reflection, resolving power and x-ray analytical problems for practical applications among long spacing single crystals, soap multilayers, total reflection combined with a selected mirror and filtering and synthetic multilayers. The x-ray analytical capablities are shown based upon a standard x-ray fluorescence spectrometer equipped with a sealed-off x-ray tube and a gas flow proportional counter with thin film detector window.

  16. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  17. Soft x-ray images of the Laser Entrance Hole of NIC Hohlraums (paper, HTPD2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M B; Meezan, N B

    2012-04-30

    Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility convert laser energy into a thermal x-radiation drive, which implodes the capsule, thus compressing the fuel. The x-radiation drive is measured with a low resolution, time-resolved x-ray spectrometer that views the hohlraum's laser entrance hole (LEH) at 37{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. This measurement has no spatial resolution. To convert this to the drive inside the hohlraum, the area and fraction of the measured x-radiation which comes from the region inside the hohlraum must be known. The size of the LEH is measured with the time integrated Static X-ray Imager (SXI) which view the LEH at 18{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. A soft x-ray image has been added to the SXI to measure the fraction of x-radiation inside the LEH's Clear Aperture in order to correct the measured radiation. A multilayer mirror plus filter selects an x-ray band centered at 870 eV, near the x-ray energy peak of a 300 eV blackbody. Results from this channel and corrections to the x-radiation drive are discussed.

  18. Yeast cell metabolism investigated by CO{_2} production and soft X-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, A.; Batani, D.; Previdi, F.; Milani, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Huntington, S.; Takeyasu, H.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained using a new technique for studying cell metabolism are presented. The technique, consisting in CO2 production monitoring, has been applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Also the cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the aim of producing a damage of metabolic processes at the wall level, responsible for fermentation, without great interference with respiration, taking place in mitochondria, and DNA activity. The source was calibrated with PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers and used Teflon stripes as target, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, with a very low penetration in biological material. X-ray doses delivered to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. Immediately after irradiation, the damage to metabolic activity was measured again by monitoring CO2 production. Results showed a general reduction in gas production by irradiated samples, together with non-linear and non-monotone response to dose. There was also evidence of oscillations in cell metabolic activity and of X-ray induced changes in oscillation frequency.

  19. Miscibility gap and phonon thermodynamics of Fe-Au alloys studied by inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Jorge A.; Fultz, Brent

    2015-07-01

    Recent measurements of the phonon spectra of several Au-rich alloys of face-centered-cubic Fe-Au using inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering are summarized. The Wills-Harrison model, accounting for charge transfer upon alloying, is used to explain the observed negative excess vibrational entropy of mixing, which increases the miscibility gap temperature in the system by an estimated maximum of 550 K and we adjudicate to a charge transfer from the Fe to the Au atoms that results in an increase in the electron density in the free-electron-like states and in stronger sd-hybridization. When Au is the solvent, this softens the Fe-Fe bonds but stiffens the Au-Au and Au-Fe bonds which results in a net stiffening relative to the elemental components.

  20. Miscibility gap and phonon thermodynamics of Fe-Au alloys studied by inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, Jorge A.; Fultz, Brent

    2015-07-23

    Recent measurements of the phonon spectra of several Au-rich alloys of face-centered-cubic Fe-Au using inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering are summarized. The Wills-Harrison model, accounting for charge transfer upon alloying, is used to explain the observed negative excess vibrational entropy of mixing, which increases the miscibility gap temperature in the system by an estimated maximum of 550 K and we adjudicate to a charge transfer from the Fe to the Au atoms that results in an increase in the electron density in the free-electron-like states and in stronger sd-hybridization. When Au is the solvent, this softens the Fe–Fe bonds but stiffens the Au–Au and Au–Fe bonds which results in a net stiffening relative to the elemental components.

  1. 3D nanoscale imaging of biological samples with laboratory-based soft X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehlinger, Aurélie; Blechschmidt, Anne; Grötzsch, Daniel; Jung, Robert; Kanngießer, Birgit; Seim, Christian; Stiel, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, where the theoretical resolution limit depends on the wavelength of the probing light, radiation in the soft X-ray regime can be used to analyze samples that cannot be resolved with visible light microscopes. In the case of soft X-ray microscopy in the water-window, the energy range of the radiation lies between the absorption edges of carbon (at 284 eV, 4.36 nm) and oxygen (543 eV, 2.34 nm). As a result, carbon-based structures, such as biological samples, posses a strong absorption, whereas e.g. water is more transparent to this radiation. Microscopy in the water-window, therefore, allows the structural investigation of aqueous samples with resolutions of a few tens of nanometers and a penetration depth of up to 10μm. The development of highly brilliant laser-produced plasma-sources has enabled the transfer of Xray microscopy, that was formerly bound to synchrotron sources, to the laboratory, which opens the access of this method to a broader scientific community. The Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope at the Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray technologies (BLiX) runs with a laser produced nitrogen plasma that emits radiation in the soft X-ray regime. The mentioned high penetration depth can be exploited to analyze biological samples in their natural state and with several projection angles. The obtained tomogram is the key to a more precise and global analysis of samples originating from various fields of life science.

  2. Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.

    2015-04-01

    Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.

  3. Broad-band soft x-ray diagnostic instruments at the LLNL Novette laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tirsell, K.G.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Nilson, D.G.; Medecki, H.

