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Sample records for soil sampling plan

  1. Livermore Big Trees Park 1998 soil sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R. W.

    1998-10-01

    This sampling plan sets out the sampling goals, rationale, locations, and procedures for a plan to determine the extent of plutonium in soil above background levels in Big Trees Park and identify any possible pathways by which plutonium may have reached the park. The public is invited to witness the sampling at Big Trees Park. The plan has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists with guidance from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Radiologic Health and Environmental Health Investigations Branches of the California Health Services Department (CDHS-RHB and CDHS-EHIB), and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Input from citizens and community organizations was also received during an over-70-day public comment period.

  2. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  3. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  4. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D & D soils packages, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D&D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D&D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D&D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data.

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  7. Surface soil sampling plan for the 200-UP-2 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Description of Work (DOW) is to provide detailed guidance for implementation of the field activities outlined in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. This work plan provides the basis for conducting a limited field investigation (LFI) in the unit, with the DOW outlining the protocols and procedures to be utilized in performing the surface soil sampling. As outlined in the Work Plan, the data to be collected in the LFI will be utilized to determine the need for, and possible selection of, an Interim Remedial Measure (IRM). In order to do that, detailed information on the current nature and extent of contamination in surface soils at selected management units is required for assessment in conjunction with the existing areas of highest concentration for each unit. Field screening efforts using surface radiation surveys will allow for surface soil samples to be collected from those points that represent the highest contaminant concentrations. Analysis of these samples will provide data on the types and concentrations of the contaminants of concern.

  8. Underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35 excavated soil field sample plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.G.

    1994-09-07

    This plan outlines the process that will be used to collect samples from soil excavated during removal of underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35. The samples will be analyzed to determine if gasoline and diesel fuel are present in the soil at levels above action levels specified by the Washington State Department of Ecology. On April 15, 1992, the underground storage tanks were removed and soil samples were collected at each former tank location and from around the associated piping. Soil was excavated from the site until field instrumentation indicated that the former tank sites were clean in the judgment of the field team leader. Field monitoring consisted of using an organic vapor monitor to survey soil shaken in a plastic bag. Monitoring indicated that petroleum contamination ranged from 40 to 800 ppm.

  9. Soil Gas Sampling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  10. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

  11. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  12. Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough data to prove that the COPCs are naturally occurring and are not a result of the explosives testing activities conducted at the site. This will be accomplished by collecting enough soil samples to have a statistically valid population that can be used to produce defensible comparisons that prove the concentrations identified on site are the same as the background concentrations in surrounding areas.

  13. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

  14. SAMPLING VIRUSES FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes in detail methods for detecting viruses of bacteria and humans in soil. Methods also are presented for the assay of these viruses. Reference sources are provided for information on viruses of plants.

  15. Planning Considerations for Mars Sample Return Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret S.; Allton, Judith H.; Allen, Carlton C.; Richmond, Jonathan Y.

    1999-01-01

    With a Mars sample return mission planned for launch as early as 2005, serious discussions have begun to identify practical, effective approaches for containing extraterrestrial rocks, soil, and atmospheric samples for return to Earth. In addition to satisfying planetary protection and biological safety requirements, containment designs must also meet planetary science and spaceflight engineering needs. To be effective, an integrated containment system must consider both outbound and inbound spaceflights, mobile and stationary containment, and operations on Earth. Important planning considerations include pre-launch preparations, the configuration and sealing of the sample return canister, Earth-return and recovery procedures, contingency planning, laboratory design, biosafety cabinets, sterilization methods, and alternative operational and facilities approaches. Solving the challenges of containment for extraterrestrial samples will be critical to mission success, not only for samples from Mars, but ultimately for sample returns from other bodies of biological interest within the solar system as well.

  16. Sampling and handling of desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Report on sampling and handling desert soils includes sections on selection, characterization, and photography of area, site, and soil, sterilization of sampling equipment and containers, and soil sample collection, transport, storage, and dispersal.

  17. Mars Sample Return Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, David

    2001-01-01

    This presentation considers the decisions which go into planning the Mars Sample Return Mission (i.e. spacecraft design) and how these choices affect concerns about the safe handling of any sample returns. Topics covered include: 'being there' trades, 'getting home' trades, quantitative functions and risk assessments.

  18. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  19. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Assessment of LANL-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-16-e for Land Conveyance

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, Jessica; Ruedig, Elizabeth

    2016-08-25

    Public Law 105-119 directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convey or transfer parcels of land to the Incorporated County of Los Alamos or their designees and to the Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in trust for the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. Los Alamos National Security is tasked to support DOE in conveyance and/or transfer of identified land parcels no later than September 2022. Under DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (O458.1, 2013), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) implementing Policy 412 (P412, 2014a), real property with the potential to contain residual radioactive material must meet the criteria for clearance and release to the public. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates Tract A-16-e and proposes 50 project-specific soil samples for use in radiological clearance decisions consistent with LANL Procedure ENV-ES-TP-238 (2015a) and guidance in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM, 2000).

  20. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  1. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  2. REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard sampling and analysis methods for hazardous substances in contaminated soils currently are available and routinely employed. Standard methods inherently assume a homogeneous soil matrix and contaminant distribution; therefore only small sample quantities typically are p...

  3. REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard sampling and analysis methods for hazardous substances in contaminated soils currently are available and routinely employed. Standard methods inherently assume a homogeneous soil matrix and contaminant distribution; therefore only small sample quantities typically are p...

  4. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  5. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  6. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  7. Sampling plans for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of characterizing a subsurface site, whether it be a candidate for mineral extraction, a potential waste repository or a site designated for cleanup, is in mathematical terms seriously undetermined. That is, the number of observations that can be made prior to major decisions about the site's future is a very small fraction of what would be needed to determine the complete spatial distribution of such distributed properties as mineral or contaminant concentrations, transmissivity, or density. The geostatistical procedures that have been developed to handle these problems are methods of regularization which identify a unique solution by including additional information, such as an estimated spatial covariance model. Kriging, in particular, is best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) within a superpopulation model for the spatial distribution. Explicit recognition of the inverse structure of the problem and the associated BLUP formulations are particularly useful in developing and presenting field sampling plans based both on prior information and on the proposed use of resulting information. This framework also facilitates consideration of model-robustness of the optimality of proposed sampling plans, which is important in the context of site characterization problems where poorly determined priors are a prominent feature. 10 refs.

  8. A Sampling of Martian Soils

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This collage shows the variety of soils found at landing sites on Mars. The elemental composition of the typical, reddish soils were investigated by NASA Viking, Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover missions, and now with the Curiosity rover.

  9. Soil Sampling and Analysis Plan for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2004-12-27

    This document describes soil sampling that will be performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project on two units of the Hanford Reach National Monument: the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit (Riverlands Unit) and the North Slope made up of the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. This sampling fulfills a U.S. Department of Energy requirement to evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5 prior to radiological release of the property.

  10. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  11. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  12. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Isab, A.H.

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  13. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  14. Processing Protocol for Soil Samples Potentially ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method Operating Procedures This protocol describes the processing steps for 45 g and 9 g soil samples potentially contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. The protocol is designed to separate and concentrate the spores from bulk soil down to a pellet that can be used for further analysis. Soil extraction solution and mechanical shaking are used to disrupt soil particle aggregates and to aid in the separation of spores from soil particles. Soil samples are washed twice with soil extraction solution to maximize recovery. Differential centrifugation is used to separate spores from the majority of the soil material. The 45 g protocol has been demonstrated by two laboratories using both loamy and sandy soil types. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol would be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries. The 45 g protocol has demonstrated a matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/gram of soil for loamy and sandy soils.

  15. Processing Protocol for Soil Samples Potentially ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method Operating Procedures This protocol describes the processing steps for 45 g and 9 g soil samples potentially contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. The protocol is designed to separate and concentrate the spores from bulk soil down to a pellet that can be used for further analysis. Soil extraction solution and mechanical shaking are used to disrupt soil particle aggregates and to aid in the separation of spores from soil particles. Soil samples are washed twice with soil extraction solution to maximize recovery. Differential centrifugation is used to separate spores from the majority of the soil material. The 45 g protocol has been demonstrated by two laboratories using both loamy and sandy soil types. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol would be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries. The 45 g protocol has demonstrated a matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/gram of soil for loamy and sandy soils.

  16. Introduction to Soil Fumigant Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Soil fumigant pesticide labels require users to prepare a site-specific fumigation management plan (FMP) before the application begins. EPA has developed templates that outline the elements required by the labels.

  17. Determination of mercury in soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, N.L.; Barber, T.E.; Turner, R.R.; Foust, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    A field screening method for the determination of mercury in soil samples using an iodine-based extractant was developed. The mercury compounds present in the soil samples were converted to tetraiodo mercurate (HgI{sub 4}{sup -2}), and then reduce to elemental mercury using reducing sugars. The mercury vapor present in the headspace of the sample was determined using a field portable mercury analyzer (Arizona Instruments Inc., Phoenix, Arizona). The soil samples were also analyzed using EPA method 7471, and a field method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results obtained using the iodine based extractant and sugar reduction compared very favorably with the other two methods employed.

  18. 340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  19. Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, C.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis plan contains two parts: The field sampling plan (Part 1) and the quality assurance project plan (Part 2). The field sampling plan describes the activities to be performed, defines sample designation, and identifies sample analysis to be performed. The quality assurance project plan establishes data quality objectives, defines analytical methods and procedures and documentation requirements, and provides established technical procedures to be used for field sampling and measurement. The quality assurance project plan details all quality assurance/quality control procedures to be followed to ensure that usable and defensible data are collected.

  20. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  1. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  2. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1997-12-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  3. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  4. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  5. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  6. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  7. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  8. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  9. SOIL SAMPLING FOR CHARACTERIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sampling of soil, or any heterogeneous media, requires an understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of interest to the decision makers. Depending on how the media is sampled and analyzed, and how the data are processed, almost any "valid" contaminant concentration can...

  10. Considerations for sampling contaminants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Sampling agricultural soils for contaminants is relatively new. Existing standard sampling protocols used for the evaluation of soil nutrients are likely insufficient for contaminants. The main reasons are the very low analyte levels and differences in heterogeneity between nutrients and contaminants. To evaluate the adequacy of existing sampling protocols or to develop new protocols, a systematic scientific approach is needed. This approach begins with the development of the Sample Quality Criteria followed by a realistic understanding of the properties of the material to be sampled, most notably its heterogeneity. The Sample Quality Criteria and material properties are inputs into the Theory of Sampling. With these inputs, the Theory of Sampling can be used to determine the specifics of the sampling protocol (e.g., mass, number of increments, tool selection) that must be implemented to control error to reliably estimate the concentration of the analyte(s) of interest. Development of sampling protocols in this manner will ensure sample representativeness and therefore improve data equivalency among various parties involved. This is the only way to provide a sound technical basis for defensible decision making to ensure increased safety of food and feed, specifically with respect to contaminants in agricultural soils.

  11. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, James R.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality.

  12. A Simple And Effective Tool To Extrude Tropical Residual Soil Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. F.; Omardin, M. A.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Tajudin, S. A. Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Soil Investigation is a vital part of a feasibility study of modern construction project and it helps to determine the types and characteristics of soils for better construction planning. In order to determine properties of soil, preparation for sampling of soil must be done. Sampling of tropical residual soil is vital and need a special care to extrude soil from sample casing or thin wall tube. Traditional soil extruder and trimmer take much longer time to be done for sampling but this project to propose a new soil extruder and trimmer that can changes the way to conducted for much more easier, faster and also ensure the quality of soil sample. This proposed equipment is a specially design to reduce and overcome disturbing of soil sample during extruding and trimming the soil sample from thin wall tube including piston sampler. A part from that, the procedures to handle the tools will becomes easier and faster, especially on tropical residual soil that notoriously known as non-homogenous. Related to time consuming to prepared sample and effort to extrude soil samples it can concluded that the new proposed soil extruder is better than existing soil extruder.

  13. Average variograms to guide soil sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, R.; Oliver, M. A.

    2004-10-01

    To manage land in a site-specific way for agriculture requires detailed maps of the variation in the soil properties of interest. To predict accurately for mapping, the interval at which the soil is sampled should relate to the scale of spatial variation. A variogram can be used to guide sampling in two ways. A sampling interval of less than half the range of spatial dependence can be used, or the variogram can be used with the kriging equations to determine an optimal sampling interval to achieve a given tolerable error. A variogram might not be available for the site, but if the variograms of several soil properties were available on a similar parent material and or particular topographic positions an average variogram could be calculated from these. Averages of the variogram ranges and standardized average variograms from four different parent materials in southern England were used to suggest suitable sampling intervals for future surveys in similar pedological settings based on half the variogram range. The standardized average variograms were also used to determine optimal sampling intervals using the kriging equations. Similar sampling intervals were suggested by each method and the maps of predictions based on data at different grid spacings were evaluated for the different parent materials. Variograms of loss on ignition (LOI) taken from the literature for other sites in southern England with similar parent materials had ranges close to the average for a given parent material showing the possible wider application of such averages to guide sampling.

  14. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  15. Sampling and Analysis Plan Soil Vapor Extraction Treatability Investigation Site S within Operable Unit D, McClellan Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST FOR SOIL BORING LOGGING SitingE Lath, flagging, and orange spray paint -Lumber crayon 100-foot tape Brunton or Silva compass Logging...tubes and plastic end caps __Airtight tape (e.g., electrical) Newspaper -Wax, stove, melting pot, and matches Indelible fine felt-tipped markers (e.g

  16. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study.

  17. Statistical sampling methods for soils monitoring

    Treesearch

    Ann M. Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Development of the best sampling design to answer a research question should be an interactive venture between the land manager or researcher and statisticians, and is the result of answering various questions. A series of questions that can be asked to guide the researcher in making decisions that will arrive at an effective sampling plan are described, and a case...

  18. Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrias, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

  19. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

  20. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Guidance and Template v.4 - General Projects - 04/2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) guidance and template is intended to assist organizations in documenting the procedural and analytical requirements for one-time, or time-limited, projects involving the collection of water, soil, sediment, or other

  1. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  2. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  3. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  4. Visual Sample Plan Version 7.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, Brett D.; Newburn, Lisa LN; Hathaway, John E.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Wilson, John E.; Dowson, Scott T.; Sego, Landon H.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2014-03-01

    User's guide for VSP 7.0 This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 7.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to risk decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 7.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. It also provides data quality assessment and statistical analysis functions to support evaluation of the data and determine whether the data support decisions regarding sites suspected of contamination. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (XP, Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to two- and three-dimensional populations to be sampled (e.g., rooms and buildings, surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality. VSP is also applicable for designing sampling plans for assessing chem/rad/bio threat and hazard identification within rooms and buildings, and for designing geophysical surveys for unexploded ordnance (UXO) identification.

  5. Comparison of chain sampling plans with single and double sampling plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, K. S.; Dodge, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of chain sampling is examined through matching of operating characteristics (OC) curves of chain sampling plans (ChSP) with single and double sampling plans. In particular, the operating characteristics of some ChSP-0, 3 and 1, 3 as well as ChSP-0, 4 and 1, 4 are presented, where the number pairs represent the first and the second cumulative acceptance numbers. The fact that the ChSP procedure uses cumulative results from two or more samples and that the parameters can be varied to produce a wide variety of operating characteristics raises the question whether it may be possible for such plans to provide a given protection with less inspection than with single or double sampling plans. The operating ratio values reported illustrate the possibilities of matching single and double sampling plans with ChSP. It is shown that chain sampling plans provide improved efficiency over single and double sampling plans having substantially the same operating characteristics.

  6. Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

    2014-06-01

    We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

  7. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    PubMed

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  8. Soil consumption: An innovative system for better planning and managing soil in urban planning context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Langella, Giuliano; Minieri, Luciana; De Michele, Carlo; D'Antonio, Amedeo; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a key natural resource and most crucial ecosystem services and the most important environmental benefits to humankind and the environment depend by its properties. However, soil is a delicate resource. Urbanization is the most impactful use of soils because it can cancel all its ecosystem functions and ends forever its life cycle since soil is removed completely and/or sealed with a cement/bitumen layer. The absence of an adequate soil culture led common urban planning to do not consider the reality of soil as living multifunctional system. In such framework, this work - performed under the project LIFE + SOILCONSWEB - aims to illustrate a different approach for soil management in spatial planning using a Spatial Decision Support System operating through the web (w-SDSS) to evaluate soil consumption. The system - already operating in an area of Southern Italy (Telese valley, 20,000 ha) - allows - in real time - to provide answers such as (i) the use of land (type and size) on different dates, (ii) mapping and statistics on the sprawl at the municipality scale, (iii) detailed mapping of land fragmentation (and statistical fragmentation) on different dates, (iv) quantification of loss of ecosystem services after potential new urbanization.

  9. Adaptive spatial sampling of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Suppose that a residential neighborhood may have been contaminated by a nearby abandoned hazardous waste site. The suspected contamination consists of elevated soil concentrations o chemicals that are also found in the absence of site-related contamination. How should a risk manager decide which residential properties to sample and which ones to clean? This paper introduces an adaptive spatial sampling approach which uses initial observations to guide subsequent search. Unlike some recent model-based spatial data analysis methods, it does not require any specific statistical model for the spatial distribution of hazards, but instead constructs an increasingly accurate nonparametric approximation to it as sampling proceeds. Possible cost-effective sampling and cleanup decision rules are described by decision parameters such as the number of randomly selected locations used to initialize the process, the number of highest-concentration locations searched around, the number of samples taken at each location, a stopping rule, and a remediation action threshold. These decision parameters are optimized by simulating the performance of each decision rule. The simulation is performed using the data collected so far to impute multiple probably values of unknown soil concentration distributions during each simulation run.

  10. Integrating Public Perspectives in Sample Return Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, G.

    2001-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns, whether from Mars or other solar system bodies, must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists, designed to gather information, on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  11. Integrating public perspectives in sample return planning.

    PubMed

    Race, M S; MacGregor, D G

    2000-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns--whether from Mars or other solar system bodies--must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists designed to gather information on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  12. Integrating Public Perspectives in Sample Return Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, G.

    2001-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns, whether from Mars or other solar system bodies, must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists, designed to gather information, on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  13. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution

  14. A technique for cutting brittle undisturbed lateritic soil block samples.

    PubMed

    Galvão, T Cássia de Brito; Drnevich, Vincent P; Schulze, Darrell G

    2003-05-01

    This note describes a technique for cutting undisturbed brittle block samples into smaller specimens for further geotechnical testing. This technique revealed very useful in dealing with collapsible soils, where the sampling is recommended to be done with block soil samples. A further use of this technique as an efficient way for sampling collapsible soils is proposed.

  15. Planning and programing in the soil conservation service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The historical base is presented for the framework plan for soil conservation. Conservation effects, resource management systems, and accomplishments, activities, and costs of the Soil Conservation Service are discussed.

  16. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples

    PubMed Central

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Results Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. “Small” market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. Conclusion The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed. PMID:27642456

  17. Sample size planning for classification models.

    PubMed

    Beleites, Claudia; Neugebauer, Ute; Bocklitz, Thomas; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-01-14

    In biospectroscopy, suitably annotated and statistically independent samples (e.g. patients, batches, etc.) for classifier training and testing are scarce and costly. Learning curves show the model performance as function of the training sample size and can help to determine the sample size needed to train good classifiers. However, building a good model is actually not enough: the performance must also be proven. We discuss learning curves for typical small sample size situations with 5-25 independent samples per class. Although the classification models achieve acceptable performance, the learning curve can be completely masked by the random testing uncertainty due to the equally limited test sample size. In consequence, we determine test sample sizes necessary to achieve reasonable precision in the validation and find that 75-100 samples will usually be needed to test a good but not perfect classifier. Such a data set will then allow refined sample size planning on the basis of the achieved performance. We also demonstrate how to calculate necessary sample sizes in order to show the superiority of one classifier over another: this often requires hundreds of statistically independent test samples or is even theoretically impossible. We demonstrate our findings with a data set of ca. 2550 Raman spectra of single cells (five classes: erythrocytes, leukocytes and three tumour cell lines BT-20, MCF-7 and OCI-AML3) as well as by an extensive simulation that allows precise determination of the actual performance of the models in question. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidelines for sampling for dynamic soil properties for soil survey updates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dynamic soil property data can be collected during soil survey updates to add value to soil survey products and meet users’ needs. Producers and land managers need information about soil and ecosystem change in order to plan for long-term productivity, conduct monitoring and assessments and predict ...

  19. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    LAURICELLA, T.L.

    2000-09-27

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility.

  20. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  1. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) - FIELDS Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Bing-Canar, John; Cooper, Brian; Roth, Chuck

    2003-04-19

    Two software packages, VSP 2.1 and FIELDS 3.5, are being used by environmental scientists to plan the number and type of samples required to meet project objectives, display those samples on maps, query a database of past sample results, produce spatial models of the data, and analyze the data in order to arrive at defensible decisions. VSP 2.0 is an interactive tool to calculate optimal sample size and optimal sample location based on user goals, risk tolerance, and variability in the environment and in lab methods. FIELDS 3.0 is a set of tools to explore the sample results in a variety of ways to make defensible decisions with quantified levels of risk and uncertainty. However, FIELDS 3.0 has a small sample design module. VSP 2.0, on the other hand, has over 20 sampling goals, allowing the user to input site-specific assumptions such as non-normality of sample results, separate variability between field and laboratory measurements, make two-sample comparisons, perform confidence interval estimation, use sequential search sampling methods, and much more. Over 1,000 copies of VSP are in use today. FIELDS is used in nine of the ten U.S. EPA regions, by state regulatory agencies, and most recently by several international countries. Both software packages have been peer-reviewed, enjoy broad usage, and have been accepted by regulatory agencies as well as site project managers as key tools to help collect data and make environmental cleanup decisions. Recently, the two software packages were integrated, allowing the user to take advantage of the many design options of VSP, and the analysis and modeling options of FIELDS. The transition between the two is simple for the user – VSP can be called from within FIELDS, automatically passing a map to VSP and automatically retrieving sample locations and design information when the user returns to FIELDS. This paper will describe the integration, give a demonstration of the integrated package, and give users download

  2. Soil Sample Poised at TEGA Door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the Robotic Arm scoop containing a soil sample poised over the partially open door of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer's number four cell, or oven.

    Light-colored clods of material visible toward the scoop's lower edge may be part of the crusted surface material seen previously near the foot of the lander. The material inside the scoop has been slightly brightened in this image.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-04-28

    This document provides a management tool for evaluating and designing the appropriate elements of a field sampling program. This document provides discussion of the elements of a program and is to be used as a guidance document during the preparation of project and/or function specific documentation. This document does not specify how a sampling program shall be organized. The HSQMP is to be used as a companion document to the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) DOE/RL-94-55. The generation of this document was enhanced by conducting baseline evaluations of current sampling organizations. Valuable input was received from members of field and Quality Assurance organizations. The HSQMP is expected to be a living document. Revisions will be made as regulations and or Hanford Site conditions warrant changes in the best management practices. Appendices included are: summary of the sampling and analysis work flow process, a user`s guide to the Data Quality Objective process, and a self-assessment checklist.

  4. 7 CFR 42.104 - Sampling plans and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling plans and defects. 42.104 Section 42.104... REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.104 Sampling plans and defects. (a) Sampling plans. Sections 42.109 through 42.111 show the number...

  5. 7 CFR 42.104 - Sampling plans and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling plans and defects. 42.104 Section 42.104... REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.104 Sampling plans and defects. (a) Sampling plans. Sections 42.109 through 42.111 show the number...

  6. 7 CFR 42.104 - Sampling plans and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling plans and defects. 42.104 Section 42.104... REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.104 Sampling plans and defects. (a) Sampling plans. Sections 42.109 through 42.111 show the number...

  7. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Treesearch

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  8. Minimum property dataset and sampling requirement tool for soil change studies in soil survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dynamic soil properties (DSP) are those properties that change over human time scales. The new sampling guide “Soil and Resource Inventory Guide for Dynamic Soil Properties and Soil Change” includes a minimum DSP dataset and an interactive tool to determine sampling requirements. The minimum dataset...

  9. Selecting Locations for Medium Intensity Sampling of Soil Organic Carbon in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, N. B.; Maursetter, J.

    2004-12-01

    A warming climate may lead to the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane from Arctic soils, resulting in a positive feedback. Quantifying soil carbon stocks is necessary for calibrating models of carbon flux. The total stocks of soil carbon in high latitudes are poorly quantified because there are few soil samples. As a guide to additional sampling, such as the new 3rd Tier Medium-Intensity Sampling planned in the North American Carbon Program, we have investigated methods of using existing soil databases to map the intensities and calculate the total quantities of soil carbon in Alaska. We have related the laboratory data on soil physical and chemical properties for specific locations (the pedon data) to the soil components of the digital maps in the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. Both data sources are from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service. We evaluated 523 pedons for Alaska, selected those for which soil organic carbon could be calculated, and investigated several methods of matching them to the digital soil maps. The soil taxonomic classification (usually at the suborder, great group, or subgroup level), slope, and location were used in multiple combinations for linking the detailed profile descriptions to the general soil maps. We illustrate the uncertainty of estimations of carbon stocks by using alternative methods of performing the data selection and matching. Each matching method allows a many-to-many relation between the pedon point observations and the components of the soil maps. Once extrapolated to the map, a large measure of carbon stock attributed to a given sample point indicates an area in which additional sampling would efficiently reduce the uncertainty of the soil organic carbon estimates.

  10. Soil Sampling Plan in Support of the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facilitiy at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Terusaki, S

    2007-12-13

    LLNL proposes to obtain soil samples from the following areas: (1) Four areas downwind of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) Burn Units (i.e., Thermal Treatment Unit and Burn Pan); (2) One area upwind of the Burn Units and Detonation Pad; (3) Two areas downwind of the EWTF Detonation Pad; and (4) Three areas unaffected (representing ambient conditions) by EWTF operations approximately 7000-8000 feet upwind of the facility. The purpose of the sampling in areas 1, 2, and 3 is to detect if operations cause increases in concentrations of materials downwind of the Burn Units or downwind of the Detonation Pad. The purpose of the sampling in area 4 is to determine if previously developed background screening levels can be applied to EWTF operations. A 20 foot diameter circle will define each sample area. Soil samples will be obtained from four random locations inside each 20 foot circle. The samples will be obtained immediately below the surface, free of any organic matter (e.g., roots) and other surface and subsurface material (e.g., rocks) that is not conducive to analysis. The random identification of four discrete sample locations in each circle will allow the variability between sample locations and areas, if present, to be evaluated statistically. At a minimum, data will be evaluated by the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. All future sampling will occur in the same 20 foot diameter circle; however, only one randomly located sample (instead of four) will be obtained. Future samples will be analyzed for the same chemicals of potential ecological concern (CPECs) as the initial sample. Sample areas and locations will be recorded by Global Positioning System coordinates.

  11. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  12. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  13. Core vs. Bulk Samples in Soil-Moisture Tension Analyses

    Treesearch

    Walter M. Broadfoot

    1954-01-01

    The usual laboratory procedure in determining soil-moisture tension values is to use "undisturbed" soil cores for tensions up to 60 cm. of water and bulk soil samples for higher tensions. Low tensions are usually obtained with a tension table and the higher tensions by use of pressure plate apparatus. In tension analysis at the Vicksburg Infiltration Project...

  14. Autoclaving soil samples affects algal-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brandon H; Magdoff, Frederick R

    2005-01-01

    Unwanted microbial interference in samples used for biological assays of P availability has routinely been eliminated by autoclaving samples before inoculation with algae. Twenty-three soils were selected to evaluate the relationship between algal growth in P-deficient solutions containing small quantities of soil and the level of P determined by a variety of tests used to evaluate P availability in soils and sediments. Soils were either autoclaved or not before addition to flasks containing P-starved algae in a nutrient solution without P. Compared to non-autoclaved samples, autoclaving soil resulted in approximately 60% more available P as estimated by increased algal growth. However, algal growth in the presence of autoclaved soil was highly correlated with growth in the presence of non-autoclaved samples. There was no consistent change in the correlations (r) between autoclaving or non-autoclaving samples in the relationships of algal numbers with P extracted by a number of soil tests. The effect of autoclaving soil on soluble P was also evaluated for a subset of six soils. Autoclaved soils had significantly greater concentrations of soluble P than non-autoclaved soils, with 78% more orthophosphate monoesters, 60% more orthophosphate diesters, and 54% more soluble inorganic P. Inhibition of algal growth may have occurred with two high-Zn soils that produced relatively low numbers of algae despite being very high in estimated available P by all extraction methods. Removing those samples from the calculations dramatically improved correlations between soil P measured by various methods and algal growth. With these two soils removed from calculations, algal growth with autoclaved soil was most highly correlated with Olsen P (r = 0.95), with other correlations as follows: Fe-oxide strip (r = 0.80), Mehlich 3 (r = 0.75,), modified Morgan (r = 0.61), and Bray-Kurtz 1 (r = 0.57).

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

    1998-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary.

  16. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  17. Challenges associated with sampling dynamic soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The determination of dynamic soil properties (DSPs) for agricultural practices poses significant challenges, particularly in the context of values derived as part of the National Soil Survey. Although DSPs have been defined as those properties that change over human time scales, limits on the time ...

  18. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

  19. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  20. Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-10-26

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105).

  1. Multiphase extraction sampling of explosives in unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Amira C.; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Santiago, Ivonne

    2006-05-01

    Detection of Explosive Related Chemicals (ERCs) emanating from landmines is strongly influenced by fate and transport processes in variably saturated soils, which are affected by many environmental factors. To study the fate and transport behavior of ERCs in soils, it is necessary to conduct experiments is physical models designed for this purpose. Sampling and analysis of the chemicals in soil water and air is one of the most important components of this design. In this project, air and water sampling devices and methods for sampling TNT and DNT in a tropical sandy soil were studied. Different stainless steel porous samplers were evaluated to determine sampling volumes and efficiencies. Results show that they can be used with proper extraction vacuum and pore size depending on soil water content. The stainless steel porous samplers show no or little effect of the sampling efficiencies of TNT and DNT.

  2. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  3. 7 CFR 43.106 - Choosing AQL's and sampling plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Hundred Units) Comparable sampling plans Identification letter of OC curve Q nc Ac Re R nc Ac Re S, T nc... sampling plans Identification letter of OC curve P nc Ac Re Q nc Ac Re R, S nc Ac Re T nc Ac Re U nc Ac Re... sampling plans Identification letter of OC curve N nc Ac Re P nc Ac Re Q nc Ac Re R, S nc Ac Re T nc Ac...

  4. INNOVATIONS IN SOIL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful research outcomes from the VOC in soils work will provide the Agency with methods and techniques that provide the accurate VOC concentrations so that decisions related to a contaminated site can be made to optimize the protectiveness to the environment and human health...

  5. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    PubMed

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (<40 cm), deeper tillage led to a homogenization and a dilution of the pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  6. Soil moisture sampling and decision frameworks for agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling of soil moisture involves temporal and spatial components. The spatial component can be further expanded into a vertical and horizontal array of observations that are required to understand the dynamics of processes occurring with the soil profile. The decision frameworks for agriculture re...

  7. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    HSQMP establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700. 6C and to 10 Code of Federal Regulations 830.120. HSQMP is designed to meet the needs of Richland Operations Office for controlling the quality of services provided by sampling operations. It is issued through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Programs Division. This document describes the Environmental Sampling and Analysis Program activities considered to represent the best management activities necessary to achieve a sampling program with adequate control.

  8. EG & G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D & D soil box sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D&D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D&D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D&D Soils Packages (EG&G 1991).

  9. Rasped Soil Sample in Phoenix Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 50, the 50th day of the mission, July 15, 2008, shows material collected in the lander's scoop from the rasping activity on the Martian surface.

    The collected material, believed to be icy soil, is near the bottom of the image. The width of the scoop is 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  11. Soil sampling sensor system on a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peter M.; Hall, Ernest L.; Zhang, Evan

    2003-10-01

    Determining if a segment of property is suitable for use as an aircraft is a vitally important task that is currently performed by humans. However, this task can also put our people in harms way from land mines, sniper and artillery attacks. The objective of this research is to build a soil survey manipulator that can be carried by a lightweight, portable, autonomous vehicle, sensors and controls to navigate in assault zone. The manipulators permit both surface and sub surface measurements. An original soil sampling tube was constructed with linear actuator as manipulator and standard penetrometer as sampling sensor. The controls provide local control of the robot as well as the soil sampling mechanism. GPS has been selected to perform robot global navigation. The robot was constructed and tested on the test field. The results verified the concepts of using soil sampling robot to survey runway is feasible.

  12. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network.

    PubMed

    Belli, Maria; de Zorzi, Paolo; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a "reference site", aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  13. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-03-24

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste.

  14. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics.

  15. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  16. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part III: sampling plans and sample preparations.

    PubMed

    Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Dujourdy, L; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2014-08-01

    The findings in this paper are based on the results of our drug homogeneity studies and particle size investigations. Using that information, a general sampling plan (depicted in the form of a flow-chart) was devised that could be applied to the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs: namely heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis resin, MDMA tablets and herbal cannabis in 'bud' form (type I). Other more heterogeneous forms of cannabis (type II) were found to require alternative, more traditional sampling methods. A table was constructed which shows the sampling uncertainty expected when a particular number of random increments are taken and combined to form a single primary sample. It also includes a recommended increment size; which is 1 g for powdered drugs and cannabis resin, 1 tablet for MDMA and 1 bud for herbal cannabis in bud form (type I). By referring to that table, individual laboratories can ensure that the sampling uncertainty for a particular drug seizure can be minimised, such that it lies in the same region as their analytical uncertainty for that drug. The table shows that assuming a laboratory wishes to quantitatively analyse a seizure of powdered drug or cannabis resin with a 'typical' heterogeneity, a primary sample of 15×1 g increments is generally appropriate. The appropriate primary sample for MDMA tablets is 20 tablets, while for herbal cannabis (in bud form) 50 buds were found to be appropriate. Our study also showed that, for a suitably homogenised primary sample of the most common powdered drugs, an analytical sample size of between 20 and 35 mg was appropriate and for herbal cannabis the appropriate amount was 200 mg. The need to ensure that the results from duplicate or multiple incremental sampling were compared, to demonstrate whether or not a particular seized material has a 'typical' heterogeneity and that the sampling procedure applied has resulted in a 'correct sample', was highlighted and the setting

  17. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  18. Two-stage chain sampling inspection plans with different sample sizes in the two stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, K. S.; Dodge, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A further generalization of the family of 'two-stage' chain sampling inspection plans is developed - viz, the use of different sample sizes in the two stages. Evaluation of the operating characteristics is accomplished by the Markov chain approach of the earlier work, modified to account for the different sample sizes. Markov chains for a number of plans are illustrated and several algebraic solutions are developed. Since these plans involve a variable amount of sampling, an evaluation of the average sampling number (ASN) is developed. A number of OC curves and ASN curves are presented. Some comparisons with plans having only one sample size are presented and indicate that improved discrimination is achieved by the two-sample-size plans.

  19. NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

    2006-06-01

    Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM

  20. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  1. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil

    PubMed Central

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation. PMID:26714315

  2. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    PubMed

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  3. Direct mass spectrometric detection of trace explosives in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lipo; Xin, Bin; Chen, Yi

    2012-04-07

    The detection of explosives in soil is of great significance in public security programmes and environmental science. In the present work, a ppb-level method was established to directly detect the semi-volatile explosives, RDX and TNT, present in complex soil samples. The method used thermal sampling technique and a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge source mounted with a brass cylinder electrode (9 mm × 4.6 mm i.d./5.6 mm o.d.) to face the samples, requiring no sample pretreatment steps such as soil extraction (about ten hours). It was characterized by the merits of easy operation, high sensitivity and fast speed, and has been validated by real soil samples from various locations around a factory or firecracker releasing fields. It took only 5 min per sample, with the limit of detection down to 0.5 ppb (S/N = 3) trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine in soils heated at 170 °C. It is also extendable to the analysis of other volatile analytes.

  4. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  5. Improvement in day zero recoveries in field soil dissipation studies using larger diameter soil samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Strek, Harry J; Barefoot, Aldos C

    2014-05-07

    Obtaining acceptable recovery of the applied test substance at zero time in field soil dissipation studies has been a subject of considerable interest among scientists conducting regulatory field studies. In particular, achieving recoveries of ≥90% in soil samples collected immediately after applications in most studies has been elusive. This study investigated a modified soil sampling method, which could be used not only on day zero but for the entire study duration, to see if the recoveries in soil samples, especially in the early stages, can be improved. The modified sampling system has demonstrated that recoveries averaging 90% are possible and can be routinely obtained on day zero. Description of this modified sampling procedure and statistical analysis of the data collected for day zero samples are discussed.

  6. Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field

  7. Plan of research for integrated soil moisture studies. Recommendations of the Soil Moisture Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a potentially powerful tool for applications in agriculture, water resources, and climate. At present, it is difficult for users of this information to clearly define their needs in terms of accuracy, resolution and frequency because of the current sparsity of data. A plan is described for defining and conducting an integrated and coordinated research effort to develop and refine remote sensing techniques which will determine spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and to utilize soil moisture information in support of agricultural, water resources, and climate applications. The soil moisture requirements of these three different application areas were reviewed in relation to each other so that one plan covering the three areas could be formulated. Four subgroups were established to write and compile the plan, namely models, ground-based studies, aircraft experiments, and spacecraft missions.

  8. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94.

  9. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  10. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  11. Soil Still in Scoop After Sample-Delivery Attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows that soil remained inside the arm's scoop after an attempt to deliver a soil sample to a laboratory oven during the lander's 60th Martian day, or sol (July 26, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A. |; Hooper, M.J.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics describes the laboratory testing to be conducted on soil samples collected as part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. This study provides for measurements of index, mechanical, thermal, hydrologic, chemical, and mineral properties of soils from boring throughout the site. Samples will be taken from Playa Borings/Trenching, Transportation/Utilities Foundation Borings, Repository Surface Facilities Design Foundation Borings, and Exploratory Shaft Facilities Design Foundation Borings. Data from the laboratory tests will be used for soil strata characterization, design of foundations for surface structures, design of transportation facilities and utility structures, design of impoundments, design of shaft lining, design of the shaft freeze wall, shaft permitting, performance assessment calculations, and other program requirements. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  15. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-29

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0.

  16. GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2004-01-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

  17. GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2003-08-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

  18. GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

    2003-03-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

  19. Extraction and determination of hexavalent chromium in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw; Tyszczuk, Katarzyna

    2006-09-01

    A procedure for the extraction of Cr(VI) from solid soil-like samples was presented in which the complexing properties of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were exploited to extract insoluble compounds of Cr(VI). A concentration of DTPA in an ammonium sulphate/ammonium hydroxide buffer equal to 0.02 mol l(-1) was chosen. The conditions of extraction of insoluble Cr(VI) from solid samples were optimised using soil certified reference material spiked with known concentration of insoluble Cr(VI) added as PbCrO(4). The extracts were analysed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Validation of the proposed procedure of extraction was carried out by analysis of certified reference material (CRM) 545 and comparison of the results obtained using the proposed and other methods of extraction in the course of analysis of natural soil samples.

  20. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  1. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  2. Field Sampling Plan/Quality Assurance Project Plan Volume I of III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains procedures related to the collection and analysis of soil, sediment, groundwater, surface water, air and biota samples at GE’s Pittsfield, Massachusetts facility and at other areas.

  3. A soil plan of action to awaken society beyond 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Arwyn; Bampa, Francesca; Towers, Willie; Broll, Gabrielle; Vargas, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    suite of positive examples offered by soil enthusiasts is to provide a common platform appropriate to all parts of the world, with a common consensus on soil issues to be covered and be brought to the table of consumers. The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) is an interactive, responsive and voluntary partnership, open to governments, regional organizations, institutions and other stakeholders. One of the pillars of action aims to "Encourage investment, technical cooperation, policy, education awareness and extension in soil". In order to achieve this goal, a small regionally balanced committee was formed following the 3rd European Network on Soil Awareness conference in Aberdeen and the 2nd Global Soil Week in Berlin. This group produced a draft plan of action that will be submitted to the Intergovernmental technical Panel on Soils (ITPS) of the GSP. Some key points that we need to address are: finding new soil communicators to awake and engage the society and the political arena (e.g. actors, poets, artists, etc.); focusing on a harmonised public perception of soil and their importance for environment and society; re-introducing soil science into the school curricula as a cross-cutting discipline designing a coherent but flexible structure and ensuring a proper and logical constructive transition between each learning stage (e.g. training teachers, web-based courses/ web-based platform, etc.). REFERENCES Bouma J, Broll G, Crane TA, Dewitte O, Gardi C, Schulte RPO, Towers W (2012) Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 552-558. EC (2006) (COM(2006)231 final) Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions, Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. (ed Commission E), Brussels, Belgium.

  4. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-12-30

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design.

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  6. Validation of a sampling plan to generate food composition data.

    PubMed

    Sammán, N C; Gimenez, M A; Bassett, N; Lobo, M O; Marcoleri, M E

    2016-02-15

    A methodology to develop systematic plans for food sampling was proposed. Long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil were selected to validate the methodology in Argentina. Fatty acid profile in all foods, proximal composition, and calcium's content in milk were determined with AOAC methods. The number of samples (n) was calculated applying Cochran's formula with variation coefficients ⩽12% and an estimate error (r) maximum permissible ⩽5% for calcium content in milks and unsaturated fatty acids in oil. n were 9, 11 and 21 for long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil respectively. Sample units were randomly collected from production sites and sent to labs. Calculated r with experimental data was ⩽10%, indicating high accuracy in the determination of analyte content of greater variability and reliability of the proposed sampling plan. The methodology is an adequate and useful tool to develop sampling plans for food composition analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a).

  8. Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Knaus, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

  9. Residual soil DNA extraction increases the discriminatory power between samples.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Clarke, Laurence J; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic soil analysis relies on capturing an accurate and reproducible representation of the diversity from limited quantities of soil; however, inefficient DNA extraction can markedly alter the taxonomic abundance. The performance of a standard commercial DNA extraction kit (MOBIO PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit) and three modified protocols of this kit: soil pellet re-extraction (RE); an additional 24-h lysis incubation step at room temperature (RT); and 24-h lysis incubation step at 55°C (55) were compared using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer I ribosomal DNA. DNA yield was not correlated with fungal diversity and the four DNA extraction methods displayed distinct fungal community profiles for individual samples, with some phyla detected exclusively using the modified methods. Application of a 24 h lysis step will provide a more complete inventory of fungal biodiversity, and re-extraction of the residual soil pellet offers a novel tool for increasing discriminatory power between forensic soil samples.

  10. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (Cllr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly.