    1983-09-15

    Complementary broad-band instruments have been developed to measure time dependent, absolute soft x-ray spectra at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nd glass laser irradiation facilities. Absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas are important for understanding laser absorption and energy transport. We will describe two new 10-channel XRD systems that have been installed at the LLNL Novette facility for use in the 0.15- to 1.5-keV range. Since XRD channel time response is limited by available oscilloscope performance to 120 ps, a soft x-ray streak camera has been developed for better time resolution (20 ps) and greater dynamic range (approx.10/sup 3/) in the same x-ray energy region. Using suitable filters, grazing incidence mirrors, and a gold or cesium-iodide transmission cathode, this streak camera instrument has been installed at Novette to provide one broad and four relatively narrow channels. It can also be used in a single channel, spatially discriminating mode by means of pinhole imaging. The complementary nature of these instruments has been enhanced by locating them in close proximity and matching their channel energy responses. As an example of the use of these instruments, we present results from Novette 2..omega..(0.53 ..mu..m) gold disk irradiations at 1 ns and 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  4. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntaffer, R. L.; Cash, W.

    2008-06-01

    The Cygnus X-Ray Emission Spectroscopic Survey (CyXESS) sounding rocket payload was launched from White Sands Missile Range on 2006 November 20 and obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant in the soft X-ray. The novel X-ray spectrograph incorporated a wire-grid collimator feeding an array of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount that ultimately dispersed the spectrum onto gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. This instrument recorded 65 s of usable data between 43 and 49.5 Å in two prominent features. The first feature near 45 Å is dominated by the He-like triplet of O VII in second order with contributions from Mg X and Si IX-Si XII in first order, while the second feature near 47.5 Å is first-order S IX and S X. Fits to the spectra give an equilibrium plasma at log (T) = 6.2 (kTe = 0.14 keV) and near cosmic abundances. This is consistent with previous observations, which demonstrated that the soft X-ray emission from the Cygnus Loop is dominated by interactions between the initial blast wave and the walls of a precursor-formed cavity surrounding the Cygnus Loop and that this interaction can be described using equilibrium conditions.

  5. A soft X-ray flare in the Seyfert I galaxy Markarian 335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. G.; Balick, Bruce; Halpern, J. P.; Heckman, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Strong, erratic, and primarily soft X-ray flux variations observed in Mrk 335 with the Einstein high-resolution imager (HRI) and monitor proportional counter (MPC) are reported. The variability time scales lie from about 6000 s to the period of observation, 60,000 s. The variability consisted of a decrease followed by an increase at X-ray energies below 2-3 keV. The variability is most pronounced at the softest energies. The X-ray spectrum was harder before the flare than afterward, even after the flare had ended. Averaged over the time of the observations, the MPC data are well-fitted by a power-law spectrum with a spectral index of 1.25 + or - 0.19 with no evidence of absorption by foreground neutral hydrogen at energies above 1.2 keV. If the observed value of the Galactic H I column density is assumed, then the HRI observations require the existence of an additional soft and variable X-ray component.

  6. Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A; Levis, Robert J; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Because of reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function, the emission from each species is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. However, phase matching--the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms--favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  7. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Tiedtke, K; Sorokin, A A; Jastrow, U; Juranić, P; Kreis, S; Gerken, N; Richter, M; Arp, U; Feng, Y; Nordlund, D; Soufli, R; Fernández-Perea, M; Juha, L; Heimann, P; Nagler, B; Lee, H J; Mack, S; Cammarata, M; Krupin, O; Messerschmidt, M; Holmes, M; Rowen, M; Schlotter, W; Moeller, S; Turner, J J

    2014-09-08

    This paper reports novel measurements of x-ray optical radiation on an absolute scale from the intense and ultra-short radiation generated in the soft x-ray regime of a free electron laser. We give a brief description of the detection principle for radiation measurements which was specifically adapted for this photon energy range. We present data characterizing the soft x-ray instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with respect to the radiant power output and transmission by using an absolute detector temporarily placed at the downstream end of the instrument. This provides an estimation of the reflectivity of all x-ray optical elements in the beamline and provides the absolute photon number per bandwidth per pulse. This parameter is important for many experiments that need to understand the trade-offs between high energy resolution and high flux, such as experiments focused on studying materials via resonant processes. Furthermore, the results are compared with the LCLS diagnostic gas detectors to test the limits of linearity, and observations are reported on radiation contamination from spontaneous undulator radiation and higher harmonic content.

  8. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; ...

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore » the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less

  9. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  10. Directly Characterizing the Relative Strength and Momentum Dependence of Electron-Phonon Coupling Using Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Devereaux, T. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Wu, K.; Wohlfeld, K.; Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Moritz, B.; Chaix, L.; Lee, W. -S.; Shen, Z. -X.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Braicovich, L.

    2016-10-25

    The coupling between lattice and charge degrees of freedom in condensed matter materials is ubiquitous and can often result in interesting properties and ordered phases, including conventional superconductivity, charge-density wave order, and metal-insulator transitions. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and both neutron and nonresonant x-ray scattering serve as effective probes for determining the behavior of appropriate, individual degrees of freedom—the electronic structure and lattice excitation, or phonon dispersion, respectively. However, each provides less direct information about the mutual coupling between the degrees of freedom, usually through self-energy effects, which tend to renormalize and broaden spectral features precisely where the coupling is strong, impacting one’s ability to quantitatively characterize the coupling. Here, we demonstrate that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, or RIXS, can be an effective tool to directly determine the relative strength and momentum dependence of the electron-phonon coupling in condensed matter systems. Using a diagrammatic approach for an eight-band model of copper oxides, we study the contributions from the lowest-order diagrams to the full RIXS intensity for a realistic scattering geometry, accounting for matrix element effects in the scattering cross section, as well as the momentum dependence of the electron-phonon coupling vertex. A detailed examination of these maps offers a unique perspective into the characteristics of electron-phonon coupling, which complements both neutron and nonresonant x-ray scattering, as well as Raman and infrared conductivity.

  11. Directly Characterizing the Relative Strength and Momentum Dependence of Electron-Phonon Coupling Using Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devereaux, T. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Wu, K.; Wohlfeld, K.; Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Moritz, B.; Chaix, L.; Lee, W.-S.; Shen, Z.-X.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Braicovich, L.