  11. Phase chemistry of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    0.26 gm of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259 has been investigated by optical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. The mineral abundances in the soil are 45% plagioclase, 41% pyroxene, 7% olivine, 3% oxides, 2% K-feldspar, 1% nickel-iron and less than 1% troilite. Eleven percent of the glasses have compositions like those of mare basalts or mare soils and are believed to be mare-derived. Eighty-six percent of the glasses are equivalent in composition to basalts that have higher Al, and lower Ca/Al and Fe/Mg ratios than mare basalts. The most abundant compositional type is named Fra Mauro basaltic glass and is subdivided into three related types. The other major glass type in the soil corresponds in composition to anorthositic gabbro.

  12. Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

    2012-05-24

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

  13. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  14. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  16. Black Family Planning: Attitudes of Leaders and a General Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.; And Others

    Attitudes of black leaders and a general black population sample toward birth control and family planning issues were "Pro Birth Control" and "Genocide Fears." The leaders questioned held positions in twenty national black organizations, while the general population samples were taken from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charlotte, North Carolina.…

  17. 7 CFR 43.106 - Choosing AQL's and sampling plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... selection of AQL's and sampling plans for given lot sizes depends on too many factors to permit the issuance... normal production processes, the defect level cannot be kept below 2.0 percent defective, the selection... sample size can be smaller for lots submitted from a supplier with a consistent record of quality...

  18. 42 CFR 431.814 - Sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period, the agency is not required to resubmit the entire plan. Universe estimates and sampling intervals... the universe for negative cases. When the sample is substratified, there can be no fewer than 75 cases... interpreted to mean that the agency will complete cases selected more than once.) (c) Eligibility...

  19. 42 CFR 431.814 - Sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period, the agency is not required to resubmit the entire plan. Universe estimates and sampling intervals... the universe for negative cases. When the sample is substratified, there can be no fewer than 75 cases... interpreted to mean that the agency will complete cases selected more than once.) (c) Eligibility...

  20. 42 CFR 431.814 - Sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period, the agency is not required to resubmit the entire plan. Universe estimates and sampling intervals... the universe for negative cases. When the sample is substratified, there can be no fewer than 75 cases... interpreted to mean that the agency will complete cases selected more than once.) (c) Eligibility...

  1. Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-24

    This plan incorporates U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) standard operating procedures (SOPs) into environmental monitoring activities and will be implemented at all sites managed by LM. This document provides detailed procedures for the field sampling teams so that samples are collected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Site-specific plans (e.g., long-term surveillance and maintenance plans, environmental monitoring plans) document background information and establish the basis for sampling and monitoring activities. Information will be included in site-specific tabbed sections to this plan, which identify sample locations, sample frequencies, types of samples, field measurements, and associated analytes for each site. Additionally, within each tabbed section, program directives will be included, when developed, to establish additional site-specific requirements to modify or clarify requirements in this plan as they apply to the corresponding site. A flowchart detailing project tasks required to accomplish routine sampling is displayed in Figure 1. LM environmental procedures are contained in the Environmental Procedures Catalog (LMS/PRO/S04325), which incorporates American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), DOE, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. Specific procedures used for groundwater and surface water monitoring are included in Appendix A. If other environmental media are monitored, SOPs used for air, soil/sediment, and biota monitoring can be found in the site-specific tabbed sections in Appendix D or in site-specific documents. The procedures in the Environmental Procedures Catalog are intended as general guidance and require additional detail from planning documents in order to be complete; the following sections fulfill that function and specify additional procedural requirements to form SOPs. Routine revision of this Sampling and Analysis Plan will be conducted annually at the

  2. FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  3. FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  4. A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEAKAGE DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heuristic model is developed to develop a conceptual understanding of leakage during soil-gas sampling. Leakage is shown to be simply a function of the permeability contrast between the formation and borehole and geometric factors. As the ratio of formation to borehole permea...

  5. A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEAKAGE DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heuristic model is developed to develop a conceptual understanding of leakage during soil-gas sampling. Leakage is shown to be simply a function of the permeability contrast between the formation and borehole and geometric factors. As the ratio of formation to borehole permea...

  6. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating: Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-12-31

    This document is the Management Plan for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz ac power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degrees}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degrees} to 210{degrees}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degrees} to 100{degrees}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ ac heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kW. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are shown.

  7. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-04-26

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs.

  8. Analysis of soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Azman, Muhamad Azfar; Hashim, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated).

  9. Environmental Survey Plans, Fort Sheridan, Sampling and Analysis Plan, Fort Sheridan, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    collected for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Target Compound List (TCL) VOCs via gas chromatography /mass spectrometry. Samples will be...well to wash the wipe with the hexane. A sample of the hexane is then withdrawn and analyzed by direct injection gas chromatography (GC/ECD...3-7 3.7.2 Surface Soil Samples ......... ... 3-7 3.8 6iuRh SEWER AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING ............ ... 3-8 3.9 LANDFILL GAS AND AIR MONITORING

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1996-08-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

  11. A Comparison of Item Sampling Plans in the Application of Multiple Matrix Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gressard, Risa P.; Loyd, Brenda H.

    1991-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study, which simulated 10,000 examinees' responses to four tests, investigated the effect of item stratification on parameter estimation in multiple matrix sampling of achievement data. Practical multiple matrix sampling is based on item stratification by item discrimination and a sampling plan with moderate number of subtests. (SLD)

  12. Sample storage for soil enzyme activity and bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, K; Rita, H; Simpanen, S; Mikkonen, A; Niemi, R M

    2010-04-01

    Storage of samples is often an unavoidable step in environmental data collection, since available analytical capacity seldom permits immediate processing of large sample sets needed for representative data. In microbiological soil studies, sample pretreatments may have a strong influence on measurement results, and thus careful consideration is required in the selection of storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of prolonged (up to 16 weeks) frozen or air-dried storage for divergent soil materials. The samples selected to this study were mineral soil (clay loam) from an agricultural field, humus from a pine forest and compost from a municipal sewage sludge composting field. The measured microbiological parameters included functional profiling with ten different hydrolysing enzyme activities determined by artificial fluorogenic substrates, and structural profiling with bacterial 16S rDNA community fingerprints by amplicon length heterogeneity analysis (LH-PCR). Storage of samples affected the observed fluorescence intensity of the enzyme assay's fluorophor standards dissolved in soil suspension. The impact was highly dependent on the soil matrix and storage method, making it important to use separate standardisation for each combination of matrix type, storage method and time. Freezing proved to be a better storage method than air-drying for all the matrices and enzyme activities studied. The effect of freezing on the enzyme activities was small (<20%) in clay loam and forest humus and moderate (generally 20-30%) in compost. The most dramatic decreases (>50%) in activity were observed in compost after air-drying. The bacterial LH-PCR community fingerprints were unaffected by frozen storage in all matrices. The effect of storage treatments was tested using a new statistical method based on showing similarity rather than difference of results.

  13. Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-11-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

  14. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  15. 7 CFR 43.104 - Master table of single and double sampling plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master table of single and double sampling plans. 43... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.104 Master table of single and double sampling plans. (a) In the master table, a sampling plan is selected by first...

  16. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  17. Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David B; Miller, Carrie L; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Southworth, George R; Bogle, Mary Anna; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  18. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  19. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  20. Sampling of soil moisture fields and related errors: implications to the optimal sampling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Chulsang

    Adequate knowledge of soil moisture storage as well as evaporation and transpiration at the land surface is essential to the understanding and prediction of the reciprocal influences between land surface processes and weather and climate. Traditional techniques for soil moisture measurements are ground-based, but space-based sampling is becoming available due to recent improvement of remote sensing techniques. A fundamental question regarding the soil moisture observation is to estimate the sampling error for a given sampling scheme [G.R. North, S. Nakamoto, J Atmos. Ocean Tech. 6 (1989) 985-992; G. Kim, J.B. Valdes, G.R. North, C. Yoo, J. Hydrol., submitted]. In this study we provide the formalism for estimating the sampling errors for the cases of ground-based sensors and space-based sensors used both separately and together. For the study a model for soil moisture dynamics by D. Entekhabi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe [Adv. Water Res. 17 (1994) 35-45] is introduced and an example application is given to the Little Washita basin using the Washita '92 soil moisture data. As a result of the study we found that the ground-based sensor network is ineffective for large or continental scale observation, but should be limited to a small-scale intensive observation such as for a preliminary study.

  1. Decision Models for Determining the Optimal Life Test Sampling Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Nechval, Konstantin N.; Purgailis, Maris; Berzins, Gundars; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2010-11-01

    Life test sampling plan is a technique, which consists of sampling, inspection, and decision making in determining the acceptance or rejection of a batch of products by experiments for examining the continuous usage time of the products. In life testing studies, the lifetime is usually assumed to be distributed as either a one-parameter exponential distribution, or a two-parameter Weibull distribution with the assumption that the shape parameter is known. Such oversimplified assumptions can facilitate the follow-up analyses, but may overlook the fact that the lifetime distribution can significantly affect the estimation of the failure rate of a product. Moreover, sampling costs, inspection costs, warranty costs, and rejection costs are all essential, and ought to be considered in choosing an appropriate sampling plan. The choice of an appropriate life test sampling plan is a crucial decision problem because a good plan not only can help producers save testing time, and reduce testing cost; but it also can positively affect the image of the product, and thus attract more consumers to buy it. This paper develops the frequentist (non-Bayesian) decision models for determining the optimal life test sampling plans with an aim of cost minimization by identifying the appropriate number of product failures in a sample that should be used as a threshold in judging the rejection of a batch. The two-parameter exponential and Weibull distributions with two unknown parameters are assumed to be appropriate for modelling the lifetime of a product. A practical numerical application is employed to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  2. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  3. Phase chemistry of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Optical, X-ray-diffraction and electron-microprobe techniques were used to investigate 0.26 gm of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259. Major element microprobe analyses were made of 470 mineral grains and 388 glass grains. The mineral abundances in the soil are 45% plagioclase, 41% pyroxene, 7% olivine, 3% oxides, 2% K-feldspar; 1% nickel-iron, and less than 1% troilite. The glasses have a wide range of compositions but preferred values are evident and are interpreted as representative of rock types contributing to the soil at the Fra Mauro site. Eleven per cent of the glasses have compositions like those of mare basalts or mare soils and are believed to be mare-derived. Eighty-six per cent of the glasses are equivalent in composition to basalts that have higher Al, and lower Ca/Al and Fe/Mg ratios than mare basalts. The most abundant compositional type is named Fra Mauro basaltic glass and is subdivided into three related types. The other major glass type in the soil corresponds in composition to anorthositic gabbro.

  4. Mapping Soil Salinity with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling: History, Protocols, Guidelines, Applications, and Future Research Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. Mapping soil salinity is necessary for soil classification, reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. Because of its spatial and temporal heterogeneity soil salinity is difficult to map and monitor at field scales. There are various methods for characterizing soil salinity variability, but none of these approaches has been as extensively investigated and is as reliable and cost effective as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed soil sampling. Geospatial measurements of ECa are well-suited for characterizing soil salinity spatial distribution because they are reliable, quick, and easy to take with GPS-based mobilized ECa measurement equipment. However, ECa is influenced by a variety of soil properties, which makes the measurement of soil salinity at field scale problematic. It is the goal of this presentation to provide an overview of the field-scale characterization of soil salinity distribution using ECa-directed soil sampling. A historical perspective, protocols and guidelines, strengths and limitations, applications, and future trends are presented for characterizing spatial and temporal variation in soil salinity using ECa-directed soil sampling. Land resource managers, farmers, extension specialists, soil classification specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of field-scale maps of soil salinity.

  5. Practical method for extraction of PCR-quality DNA from environmental soil samples.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Kersh, Gilbert J; Massung, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    Methods for the extraction of PCR-quality DNA from environmental soil samples by using pairs of commercially available kits were evaluated. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in spiked soil samples at <1,000 genome equivalents per gram of soil and in 12 (16.4%) of 73 environmental soil samples.

  6. Analysis of fullerenes in soils samples collected in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Andrea; Helmus, Rick; Emke, Erik; van den Brink, Nico; Parsons, John R; Kalbitz, Karsten; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-12-01

    Fullerenes are carbon based nanoparticles that may enter the environment as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Although little is known about the presence of these chemicals in the environment, recent studies suggested that soil may act as a sink. The aim of the present work was to investigate the presence of fullerenes in soils collected in The Netherlands. Samples (n = 91) were taken from 6 locations and analyzed using a new developed LC-QTOF-MS method. The locations included highly trafficked and industrialized as well as urban and natural areas. In general, C60 was the most abundant fullerene found in the environment, detected in almost a half of the samples and at concentrations in the range of ng/kg. Other fullerenes such as C70 and an unknown structure containing a C60 cage were detected to a lower extent. The highest concentrations were found in the proximity of combustion sites such as a coal power plant and an incinerator, suggesting that the nanoparticles were unintentionally produced during combustions processes and reached the soil through atmospheric deposition. Consistent with other recent studies, these results show that fullerenes are widely present in the environment and that the main route for their entrance may be due to human activities. These data will be helpful in the understanding of the distribution of fullerenes in the environment and for the study of their behavior and fate in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Single Sample Chi-Square Test: Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shouu-Chyuan

    This lesson plan is designed to enable a student, after 50 minutes of instruction, to define the single sample chi-square test and explain the three conditions necessary to its proper use and the purpose of using it. The student will also be able to calculate and apply the single sample chi-square test in class according to the five steps with the…

  8. 303-K Storage facility sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    This document describes the cleanup, sampling, and analysis activities associated with the closure of the 303-K Storage Facility under the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610, ``Dangerous Waste Regulations.`` this document is a supplement to the 303-K Storage Facility Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1995a) (Closure Plan). The objective of these activities is to support clean closure of the 303 K Storage Facility. This document defines the information and activities needed to meet this objective, including: constituents of concern, cleanup performance standards, cleanup activities, sampling locations and methods, field screening locations and methods, field quality control requirements, laboratory analytical methods, and data validation methodology. This document supersedes the Closure Plan if the two conflict

  9. Stratified random sampling plan for an irrigation customer telephone survey

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the procedures used to design and select a sample for a telephone survey of individuals who use electricity in irrigating agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The survey is intended to gather information on the irrigated agricultural sector that will be useful for conservation assessment, load forecasting, rate design, and other regional power planning activities.

  10. PLAN SECTIONS AND ELEVATIONS OF VESSEL SAMPLING STATIONS "P", "Q", ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN SECTIONS AND ELEVATIONS OF VESSEL SAMPLING STATIONS "P", "Q", "S" CELLS MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-291-053694. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1394. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 400 area secondary cooling water sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    This is a total rewrite of the Sampling and Analysis Plan in response to, and to ensure compliance with, the State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4501 issued on July 31, 1996. This revision describes changes in facility status and implements requirements of the permit.

  12. Abstract: Sample Size Planning for Latent Curve Models.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keke

    2011-11-30

    When designing a study that uses structural equation modeling (SEM), an important task is to decide an appropriate sample size. Historically, this task is approached from the power analytic perspective, where the goal is to obtain sufficient power to reject a false null hypothesis. However, hypothesis testing only tells if a population effect is zero and fails to address the question about the population effect size. Moreover, significance tests in the SEM context often reject the null hypothesis too easily, and therefore the problem in practice is having too much power instead of not enough power. An alternative means to infer the population effect is forming confidence intervals (CIs). A CI is more informative than hypothesis testing because a CI provides a range of plausible values for the population effect size of interest. Given the close relationship between CI and sample size, the sample size for an SEM study can be planned with the goal to obtain sufficiently narrow CIs for the population model parameters of interest. Latent curve models (LCMs) is an application of SEM with mean structure to studying change over time. The sample size planning method for LCM from the CI perspective is based on maximum likelihood and expected information matrix. Given a sample, to form a CI for the model parameter of interest in LCM, it requires the sample covariance matrix S, sample mean vector [Formula: see text], and sample size N. Therefore, the width (w) of the resulting CI can be considered a function of S, [Formula: see text], and N. Inverting the CI formation process gives the sample size planning process. The inverted process requires a proxy for the population covariance matrix Σ, population mean vector μ, and the desired width ω as input, and it returns N as output. The specification of the input information for sample size planning needs to be performed based on a systematic literature review. In the context of covariance structure analysis, Lai and Kelley

  13. Comparison of analytical error and sampling error for contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Björn; Luthbom, Karin; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2006-11-16

    Investigation of soil from contaminated sites requires several sample handling steps that, most likely, will induce uncertainties in the sample. The theory of sampling describes seven sampling errors that can be calculated, estimated or discussed in order to get an idea of the size of the sampling uncertainties. With the aim of comparing the size of the analytical error to the total sampling error, these seven errors were applied, estimated and discussed, to a case study of a contaminated site. The manageable errors were summarized, showing a range of three orders of magnitudes between the examples. The comparisons show that the quotient between the total sampling error and the analytical error is larger than 20 in most calculation examples. Exceptions were samples taken in hot spots, where some components of the total sampling error get small and the analytical error gets large in comparison. Low concentration of contaminant, small extracted sample size and large particles in the sample contribute to the extent of uncertainty.

  14. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR PMID:21575248

  15. Hopping diffusion of helium isotopes from samples of lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on a detailed study of diffusion of helium isotopes from a sample of lunar soil (weight, 3.3 mg; bulk grain size, <74 μm; sampling depth, 118 cm in a 1.6-m-long core of lunar soil brought from the Moon by the Soviet automatic station Luna-24). The studies have been performed using step heating in the temperature range 300-1000°C in combination with a mass spectrometric isotope analysis of helium extracted at each temperature step. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion does not obey Fick’s law, which should be attributed to a large number of radiation damages in crystals of lunar soil minerals and can be described in terms of the formalism accepted for jump diffusion. The diffusion activation energy for both helium isotopes (4He, 3He) has been found to be identical and equal to 0.5 eV, and the frequency factors amount to 0.51 and 0.59 s-1, respectively. The random errors σ in the determination of these parameters are approximately equal to 5%. The lunar soil delivered to the Earth loses helium during the storage. At the beginning of the storage at room temperature, one gram of the lunar material under investigation loses approximately 3 × 109 helium atoms every second. It has been revealed that the jump diffusion of helium exhibits a strong isotopic effect: the light isotope 3He escapes at substantially higher rates. In order to prevent helium losses accompanied by isotope fractionation, the brought lunar soil should be stored at a low temperature.

  16. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  17. Curiosity First 16 Rock or Soil Sampling Sites on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-03

    This graphic maps locations of the sites where NASA's Curiosity Mars rover collected its first 18 rock or soil samples for analysis by laboratory instruments inside the vehicle. It also presents images of the drilled holes where 14 rock-powder samples were acquired. Curiosity scooped two soil samples at each of the other two sites: Rocknest and Gobabeb. The diameter of each drill hole is about 0.6 inch (1.6 centimeters), slightly smaller than a U.S. dime. The images used here are raw color, as recorded by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera. Notice the differences in color of the material at different drilling sites. For the map, north is toward upper left corner. The scale bar represents 2 kilometers (1.2 miles). The base map is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The latest sample site included is "Quela,"where Curiosity drilled into bedrock of the Murray formation on Sept. 18, 2016, during the 1,464th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Curiosity landed in August 2012 on the plain (named Aeolis Palus) near Mount Sharp (or Aeolis Mons). More drilling samples collected by MSL are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20845

  18. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  19. Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition.

    The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical.

    The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  1. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 and 2005 Results and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Soil Moisture Experiments (SMEX) series of field campaigns was designed to address research priorities of several programs involving satellite remote sensing of surface soil moisture. These include the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR) on Aqua, the Windsat on Coriolis, and future missions that include NASAs Hydros, the European Space Agency Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NPOESS. Algorithms, scaling, technology and land-atmosphere studies have all been addressed in each experiment. Scaling is a key aspect of experiment design because of the spatial differences between ground point observations and satellite footprints. In all of the campaigns aircraft sensors have provided the critical link between these. Different geographic domains have been used to provide diverse conditions for algorithm development and validation and a variety of aircraft instruments have been used to support specific objectives. SMEX04 was conducted in August 2004 in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. It was designed to address satellite footprint heterogeneity. The region has the diverse topography, vegetation and rainfall patterns necessary to address this issue. In addition, SMEX04 was timed to coincide with North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME). A working hypothesis of NAME is that among the land surface antecedent boundary conditions that control the onset and intensity of the precipitation is soil moisture. Surface soil moisture can change dramatically after rain events. A review of SMEX04 and preliminary results will be presented. SMEX05 is being planned to understand what contributions to soil moisture retrieval and mapping may be achieved by using fully polarimetric passive microwave observations. This has not been a focus of land parameter investigations in the past. The Windsat instrument provides these measurements at several frequencies. For SMEX05 an aircraft simulator of Windsat will also be employed. The field campaign will be

  2. Sampling plan for Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Semeão, Altair A; Fernandes, Flávio L; Morais, Elisangela G F

    2008-01-01

    This work determines the best technique, sampling unit and the number of samples to compose a sampling plan for Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber. The efficacy of three sampling techniques: leaf beating on a plastic tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection in bags were compared in nine commercial cucumber crops using three sampling units (a leaf from a branch located in the apical, median or basal third of the canopy). The number of samples was determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision for the best technique and sampling unit. The direct counting of insects on the apical third of the plant canopy was the best sampling technique for F. schultzei based on one leaf surveyed per plant using 38 plants per field. The best sampling technique for T. palmi was the leaf beating on a tray using one leaf of the apical third per plant and 35 plants per field. When joining both species, the best sampling system was the direct counting on the apical third, and it requires sampling one leaf per plant using at least 35 plants per field. These results facilitate the decision-making for the management of thrips on cucumber and aggregate the benefits of the correct decision for the adoption of strategies for population reduction.