    2016-10-01

    The coupling between lattice and charge degrees of freedom in condensed matter materials is ubiquitous and can often result in interesting properties and ordered phases, including conventional superconductivity, charge-density wave order, and metal-insulator transitions. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and both neutron and nonresonant x-ray scattering serve as effective probes for determining the behavior of appropriate, individual degrees of freedom—the electronic structure and lattice excitation, or phonon dispersion, respectively. However, each provides less direct information about the mutual coupling between the degrees of freedom, usually through self-energy effects, which tend to renormalize and broaden spectral features precisely where the coupling is strong, impacting one's ability to quantitatively characterize the coupling. Here, we demonstrate that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, or RIXS, can be an effective tool to directly determine the relative strength and momentum dependence of the electron-phonon coupling in condensed matter systems. Using a diagrammatic approach for an eight-band model of copper oxides, we study the contributions from the lowest-order diagrams to the full RIXS intensity for a realistic scattering geometry, accounting for matrix element effects in the scattering cross section, as well as the momentum dependence of the electron-phonon coupling vertex. A detailed examination of these maps offers a unique perspective into the characteristics of electron-phonon coupling, which complements both neutron and nonresonant x-ray scattering, as well as Raman and infrared conductivity.

  12. Report on the workshop on new directions in soft x-ray near-threshold phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The ''Workshop on New Directions in Soft X-Ray Near-Threshold Phenomena'' was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, CA on March 1--4, 1987. It was attended by 59 scientists from 8 countries, representing 27 institutions. Major funding for the meeting was donated by L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who hosted and organized two previous workshops on photoabsorption and scattering in the soft x-ray energy range. Additional funding was provided by the User's Group of the Advanced Light Source. The Workshop, as its name suggests, emphasized physical phenomena in atoms, molecules, and solids near inner-shell thresholds. Of particular interest were threshold ionization, post-collisional interaction, resonant photoemission and fluorescence, and multi-electron effects such as shake-up and shake-off. In these areas and others, special consideration was given to presenting recent discoveries and potential ''new directions'' for future work.

  13. 0.5-keV Soft X-ray attosecond continua

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, S. M.; Silva, F.; Cousin, S. L.; Hemmer, M.; Biegert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet have drawn a great deal of attention due to their ability to interrogate electronic dynamics in real time. Nevertheless, to follow charge dynamics and excitations in materials, element selectivity is a prerequisite, which demands such pulses in the soft X-ray region, above 200 eV, to simultaneously cover several fundamental absorption edges of the constituents of the materials. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the exploitation of a transient phase matching regime to generate carrier envelope controlled soft X-ray supercontinua with pulse energies up to 2.9±0.1 pJ and a flux of (7.3±0.1) × 107 photons per second across the entire water window and attosecond pulses with 13 as transform limit. Our results herald attosecond science at the fundamental absorption edges of matter by bridging the gap between ultrafast temporal resolution and element specific probing. PMID:27167525

  14. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  15. An extended soft X-ray source in Delphinus - H2027+19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Walker, A. B. C.; Charles, P. A.; Nugent, J. J.; Garmire, G. P.

    1980-01-01

    A new extended soft X-ray source has been observed with the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment. The source, H2027+19, emits primarily in the 0.16-0.4 keV band with a total flux in this band of 2 x 10 to the -11th erg/sq cm s. It is found that both simple continuum and coronal plasma models provide good fits to the observed pulse-height spectrum. The most likely physical models are either that the source is an old supernova remnant or that it is a region of enhanced soft X-ray emission surrounding an H I cloud imbedded in a coronal plasma, as suggested by Hayakawa et al. (1979) for the Lupus Loop.

  16. Fresnel diffraction correction by phase-considered iteration procedure in soft X-ray projection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Toshio; Ito, Atsushi; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Yada, Keiji; Shinohara, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    In soft X-ray projection microscopy, it is easy to alter the magnification by changing the distance between the pinhole and the specimen, while the image is blurred because the soft X-rays are diffracted through the propagation from specimen to CCD detector. We corrected the blurred image by the iteration procedure of Fresnel to inverse Fresnel transformation taking phase distribution of the specimen into account. The experiments were conducted at the BL-11A of the Photon Factory, KEK, Japan for the specimens such as glass-capillaries, latex-particles, dried mammalian cells and human chromosomes. Many of those blurred images were corrected adequately by the iteration procedure, though some images such as those which have high-contrast or are overlapped by small cells still remain to be improved.

  17. Molecular bond selective x-ray scattering for nanoscale analysisof soft matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.E.; Koprinarov, I.; Landes, B.G.; Lyons, J.; Kern,B.J.; Devon, M.J.; Gullikson, E.M.; Kortright, J.B.

    2005-05-26

    We introduce a new technique using resonant soft x-ray scattering for characterizing heterogeneous chemical structure at nanometer length scales in polymers, biological material, and other soft matter. Resonant enhancements bring new contrast mechanisms and increased sensitivity to bridge a gap between bond-specific contrast in chemical sensitive imaging and the higher spatial resolution of traditional small-angle scattering techniques. We illustrate sensitivity to chemical bonding with the resonant scattering near the carbon K edge from latex spheres of differing chemistry and sizes. By tuning to x-ray absorption resonances associated with particular carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen bonds we can isolate the scattering from different phases in a 2-phase mixture. We then illustrate this increased scattering contrast with a study of the templating process to form nanometer scale pores in 100 nm thick polymer films.