  3. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MOHAGHEGHI,AMIR H.; PRESTON,ROSE; AKBARZADEH,MANSOOR; BAKHTIAR,STEVEN

    2000-04-05

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed.

  4. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  6. Management Plan: Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-11-01

    In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In Situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz AC power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degree}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degree} to 210{degree}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degree} to 100{degree}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ AC heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kill. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are presented.

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

  8. Development of internal forest soil reference samples and testing of digestion methods

    Treesearch

    J.E. Hislop; J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; R.A. Hallett

    1998-01-01

    Our research requires determinations of total elemental concentrations of forest soils. The lack of certified forest soil reference materials led us to develop internal reference samples. Samples were collected from three soil horizons (Oa, B, and C) at three locations having forested, acidic soils similar to those we commonly analyze. A shatterbox was used to...

  9. Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

  10. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well

  11. Soil development and sampling strategies for the returned Martian surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.

    1988-01-01

    Sampling of the Martian surface materials should be based on the experience gained from the study of soils and rocks collected in cold, dry environments, i.e., dry valleys of Antarctica. Previous studies have suggested that some of our best terrestrial analogs of the Martian soils are represented by those found in the polar deserts of Antarctica. Special sampling considerations must be taken into account when obtaining these samples because they represent at least five distinct types of materials. Weathering of planetary regolith materials occurs from both chemical and physical interactions of the planet's surface materials with the atmosphere and, if present, the hydrosphere and biosphere along with extraplanetary objects which may produce the original surface materials and produce secondary materials that are product of equilibrium between the atmosphere and study weathering processes and regolith development occurring on Martian-like surfaces, simulation studies must be carried out in materials in the field.

  12. Work Plan and Field Sampling Plan Site Investigations Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Sampling Plan Comments received from: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Note: All comments have been retyped exactly as submitted. RC422 1 February...B-7) re’~cyc’ dpý p f T 1 Site Investigations Work Plan Comments received from: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Department of the Interior...Fish and Wildlife Service Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Note: All comments have been retyped exactly as submitted. RC316 1 U.S

  13. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Models and Code Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Richard O.; Davidson, James R.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2001-03-06

    VSP is an easy to use, visual and graphic software tool being developed to select the right number and location of environmental samples so that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. It is a significant help for implementing the 6th and 7th steps of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) planning process ("Specify Tolerable Limits on Decision Errors" and "Optimize the Design for Obtaining Data," respectively).

  14. Uncertainties in forest soil carbon and nitrogen estimates related to soil sampling methods in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Plante, A. F.; Johnson, A. H.; Pan, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating forest soil carbon and nitrogen (CN) is critical to understanding ecosystem responses to changing climate, disturbance and forest management practices. Most of the uncertainty in soil CN cycling is associated with the difficulty in characterizing soil properties in field sampling because forest soils can be rocky, inaccessible and spatially heterogeneous. A composite coring technique is broadly applied as the standard FIA soil sampling protocol. However, the accuracy of this method might be limited by soil compaction, rock obstruction and plot selection problems during sampling. In contrast, the quantitative soil pit sampling method may avoid these problems and provides direct measurements of soil mass, rock volume and CN concentration representative of a larger ground surface area. In this study, the two sampling methods were applied in 60 forest plots, randomly located in three research areas in the Delaware River Basin in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. In each of the plots, one quantitative soil pit was excavated and three soil cores were collected. Our results show that average soil bulk density in the top 20 cm mineral soil measured from the soil cores was consistently lower than bulk density measured by soil pits. However, the volume percentage of coarse fragments measured by the core method was also significantly lower than the pit method. Conversely, CN concentrations were greater in core samples compared to pit samples. The resulting soil carbon content (0-20 cm) was estimated to be 4.1 ± 0.4 kg m-2 in the core method compared to 4.5 ± 0.4 kg m-2 in the pit method. Lower bulk density but higher CN concentration and lower coarse fragments content from the cores have offset each other, resulting in no significant differences in CN content from the soil pit method. Deeper soil (20-40 cm), which is not accessible in the core method, accounted for 29% of the total soil carbon stock (0-40 cm) in the pit method. Our results suggest that, although soil

  15. Area G Perimeter Surface-Soil Sampling Environmental Surveillance for Fiscal Year 1998 Hazardous and Solid Waste Group (ESH-19)

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis Childs

    1999-09-01

    Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Area G has been the principal facility for the disposal of low-level, solid-mixed, and transuranic waste since 1957. It is currently LANL's primary facility for radioactive solid waste burial and storage. As part of the annual environmental surveillance effort at Area G, surface soil samples are collected around the facility's perimeter to characterize possible radionuclide movement off the site through surface water runoff During 1998, 39 soil samples were collected and analyzed for percent moisture, tritium, plutonium-238 and 239, cesium-137 and americium-241. To assess radionuclide concentrations, the results from these samples are compared with baseline or background soil samples collected in an undisturbed area west of the active portion Area G. The 1998 results are also compared to the results from analogous samples collected during 1996 and 1997 to assess changes over this time in radionuclide activity concentrations in surface soils around the perimeter of Area G. The results indicate elevated levels of all the radionuclides assessed (except cesium-137) exist in Area G perimeter surface soils vs the baseline soils. The comparison of 1998 soil data to previous years (1996 and 1997) indicates no significant increase or decrease in radionuclide concentrations; an upward or downward trend in concentrations is not detectable at this time. These results are consistent with data comparisons done in previous years. Continued annual soil sampling will be necessary to realize a trend if one exists. The radionuclide levels found in the perimeter surface soils are above background but still considered relatively low. This perimeter surface soil data will be used for planning purposes at Area G, techniques to prevent sediment tm.nsport off-site are implemented in the areas where the highest radionuclide concentrations are indicated.

  16. Genesis Contingency Planning and Mishap Recovery: The Sample Curation View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Calaway, M.; Rodriques, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Planning for sample preservation and curation was part of mission design from the beginning. One of the scientific objectives for Genesis included collecting samples of three regimes of the solar wind in addition to collecting bulk solar wind during the mission. Collectors were fabricated in different thicknesses for each regime of the solar wind and attached to separate frames exposed to the solar wind during specific periods of solar activity associated with each regime. The original plan to determine the solar regime sampled for specific collectors was to identify to which frame the collector was attached. However, the collectors were dislodged during the hard landing making identification by frame attachment impossible. Because regimes were also identified by thickness of the collector, the regime sampled is identified by measuring fragment thickness. A variety of collector materials and thin films applied to substrates were selected and qualified for flight. This diversity provided elemental measurement in more than one material, mitigating effects of diffusion rates and/or radiation damage. It also mitigated against different material and substrate strengths resulting in differing effects of the hard landing. For example, silicon crystal substrates broke into smaller fragments than sapphire-based substrates and diamond surfaces were more resilient to flying debris damage than gold. The primary responsibility of the curation team for recovery was process documentation. Contingency planning for the recovery phase expanded this responsibility to include not only equipment to document, but also gather, contain and identify samples from the landing area and the recovered spacecraft. The team developed contingency plans for various scenarios as part of mission planning that included topographic maps to aid in site recovery and identification of different modes of transport and purge capability depending on damage. A clean tent, set-up at Utah Test & Training Range

  17. Genesis Contingency Planning and Mishap Recovery: The Sample Curation View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Calaway, M.; Rodriques, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Planning for sample preservation and curation was part of mission design from the beginning. One of the scientific objectives for Genesis included collecting samples of three regimes of the solar wind in addition to collecting bulk solar wind during the mission. Collectors were fabricated in different thicknesses for each regime of the solar wind and attached to separate frames exposed to the solar wind during specific periods of solar activity associated with each regime. The original plan to determine the solar regime sampled for specific collectors was to identify to which frame the collector was attached. However, the collectors were dislodged during the hard landing making identification by frame attachment impossible. Because regimes were also identified by thickness of the collector, the regime sampled is identified by measuring fragment thickness. A variety of collector materials and thin films applied to substrates were selected and qualified for flight. This diversity provided elemental measurement in more than one material, mitigating effects of diffusion rates and/or radiation damage. It also mitigated against different material and substrate strengths resulting in differing effects of the hard landing. For example, silicon crystal substrates broke into smaller fragments than sapphire-based substrates and diamond surfaces were more resilient to flying debris damage than gold. The primary responsibility of the curation team for recovery was process documentation. Contingency planning for the recovery phase expanded this responsibility to include not only equipment to document, but also gather, contain and identify samples from the landing area and the recovered spacecraft. The team developed contingency plans for various scenarios as part of mission planning that included topographic maps to aid in site recovery and identification of different modes of transport and purge capability depending on damage. A clean tent, set-up at Utah Test & Training Range

  18. An Integrative Hierarchical Stepwise Sampling Strategy For Spatial Sampling And Its Application In Digital Soil Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Zhu, A.; Qi, F.; Qin, C.; Li, B.; Pei, T.

    2011-12-01

    Sampling design plays an important role in spatial modeling. Existing methods often require large amount of samples to achieve desired mapping accuracy but imply considerable cost. When there are not enough resources for collecting a large set of samples at once, stepwise sampling approach is often the only option for collecting the needed large sample set, especially in the case of field surveying over large areas. This paper proposes an integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy which makes the samples collected at different stages an integrative one. The strategy is based on samples' representativeness of the geographic feature at different scales. The basic idea is to sample at locations that are representative of large-scale spatial patterns first and then add samples that represent more local patterns in a stepwise fashion. Based on the relationships between geographic feature and its environmental covariates, the proposed sampling method approximates a hierarchy of spatial variations of the geographic feature under concern by delineating natural aggregates (clusters) of its relevant environmental covariates at different scales. The natural occurrence of such aggregates is modeled using a fuzzy c-means clustering method. We iterate through different numbers of clusters from only a few to many more to be able to reveal clusters at different spatial scales. At a particular iteration, locations that bear high similarity to the cluster prototypes are identified. If a location is consistently identified at multiple iterations it is then considered to be more representative of the general or large-scale spatial patterns. Locations that are identified less during the iterations are representative of local patterns. The integrative stepwise sampling design then gives higher sampling priority to the locations that are more representative of the large scale patterns than local ones. We applied this sampling design in a digital soil mapping case study

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  20. Moisture effect in prompt gamma measurements from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Liadi, F A; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Raashid, M A; Isab, A H

    2016-09-01

    The variation in intensity of 1.78MeV silicon, 6.13MeV oxygen, and 2.22MeV hydrogen prompt gamma rays from soil samples due to the addition of 5.1, 7.4, 9.7, 11.9 and 14.0wt% water was studied for 14MeV incident neutron beams utilizing a LaBr3:Ce gamma ray detector. The intensities of 1.78MeV and 6.13MeV gamma rays from silicon and oxygen, respectively, decreased with increasing sample moisture. The intensity of 2.22MeV hydrogen gamma rays increases with moisture. The decrease in intensity of silicon and oxygen gamma rays with moisture concentration indicates a loss of 14MeV neutron flux, while the increase in intensity of 2.22MeV gamma rays with moisture indicates an increase in thermal neutron flux due to increasing concentration of moisture. The experimental intensities of silicon, oxygen and hydrogen prompt gamma rays, measured as a function of moisture concentration in the soil samples, are in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained through Monte Carlo calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of natural radioactivity from soil samples of Sind, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, S A; Hussain, S

    2011-06-01

    Natural radioactivity has been measured from the soil samples collected from the Sind province of Pakistan. The measured activities of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K were found in the range of 18-47, 24-69 and 254-769 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The calculated values of the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range of 33-87 nGy h⁻¹ and 0.16-0.43 mSv, respectively. The measured results of activity were found compatible with the worldwide findings.

  2. Effect of Sampling Disturbance on Laboratory-Measured Soil Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    stages of the stroke /push, the piston holds soil inside the tube in place, since the sample cannot pull away from the piston without creating a vacuum...tionally, the piston serves to assist in the control of disturbance during removal. When the tube has been pushed to the bottom of its stroke , the 10...8217te .ezah and.. °.. . SAPLING 1968) .." piston locked i p :....i..ti ...n reai e E to th.ub ndt ..-.r ssmlyi rota..t....-....d tosprt.hesml.rmuneligsi

  3. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  4. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  5. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  6. Soil sampling and isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco, Rousel A; Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia

    2014-07-11

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (a.k.a. EPN) represent a group of soil-inhabiting nematodes that parasitize a wide range of insects. These nematodes belong to two families: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. Until now, more than 70 species have been described in the Steinernematidae and there are about 20 species in the Heterorhabditidae. The nematodes have a mutualistic partnership with Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and together they act as a potent insecticidal complex that kills a wide range of insect species. Herein, we focus on the most common techniques considered for collecting EPN from soil. The second part of this presentation focuses on the insect-baiting technique, a widely used approach for the isolation of EPN from soil samples, and the modified White trap technique which is used for the recovery of these nematodes from infected insects. These methods and techniques are key steps for the successful establishment of EPN cultures in the laboratory and also form the basis for other bioassays that consider these nematodes as model organisms for research in other biological disciplines. The techniques shown in this presentation correspond to those performed and/or designed by members of S. P. Stock laboratory as well as those described by various authors.

  7. Final work plan for targeted sampling at Webber, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-05-01

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work for targeted sampling at Webber, Kansas (Figure 1.1). This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Data obtained in this sampling event will be used to (1) evaluate the current status of previously detected contamination at Webber and (2) determine whether the site requires further action. This work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. Argonne has issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that describes the general scope of and guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The Master Work Plan, approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document should be consulted for complete details of the technical activities proposed at the former CCC/USDA facility in Webber.

  8. Soil Samplers: New Techniques for Subsurface Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Sorini; John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2009-03-31

    Soil sampling techniques for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soil that is being sampled. Preventing VOC loss from soil cores that are collected from the subsurface and brought to the surface for subsampling is often difficult. Subsurface bulk sample retrieval systems are designed to obtain intact cylindrical cores of soil ranging anywhere from one to four inches in diameter, and one to several feet in length. The current technique that is used to subsample these soil cores for VOC analysis is to expose a horizontal section of the soil core to the atmosphere; screen the exposed soil using a photoionization detector (PID) or other appropriate device to locate contamination in the soil core; and use a hand-operated coring tool to collect samples from the exposed soil for analysis. Because the soil core can be exposed to the atmosphere for a considerable length of time during screening and sample collection, the current sub-sampling technique provides opportunity for VOCs to be lost from the soil. This report describes three alternative techniques from the current technique for screening and collecting soil samples from subsurface soil cores for VOC analysis and field testing that has been done to evaluate the techniques. Based on the results of the field testing, ASTM D4547, Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds, was revised to include information about the new techniques.

  9. Multiple nitrogen components in lunar soil sample 12023

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brilliant, D. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the enigmatic elements in lunar soils and breccias. The large range in (delta)N-15 values found within lunar soils was initially attributed to a secular increase in the N-15/N-14 ratio of 50 percent within the solar corona, and hence in the implanted nitrogen within the lunar regolith. However, more recent explanations have proposed a two (or many) component mixing model of solar wind nitrogen with some hypothetical non-solar components. Such components could include indigenous lunar nitrogen, nitrogen contained in interstellar grains in primitive meteorites, and magnetospheric nitrogen from the terrestrial atmosphere. To understand the makeup of multi-component mixtures it is advantageous to have carbon and noble gas data measured simultaneously, particularly in the case of lunar soils, where the solar wind is a likely fundamental contributor of nitrogen. To this end, a new nitrogen instrument was adapted to give some of the desired data in parallel. Conjoint measurements of N abundance and (delta)N-15 together with N/Ar-36 and Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios obtained during a stepped combustion of lunar soil 12023. The results are preliminary to a much more comprehensive investigation of well characterized fractions of the sample which we still have available from a previous study. Stepped combustion of a sample of 12023,7 yielded 94 ppm nitrogen with a (delta)N-15 = +22.2 percent, as well as the characteristic heavy-light-heavy pattern observed for lunar samples. The low temperature maximum was +75.1 percent at 550 C, the minimum at 800 C with (delta)N-15 = -16.7 percent and the high temperature (delta)N-15 peak is +90.6 percent at 1250 C. The major releases of nitrogen occurred between 650 C - 800 C in the form of a double peak; a third, substantial release occurred at 1150 C yielding 14.2 ppm of nitrogen coinciding with a small but recognizable drop in (delta)N-15 against a regularly increasing trend.

  10. Multiple nitrogen components in lunar soil sample 12023

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brilliant, D. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the enigmatic elements in lunar soils and breccias. The large range in (delta)N-15 values found within lunar soils was initially attributed to a secular increase in the N-15/N-14 ratio of 50 percent within the solar corona, and hence in the implanted nitrogen within the lunar regolith. However, more recent explanations have proposed a two (or many) component mixing model of solar wind nitrogen with some hypothetical non-solar components. Such components could include indigenous lunar nitrogen, nitrogen contained in interstellar grains in primitive meteorites, and magnetospheric nitrogen from the terrestrial atmosphere. To understand the makeup of multi-component mixtures it is advantageous to have carbon and noble gas data measured simultaneously, particularly in the case of lunar soils, where the solar wind is a likely fundamental contributor of nitrogen. To this end, a new nitrogen instrument was adapted to give some of the desired data in parallel. Conjoint measurements of N abundance and (delta)N-15 together with N/Ar-36 and Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios obtained during a stepped combustion of lunar soil 12023. The results are preliminary to a much more comprehensive investigation of well characterized fractions of the sample which we still have available from a previous study. Stepped combustion of a sample of 12023,7 yielded 94 ppm nitrogen with a (delta)N-15 = +22.2 percent, as well as the characteristic heavy-light-heavy pattern observed for lunar samples. The low temperature maximum was +75.1 percent at 550 C, the minimum at 800 C with (delta)N-15 = -16.7 percent and the high temperature (delta)N-15 peak is +90.6 percent at 1250 C. The major releases of nitrogen occurred between 650 C - 800 C in the form of a double peak; a third, substantial release occurred at 1150 C yielding 14.2 ppm of nitrogen coinciding with a small but recognizable drop in (delta)N-15 against a regularly increasing trend.

  11. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-05-12

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b).

  12. Vegetation and soil sampling for detection of enrichment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1994-06-01

    The concept of being able to detect clandestine nuclear operations rests on the fact that they invariably lose material characteristic of the process to the environment. This material can be collected and characterized using highly sensitive analytical techniques. The extent to which these signatures penetrate the environment depends on the type of process and the care taken at the facility to control losses. An enrichment facility that uses UF{sub 6}, a gas, will tend to lose more than a reactor because gases are harder to contain then solids. Any nuclear facility, like industrial processes everywhere, loses some characteristic material to the environment. The issues involved in acquiring environmental samples from around nuclear facilities are discussed, with the primary application being safeguards. Sampling plans, sample acquisition, analytical techniques, and data interpretation are described.

  13. Interim Draft: Biological Sampling and Analysis Plan Outline ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Standard Operation Procedures This interim sampling and analysis plan (SAP) outline was developed specifically as an outline of the output that will be generated by a developing on-line tool called the MicroSAP. The goal of the MicroSAP tool is to assist users with development of SAPs needed for site characterization, verification sampling, and post decontamination sampling stages of biological sampling and analysis activities in which the EPA would be responsible for conducting sampling. These activities could include sampling and analysis for a biological contamination incident, a research study, or an exercise. The development of this SAP outline did not consider the initial response of an incident, as it is assumed that the initial response would have been previously completed by another agency during the response, or the clearance phase, as it is assumed that separate committee would be established to make decisions regarding clearing a site. This outline also includes considerations for capturing the associated data quality objectives in the SAP.

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

  15. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    PubMed Central

    Tuf, Ivan H.; Chmelík, Vojtěch; Dobroruka, Igor; Hábová, Lucie; Hudcová, Petra; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, Slavomír

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Some species of centipedes and millipedes inhabit upper soil layers exclusively and are not recorded by pitfall trapping. Because of their sensitivity to soil conditions, they can be sampled quantitatively for evaluation of soil conditions. Soil samples are heavy to transport and their processing is time consuming, and such sampling leads to disturbance of the soil surface which land-owners do not like. We evaluated the use of hay-bait traps to sample soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes. The effectiveness of this method was found to be similar to the effectiveness of soil sampling. Hay-bait traps installed for 8–10 weeks can substitute for direct soil sampling in ecological and inventory studies. PMID:26257543

  16. Validation of Statistical Sampling Algorithms in Visual Sample Plan (VSP): Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuffer, Lisa L; Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-18

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Technology Development (OTD) contracted with a set of U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), to write a Remediation Guidance for Major Airports After a Chemical Attack. The report identifies key activities and issues that should be considered by a typical major airport following an incident involving release of a toxic chemical agent. Four experimental tasks were identified that would require further research in order to supplement the Remediation Guidance. One of the tasks, Task 4, OTD Chemical Remediation Statistical Sampling Design Validation, dealt with statistical sampling algorithm validation. This report documents the results of the sampling design validation conducted for Task 4. In 2005, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) performed a review of the past U.S. responses to Anthrax terrorist cases. Part of the motivation for this PNNL report was a major GAO finding that there was a lack of validated sampling strategies in the U.S. response to Anthrax cases. The report (GAO 2005) recommended that probability-based methods be used for sampling design in order to address confidence in the results, particularly when all sample results showed no remaining contamination. The GAO also expressed a desire that the methods be validated, which is the main purpose of this PNNL report. The objective of this study was to validate probability-based statistical sampling designs and the algorithms pertinent to within-building sampling that allow the user to prescribe or evaluate confidence levels of conclusions based on data collected as guided by the statistical sampling designs. Specifically, the designs found in the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software were evaluated. VSP was used to calculate the number of samples and the sample location for a variety of sampling plans applied to an actual release site. Most of the sampling designs validated are

  17. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  18. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-23

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102.