  18. New soft X-ray beamline BL07LSU at SPring-8

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Susumu; Senba, Yasunori; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Hirono, Toko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masami; Miyawaki, Jun; Harasawa, Ayumi; Seike, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Sunao; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Masao; Ohata, Toru; Furukawa, Yukito; Takeshita, Kunikazu; Goto, Shunji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Shin, Shik; Kitamura, Hideo; Kakizaki, Akito; Oshima, Masaharu; Matsuda, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    A new soft X-ray beamline, BL07LSU, has been constructed at SPring-8 to perform advanced soft X-ray spectroscopy for materials science. The beamline is designed to achieve high energy resolution (E/ΔE> 10000) and high photon flux [>1012 photons s−1 (0.01% bandwidth)−1] in the photon energy range 250–2000 eV with controllable polarization. To realise this state-of-the-art performance, a novel segmented cross undulator was developed and adopted as a light source. The details of the undulator light source and beamline monochromator design are described. The achieved performance of the beamline, such as the photon flux, energy resolution and the state of polarization, is reported. PMID:24562556

  19. A multi-frame soft x-ray pinhole imaging diagnostic for single-shot applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Coffey, S. K.

    2012-10-15

    For high energy density magnetized target fusion experiments at the Air Force Research Laboratory FRCHX machine, obtaining multi-frame soft x-ray images of the field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma as it is being compressed will provide useful dynamics and symmetry information. However, vacuum hardware will be destroyed during the implosion. We have designed a simple in-vacuum pinhole nosecone attachment, fitting onto a Conflat window, coated with 3.2 mg/cm{sup 2} of P-47 phosphor, and covered with a thin 50-nm aluminum reflective overcoat, lens-coupled to a multi-frame Hadland Ultra intensified digital camera. We compare visible and soft x-ray axial images of translating ({approx}200 eV) plasmas in the FRX-L and FRCHX machines in Los Alamos and Albuquerque.

  20. Soft X-ray emissions, meter-wavelength radio bursts, and particle acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.

    1988-02-01

    A detailed study of the relationship between metric radio bursts and soft X-ray flares has been made using an extensive data set covering 15 yr. It is found that type IV emission is mainly associated with long-duration 1-8 A events that are known to be well associated with coronal mass ejections. In contrast, type II and type III bursts originate primarily in impulsive soft X-ray events that are not necessarily accompanied by mass ejection. Strong type III bursts, in particular, appear to occur only in association with relatively impulsive flares. It is suggested that coronal shocks responsible for type II bursts are blast waves generated in impulsive energy releases.

  1. Soft X-ray images of the solar corona using normal incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Underwood, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A solar coronal loop system has been photographed in soft X-rays using a normal incidence telescope based on multilayer mirror technology. The telescope consisted of a spherical objective mirror of 4 cm aperture and 1 m focal length, a film cassette, and a focal plane shutter. A metallized thin plastic film filter was used to exclude visible light. The objective mirror was covered with a multilayer coating consisting of alternating layers of tungsten and carbon whose combined thicknesses satisfied the Bragg diffraction condition for 44 A radiation. The image was recorded during a rocket flight on October 25, 1985 and was dominated by emission lines arising from the Si XII spectrum. The rocket also carried a high resolution soft X-ray spectrograph that confirmed the presence of Si XII line radiation in the source. This image represents the first successful use of multilayer technology for astrophysical observations.

  2. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngießer, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-09-16

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = {minus}5, {minus}6, {minus}7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 {times} 10{sup 6} cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v{sub d} {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 5} cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs.

  4. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  5. Resolving new ultrastructural features of cytokinetic abscission with soft-X-ray cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shachar; Kirchenbuechler, David; Nachmias, Dikla; Tamir, Adi; Werner, Stephan; Elbaum, Michael; Elia, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cytokinetic abscission is mediated by the ESCRT membrane fission machinery. While much has been clarified on the topology and kinetics of abscission through high-resolution microscopy, key questions regarding the mechanism of abscission remain open. Here we apply cryogenic soft-X-ray tomography to elucidate new ultrastructural details in the intercellular membrane bridge connecting cells undergoing abscission. In particular, we resolve defined ring-like structures inside the midbody dark zone that have been inaccessible to EM, and identify membrane extrusions at the abscission sites. In cells at late stages of abscission we resolve a complex array of helical spirals, extending the structural information obtained by EM. Our results highlight the advantages of soft-X-ray tomography and emphasize the importance of using complementary approaches for characterizing cellular structures. Notably, by providing new structural data from intact cells we present a realistic view on the topology of abscission and suggest new mechanistic models for ESCRT mediated abscission. PMID:27282220

  6. Fast-switching elliptically polarized soft X-ray beamline X13A at NSLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Hanke, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Hulbert, S. L.

    2009-09-01

    The X13A beamline at NSLS is dedicated to the generation and uses of fast-switching elliptically polarized soft X-ray radiation in the energy range from 250 to ~1600 eV. The source for this beamline is an elliptically polarized wiggler (EPW) that delivers linearly elliptically polarized soft X-rays at a switching rate, between right- and left-handed polarization, up to 100 Hz. The optical design is a spherical grating monochromator (SGM) that focuses and diffracts in plane orthogonal to the polarization switching direction. The X13A beamline scientific program is dedicated to spectroscopy and scattering studies of magnetism and magnetic materials. The fast-switching capability of the EPW enables the use of lock-in techniques, thereby greatly enhancing the detection sensitivity for small polarization-dependent signals.

  7. Fast-switching elliptically polarized soft X-ray beam X13A at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Kao, C.; Hulbert, S.

    2009-07-21

    The X13A beamline at NSLS is dedicated to the generation and uses of fast-switching elliptically polarized soft X-ray radiation in the energy range from 250 to {approx}1600 eV. The source for this beamline is an elliptically polarized wiggler (EPW) that delivers linearly elliptically polarized soft X-rays at a switching rate, between right- and left-handed polarization, up to 100 Hz. The optical design is a spherical grating monochromator (SGM) that focuses and diffracts in plane orthogonal to the polarization switching direction. The X13A beamline scientific program is dedicated to spectroscopy and scattering studies of magnetism and magnetic materials. The fast-switching capability of the EPW enables the use of lock-in techniques, thereby greatly enhancing the detection sensitivity for small polarization-dependent signals.