  19. A sampling plan for conduit-flow karst springs: Minimizing sampling cost and maximizing statistical utility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currens, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations should be sampled. Either the geometric mean or the flow-weighted average of the suspended constituents should be used. If automatic samplers are used, then they may be programmed to collect storm samples as frequently as every few minutes to provide details on the arrival time of constituents of interest. However, only samples collected bihourly should be used to calculate averages. By adopting a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with high-flow samples, the need to continuously monitor discharge, or to search for and analyze existing data to develop a statistically valid monitoring plan, is lessened.Analytical data for nitrate and triazines from 566 samples collected over a 3-year period at Pleasant Grove Spring, Logan County, KY, were statistically analyzed to determine the minimum data set needed to calculate meaningful yearly averages for a conduit-flow karst spring. Results indicate that a biweekly sampling schedule augmented with bihourly samples from high-flow events will provide meaningful suspended-constituent and dissolved-constituent statistics. Unless collected over an extensive period of time, daily samples may not be representative and may also be autocorrelated. All high-flow events resulting in a significant deflection of a constituent from base-line concentrations

  20. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  1. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  2. 7 CFR 43.106 - Choosing AQL's and sampling plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 23 C n1=4 01 12 D n1=5 01 12 E n1=6 12 23 EE n1=7 23 F n1=9 01 12 23 34 G n1=11 12 23 34 H n1=13 01... 67 78 nt=65 12 67 9 10 L n1=48 01 02 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 10 11 11 12 nt=72 12 M n1=84 01 02 03 23... Hundred Units) Comparable sampling plans Identification letter of OC curve Q nc Ac Re R nc Ac Re S, T...

  3. Metallic phases in the Luna 24 soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The metal and sulfide phases in the Luna 24 soil samples were studied with the optical microscope and the electron microprobe. The compositions of the metal particles fall into three groups based on their Ni and Co contents: (1) Samples of meteoritic composition which have undergone metamorphism on the lunar surface. (2) Samples of submeteoritic, low Ni and low Co contents, including most of the metal particles observed. These particles are contained in glass and agglutinate particles and were probably formed by the mixing of meteoritic metal with lunar metal produced by the reduction of silicates during shock-impact. (3) Samples of high-CO content probably formed by mixing of meteoritic material with high-Co metal from the mare basalt or by fractional crystallization from a metal silicate melt. The sulfide minerals were also studied. These are almost pure FeS, and crystallized from a late stage liquid in the mare basalt. Three high-Ni sulfides were also found in the glass phase of agglutinates.

  4. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied.

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-06-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste.

  6. Statistical sampling plan for the TRU waste assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, J. J.; Wright, T.; Schultz, F. J.; Haff, K.; Monroe, R. J.

    1983-08-01

    Due to limited space, there is a need to dispose appropriately of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste which is presently stored below ground in 55-gal (208-l) drums within weather-resistant structures. Waste containing less than 100 nCi/g transuranics can be removed from the present storage and be buried, while waste containing greater than 100 nCi/g transuranics must continue to be retrievably stored. To make the necessary measurements needed to determine the drums that can be buried, a transuranic Neutron Interrogation Assay System (NIAS) has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and can make the needed measurements much faster than previous techniques which involved ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The previous techniques are reliable but time consuming. Therefore, a validation study has been planned to determine the ability of the NIAS to make adequate measurements. The validation of the NIAS will be based on a paired comparison of a sample of measurements made by the previous techniques and the NIAS. The purpose of this report is to describe the proposed sampling plan and the statistical analyses needed to validate the NIAS. 5 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  8. Pu-241 in samples of forest soil from Poland.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, J W; Dorda, J; Was, B

    1999-10-01

    241Pu activity measurements in coniferous forest soil samples from Poland are presented. The results were obtained in two ways: by alpha spectrometric remeasurements of the plutonium sources 3-4 years after their preparation (i.e. by the 241Am ingrowth) and by direct measurements of 241Pu using liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. Both methods gave consistent results. The maximum observed activity concentration obtained by the 241Am ingrowth was (254 +/- 43) Bq/kg, and by direct measurements it was (284 +/- 31) Bq/kg (the same sample, activities calculated for May 1, 1986). Enhanced levels of 241Pu were observed in all samples from the farthest north-eastern Poland. The estimated 241Pu maximum deposition from Chernobyl fallout in this area (sum of deposition for two examined layers of one site) was (1.025 +/- 0.110) kBq/m2. This will result after 70 years in an additional 241Am activity of about (30.1 +/- 3.2) Bq/m2. The average ratio for 241Pu to total 238,239,240Pu was of the order of 25. The obtained average Chernobyl ratios for 241Pu to 239,240Pu were about 86, and those for 241Pu to 238,239,240Pu were 56.

  9. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-12-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b).

  10. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  11. Evaluation of Sampling and Sample Preparation Modifications for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Lead (mg/kg) field replicate 1 Lead (mg/kg) field replicate 2 %RSD 1 68 72 6 2 246 446 58 3 73 347 130 4 978 528 60 5 1010 79 171 Gy’s theory...particle size distributions from detonated 155-mm howitzer rounds. Chemosphere 55: 357–367. Thiboutot, S., G. Ampleman, J. Lewis, D. Faucher, A. Marois, R...and T. F. Jenkins. 2002. The Effect of Particle Size Reduction on Sub sampling Variance for Explosives Residues in Soil. Chemosphere . 49: 1265−1271

  12. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Surface remediation was completed at the former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, in 1990. Residual radioactive materials (contaminated soil and debris) were removed and disposed of at Union Carbide Corporation`s (Umetco) nearby Gas Hills Title 2 facility. Ground water in the surficial and semiconfined aquifers (known collectively as the `uppermost aquifer`) below the former mill and tailings site has been contaminated. No contamination has been detected in the deeper, confined sandstone aquifer. The contaminant plume extends off site to the south and east. The plume is constrained by surface wetlands and small streams to the east and west of the site and by the Little Wind River to the south. Fifteen monitor wells installed in 1993 were sampled to better define the contaminant plume and to provide additional water quality data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples also were collected from domestic wells in response to a request by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in January 1994. No contamination attributable to the former uranium milling operations have ever been detected in any of the domestic wells used for potable supplies.

  13. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  14. Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM

  15. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (Ksampler/soil) and the uptake rate constant (ku) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both Ksampler/soil and ku values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both Ksampler/soil and ku values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trace elements of soil samples from mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, Mumtaz; Bedi, Harneet; Hajivaliei, M.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, K. P.

    2010-06-01

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with the elemental analysis of soil samples from a mine and the area around it, located in E 48°59' and N 34°11' in Hamadan province of Iran. Elemental analysis was done using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Spectra analysis and quantification was done using GUPIX software. Besides the major elements Si, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe the other elements, namely Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb were also present. Arsenic could be detected in some samples only. The presence of Ba and Ce needs more investigations by other techniques due to overlap of the L X-rays of these elements with the K X-rays of the major elements Mn and Fe, etc. Many elements V, Cr, As and Pb are known to be toxic and needs further understanding and proper handling in the mining process.

  18. Electrical properties of lunar soil sample 15301,38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.; Frisillo, A. L.; Strangway, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    Electrical property measurements have been made on an Apollo 15 lunar soil sample in ultrahigh vacuum from room temperature to 827 C for the frequency spectrum from 100 Hz through 1 MHz. The dielectric constant, the total ac loss tangent, and the dc conductivity were measured. The dc conductivity showed no thermal hysteresis, but an irreversible (in vacuum) thermal effect was found in the dielectric loss tangent on heating above 700 C and during the subsequent cooling. This appears to be related to several effects associated with lunar glass above 700 C. The sample also showed characteristic low-frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant with increasing temperature, presumably due to Maxwell-Wagner intergranular effects. The dielectric properties may be fitted to a model involving a Cole-Cole frequency distribution that is relatively temperature-independent below 200 C and follows a Boltzmann temperature distribution with an activation energy of 2.5 eV above 200 C. The dc conductivity is fitted by an exponential temperature distribution and becomes the dominant loss above 700 C.

  19. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  20. Spectroscopic analyses of soil samples outside Nile Delta of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Osman, Osama; Ezzat, Hend; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2016-11-01

    Soil in Egypt, especially around Delta is exposed to various pollutants which are affecting adversely soil fertility and stability. Humic Acids (HA) as a main part of soil organic matter (SOM) represent the heart of the interaction process of inorganic pollutants with soil. Consequently, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) were used to characterize soil, sediment and extracted HA. Resulting data confirmed that the HA was responsible for transporting inorganic pollutants from surface to subsurface reaching the ground water, which may represent a high risk on public health. The transport process is coming as carboxyl in surface soil changed into metal carboxylate then transferred into the carboxyl in bottom soil.

  1. Radionuclide Activities in Contaminated Soils: Effects of Sampling Bias on Remediation of Coarse-Grained Soils in Hanford Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-08-28

    Only a limited set of particle size-contaminant concentration data is available for soils from the Hanford Site. These data are based on bench-scale tests on single soil samples from one waste site each in operable units 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-FR-1, and three samples from the North Pond 300-FF-1 operable unit. The objective of this study was to 1) examine available particle size-contaminant of concern activity and concentration data for 100 and 300 Area soils, 2) assess the effects of sampling bias, 3) suggest sampling protocols, and 4) formulate a method to determine the contaminant of concern activities and concentrations of the whole soil based on the measurements conducted on a finer size fraction of the whole soil.

  2. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. )

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

  6. Validation of Sensor-Directed Spatial Simulated Annealing Soil Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Elia; Lesch, Scott M; Corwin, Dennis L

    2016-07-01

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor-soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data. In the present study, two sensor-directed, model-based, sampling scheme delineation methods were compared to validate recent applications of soil apparent electrical conductivity (EC)-directed spatial simulated annealing against the more established EC-directed response surface sampling design (RSSD) approach. A 6.8-ha study area near San Jacinto, CA, was surveyed for EC, and 30 soil sampling locations per sampling strategy were selected. Spatial simulated annealing and RSSD were compared for sensor calibration to a target soil property (i.e., salinity) and for evenness of spatial coverage of the study area, which is beneficial for mapping nontarget soil properties (i.e., those not correlated with EC). The results indicate that the linear modeling EC-salinity calibrations obtained from the two sampling schemes provided salinity maps characterized by similar errors. The maps of nontarget soil properties show similar errors across sampling strategies. The Spatial Simulated Annealing methodology is, therefore, validated, and its use in agronomic and environmental soil science applications is justified.

  7. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  8. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  9. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  10. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  11. Designing a multiple dependent state sampling plan based on the coefficient of variation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aijun; Liu, Sanyang; Dong, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-01

    A multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the coefficient of variation of the quality characteristic which follows a normal distribution with unknown mean and variance. The optimal plan parameters of the proposed plan are solved by a nonlinear optimization model, which satisfies the given producer's risk and consumer's risk at the same time and minimizes the sample size required for inspection. The advantages of the proposed MDS sampling plan over the existing single sampling plan are discussed. Finally an example is given to illustrate the proposed plan.

  12. Poly-Use Multi-Level Sampling Rod to Measure Soil-Gas Exchange in Glacier Forefield Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauer, P. A.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The forefields of receding glaciers provide unique opportunities to investigate initial microbial processes in the vadose zone and their role in soil formation. Various studies revealed a surprising diversity of microbes and of their strategies to cope with the extreme conditions in this C- and N-limited environment. In the forefield of receding glaciers as well as in developed soils microorganisms are the driving force for the exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere. However, in young and developing soils, little is known about soil-gas exchange and the activities of the involved microorganisms. Knowledge of soil-gas composition and gas diffusion at various depths in a soil profile allows for the precise calculation of gas fluxes among different depths within the vadose zone and at the soil-atmosphere boundary. The acquisition of undisturbed soil-gas samples at a high depth-resolution is difficult, and the estimation of soil-gas diffusion coefficients requires knowledge of volumetric water content at the exact location of gas sampling. By using conventional techniques, e.g. the burial of permanent probes, these tasks are virtually impossible to accomplish in a remote glacier forefield dominated by rocks and boulders. We developed a novel poly-use multi-level sampling rod (PULSAR) primarily consisting of two devices: a newly-designed multi-level sampler (MLS) for soil-gas sampling, and a commercially available profile probe (PR2) for non-invasive multi-level water content measurements. These devices fit into the same access tubes (ATs) of 1.1m length, which need to be pre-installed into the soil with the help of a steel rod. We modified the ATs to feature eight 1mm diameter holes each at 20 sampling depths in intervals of 5cm. Our MLS can be inserted into the ATs and allows for the selective extraction of soil-gas from each sampling depth. The interspaces between the sampling depths are sealed by inflatable rubber membranes for the time of sampling

  13. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  14. Sampling soil-derived CO2 for analysis of isotopic composition: a comparison of different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Teresa; Inglima, Ilaria; Rubino, Mauro; Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Subke, Jens-Arne; Peressotti, Alessandro; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2006-03-01

    A new system for soil respiration measurement [P. Rochette, L.B. Flanagan, E.G. Gregorich. Separating soil respiration into plant and soil components using analyses of the natural abundance of carbon-13. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63, 1207-1213 (1999).] was modified in order to collect soil-derived CO2 for stable isotope analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of this modified soil respiration system to determine the isotopic composition (delta13C) of soil CO2 efflux and to measure, at the same time, the soil CO2 efflux rate, with the further advantage of collecting only one air sample. A comparison between different methods of air collection from the soil was carried out in a laboratory experiment. Our system, as well as the other dynamic chamber approach tested, appeared to sample the soil CO2, which is enriched with respect to the soil CO2 efflux, probably because of a mass dependent fractionation during diffusion and because of the atmospheric contribution in the upper soil layer. On the contrary, the static accumulation of CO2 into the chamber headspace allows sampling of delta13C-CO2 of soil CO2 efflux.

  15. Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

  16. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  17. Biodegradation of Guanidinium Ion in Aerobic Soil Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Frederick. Maryland 21701 The manufacture of several munitions, polymeric resins , flame retardants, and pharmaceuticals utilizes guanidine salts as... Melamines and Guanidines. J Sci Soil Manure Jpn 15:569-574 Lees H, Quastel JH (1947) Biochemistry of Nitrification in Soil. III. Nitrification of Various

  18. Efficient sampling schemes for assessing soil tillage intensity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residue or plant litter is the portion of a crop left in the field after harvest. Crop residues on the soil surface provide a protective barrier against water and wind erosion and reduce the amounts of soil, nutrients, and pesticides that reach streams and rivers. Management of crop residues i...

  19. STATISTICAL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CLOSING A SOIL VENTING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA allowed the Performing Parties (PPs) to perform a soil vapor extraction process to a site contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC), contingent upon the process reducing the VOC concentrations in the soil by 75% within one year. An innovative injection-extraction...

  20. STATISTICAL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CLOSING A SOIL VENTING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA allowed the Performing Parties (PPs) to perform a soil vapor extraction process to a site contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC), contingent upon the process reducing the VOC concentrations in the soil by 75% within one year. An innovative injection-extraction...

  1. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  2. Misrepresentation of hydro-erosional processes in rainfall simulations using disturbed soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Pereira, Adalberto A.

    2017-06-01

    Interrill erosion is a primary soil erosion process which consists of soil detachment by raindrop impact and particle transport by shallow flow. Interill erosion affects other soil erosion sub-processes, e.g., water infiltration, sealing, crusting, and rill initiation. Interrill erosion has been widely studied in laboratories, and the use of a sieved soil, i.e., disturbed soil, has become a standard method in laboratory experiments. The aims of our study are to evaluate the hydro-erosional response of undisturbed and disturbed soils in a laboratory experiment, and to quantify the extent to which hydraulic variables change during a rainstorm. We used a splash pan of 0.3 m width, 0.45 m length, and 0.1 m depth. A rainfall simulation of 58 mm h- 1 lasting for 30 min was conducted on seven replicates of undisturbed and disturbed soils. During the experiment, several hydro-physical parameters were measured, including splashed sediment, mean particle size, runoff, water infiltration, and soil moisture. We conclude that use of disturbed soil samples results in overestimation of interrill processes. Of the nine assessed parameters, four displayed greater responses in the undisturbed soil: infiltration, topsoil shear strength, mean particle size of eroded particles, and soil moisture. In the disturbed soil, five assessed parameters displayed greater responses: wash sediment, final runoff coefficient, runoff, splash, and sediment yield. Therefore, contextual soil properties are most suitable for understanding soil erosion, as well as for defining soil erodibility.

  3. Occurrence of Leptospira DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Wasiński, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland.

  4. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  5. Changes in the enzymatic activity of soil samples upon their storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadenko, E. V.; Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'Kov, V. F.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of the duration and conditions of storage of soil samples on the activity of soil enzymes (catalase, β-fructofuranosidase, and dehydrogenase) was studied for the main soils of southern Russia (different subtypes of chernozems, chestnut soils, brown forest soils, gray forest soils, solonetzes, and solonchaks). The following soil storage conditions were tested: (1) the air-dry state at room temperature, (2) the airdry state at a low positive (in a refrigerator, +4°C) temperature, (3) naturally moist samples at a low positive temperature, and (4) naturally moist samples at a negative (in a freezer, -5°C) temperature. It was found that the sample storing caused significant changes in the enzymatic activities, which depended on the soil type, the land use, the type of enzyme, and the duration and conditions of the sample storage. In the course of the storage, the changes in the enzymatic activity had a nonlinear character. The maximum changes were observed in the initial period (up to 12 weeks). Then, a very gradual decrease in the activity of the studied enzymes was observed. Upon the long-term (>12 weeks) storage under the different conditions, the difference in the activities of the soil enzymes became less pronounced. The storage of soil samples in the air-dried state at room temperature can be recommended for mass investigations.

  6. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  7. Verification of the Accuracy of Sample-Size Equation Calculations for Visual Sample Plan Version 0.9C

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, James R.

    2001-01-29

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is a software tool being developed to facilitate the design of environmental sampling plans using a site-map visual interface, standard sample-size equations, a variety of sampling grids and random sampling plans, and graphs to visually depict the results to the user. This document provides comparisons between sample sizes calculated by VSP Version 0.9C, and sample sizes calculated by test code written in the S-Plus language. All sample sizes calculated by VSP matched the independently calculated sample sizes. Also the VSP implementation of the ELIGPRID-PC algorithm for hot spot probabilities is shown to match previous results for 100 standard test cases. The Conclusions and Limitations section of this document lists some aspects of VSP that were not tested by this suite of tests and recommends simulation-based enhancements for future versions of VSP.

  8. Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility, Interim Response Action Implementation, Final Sampling Design Plan. Appendix A to Task Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-30

    Waste Streams, EPA-600/2-80-018, January 1980. GCA Corporation, Quality Assurance Plan, Love Canal Study - Appendix A, Sampling Procedures, EPA Contract...subsequent disposal. &ources GCA Corporation, Quality Assurance Plan, Love Canal Study - Appendix A, Sampling Procedures, EPA Contract 68-02-3168.I I I U

  9. Planned burning vs. wildfire impact on soil methane flux - implications for forest fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Soils in forests ecosystem represent the largest land based methane sink and therefore provide an important ecosystem service. Fire can alter soil properties linked to soil methane uptake potential but this has rarely been studied to date. We measured soil methane flux in a dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest (Victoria, Australia) that had different planned burning frequency treatments applied (every 3 and 10 years) in the last 27 years. We also studied soil methane flux along a wildfire chronosequence spanning over 200 years (Tasmania, Australia). Our data show that planned fires and wildfires had contrasting effects on methane uptake of the forest soils. The repeated planned burning treatments did not alter methane flux patterns of forest soil. In the wildfire chronosequence the methane uptake capacity of the forest soil was closely related to structural changes during stand development likely linked to stand water use, with drier forest stands having greater methane uptake. Our data demonstrate that unmanaged wildfire can have substantial impact on the methane sink capacity of forest ecosystems in Australia while the less intense planned fires have little effect. The effects of fire were more related to changes in stand structure rather than impacts of fire on soils per se.

  10. Soil information in the Strategic Environmental Assessment of Rural Development Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Soil information is essential for land planning at different administrative levels. Currently, in Europe there is a hierarchy of at least seven main territorial administrative entities which consider soil in their land planning policies. In this study, European, national and regional regulations that affect soil are discussed, considering themes, priorities, and focus areas. A better attention on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Rural Development Plans (RDP) 2014-2020 is given, by analysing the Environmental Reports produced in the framework of the SEA of the RDP 2014-2020 of some European Regions. Both old and new soil indicators are introduced, as well as the consequences of their adoption for soil science and soil scientists. It is evident from this study that soil information is treated very variably, not only because of the different kinds of available information, but mainly as a consequence of the expertise and sensitivity to the soil issues of the authors, since they can be different kinds of public or private bodies hired by regional authorities. Therefore, despite having the same reference, the SEAs are very different. In most cases, the amount of soil information is little or negligible, even when available. The ex-ante impacts are often only qualitative, or quantified only in terms of the areal extent of applied measures. On the other hand, following the European recommendations, the ongoing and ex-post reports of the monitoring activities of RDP are expected to provide a wealth of soil information, both qualitative and quantitative. Soil scientists, soil and water conservationists, and management experts will be requested to provide more sophisticated and dynamic types of information. Therefore, the SEA of RDP and similar land planning activities will provide greater scientific and technical opportunities for soil science, provided that the public bodies in charge of evaluations, namely Member States, Regions and their auditing

  11. Arthrobacter deserti sp. nov., isolated from a desert soil sample.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Wen; Chu, Xiao; Xiao, Min; Li, Chang-Tian; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative bacterium, designated YIM CS25T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Turpan desert in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, north-western China. The isolate grew at 15-40 °C, at pH 6.0-8.0 and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM CS25T belonged to the genus Arthrobacter and was closely related to Arthrobacter halodurans JSM 078085T (95.89 % similarity). The peptidoglycan type contained lysine, alanine and glutamic acid. The major whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose and ribose. The isolate contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as the major polar lipids and MK-9 (H2) as the predominant menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.3 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, strain YIM CS25T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM CS25T ( = KCTC 39544T = CGMCC 1.15091T).

  12. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    PubMed

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  13. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here.

  14. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL... temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in...

  15. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-09-22

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Hanford K-Basins prior to storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The process water conditioning (PWC) system collects and treats the selected liquid effluent streams generated by the CVD process. The PWC system uses ion exchange modules (IXMs) and filtration to remove radioactive ions and particulate from CVD effluent streams. Water treated by the PWC is collected in a 5000-gallon storage tank prior to shipment to an on-site facility for additional treatment and disposal. The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to document the basis for achieving the following data quality objectives: (1) Measurement of the radionuclide content of the water transferred from the multi-canister overpack (MCO), vacuum purge system (VPS) condensate tank, MCO/Cask annulus and deionized water flushes to the PWC system receiver tanks. (2) Trending the radionuclide inventory of IXMs to assure that they do not exceed the limits prescribed in HNF-2760, Rev. 0-D, ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (Onsite) Ion Exchange Modules,'' and HNF-EP-0063 Rev. 5, ''Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria'' for Category 3, non-TRU, low level waste (LLW). (3) Determining the radionuclide content of the PWC system bulk water storage tank to assure that it meets the limits set forth in HNF-3 172, Rev. 0, ''Hanford Site Liquid Waste Acceptance Criteria,'' to permit transfer and disposal at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located at the 200 East Area.

  17. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-05-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site.

  18. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    This sampling and analysis plan will support the preoperational environmental monitoring for construction, development, and operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities, which have been designed for the conditioning and storage of spent nuclear fuels; particularly the fuel elements associated with the operation of N-Reactor. The SNF consists principally of irradiated metallic uranium, and therefore includes plutonium and mixed fission products. The primary effort will consist of removing the SNF from the storage basins in K East and K West Areas, placing in multicanister overpacks, vacuum drying, conditioning, and subsequent dry vault storage in the 200 East Area. The primary purpose and need for this action is to reduce the risks to public health and safety and to the environment. Specifically these include prevention of the release of radioactive materials into the air or to the soil surrounding the K Basins, prevention of the potential migration of radionuclides through the soil column to the nearby Columbia River, reduction of occupational radiation exposure, and elimination of the risks to the public and to workers from the deterioration of SNF in the K Basins.

  20. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    PubMed

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  1. Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hung, Mei-Hua; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Young, Li-Sen; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagellated bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0089(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken on Matsu Island (Taiwan). Strain CC-MHH0089(T) grew at 15-30 °C and pH 5.0-10.0 and tolerated ≤8 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed high pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas azotifigens 6H33b(T) (97.3 %) and Pseudomonas balearica SP1402(T) (96.7 %) and lower sequence similarity to other strains (<96.0 %). In DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, the relatedness of strain CC-MHH0089(T) to P. azotifigens JCM 12708(T) was 38.3 % (reciprocal value 19.5 %). Evolutionary trees reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences revealed a varying phylogenetic neighbourhood of strain CC-MHH0089(T) with regard to the most closely related type strains. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 63.6 mol%. The major fatty acids were C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and summed features 2 (C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16 : 1 I), 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) and 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. According to its distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-MHH0089(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-MHH0089(T) ( = BCRC 80771(T) = JCM 30078(T)).

  2. Comparison of the efficiency between two sampling plans for aflatoxins analysis in maize

    PubMed Central

    Mallmann, Adriano Olnei; Marchioro, Alexandro; Oliveira, Maurício Schneider; Rauber, Ricardo Hummes; Dilkin, Paulo; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC). Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize. PMID:24948911

  3. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  4. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  5. Quantitative field testing Heterodera glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from soil under agronomic production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil.

  6. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  7. 50 CFR 260.61 - Sampling plans and procedures for determining lot compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sampling plans and procedures for... Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Sampling § 260.61 Sampling plans and procedures for determining lot compliance. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in this...

  8. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    PubMed

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform.

  9. Determining the relative importance of soil sample locations to predict risk of child lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Soil lead in urban neighborhoods is a known predictor of child blood lead levels. In this paper, we address the question where one ought to concentrate soil sample collection efforts to efficiently predict children at-risk for soil Pb exposure. Two extensive data sets are combined, including 5467 surface soil samples collected from 286 census tracts, and geo-referenced blood Pb data for 55,551 children in metropolitan New Orleans, USA. Random intercept least squares, random intercept logistic, and quantile regression results indicate that soils collected within 1m adjacent to residential streets most reliably predict child blood Pb outcomes in child blood Pb levels. Regression decomposition results show that residential street soils account for 39.7% of between-neighborhood explained variation, followed by busy street soils (21.97%), open space soils (20.25%), and home foundation soils (18.71%). Just as the age of housing stock is used as a statistical shortcut for child risk of exposure to lead-based paint, our results indicate that one can shortcut the characterization of child risk of exposure to neighborhood soil Pb by concentrating sampling efforts within 1m and adjacent to residential and busy streets, while significantly reducing the total costs of collection and analysis. This efficiency gain can help advance proactive upstream, preventive methods of environmental Pb discovery.

  10. Characterization of the spatial variability of soil available zinc at various sampling densities using grouped soil type information.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Liu, Feng; Li, De-Cheng; Zhao, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The influence of anthropogenic activities and natural processes involved high uncertainties to the spatial variation modeling of soil available zinc (AZn) in plain river network regions. Four datasets with different sampling densities were split over the Qiaocheng district of Bozhou City, China. The difference of AZn concentrations regarding soil types was analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). Since the stationarity was not indicated and effective ranges of four datasets were larger than the sampling extent (about 400 m), two investigation tools, namely F3 test and stationarity index (SI), were employed to test the local non-stationarity. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique was performed to describe the spatial heterogeneity of AZn concentrations under the non-stationarity assumption. GWR based on grouped soil type information (GWRG for short) was proposed so as to benefit the local modeling of soil AZn within each soil-landscape unit. For reference, the multiple linear regression (MLR) model, a global regression technique, was also employed and incorporated the same predictors as in the GWR models. Validation results based on 100 times realization demonstrated that GWRG outperformed MLR and can produce similar or better accuracy than the GWR approach. Nevertheless, GWRG can generate better soil maps than GWR for limit soil data. Two-sample t test of produced soil maps also confirmed significantly different means. Variogram analysis of the model residuals exhibited weak spatial correlation, rejecting the use of hybrid kriging techniques. As a heuristically statistical method, the GWRG was beneficial in this study and potentially for other soil properties.

  11. Analysis of environmental soil samples for aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, C.M.; Donnelly, J.R.; Brumley, W.C.; Sovocool, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    To support a goal of the USEPA Characterization Research Division in Las Vegas, a rapid HPLC/UV of fluorescence method was developed for ppb levels of aromatic amines in soils. Existing methods were either designed for water, or gave poor and variable recoveries in soils. Both fast, reversible reactions and slow, irreversible reactions of these amines are reported to occur with the humic materials in the soil. The method involved sonication of 2 g soil with 1% NH4 OH/CH{sub 3}CN for 2 hours, centrifuging 30 min, adding 3 mL extract to 7 mL 0.01 M NH{sub 4}OAc, filtering, transferring through an acrodisc for HPLC analysis with gradient elution from 70% 0.01M NH{sub 4}OAc, 30% CH{sub 3}CN to 100% CH{sub 3}CN over 17 min; hold 3.5 min. The analytical method provided reproducible recoveries from both sand and humic-containing soils (e.g., 70-99% on {beta}-naphthylamine and 72-96% on 4-nitroaniline, spiked at 1 ppm). The method detection limits ranged from 1 ppb for {beta}-naphthyl-amine to 1 ppm for pyridines. HPLC analysis used ultraviolet, fluorescence and mass spectrometric detectors. Notice: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), partially funded and collaborated in the research described in this abstract for a proposed poster. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA or ORD.

  12. Planning for NEA Sample Return: Planetary Protection Controls and Non-Scientific Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    In planning for sample return missions involving near earth asteroids (NEA), success will depend on more than just science and technology. Mission planners must also consider planetary protection policies, possible biocontainment needs, legal and procedural requirements, environmental issues, and public risk communication. Integrating these factors into mission plans from the earliest phase will be essential to avoid potential problems and prepare for public scrutiny or challenges. Fortunately, many of these considerations are similar to those already anticipated for Mars sample return. As plans for NEA sample return missions are developed, it is likely that information from numerous recent reports, studies, and workshops on extraterrestrial sample return can serve as helpful planning guidelines.

  13. Variability of soil microbial properties: effects of sampling, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Cernohlávková, Jitka; Jarkovský, Jirí; Nesporová, Michala; Hofman, Jakub

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the effect of soil spatial variability within the sampling site scale, the effects of sample sieving (1, 2 and 4mm), and storage conditions up to 32 weeks (wet at 4 degrees C, -20 degrees C and air dried) on microbial biomass C, respiration, ammonification and nitrification activities in arable, grassland and forest soil. In general, all results were dependent on soil type. Arable soil showed the highest spatial variability, followed by grassland and forest soil. Sieving did not cause large differences; however, higher biomass C and respiration activity were observed in the 1mm than in the 4mm fraction. Storage at 4 degrees C seemed to be the most appropriate up to 8 weeks showing only minor changes of microbial parameters. Freezing of soils resulted in large increase of respiration. Dried storage indicated disruption of microbial communities even after 2 weeks.

  14. Use of mass spectrometry coupled with a solids insertion probe to prescreen soil samples for environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Check, C.E.; Bach, S.B.H.

    1995-12-31

    The contamination of air, water, and soils by a myriad of sources generates a large sample Currently, sample volume for hazardous constituent analyses is approximately half a million samples per year. The total analytical costs associated with this are astronomical. The analysis of these samples is vital in terms of assessing the types of contamination present and to what degree a site has been contaminated. The results of these analyses are very important for making an informed, knowledgeable decision as to the need for remediation and what type of remediation processes should be initiated based on site suitability vs non-action for the various sample sites. With an ever growing environmental consciousness in today`s society, the assessment and subsequent remediation of a site needs to be accomplished promptly despite the time constraints traditional methods place on such actions. In order to facilitate a rapid assessment, it is desirable to utilize instrumentation and equipment which afford the most information about a site allowing for optimization in environmental assessment while maintaining a realistic time schedule for the resulting remediation process. Because there are various types of environmental samples that can be taken at a site, different combinations of instrumentation and methods are required for assessing the level and type of contamination present whether it is in air, water, or soils. This study is limited to analyzing soil-like media that would normally fall under EPA Method 8270 which is used to analyze solid waste matrices, soils, and groundwater for semi-volatile organic compounds.

  15. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years.

  16. Modification of extraction method for community DNA isolation from salt affected compact wasteland soil samples.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Purvi; Patel, Rushika; Patel, Meghavi; Sarodia, Devki; Munshi, Nasreen S

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the issue of interferences by salt and compactness in release of bacterial cell required for lysis, method described by Yeates et al. (1998), was optimized for isolation of genomic material (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, DNA) from soil microbial community by addition of Al(NH4)SO4. Very low total viable count was observed in the samples tested and hence use of higher amount of soil is required primarily for DNA isolation from wasteland soils. The method proves itself efficient where commercially available bead beating and enzymatic lysis methods could not give isolation of any amount of community genomic DNA due to compact nature and salt concentrations present in soil. •The protocol was found efficient for soil samples with high clay content for microbial community DNA extraction.•Variation in lysis incubation and amount of soil may help with soil samples containing low microbial population.•Addition of Al(NH4)SO4 is crucial step in humic acid removal from extracted DNA samples for soil samples containing high salinity and clay particles.

  17. Field and Lab Methods to Reduce Sampling Variation in Soil Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, K. G.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural variability in soil and detrital carbon sampling is typically large enough that it hinders accurate assessment of standing stock and changes that may occur following disturbances and experimental treatments. We are developing carbon budgets in forests of Northern California and wish to see how experimental canopy thinning may affect carbon cycling in these forests. In the pre-treatment phase, we have sought methods to quantify detrital carbon pools in an accurate and efficient manner. We have found that small soil excavations 15 cm diameter to a depth of 10 cm work very well to reduce variation an avoid introducing sampling biases. We excavate a pit carefully of uniform dimensions using cutting chisels and scoops. We fill the void created using small pebbles contained in a small net and then weigh the pebbles to obtain a volume estimate of the soil collected. The samples are sorted moist through a series of sieves of 6, 4, and 2 mm into rocks, live roots, dead roots, woody debris, and remaining soil and its organic matter. From a single sample, we estimate proportional rock volume, fine soil bulk density (soil bulk density of the 2 mm fraction), live roots, dead roots, woody debris, and proportion of organic matter in the 2 mm fraction. The standard deviations of soil measures (soil carbon, loss on ignition, bulk density, rock volume, live and dead root mass) were universally reduced over similar measures by soil corers, in some instances by up to 5-fold. Coefficient of variation using excavation pits are typically 5 to 10 %, whereas cores were 20 to 30 %. We have observed that variation in soil organic matter is more a function of variation in soil bulk density than with variation in percent soil organic matter content. As a result, we often see increased soil organic matter stores at depths below 10 cm. Soils beneath highly decayed logs show increases in soil carbon in the mineral soil suggesting woody debris is a source of soil carbon. Below

  18. Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

    2014-05-01

    With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA

  19. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tavalla, M; Oormazdi, H; Akhlaghi, L; Shojaee, S; Razmjou, E; Hadighi, R; Meamar, Ar

    2013-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran. A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the positive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus. Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III). The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  20. Quantitative field testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from metagenomic samples isolated directly from soil.

    PubMed

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil.

  1. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-12-31

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation.

  2. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  3. Technology Development and Advanced Planning for Curation of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Allen, C. C.

    2002-05-01

    NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates extraterrestrial samples, providing the international science community with lunar rock and soil returned by the Apollo astronauts, meteorites collected in Antarctica, cosmic dust collected in the stratosphere, and hardware exposed to the space environment. Curation comprises initial characterization of new samples, preparation and allocation of samples for research, and clean, secure long-term storage. The foundations of this effort are the specialized cleanrooms (class 10 to 10,000) for each of the four types of materials, the supporting facilities, and the people, many of whom have been doing detailed work in clean environments for decades. JSC is also preparing to curate the next generation of extraterrestrial samples. These include samples collected from the solar wind, a comet, and an asteroid. Early planning and R&D are underway to support post-mission sample handling and curation of samples returned from Mars. One of the strong scientific reasons for returning samples from Mars is to search for evidence of current or past life in the samples. Because of the remote possibility that the samples may contain life forms that are hazardous to the terrestrial biosphere, the National Research Council has recommended that all samples returned from Mars be kept under strict biological containment until tests show that they can safely be released to other laboratories. It is possible that Mars samples may contain only scarce or subtle traces of life or prebiotic chemistry that could readily be overwhelmed by terrestrial contamination. Thus, the facilities used to contain, process, and analyze samples from Mars must have a combination of high-level biocontainment and organic / inorganic chemical cleanliness that is unprecedented. JSC has been conducting feasibility studies and developing designs for a sample receiving facility that would offer biocontainment at least the equivalent of current maximum containment BSL-4 (Bio

  4. Technology Development and Advanced Planning for Curation of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates extraterrestrial samples, providing the international science community with lunar rock and soil returned by the Apollo astronauts, meteorites collected in Antarctica, cosmic dust collected in the stratosphere, and hardware exposed to the space environment. Curation comprises initial characterization of new samples, preparation and allocation of samples for research, and clean, secure long-term storage. The foundations of this effort are the specialized cleanrooms (class 10 to 10,000) for each of the four types of materials, the supporting facilities, and the people, many of whom have been doing detailed work in clean environments for decades. JSC is also preparing to curate the next generation of extraterrestrial samples. These include samples collected from the solar wind, a comet, and an asteroid. Early planning and R\\&D are underway to support post-mission sample handling and curation of samples returned from Mars. One of the strong scientific reasons for returning samples from Mars is to search for evidence of current or past life in the samples. Because of the remote possibility that the samples may contain life forms that are hazardous to the terrestrial biosphere, the National Research Council has recommended that all samples returned from Mars be kept under strict biological containment until tests show that they can safely be released to other laboratories. It is possible that Mars samples may contain only scarce or subtle traces of life or prebiotic chemistry that could readily be overwhelmed by terrestrial contamination . Thus, the facilities used to contain, process, and analyze samples from Mars must have a combination of high-level biocontainment and organic / inorganic chemical cleanliness that is unprecedented. JSC has been conducting feasibility studies and developing designs for a sample receiving facility that would offer biocontainment at least the equivalent of current maximum containment BSL-4 (Bio

  5. Evidence of degradation of polybrominated biphenyls in soil samples from Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.H. Jr.; Patterson, D.G.; Orti, D.L.; Holler, J.S.; Needham, L.L.; Sirmans, S.L.; Liddle, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from the former polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) manufacturing site in Michigan were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The results indicate significant degradation of the PBB residue in the soil sample. The soil sample with the highest concentration of PBB had the greatest degree of degradation. Principal degradation products include 2,3', 4,4', 5-pentabromobiphenyl, 2,2', 4,4', 5-pentabromobiphenyl and two unidentified tetrabromobiphenyls. The degradation pattern observed supports a photochemical decomposition mechanism. These degraded residues may be more toxic than the original Firemaster residues. The implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Using Soil Apparent Electrical Conductivity to Optimize Sampling of Soil Penetration Resistance and to Improve the Estimations of Spatial Patterns of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Glécio Machado; Dafonte, Jorge Dafonte; Bueno Lema, Javier; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; Silva, Ênio Farias França e

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a combined application of an EM38DD for assessing soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and a dual-sensor vertical penetrometer Veris-3000 for measuring soil electrical conductivity (ECveris) and soil resistance to penetration (PR). The measurements were made at a 6 ha field cropped with forage maize under no-tillage after sowing and located in Northwestern Spain. The objective was to use data from ECa for improving the estimation of soil PR. First, data of ECa were used to determine the optimized sampling scheme of the soil PR in 40 points. Then, correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between soil PR and ECa, ranging from −0.36 to −0.70 for the studied soil layers. The spatial dependence of soil PR was best described by spherical models in most soil layers. However, below 0.50 m the spatial pattern of soil PR showed pure nugget effect, which could be due to the limited number of PR data used in these layers as the values of this parameter often were above the range measured by our equipment (5.5 MPa). The use of ECa as secondary variable slightly improved the estimation of PR by universal cokriging, when compared with kriging. PMID:25610899

  7. Using soil apparent electrical conductivity to optimize sampling of soil penetration resistance and to improve the estimations of spatial patterns of soil compaction.

    PubMed

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Bueno Lema, Javier; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; França e Silva, Ênio Farias

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a combined application of an EM38DD for assessing soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and a dual-sensor vertical penetrometer Veris-3000 for measuring soil electrical conductivity (ECveris) and soil resistance to penetration (PR). The measurements were made at a 6 ha field cropped with forage maize under no-tillage after sowing and located in Northwestern Spain. The objective was to use data from ECa for improving the estimation of soil PR. First, data of ECa were used to determine the optimized sampling scheme of the soil PR in 40 points. Then, correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between soil PR and ECa, ranging from -0.36 to -0.70 for the studied soil layers. The spatial dependence of soil PR was best described by spherical models in most soil layers. However, below 0.50 m the spatial pattern of soil PR showed pure nugget effect, which could be due to the limited number of PR data used in these layers as the values of this parameter often were above the range measured by our equipment (5.5 MPa). The use of ECa as secondary variable slightly improved the estimation of PR by universal cokriging, when compared with kriging.

  8. Wildlife Conservation Planning Using Stochastic Optimization and Importance Sampling

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    1997-01-01

    Formulations for determining conservation plans for sensitive wildlife species must account for economic costs of habitat protection and uncertainties about how wildlife populations will respond. This paper describes such a formulation and addresses the computational challenge of solving it. The problem is to determine the cost-efficient level of habitat protection...

  9. 40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 141.802 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.802 Coliform... also be included in the Aircraft Water System Operations and Maintenance Plan required in § 141.804. ...

  10. 7 CFR 43.106 - Choosing AQL's and sampling plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... capabilities under good commercial practice with respect to the defects in question: For example, if under... practical; (3) Consumer preferences: These may require higher AQL's or permit lower AQL's than process... “good” and “bad” lots: Although several plans in these standards have the same AQL, they differ in their...

  11. 42 CFR 431.978 - Eligibility sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., for example, by making adjustments to the plan when necessary due to fluctuations in the universe. (2... active and negative universes; or (ii) If the active case universe or negative case universe of Medicaid... active cases and negative cases, respectively. (iii) If the active case universe or negative...

  12. 42 CFR 431.978 - Eligibility sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., for example, by making adjustments to the plan when necessary due to fluctuations in the universe. (2... active and negative universes; or (ii) If the active case universe or negative case universe of Medicaid... active cases and negative cases, respectively. (iii) If the active case universe or negative...