  8. Soft x-ray spectroscopy undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, K.J.; Xu, Z.; Moore, J.F.; Gluskin, E.

    1997-09-01

    Construction of the high-resolution soft x ray spectroscopy undulator beamline, 2ID-C, at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been completed. The beamline, one of two soft x ray beamlines at the APS, will cover the photon energy range from 500 to 3,000 eV, with a maximum resolving power between 7,000 and 14,000. The optical design is based on a spherical grating monochromator (SGM) giving both high resolution and high flux throughput. Photon flux is calculated to be approximately 10{sup 12}--10{sup 13} photons per second with a beam size of approximately 1 x 1 mm{sup 2} at the sample.

  9. Imaging performance of a normal incidence soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, J. P.; Spiller, E.; Weisskopf, M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the imaging performance of a normal incidence spherical soft X-ray mirror at BK-alpha (67.6 A). The reflector was a 124-layer coating consisting of alternating Re-W alloy and C layers with a protective C overcoat 34 A thick deposited on a Zerodur substrate. Measurements made at an angle of 1.5 deg off axis with the prototype of the Einstein Observatory high resolution imager reveal the resolution of the mirror to be about 1 arcsec FWHM, with 50% of the reflected power within the detector field of 512 arcsec contained within a diameter of 5 arcsec. The data demonstrate the practicality and potential good performance of normal-incidence soft X-ray optics, and show that the scattering performances of such devices may be as good or better than the best grazing incidence devices.

  10. Imaging at high spatial resolution: Soft x-ray microscopy to 15nm

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Fischer, P.; Schneider, G.; Le Gros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2006-04-05

    Soft x-ray microscopy has now achieved 15 nm spatial resolution with new zone plates and bending magnet radiation. Combined with elemental sensitivity and flexible sample environment (applied magnetic or electric fields, wet samples, windows, overcoatings) this emerges as a valuable tool for nanoscience and nanotechnology, complimenting common electron and scanning tip microscopies. In this presentation we describe recent advances in spatial resolution, expectations for the near future, and applications to magnetic materials, bio-tomography, etc.

  11. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K.; Read, A. M.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  12. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Any M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven; Thomas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  13. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  14. Development of in situ, at-wavelength metrology for soft x-ray nano-focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-09-19

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. We describe here details of the metrology beamline endstation, the at-wavelength tests, and an original alignment method that have already allowed us to precisely set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a FWHM focused spot size of ~;;120 nm, at 1-nm soft x-ray wavelength.

  15. Line identification and lifetime measurements in the XUV and soft X-ray regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1979-01-01

    A summary of the data acquired concerning line identification and lifetime measurements in the xuv and soft X-ray regions for a variety of both resonance transitions and forbidden transitions in ions of astrophysical interest is provided. Particular attention is called to a few papers which appeared in the Astrophysical Journal. These are of special relevance to specific astrophysical data needs. The many experiments completed in areas related to but somewhat outside the confines of the project title are mentioned.

  16. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Nardini, E.; Behar, E.; O'Brien, P. T.; Tombesi, F.; Turner, T. J.; Costa, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometer spectra are analyzed from the large 2013-2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of five observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level, and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of {σ }{{v}}˜ {{10,000}} km s-1. During a period of higher flux in the third and fourth observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range ˜ 0.1{--}0.2c. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. A comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals a similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 2001, and generally the absorption lines appear most apparent when the spectrum is more absorbed overall. The presence of the soft X-ray BALs is also independently confirmed by an analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC spectra below 2 keV. We suggest that the soft X-ray absorption profiles could be associated with a lower ionization and possibly clumpy phase of the accretion disk wind, where the latter is known to be present in this quasar from its well-studied iron K absorption profile and where the wind velocity reaches a typical value of 0.3c.

  17. Observations of the quiet Sun from the soft x ray telescope on Yohkoh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.

    1992-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh has obtained many thousands of images suitable for studying the quiet Sun. It will give a new perspective on the types of structures, their frequency of occurrence, and their lifetimes that will provide an invaluable tool for planning SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) observations of the solar corona. The range of corona phenomena and the dynamic nature of the quiet Sun are illustrated.

  18. Correlative VIS-fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Christoph; Guttmann, Peter; Klupp, Barbara; Werner, Stephan; Rehbein, Stefan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Schneider, Gerd; Grünewald, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of vitreous samples is becoming a valuable tool in structural cell biology. Within the ‘water-window’ wavelength region (2.34–4.37 nm), it provides absorption contrast images with high signal to noise ratio and resolution of a few tens of nanometer. Soft X-rays with wavelengths close to the K-absorption edge of oxygen penetrate biological samples with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Here, we report on the application of a recently established extension of the transmission soft X-ray cryo-microscope (HZB TXM) at the beamline U41-XM of the BESSY II electron storage ring by an in-column epi-fluorescence and reflected light cryo-microscope. We demonstrate the new capability for correlative fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of this instrument along a typical life science experimental approach – the correlation of a fluorophore-tagged protein (pUL34-GFP of pseudorabies virus, PrV, the nuclear membrane-anchored component of the nuclear egress complex of the Herpesviridae which interacts with viral pUL31) in PrV pUL34-GFP/pUL31 coexpressing mammalian cells, with virus-induced vesicular structures in the nucleus, expanding the nucleoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, our results demonstrate new possibilities to study the role of specific proteins in substructures of adherent cells, especially of the nucleus in toto, accessible to electron microscopy in thinned samples only. PMID:22210307

  19. XTEND: Extending the depth of field in cryo soft X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Otón, Joaquín; Pereiro, Eva; Conesa, José J; Chichón, Francisco J; Luque, Daniel; Rodríguez, Javier M; Pérez-Berná, Ana J; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Klukowska, Joanna; Herman, Gabor T; Vargas, Javier; Marabini, Roberto; Carrascosa, José L; Carazo, José M

    2017-04-04

    We have developed a new data collection method and processing framework in full field cryo soft X-ray tomography to computationally extend the depth of field (DOF) of a Fresnel zone plate lens. Structural features of 3D-reconstructed eukaryotic cells that are affected by DOF artifacts in standard reconstruction are now recovered. This approach, based on focal series projections, is easily applicable with closed expressions to select specific data acquisition parameters.