  13. 42 CFR 431.978 - Eligibility sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., for example, by making adjustments to the plan when necessary due to fluctuations in the universe. (2... active and negative universes; or (ii) If the active case universe or negative case universe of Medicaid... active cases and negative cases, respectively. (iii) If the active case universe or negative...

  14. 42 CFR 431.978 - Eligibility sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., for example, by making adjustments to the plan when necessary due to fluctuations in the universe. (2... active and negative universes; or (ii) If the active case universe or negative case universe of Medicaid... active cases and negative cases, respectively. (iii) If the active case universe or negative...

  15. 42 CFR 431.978 - Eligibility sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., for example, by making adjustments to the plan when necessary due to fluctuations in the universe. (2... active and negative universes; or (ii) If the active case universe or negative case universe of Medicaid... active cases and negative cases, respectively. (iii) If the active case universe or negative...

  16. Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Pinto, Cleovan; Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Visintin da Silva Galdino, Tarcísio; Silvestre Pereira, Poliana; Gomes Barbosa, Breno; Henrique Oliveira Lima, Carlos; Rodrigues da Silva, Nilson; Coutinho Picanço, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was <1 h and was inexpensive (sampling). This has not been reported for watermelon before. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Soil Property Mapping Over Large Areas Using Sparse Ad-hoc Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, A.; Liu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Information on spatial variation of soil properties over large areas is a critical input for environmental modeling at large scales. Yet, quality information on soil spatial variation over large areas is difficult to obtain due to the large number of field samples required. Existing samples are often sparse and ad-hoc. The soil property maps created from these samples using existing techniques are not only at low quality but also lack the uncertainty information. This paper presents a new approach to map soil properties and quantify uncertainty in the derived soil property maps over large areas using sparse and ad-hoc samples. The underlying assumption of this new approach is the soil-landscape concept which stipulates that the more similar the environment conditions between two locations the more similar the soil property values are between the two sites. Under this assumption each sample can be considered as a representative over areas of similar environmental conditions. The level of representation of an individual sample for an unsampled location can be approximated by the similarity between their respective environment conditions. Based on this "individual representation" concept and with a Case-based Reasoning (CBR) approach soil property values at unsampled locations can be predicted and the uncertainty associated with each prediction can also be quantified based on their environmental similarity to individual samples. A case study over the Illy Region, a 50,000 km2 area in Xinjiang, Northwest China, has demonstrated that the approach can be an effective alternative for mapping soil property and quantifying uncertainty over large areas with sparse and ad-hoc samples.

  18. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--part 3: field experiments.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Groenevelt, Hester; Nicholson, Paul; Seethapathy, Suresh; Sacco, Paolo; Crump, Derrick; Tuday, Michael; Hayes, Heidi; Schumacher, Brian; Johnson, Paul; Górecki, Tadeusz; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly associated with contaminated land and may pose a risk to human health via subsurface vapor intrusion to indoor air. Soil vapor sampling is commonly used to assess the nature and extent of VOC contamination, but can be complicated because of the wide range of geologic material permeability and moisture content conditions that might be encountered, the wide variety of available sampling and analysis methods, and several potential causes of bias and variability, including leaks of atmospheric air, adsorption-desorption interactions, inconsistent sampling protocols and varying levels of experience among sampling personnel. Passive sampling onto adsorbent materials has been available as an alternative to conventional whole-gas sample collection for decades, but relationships between the mass sorbed with time and the soil vapor concentration have not been quantitatively established and the relative merits of various commercially available passive samplers for soil vapor concentration measurement is unknown. This paper presents the results of field experiments using several different passive samplers under a wide range of conditions. The results show that properly designed and deployed quantitative passive soil vapor samplers can be used to measure soil vapor concentrations with accuracy and precision comparable to conventional active soil vapor sampling (relative concentrations within a factor of 2 and RSD comparable to active sampling) where the uptake rate is low enough to minimize starvation and the exposure duration is not excessive for weakly retained compounds.

  19. Challenges in Bulk Soil Sampling and Analysis for Vapor Intrusion Screening of Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft Engineering Issue Paper discusses technical issues with monitoring soil excavations for VOCs and describes options for such monitoring as part of a VI pathway assessment at sites where soil excavation is being considered or used as part of the remedy for VOC-contaminat...

  20. Challenges in Bulk Soil Sampling and Analysis for Vapor Intrusion Screening of Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft Engineering Issue Paper discusses technical issues with monitoring soil excavations for VOCs and describes options for such monitoring as part of a VI pathway assessment at sites where soil excavation is being considered or used as part of the remedy for VOC-contaminat...

  1. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Treesearch

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  2. 105-N basin sediment disposition phase-two sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-03-14

    The sampling and analysis plan for Phase 2 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition task defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed to support characterization of the sediment and selection of an appropriate sediment disposal option.

  3. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO’s On-Site Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2010-09-01

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  4. Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--part 1: theory.

    PubMed

    McAlary, Todd; Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre; Groenevelt, Hester; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds are the primary chemicals of concern at many contaminated sites and soil vapor sampling and analysis is a valuable tool for assessing the nature and extent of contamination. Soil gas samples are typically collected by applying vacuum to a probe in order to collect a whole-gas sample, or by drawing gas through a tube filled with an adsorbent (active sampling). There are challenges associated with flow and vacuum levels in low permeability materials, and leak prevention and detection during active sample collection can be cumbersome. Passive sampling has been available as an alternative to conventional gas sample collection for decades, but quantitative relationships between the mass of chemicals sorbed, the soil vapor concentrations, and the sampling time have not been established. This paper presents transient and steady-state mathematical models of radial vapor diffusion to a drilled hole and considerations for passive sampler sensitivity and practical sampling durations. The results indicate that uptake rates in the range of 0.1 to 1 mL min(-1) will minimize the starvation effect for most soil moisture conditions and provide adequate sensitivity for human health risk assessment with a practical sampling duration. This new knowledge provides a basis for improved passive soil vapour sampler design.

  5. Characterization Plan and Dissolution Tests for Tank 16H Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.; Hay, M.S.

    1998-02-09

    In support of the closure of Tank 16H, a sample of the solids residue on the bottom of the tank interior and three samples from the tank annulus will be sent to SRTC for analysis. The results of the analysis of the samples from the tank interior and the annulus will define the source term inventory used for fate and transport modeling. In addition, the samples from the tank annulus will be used for dissolution tests to evaluate the effectiveness of various cleaning alternatives.

  6. Sampling protocol recommendations for measuring soil organic carbon stocks in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Veldkamp, Edzo; Corre, Marife D.

    2013-04-01

    In the tropics, there is an urgent need for cost effective sampling approaches to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land-use change given the lack of reliable data. The tropics are especially important considering the high deforestation rates, the huge belowground carbon pool and the fast soil carbon turnover rates. In the framework of a pan-tropic (Peru, Cameroon and Indonesia) land-use change study, some highly relevant recommendations on the SOC stocks sampling approaches have emerged. In this study, where we focused on deeply weathered mineral soils, we quantified changes in SOC stock following land-use change (deforestation and subsequent establishment of other land-uses). We used a space-for-time substitution sampling approach, measured SOC stocks in the top three meters of soil and compared recently converted land-uses with adjacent reference forest plots. In each respective region we investigated the most predominant land-use trajectories. In total 157 plots were established across the three countries, where soil samples were taken to a depth of three meters from a central soil pit and from the topsoil (to 0.5m) from 12 pooled composite samples. Finding 1 - soil depth: despite the fact that the majority of SOC stock from the three meter profile is found below one meter depth (50 to 60 percent of total SOC stock), the significant changes in SOC were only measured in the top meter of soil, while the subsoil carbon stock remained relatively unchanged by the land-use conversion. The only exception was for older (>50 yrs) cacao plantations in Cameroon where significant decreases were found below one meter. Finding 2 - pooled composite samples taken across the plot provided more spatially representative estimates of SOC stocks than samples taken from the central soil pit.

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there.

  8. Tank 241-B-106 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.M.

    1995-06-15

    This sampling and analysis plan identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective. This quality objective is part of the tank characterization plan for tank 241-B-106. This report also identifies procedures and requirements for collecting and characterizing samples form tank 241-B-106 by the push mode core sampling method.

  9. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterization facility for "next-generation" soil sampling aimed, for example, at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity in quantification of a set of exemplar parameters is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The theory of sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a more general fit-for-purpose soil heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale transect (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-0.5 m) replication sampling point variability. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results from a specific well-mixed soil type show that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among other soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas, e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  10. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  11. Field Sampling and Selecting On-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Soil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods fordetecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The...

  15. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Default Prevention Plan A Appendix A to Subpart N of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE... Default Rates Appendix A to Subpart N of Part 668—Sample Default Prevention Plan This appendix is...

  16. Soil organic carbon stocks in southeast Germany as affected by land use, soil type and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; von Lützow, M.; Spörlein, P.; Geuß, U.; Hangen, E.; Reischl, A.; Schilling, B.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2012-04-01

    soils. Therefore, we propose that in future SOC inventories, soils should be sampled down to the parent material and completely analyzed by horizon instead of depth increments in order to increase the accuracy of SOC stock estimations and to elucidate pedogenetic effects on SOC storage. A land use-specific and soil type-specific quantification of functional SOC pools with different turnover times would make it possible to estimate the future development of SOC stocks under a changing climate.

  17. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  18. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  19. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  20. Utilization of Tabu search heuristic rules in sampling-based motion planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksar, Weria; Hong, Tang Sai; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Khaksar, Mansoor

    2015-05-01

    Path planning in unknown environments is one of the most challenging research areas in robotics. In this class of path planning, the robot acquires the information from its sensory system. Sampling-based path planning is one of the famous approaches with low memory and computational requirements that has been studied by many researchers during the past few decades. We propose a sampling-based algorithm for path planning in unknown environments using Tabu search. The Tabu search component of the proposed method guides the sampling to find the samples in the most promising areas and makes the sampling procedure more intelligent. The simulation results show the efficient performance of the proposed approach in different types of environments. We also compare the performance of the algorithm with some of the well-known path planning approaches, including Bug1, Bug2, PRM, RRT and the Visibility Graph. The comparison results support the claim of superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  1. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    poisoned by, and where to sample for, WP. Figure 2.2. Detonation of white phosphorus smoke rounds deposit millimeter-sized pieces of WP in shallow...1997) used multi-increment samples to find areas within a large salt marsh that contained particles of WP large enough to poison and kill waterfowl. WP

  2. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    poisoned by, and where to sample for, WP. Figure 2.2. Detonation of white phosphorus smoke rounds deposit millimeter-sized pieces of WP in shallow...1997) used multi-increment samples to find areas within a large salt marsh that contained particles of WP large enough to poison and kill waterfowl. WP

  3. Spatial Variation in Soil Properties among North American Ecosystems and Guidelines for Sampling Designs

    PubMed Central

    Loescher, Henry; Ayres, Edward; Duffy, Paul; Luo, Hongyan; Brunke, Max

    2014-01-01

    Soils are highly variable at many spatial scales, which makes designing studies to accurately estimate the mean value of soil properties across space challenging. The spatial correlation structure is critical to develop robust sampling strategies (e.g., sample size and sample spacing). Current guidelines for designing studies recommend conducting preliminary investigation(s) to characterize this structure, but are rarely followed and sampling designs are often defined by logistics rather than quantitative considerations. The spatial variability of soils was assessed across ∼1 ha at 60 sites. Sites were chosen to represent key US ecosystems as part of a scaling strategy deployed by the National Ecological Observatory Network. We measured soil temperature (Ts) and water content (SWC) because these properties mediate biological/biogeochemical processes below- and above-ground, and quantified spatial variability using semivariograms to estimate spatial correlation. We developed quantitative guidelines to inform sample size and sample spacing for future soil studies, e.g., 20 samples were sufficient to measure Ts to within 10% of the mean with 90% confidence at every temperate and sub-tropical site during the growing season, whereas an order of magnitude more samples were needed to meet this accuracy at some high-latitude sites. SWC was significantly more variable than Ts at most sites, resulting in at least 10× more SWC samples needed to meet the same accuracy requirement. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the mean and variability (i.e., sill) of SWC across space at individual sites across time and have often (but not always) observed the variance or standard deviation peaking at intermediate values of SWC and decreasing at low and high SWC. Finally, we quantified how far apart samples must be spaced to be statistically independent. Semivariance structures from 10 of the 12-dominant soil orders across the US were estimated, advancing our

  4. Spatial variation in soil properties among North American ecosystems and guidelines for sampling designs.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Henry; Ayres, Edward; Duffy, Paul; Luo, Hongyan; Brunke, Max

    2014-01-01

    Soils are highly variable at many spatial scales, which makes designing studies to accurately estimate the mean value of soil properties across space challenging. The spatial correlation structure is critical to develop robust sampling strategies (e.g., sample size and sample spacing). Current guidelines for designing studies recommend conducting preliminary investigation(s) to characterize this structure, but are rarely followed and sampling designs are often defined by logistics rather than quantitative considerations. The spatial variability of soils was assessed across ∼1 ha at 60 sites. Sites were chosen to represent key US ecosystems as part of a scaling strategy deployed by the National Ecological Observatory Network. We measured soil temperature (Ts) and water content (SWC) because these properties mediate biological/biogeochemical processes below- and above-ground, and quantified spatial variability using semivariograms to estimate spatial correlation. We developed quantitative guidelines to inform sample size and sample spacing for future soil studies, e.g., 20 samples were sufficient to measure Ts to within 10% of the mean with 90% confidence at every temperate and sub-tropical site during the growing season, whereas an order of magnitude more samples were needed to meet this accuracy at some high-latitude sites. SWC was significantly more variable than Ts at most sites, resulting in at least 10× more SWC samples needed to meet the same accuracy requirement. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the mean and variability (i.e., sill) of SWC across space at individual sites across time and have often (but not always) observed the variance or standard deviation peaking at intermediate values of SWC and decreasing at low and high SWC. Finally, we quantified how far apart samples must be spaced to be statistically independent. Semivariance structures from 10 of the 12-dominant soil orders across the US were estimated, advancing our

  5. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  6. DDT and HCH isomer levels in soils, carrot root and carrot leaf samples.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Carvajal, O; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Hayward-Jones, P M; Valencia-Quintana, R

    2008-10-01

    Agricultural cultivation assists organochlorine pesticide migration from contaminated soils to growing plants. This phenomenon is caused by retention processes that modify volatile pesticide exchange between soil, air and plants. The aim of the study was to monitor organochlorine pesticide (HCB, alpha- and gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels and compare these concentrations in soil, carrot roots and carrot leaves. Fifty soil samples, 50 carrot root and 50 carrot leaf samples were taken from the same fields and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The results reveal organochlorine pesticide diffusion from agricultural soils to growing carrot plants and their vapors adsorption by leaves. Within the carrot plant, organochlorine pesticides accumulate especially in carrot root peel, 3-7 times more than in root flesh.

  7. Remedial Investigation concept plan for Picatinny arsenal: Volume 1, Environmental setting, applicable regulations, summaries of site sampling plans, sampling priorities, and supporting appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.A.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Biang, C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Miller, S.; Patton, T.; Pearl, R.; Yonk, A.; Yuen, C.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a Remedial Investigation (RI) Concept Plan for Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey. Based on types of activity and location, the 156 RI Sites identified during the study are grouped into 16 Areas. The plan assesses the environmental status and identifies additional data needed for each RI Site in each Area. The plan was developed to comply with state and federal hazardous waste and water quality regulations. The plan also provides a ranking of the 16 Areas according to their potential for impacts on public health and the environment. Volume 1 describes the environmental setting of Picatinny Arsenal, discusses applicable federal and state environmental regulations, briefly describes the Areas and the Sites within each Area, provides a ranking of the Areas, summarizes the proposed RI sampling plan for each Site in each Area, and gives supplementary information. 60 refs., 9 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  9. Sorption of 1-naphthol to soil and geologic samples with varying diagenetic properties.

    PubMed

    Salloum, M J; Dudas, M J; McGill, W B

    2001-08-01

    Remediation of contaminated land requires a firm understanding of the processes that occur between xenobiotics and soil colloids. It is currently accepted that the extent of xenobiotic uptake is proportional to the carbon quantity and character of the soil or geologic sample. Previous studies have developed empirical equations to predict the extent of sorption based on the aromatic carbon content. We examined these relationships with an independent set of soil and geologic samples and 1-naphthol. The 1-naphthol sorption coefficients varied significantly (P < 0.01) among sorbents and are consistent with the diagenetic properties of the organic matter in these samples. The cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental data did not concur with the sorption data for most of the soil samples. We suggest that this contradiction may be due to a third variable, the physical organization of the organic matter. Chemical methods measure the whole sample, whereas short-term sorption occurs on the surface; therefore, only some organic matter domains in the soil are available for interaction with 1-naphthol. Hence, chemical data alone may be insufficient for predicting the sorption behavior of xenobiotics in soil and geologic samples.

  10. Effort versus Reward: Preparing Samples for Fungal Community Characterization in High-Throughput Sequencing Surveys of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zewei; Schlatter, Dan; Kennedy, Peter; Kinkel, Linda L.; Kistler, H. Corby; Nguyen, Nhu; Bates, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation fungal amplicon sequencing is being used with increasing frequency to study fungal diversity in various ecosystems; however, the influence of sample preparation on the characterization of fungal community is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of four procedural modifications to library preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The following treatments were considered: 1) the amount of soil used in DNA extraction, 2) the inclusion of additional steps (freeze/thaw cycles, sonication, or hot water bath incubation) in the extraction procedure, 3) the amount of DNA template used in PCR, and 4) the effect of sample pooling, either physically or computationally. Soils from two different ecosystems in Minnesota, USA, one prairie and one forest site, were used to assess the generality of our results. The first three treatments did not significantly influence observed fungal OTU richness or community structure at either site. Physical pooling captured more OTU richness compared to individual samples, but total OTU richness at each site was highest when individual samples were computationally combined. We conclude that standard extraction kit protocols are well optimized for fungal HTS surveys, but because sample pooling can significantly influence OTU richness estimates, it is important to carefully consider the study aims when planning sampling procedures. PMID:25974078

  11. 7 CFR 42.104 - Sampling plans and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection... well as usability, of the container for its intended purpose. The table in § 42.113 enumerates...

  12. 7 CFR 42.104 - Sampling plans and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and...

  13. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  14. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, R.B.

    1999-02-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative.

  16. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  17. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  18. Planning for the Paleomagnetic Investigations of Returned Samples from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.; Hays, L. E.; Meyer, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The red planet is a magnetic planet. Mars' iron-rich surface is strongly magnetized, likely dating back to the Noachian period when the surface may have been habitable. Paleomagnetic measurements of returned samples could transform our understanding of the Martian dynamo and its connection to climatic and planetary thermal evolution. Because the original orientations of Martian meteorites are unknown, all Mars paleomagnetic studies to date have only been able to measure the paleointensity of the Martian field. Paleomagnetic studies from returned Martian bedrock samples would provide unprecedented geologic context and the first paleodirectional information on Martian fields. The Mars 2020 rover mission seeks to accomplish the first leg by preparing for the potential return of 31 1 cm-diameter cores of Martian rocks. The Returned Sample Science Board (RSSB) has been tasked to advise the Mars 2020 mission in how to best select and preserve samples optimized for paleomagnetic measurements. A recent community-based study (Weiss et al., 2014) produced a ranked list of key paleomagnetism science objectives, which included: 1) Determine the intensity of the Martian dynamo 2) Characterize the dynamo reversal frequency with magnetostratigraphy 3) Constrain the effects of heating and aqueous alteration on the samples 4) Constrain the history of Martian tectonics Guided by these objectives, the RSSB has proposed four key sample quality criteria to the Mars 2020 mission: (a) no exposure to fields >200 mT, (b) no exposure to temperatures >100 °C, (c) no exposure to pressures >0.1 GPa, and (d) acquisition of samples that are absolutely oriented with respect to bedrock with a half-cone uncertainty of <5°. Our measurements of a Mars 2020 prototype drill have found that criteria (a-c) should be met by the drilling process. Furthermore, the core plate strike and dip will be measured to better than 5° for intact drill cores; we are working with the mission to establish ways to

  19. Soil conservation planning in the People's Republic of China: An alternative approach

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The severe environmental, social, and economic consequences of soil erosion have lead to the development of many soil erosion and conservation planning models. This study presents an alternative approach to soil conservation planning, one based explicitly on the types of data available and the social and economic conditions that apply in the People's Republic of China. The method has three major parts: (1) identification of available land characteristic and socio-economic goals, the potential soil conservation measures, and the production rules which link the two; (2) building of a computer model based on series of decision trees that express the above relationships; and (3) evaluation of the output of the above model using linear programming. This approach is applied to the Dingxi Region of Gansu province in the northwestern China, and its results are compared to those of the planning methods currently used in that region. The method is found to potentially enable conservation planners to easily generate a number of different soil conservation plans and gain insight into the challenges and possible solutions to rural development problems.

  20. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  1. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Küçükömeroğlu, B; Keser, R; Okumusoglu, N T; Korkmaz, F; Karahan, G; Cevik, U

    2007-11-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K and 137Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (Hex), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  2. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  3. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measured using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.

  4. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  5. ECa-Directed Soil Sampling for Characterizing Spatial Variability: Monitoring Management- Induced Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, D. L.