  20. XTEND: Extending the depth of field in cryo soft X-ray tomography

    PubMed Central

    Otón, Joaquín; Pereiro, Eva; Conesa, José J.; Chichón, Francisco J.; Luque, Daniel; Rodríguez, Javier M.; Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Klukowska, Joanna; Herman, Gabor T.; Vargas, Javier; Marabini, Roberto; Carrascosa, José L.; Carazo, José M.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new data collection method and processing framework in full field cryo soft X-ray tomography to computationally extend the depth of field (DOF) of a Fresnel zone plate lens. Structural features of 3D-reconstructed eukaryotic cells that are affected by DOF artifacts in standard reconstruction are now recovered. This approach, based on focal series projections, is easily applicable with closed expressions to select specific data acquisition parameters. PMID:28374769

  1. Collimating Montel mirror as part of a multi-crystal analyzer system for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungho; Shi, Xianbo; Casa, Diego; Qian, Jun; Huang, XianRong; Gog, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Advances in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir L3-edge stands at ∼25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si(844) spherical crystal analyzer. However, spherical analyzers are limited by their intrinsic reflection width. A novel analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to overcome this limitation. For the present design, an energy resolution at or below 10 meV was selected. Recognizing that the angular acceptance of flat crystals is severely limited, a collimating element is essential to achieve the necessary solid-angle acceptance. For this purpose, a laterally graded, parabolic, multilayer Montel mirror was designed for use at the Ir L3-absorption edge. It provides an acceptance larger than 10 mrad, collimating the reflected X-ray beam to smaller than 100 µrad, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The performance of this mirror was studied at beamline 27-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. X-rays from a diamond (111) monochromator illuminated a scattering source of diameter 5 µm, generating an incident beam on the mirror with a well determined divergence of 40 mrad. A flat Si(111) crystal after the mirror served as the divergence analyzer. From X-ray measurements, ray-tracing simulations and optical metrology results, it was established that the Montel mirror satisfied the specifications of angular acceptance and collimation quality necessary for a high-resolution RIXS multi-crystal analyzer system.

  2. The GEMpix detector as new soft X-rays diagnostic tool for laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claps, G.; Pacella, D.; Murtas, F.; Jakubowska, K.; Boutoux, G.; Burgy, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Batani, D.

    2016-10-01

    Laser produced plasmas lend to several interesting applications. The study of X-ray emission from this kind of plasmas is important not only to characterize plasmas itself but also to study the application of these particular plasmas as intense X-ray sources. In particular several emission configurations can be obtained using different kinds of targets and tuning the characteristics of the laser pulse delivered to the target. Typically, laser pulse duration ranges between a few tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanoseconds, with energies from few mJ to tens of kJ. X-ray photon emissions last for times comparable to the laser pulses and during this time a great number of photons can be emitted. The following paper presents a measure of the soft-X-ray emission on the ECLIPSE laser facility realized with a new triple-GEM gas detector (GEMpix). It is a hybrid gas detector with a C-MOS front-end electronics based on Medipix chips. In the present work, different targets have been used in order to test X-rays of different energies. In this paper, in particular, we present results obtained for copper and iron targets. GEMpix is able to realize a 2D imaging of the X-ray emission from plasma with a signal proportional to the energy released in the gas of the detector active volume. Then through a preliminary single photon equalization realized at the NIXT lab (ENEA), also the number of photons reaching the area of the detector has been estimated.

  3. The GEMpix detector as new soft X-rays diagnostic tool for laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Claps, G; Pacella, D; Murtas, F; Jakubowska, K; Boutoux, G; Burgy, F; Ducret, J E; Batani, D

    2016-10-01

    Laser produced plasmas lend to several interesting applications. The study of X-ray emission from this kind of plasmas is important not only to characterize plasmas itself but also to study the application of these particular plasmas as intense X-ray sources. In particular several emission configurations can be obtained using different kinds of targets and tuning the characteristics of the laser pulse delivered to the target. Typically, laser pulse duration ranges between a few tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanoseconds, with energies from few mJ to tens of kJ. X-ray photon emissions last for times comparable to the laser pulses and during this time a great number of photons can be emitted. The following paper presents a measure of the soft-X-ray emission on the ECLIPSE laser facility realized with a new triple-GEM gas detector (GEMpix). It is a hybrid gas detector with a C-MOS front-end electronics based on Medipix chips. In the present work, different targets have been used in order to test X-rays of different energies. In this paper, in particular, we present results obtained for copper and iron targets. GEMpix is able to realize a 2D imaging of the X-ray emission from plasma with a signal proportional to the energy released in the gas of the detector active volume. Then through a preliminary single photon equalization realized at the NIXT lab (ENEA), also the number of photons reaching the area of the detector has been estimated.

  4. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J.

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  5. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  6. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  7. Design of High Resolution Soft X-Ray Microcalorimeters Using Magnetic Penetration Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch. Sarah; Balvin, Manuel; Bandler, Simon; Denis, Kevin; Finkbeiner, Fred; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Sadlier, Jack; Smith, Stephen; Stevenson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have designed high-resolution soft x-ray microcalorimeters using magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) in an array of pixels covering a total of 2 square centimeters to have a resolving power of 300 at energies around 300 eV. This performance is desirable for studying the soft x-ray background from the warm hot intergalactic medium. MPT devices have small sensor heat capacity and high responsivities, which makes them excellent detector technology for attempting to attain sub-eV resolution. We are investigating the feasibility of pixels with absorbers that are 625 x 625 square micrometers, up to 1 x 1 square millimeters in area and 0.35 micrometer thick and thinner. Our tests have shown that suspended gold absorbers 0.35 micrometers thick (RRR = 6.7) are feasible to fabricate. We modeled the thermal diffusion from such thin gold over the size of a 625 x 625 square micrometer absorber, and conclude that the effect of the thermalization on the resolution of a 300 eV photon is an additional approximately 0.2 eV FWHM of broadening. We discuss the thermal effects of small absorber attachment sterns on solid substrate, as well as considerations for multiplexed readout. We will present the progress we have made towards building and testing this soft x-ray detector.

  8. Multi-spectral solar telescope array IV; The soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, J.F.; O'Neal, R.H.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr. ); Powell, F.R. ); Barbee, T.W. Jr. ); Hoover, R.B. ); Powell, S.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The multilayer mirrors used in the normal-incidence optical systems of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) are efficient reflectors for soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at wavelengths that satisfy the Bragg condition, thus allowing a narrow band of the soft x-ray/EUV spectrum to be isolated. However, these same mirrors are also excellent reflectors in the visible, ultraviolet, and far-ultraviolet (FUV) part of the spectrum, where normal incidence reflectivities can exceed 50%. Furthermore, the sun emits far more radiation in the ultraviolet and visible part of the spectrum than it does in the soft x-ray/EUV. For this reason, thin foil filters are employed to eliminate the unwanted longer wavelength solar emission. The MSSTA instrument uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of aluminum carbon, tellurium, potassium bromide, beryllium, molybdenum, rhodium, and phthalocyanine to achieve the desired radiation rejection characteristics. In this paper, the authors discuss issues concerning the design, manufacture, and predicted performance of MSSTA filters.

  9. Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Dilworth Y; McDermott, Gerry; Etkin, Laurence D; Le Gros, Mark A; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2008-06-01

    Imaging has long been one of the principal techniques used in biological and biomedical research. Indeed, the field of cell biology grew out of the first electron microscopy images of organelles in a cell. Since this landmark event, much work has been carried out to image and classify the organelles in eukaryotic cells using electron microscopy. Fluorescently labeled organelles can now be tracked in live cells, and recently, powerful light microscope techniques have pushed the limit of optical resolution to image single molecules. In this paper, we describe the use of soft X-ray tomography, a new tool for quantitative imaging of organelle structure and distribution in whole, fully hydrated eukaryotic Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. In addition to imaging intact cells, soft X-ray tomography has the advantage of not requiring the use of any staining or fixation protocols--cells are simply transferred from their growth environment to a sample holder and immediately cryofixed. In this way the cells can be imaged in a near native state. Soft X-ray tomography is also capable of imaging relatively large numbers of cells in a short period of time, and is therefore a technique that has the potential to produce information on organelle morphology from statistically significant numbers of cells.

  10. DNA strand breaks induced by soft X-ray pulses from a compact laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Wiechec, Anna; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Davídková, Marie; Vyšín, Luděk; Juha, Libor; Pina, Ladislav; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2016-03-01

    Application of a compact laser plasma source of soft X-rays in radiobiology studies is demonstrated. The source is based on a laser produced plasma as a result of irradiation of a double-stream gas puff target with nanosecond laser pulses from a commercially available Nd:YAG laser. The source allows irradiation of samples with soft X-ray pulses in the "water window" spectral range (wavelength: 2.3-4.4 nm; photon energy: 280-560 eV) in vacuum or a helium atmosphere at very high-dose rates and doses exceeding the kGy level. Single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DBS) induced in DNA plasmids pBR322 and pUC19 have been measured. The different conformations of the plasmid DNA were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. An exponential decrease in the supercoiled form with an increase in linear and relaxed forms of the plasmids has been observed as a function of increasing photon fluence. Significant difference between SSB and DSB in case of wet and dry samples was observed that is connected with the production of free radicals in the wet sample by soft X-ray photons and subsequent affecting the plasmid DNA. Therefore, the new source was validated to be useful for radiobiology experiments.

  11. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Characterization of Interfacial Phenomena in Energy Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinghua; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Glans, Per-Anders; Bora, Debajeet; Braun, Artur; Velasco Vélez, Juan Jesús; Salmeron, Miquel; ALS/LBNL Team; EMPA, MSD/LBNL Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Advanced energy technology arises from the understanding in basic science, thus rest in large on in-situ/operando characterization tools for observing the physical and chemical interfacial processes, which has been largely limited in a framework of thermodynamic and kinetic concepts or atomic and nanoscale. In many important energy systems such as energy conversion, energy storage and catalysis, advanced materials and functionality in devices are based on the complexity of material architecture, chemistry and interactions among constituents within. To understand and thus ultimately control the energy conversion and energy storage applications calls for in-situ/operando characterization tools. Soft X-ray spectroscopy offers a number of very unique features. We will present our development of the in-situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopic tools of catalytic and electrochemical reactions in recent years, and reveal how to overcome the challenge that soft X-rays cannot easily peek into the high-pressure catalytic cells or liquid electrochemical cells. In this presentation a number of examples are given, including the nanocatalysts and the recent experiment performed for studying the hole generation in a specifically designed photoelectrochemical cell under operando conditions. The ALS is supported by the the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. On the Nature of Soft X-Ray Radiation in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

    1997-08-01

    EUVE and ROSAT observations of Comet Hyakutake revealed emission of 7 × 1024photons per second in the soft X-ray. We discuss and develop methods to calculate production of soft X-ray photons in cometary dust and gas by the following processes: (1) scattering and (2) fluorescence of solar X-rays; (3) K- and L-shell ionization by solar-wind protons and (4) electrons, and (5) by high-energy cometary ions; (6) bremsstrahlung of solar-wind electrons; (7) cometary magnetospheric substorms; (8) collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles; (9) scattering, fluorescence, and bremsstrahlung by very small particles with mass on the order of 10-19g; and (10) charge transfer of the solar-wind heavy ions with cometary molecules suggested by T. E. Cravens (1997,Geophys. Res. Lett.24,105-108). Very small attogram particles were detected in Comet Halley by N. G. Utterback and J. Kissel (1990,Astron. J.100,1315-1322) using the PUMA and PIA dust analyzers from the Vega and Giotto spacecraft. Of all these processes, only scattering by very small particles and charge transfer of the solar-wind heavy ions are capable of producing the measured soft X-ray emission. In the case of very small particles, the mean particle mass of 4.6 × 10-19g suggested by Utterback and Kissel implies that the total production of these particles, which exceeds that of gas by a factor 3.6 (in mass), is inconsistent with the polarization and color of Comet Halley. Both polarization and color require a reduction of the mean mass to (1-2) × 10-19g. This reduction strongly affects the visible brightness of the particles, which is proportional tom2, with a relatively weak effect on the soft X-ray emission. We calculate the charge transfer process using the solar-wind ion densities and velocities in comet from both the model of T. I. Gombosiet al.(1994,J. Geophys. Res.99,21,525-21,539) and the Giotto measurements of α-particles and He+ions in Comet Halley. The calculated emission constitutes 20

  13. Duplex multiwire proportional x-ray detector for multichord time-resolved soft x-ray and electron temperature measurements on T-10 tokamaka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkov, A. V.; Andreev, V. F.; Kravtsov, D. E.

    2008-10-01

    Compact 64-channel multiwire proportional chamber is successfully used on T-10 and TCV tokamaks as a continuous-current soft x-ray detectors. The duplex multiwire proportional x-ray detector is a new generation of these detectors. It has been designed for simultaneous multichord measurement of plasma soft x-ray emissivity in a two spectral ranges and determination of the electron temperature by the two-absorber method. The detector consists of two identical multiwire proportional chambers filled by 90%Kr+10%CH4 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. The first multiwire chamber has 64 channels. The second multiwire chamber (installed behind the first one) has 32 channels. Both chambers view the plasma through the one helium-filled slot-hole camera. Thus, the first multiwire chamber serves as an absorber filter for the second one. Such construction of the detector allows us in addition to soft x-ray measurements to provide measurement of the plasma core electron temperature with spatial resolution of about 2cm and a time resolution of less than 50μs. The construction of the detector and experimental results illustrating the potential of the diagnostic are presented.

  14. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe 2 Ge 2 Heavy Fermion Compound—A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran, Ganapathy; ...

    2015-10-19

    We measured the crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Moreover, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. Finally, while the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) atmore » ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.« less

  15. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran, Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Bauer, Eric D.; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul

    2016-06-03

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Furthermore, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  16. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound--A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravhi S; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran, Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L; Bauer, Eric D; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul

    2015-11-02

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. The measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ∼9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  17. Compact scanning soft-x-ray microscope using a laser-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Trail, J A; Byer, R L

    1989-06-01

    We have constructed a scanning soft-x-ray microscope that uses a laser-produced plasma as the soft-x-ray source and normal-incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 microm, and has a soft-x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10(4)-10(5) sec(-1) when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The microscope is compact; the complete system, including the laser, fits on a single optical table.

  18. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  19. First peek of ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) in-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter; Mori, Hideyuki; Olsen, Larry; Robinson, David; Koenecke, Richard; Chang, Bill; Hahne, Devin; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Tachibana, Kenji; Tamura, Keisuke; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Tawara, Yuzuru; Sugita, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    ASTRO-H (Hitomi) is a Japanese X-ray astrophysics satellite just launched in February, 2016, from Tanegashima, Japan by a JAXA's H-IIA launch vehicle. It has two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments, that were developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in collaboration with ISAS/JAXA and Nagoya University. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter instrument (Soft X-ray Spectrometer, SXS) and the other for an X-ray CCD camera (Soft X-ray Imager, SXI), both covering the X-ray energy band up to 15 keV. The two SXTs were fully characterized at the 30-m X-ray beamline at ISAS/JAXA. The combined SXT+SXS system effective area is about 250 and 300 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively, although observations were performed with the gate valve at the dewar entrance closed, which blocks most of low energy X-rays and some of high energy ones. The angular resolution for SXS is 1.2 arcmin (Half Power Diameter, HPD). The combined SXT+SXI system effective area is about 370 and 350 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively. The angular resolution for SXI is 1.3 arcmin (HPD). The both SXTs have a field of view of about 16 arcmin (FWHM of their vignetting functions). The SXT+SXS field of view is limited to 3 x 3 arcmin by the SXS array size. In-flight data available to the SXT team was limited at the time of this conference and a point-like source data is not available for the SXT+SXS. Although due to lack of attitude information we were unable to reconstruct a point spread function of SXT+SXI, according to RXJ1856.5-3754 data, the SXT seems to be working as expected in terms of imaging capability. As for the overall effective area response for both SXT+SXS and SXT+SXI, consistent spectral model fitting parameters with the previous measurements were obtained for Crab and G21.5-0.9 data. On the other hand, their 2-10 keV fluxes differ by about 20% at this point. Calibration work is still under progress. The SXT is the latest version of the aluminum foil X-ray mirror, which is

  20. Calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXT) Onboard the ASTRO-H Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before landing on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 m, 229 m, and 305 m of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 m. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), FM1 or FM2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. The optical and x-ray calibrations also include