    2006-05-01

    Characterizing spatial variability is an important consideration of any landscape-scale soil-related problem. Geospatial measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) are useful for characterizing spatial variability by directing soil sampling. The objective of this presentation is to discuss equipment, protocols, sampling designs, and a case study of an ECa survey to characterize spatial variability. Specifically, a preliminary spatio-temporal study of management-induced changes to soil quality will be demonstrated for a drainage water reuse study site. The spatio-temporal study used electromagnetic induction ECa data and a response surface sampling design to select 40 sites that reflected the spatial variability of soil properties (i.e., salinity, Na levels, Mo, and B) impacting the intended agricultural use of a saline-sodic field in California's San Joaquin Valley. Soil samples were collected in August 1999 and April 2002. Data from 1999 indicate the presence of high salinity, which increased with depth, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), which also increased with depth, and moderate to high B and Mo, which showed no specific trends with depth. The application of drainage water for 32 months resulted in leaching of B from the top 0.3 of soil, leaching of salinity from the top 0.6 m of soil, and leaching of Na and Mo from the top 1.2 m of soil. The leaching fraction over the time period from 1999-2002 was estimated to be 0.10. The level of salinity in the reused drainage water (i.e., 3-5 dS/m) allowed infiltration and leaching to occur even though high sodium and high expanding-lattice clay levels posed potential water flow problems. The leaching of salinity, Na, Mo, and B has resulted in increased forage yield and improved quality of those yields. Preliminary spatio-temporal analyses indicate at least short-term feasibility of drainage water reuse from the perspective of soil quality when the goal is forage production for grazing livestock. The

  6. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental soil samples using molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Lass, A; Pietkiewicz, H; Modzelewska, E; Dumètre, A; Szostakowska, B; Myjak, P

    2009-06-01

    Infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii are prevalent in humans and animals throughout the world. So far, there is no sufficient information concerning T. gondii oocysts prevalence in the environment, especially in soil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate occurrence of T. gondii oocysts in soil and determine the genotype of detected parasites. A total of 101 soil samples were taken from different sites (sand-pits, "farming ground", areas around rubbish dumps) located in the Tri-City (Poland). Oocysts were recovered using the flotation method. Then, PCR reactions targeting the B1 gene were performed for specific T. gondii detection. The positive samples were further confirmed by PCR amplification of a repetitive element (REP) sequence [GenBank accession number AF146527]. Toxoplasma DNA was found in 18 samples. Among them, seven samples were successfully genotyped at the SAG2 locus. They were classified as SAG2 type I (5 samples) and SAG2 type II (2 samples). This is one of the first investigations describing T. gondii oocyst detection in environmental soil samples with rapid molecular detection methods and genotyping. The results of our findings showed that soil contaminated with T. gondii oocysts may play a role in the epidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Poland.

  7. Rapid fusion method for the determination of refractory thorium and uranium isotopes in soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    Recently, approximately 80% of participating laboratories failed to accurately determine uranium isotopes in soil samples in the U.S Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) Session 30, due to incomplete dissolution of refractory particles in the samples. Failing laboratories employed acid dissolution methods, including hydrofluoric acid, to recover uranium from the soil matrix. The failures illustrate the importance of rugged soil dissolution methods for the accurate measurement of analytes in the sample matrix. A new rapid fusion method has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to prepare 1-2 g soil sample aliquots very quickly, with total dissolution of refractory particles. Soil samples are fused with sodium hydroxide at 600 ºC in zirconium crucibles to enable complete dissolution of the sample. Uranium and thorium are separated on stacked TEVA and TRU extraction chromatographic resin cartridges, prior to isotopic measurements by alpha spectrometry on cerium fluoride microprecipitation sources. Plutonium can also be separated and measured using this method. Batches of 12 samples can be prepared for measurement in <5 hours.

  8. Rapid fusion method for the determination of refractory thorium and uranium isotopes in soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    Recently, approximately 80% of participating laboratories failed to accurately determine uranium isotopes in soil samples in the U.S Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) Session 30, due to incomplete dissolution of refractory particles in the samples. Failing laboratories employed acid dissolution methods, including hydrofluoric acid, to recover uranium from the soil matrix. The failures illustrate the importance of rugged soil dissolution methods for the accurate measurement of analytes in the sample matrix. A new rapid fusion method has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to prepare 1-2 g soil sample aliquots very quickly, withmore » total dissolution of refractory particles. Soil samples are fused with sodium hydroxide at 600 ºC in zirconium crucibles to enable complete dissolution of the sample. Uranium and thorium are separated on stacked TEVA and TRU extraction chromatographic resin cartridges, prior to isotopic measurements by alpha spectrometry on cerium fluoride microprecipitation sources. Plutonium can also be separated and measured using this method. Batches of 12 samples can be prepared for measurement in <5 hours.« less

  9. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  11. 42 CFR 431.814 - Sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the list(s): (i) Sources; (ii) All types of cases in the selection lists; (iii) Accuracy and...: (viii) Methods of deleting unwanted items from the selection lists; and (ix) Structure of the selection... 98 percent accuracy of program identifier codes used in the sampling frame to separate...

  12. 42 CFR 431.814 - Sampling plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the list(s): (i) Sources; (ii) All types of cases in the selection lists; (iii) Accuracy and...: (viii) Methods of deleting unwanted items from the selection lists; and (ix) Structure of the selection... agency, including 98 percent accuracy of program identifier codes used in the sampling frame to...

  13. Reliability Sampling Plans: A Review and Some New Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru; Voda, Viorel Gh.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a large area of aspects related to the problem of sampling inspection in the case of reliability. First we discuss the actual status of this domain, mentioning the newest approaches (from a technical view point) such as HALT and HASS and the statistical perspective. After a brief description of the general procedure in…

  14. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1994-12-28

    This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI`s EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area.

  16. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  17. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination.

  18. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  19. Evaluation of sampling plans for in-service inspection of steam generator tubes. Volume 2, Comprehensive analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results for several sampling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Baird, D.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of three previous studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of sampling plans for steam generator tube inspections. An analytical evaluation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were the methods used to evaluate sampling plan performance. To test the performance of candidate sampling plans under a variety of conditions, ranges of inspection system reliability were considered along with different distributions of tube degradation. Results from the eddy current reliability studies performed with the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate probability of detection and flaw sizing models for use in the analysis. Different distributions of tube degradation were selected to span the range of conditions that might exist in operating steam generators. The principal means of evaluating sampling performance was to determine the effectiveness of the sampling plan for detecting and plugging defective tubes. A summary of key results from the eddy current reliability studies is presented. The analytical and Monte Carlo simulation analyses are discussed along with a synopsis of key results and conclusions.

  20. Feasible sampling plan for Bemisia tabaci control decision-making in watermelon fields.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carlos Ho; Sarmento, Renato A; Pereira, Poliana S; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Santos, Fábio A; Silva, Joedna; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-11-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6(th) most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique. Crop pest densities fitted the negative binomial distribution and had a common aggregation parameter (Kcommon ). The sampling plan consisted of evaluating 103 samples per plot. This sampling plan was conducted for 56 min, costing US$ 2.22 per sampling and with a 10% maximum evaluation error. The sampling plan determined in this study can be adopted by farmers because it enables the adequate evaluation of B. tabaci populations in watermelon fields (10% maximum evaluation error) and is a low-cost (US$ 2.22 per sampling), fast (56 min per sampling) and feasible (because it may be used in a standardized way throughout the crop cycle) technique. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM). Part 1, Section 3: Systematic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Interstate Technology and Regulatory ...DUs) – arguably most important aspect of ISM from a regulatory perspective • Selection of DUs determines  Where samples are being collected  How...objective is to determine if property can be developed for residential use. 21 Really Small Decision Units??? What about the Sandbox !?  Yard-size DUs are

  2. Identification and Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated From Water and Soil Samples of a Metropolitan City

    PubMed Central

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Malekshahian, Donya; Farahbod, Amir Masoud; Seif, Shima; Rahideh, Snaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential role of environmental Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the epidemiology of TB remains unknown. We investigated the transmission of M tuberculosis from humans to the environment and the possible transmission of M tuberculosis from the environment to humans. METHODS: A total of 1,500 samples were collected from three counties of the Tehran, Iran metropolitan area from February 2012 to January 2014. A total of 700 water samples (47%) and 800 soil samples (53%) were collected. Spoligotyping and the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats typing method were performed on DNA extracted from single colonies. Genotypes of M tuberculosis strains isolated from the environment were compared with the genotypes obtained from 55 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB diagnosed during the study period in the same three counties. RESULTS: M tuberculosis was isolated from 11 of 800 soil samples (1%) and 71 of 700 water samples (10%). T family (56 of 82, 68%) followed by Delhi/CAS (11 of 82, 13.4%) were the most frequent M tuberculosis superfamilies in both water and soil samples. Overall, 27.7% of isolates in clusters were related. No related typing patterns were detected between soil, water, and clinical isolates. The most frequent superfamily of M tuberculosis in clinical isolates was Delhi/CAS (142, 30.3%) followed by NEW-1 (127, 27%). The bacilli in contaminated soil (36%) and damp water (8.4%) remained reculturable in some samples up to 9 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although the dominant M tuberculosis superfamilies in soil and water did not correspond to the dominant M tuberculosis family in patients, the presence of circulating genotypes of M tuberculosis in soil and water highlight the risk of transmission. PMID:25340935

  3. Uncertainty in sample estimates and the implicit loss function for soil information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    One significant challenge in the communication of uncertain information is how to enable the sponsors of sampling exercises to make a rational choice of sample size. One way to do this is to compute the value of additional information given the loss function for errors. The loss function expresses the costs that result from decisions made using erroneous information. In certain circumstances, such as remediation of contaminated land prior to development, loss functions can be computed and used to guide rational decision making on the amount of resource to spend on sampling to collect soil information. In many circumstances the loss function cannot be obtained prior to decision making. This may be the case when multiple decisions may be based on the soil information and the costs of errors are hard to predict. The implicit loss function is proposed as a tool to aid decision making in these circumstances. Conditional on a logistical model which expresses costs of soil sampling as a function of effort, and statistical information from which the error of estimates can be modelled as a function of effort, the implicit loss function is the loss function which makes a particular decision on effort rational. In this presentation the loss function is defined and computed for a number of arbitrary decisions on sampling effort for a hypothetical soil monitoring problem. This is based on a logistical model of sampling cost parameterized from a recent geochemical survey of soil in Donegal, Ireland and on statistical parameters estimated with the aid of a process model for change in soil organic carbon. It is shown how the implicit loss function might provide a basis for reflection on a particular choice of sample size by comparing it with the values attributed to soil properties and functions. Scope for further research to develop and apply the implicit loss function to help decision making by policy makers and regulators is then discussed.

  4. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-01-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

  5. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X; Bhatti, Jagtar S

    2015-11-30

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  7. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-11-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  8. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC. PMID:26617054

  9. Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Cetin, Sengonca; Schumann, Peter; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Chen, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated FJAT-4402T, was isolated from the weed rhizosphere soil of the Gobi desert in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the north-west of China. Isolate FJAT-4402T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7) and in 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that isolate FJAT-4402T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (96.2 %). The isolate showed 33.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest reference isolate, B. licheniformis DSM 13T. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of isolate FJAT-4402T was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (28.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 (20.1 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.3 %), iso-C16 : 0 (9.6 %), C16 : 0 (8.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (6.2 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (4.7 %) and the DNA G+C content was 42.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties indicated that strain FJAT-4402T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-4402T ( = DSM 29500T = CGMCC 1.12902T).

  10. Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from desert soil sample.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Chu, Xiao; Kook, MooChang; Li, Chang-Tian; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, and non-motile, rod-shaped actinomycete strain, designated YIM Y47(T), was isolated from soils collected from Turpan desert, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain YIM Y47(T) belonged to the genus Aeromicrobium. YIM Y47(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Aeromicrobium massiliense JC14(T) (96.47 %). Growth occurs at 20-45 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.0), and salinities of 0-7.0 % NaCl (optimum at 4.0 %). The strain YIM Y47(T) exhibits chemotaxonomic features with menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the predominant quinone, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c and 10-methyl C18:0 (>10 %) as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain YIM Y47(T) contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM Y47(T) was found to be 44.7 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM Y47(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Aeromicrobium, with the name Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is YIM Y47(T) (=KCTC 39113(T)=CGMCC 1.15063(T)=DSM 29939(T)=JCM 30627(T)).

  11. Analysis of sampling plan options for tank 16H from the perspective of statistical uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-02-28

    This report develops a concentration variability model for Tank 16H in order to compare candidate sampling plans for assessing the concentrations of analytes in the residual material in the annulus and on the floor of the primary vessel. A concentration variability model is used to compare candidate sampling plans based on the expected upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95) for the mean. The result is expressed as a rank order of candidate sampling plans from lowest to highest expected UCL95, with the lowest being the most desirable from an uncertainty perspective.

  12. Tank 241ER311 Interconnected Piping and Equipment Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-11-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained from piping, equipment, or facilities connected to tank 241-ER-311. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the effects of the argon purge gas added to tank 241-ER-311. Vapor samples will be taken in the encasement of transfer lines, at the ER-151 diversion box, and, as necessary, any other locations connected to tank 241-ER-311. Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. Vapor samples will be taken and shipped to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for analysis. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the requirements for vapor measurements performed in the field.

  13. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-07-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses, and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AZ-102 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan.

  14. Demonstration of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    chemical properties of the different background samples. Background ISM Mass (g) Ag ( mg /kg) Al ( mg /kg) As ( mg /kg) Ba ( mg /kg) Be ( mg /kg) Ca...respectively (Table 26). At the berm, Cu and Pb levels were 92 and 453 mg /kg, respectively (Table 27). In addition to the metals, we detected NG at...official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. All product names and trademarks cited are the property of their respective owners

  15. Co-extraction of DNA and PLFA from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Sheridan; Techtmann, Stephen M; Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Niang, Dijibril; Pfiffner, Susan; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid/DNA co-extraction from one sample is attractive in limiting biases associated with microbial community analysis from separate extractions. We sought to enhance established co-extraction methods and use high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to identify preferentially extracted taxa from co-extracted DNA. Co-extraction results in low DNA yields and distinct community structure changes.

  16. Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

  17. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  18. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  19. Application of a Permethrin Immunosorbent Assay Method to Residential Soil and Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    A low-cost, high throughput bioanalytical screening method was developed for monitoring cis/trans-permethrin in dust and soil samples. The method consisted of a simple sample preparation procedure [sonication with dichloromethane followed by a solvent exchange into methanol:wate...

  20. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  1. Determination of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone in soil samples by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Medvedovici, A; David, F; Sandra, P

    1997-09-01

    A HPLC-DAD method is described for the analysis of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone, together with the phenylurea herbicides isoproturon and diuron, in soil samples. The HPLC parameters have been optimised to provide baseline separation with symmetrical peakshapes in short analysis times. The sample preparation consists of Soxhlet extraction followed by SPE clean-up on cyanopropyl silica.

  2. Characterization of CONUS and Saudi Arabian Fine-Grained Soil Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    mesh sieve. As defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 2487-90, "Standard Test Method for Classification of Soils for...thin-film detector window. Each sample was prepared as a loose powder in a disposable sample cup with a prolene film, and standard comparisons were

  3. Application of a Permethrin Immunosorbent Assay Method to Residential Soil and Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    A low-cost, high throughput bioanalytical screening method was developed for monitoring cis/trans-permethrin in dust and soil samples. The method consisted of a simple sample preparation procedure [sonication with dichloromethane followed by a solvent exchange into methanol:wate...

  4. RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

  5. RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

  6. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  7. Spatial and temporal influences on bacterial profiling of forensic soil samples.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Melissa S; Foran, David R

    2008-05-01

    Bacterial content may be helpful in differentiating forensic soil samples; however, the effectiveness of bacterial profiling depends on several factors, including uniqueness among different habitat types, the level of heterogeneity within a habitat, and changes in bacterial communities over time. To examine these, soils from five diverse habitats were tested over a 1 year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis. Soil samples were collected at central locations monthly, and 10 feet in cardinal directions quarterly. Similarity indices were found to be least related among habitats, while the greatest bacterial similarities existed among collection locations within a habitat. Temporally, however, bacterial content varied considerably, and there was substantial overlap in similarity indices among habitats during different parts of the year. Taken together, the results indicate that while bacterial DNA profiling may be useful for forensic soil analysis, certain variables, particularly time, must be considered.

  8. Soil and leaf litter metaproteomics—a brief guideline from sampling to understanding

    PubMed Central

    Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Fuchs, Stephan; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Riedel, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The increasing application of soil metaproteomics is providing unprecedented, in-depth characterization of the composition and functionality of in situ microbial communities. Despite recent advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry, soil metaproteomics still suffers from a lack of effective and reproducible protein extraction protocols and standardized data analyses. This review discusses the opportunities and limitations of selected techniques in soil-, and leaf litter metaproteomics, and presents a step-by-step guideline on their application, covering sampling, sample preparation, extraction and data evaluation strategies. In addition, we present recent applications of soil metaproteomics and discuss how such approaches, linking phylogenetics and functionality, can help gain deeper insights into terrestrial microbial ecology. Finally, we strongly recommend that to maximize the insights environmental metaproteomics may provide, such methods should be employed within a holistic experimental approach considering relevant aboveground and belowground ecosystem parameters. PMID:27549116

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  11. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, V. L.; de Bruin, S.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are assumed to represent the variability of the target variables. The optimization also accounts for specific constraints and costs expressing the field sampling effort. The approach is demonstrated using a case study in Morocco, where a small but representative sample record had to be collected over a 15,000 km2 area within 2 weeks. The covariate space of the Latin Hypercube consisted of the first three principal components of ASTER imagery as well as elevation. Comparison of soil properties taken from the topsoil with the existing soil map, a geological map and lithological data showed that the sampling approach was successful in representing major soil variability. The cLHS sample failed to express spatial correlation; constraining the LHS by a distance criterion favoured large spatial variability within a short distances resulting in an overestimation of the variograms nugget and short distance variability. However, the exhaustive covariate data appeared to be spatially correlated which supports our premise that once the relation between spatially explicit remote sensing data and soil properties has been modelled, the latter can be spatially predicted based on the densely sampled remotely sensed data. Therefore, the LHS approach is considered as time and cost efficient for regional scale surveys that rely on remote sensing-based prediction of soil properties.

  12. Integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling for evaluation of chemical mobility in soils and established vegetation.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Audrey R; Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2014-07-04

    Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment.

  13. Integrated Field Lysimetry and Porewater Sampling for Evaluation of Chemical Mobility in Soils and Established Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Travis W.; Polizzotto, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

  14. Quantitative estimation of flagellate community structure and diversity in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, F; Rønn, R; Griffiths, B S

    2001-12-01

    Heterotrophic flagellates occur in nearly all soils and, in most cases, many different species are present. Nevertheless, quantitative data on their community structure and diversity are sparse, possibly due to a lack of suitable techniques. Previous studies have tended to focus on either total flagellate numbers and biomass, or the identification and description of flagellate species present. With the increased awareness of the role of biodiversity and of food web interactions, the quantification of species within the community and their response to environmental change is likely to become more important. The present paper describes a modification of the most probable number method that allows such a quantification of individual flagellate morphotypes in soil samples. Observations were also made on the biomass of flagellate morphotypes in soil. 20 to 25 morphotypes of heterotrophic flagellates were detectable per gram of two different arable soils, which were treated experimentally to test the technique. One of the soils was fumigated with chloroform vapour for different lengths of time (0, 0.5, 2 or 24 hours); this led to a reduction in the number of morphotypes, in the Shannon diversity index and in the evenness. The other soil was planted with wheat, and while rhizosphere soils contained the same morphotypes as bulk soil, the abundance of individual morphotypes was significantly different and the Shannon diversity index in rhizosphere soils was significantly higher. Soil influenced by an elevated CO2 level likewise differed significantly in morphotype abundance when compared to soil exposed to ambient levels of CO2. The technique recovered more than 80% of the discernible morphotypes and could also be used to quantify amoebal and ciliate communities in a similar way.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance.

  16. Using known populations of pronghorn to evaluate sampling plans and estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, K.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Samuelson, J.M.; Allen, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although sampling plans and estimators of abundance have good theoretical properties, their performance in real situations is rarely assessed because true population sizes are unknown. We evaluated widely used sampling plans and estimators of population size on 3 known clustered distributions of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Our criteria were accuracy of the estimate, coverage of 95% confidence intervals, and cost. Sampling plans were combinations of sampling intensities (16, 33, and 50%), sample selection (simple random sampling without replacement, systematic sampling, and probability proportional to size sampling with replacement), and stratification. We paired sampling plans with suitable estimators (simple, ratio, and probability proportional to size). We used area of the sampling unit as the auxiliary variable for the ratio and probability proportional to size estimators. All estimators were nearly unbiased, but precision was generally low (overall mean coefficient of variation [CV] = 29). Coverage of 95% confidence intervals was only 89% because of the highly skewed distribution of the pronghorn counts and small sample sizes, especially with stratification. Stratification combined with accurate estimates of optimal stratum sample sizes increased precision, reducing the mean CV from 33 without stratification to 25 with stratification; costs increased 23%. Precise results (mean CV = 13) but poor confidence interval coverage (83%) were obtained with simple and ratio estimators when the allocation scheme included all sampling units in the stratum containing most pronghorn. Although areas of the sampling units varied, ratio estimators and probability proportional to size sampling did not increase precision, possibly because of the clumped distribution of pronghorn. Managers should be cautious in using sampling plans and estimators to estimate abundance of aggregated populations.

  17. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  18. Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sterre, B.; Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2012-12-01

    The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the $150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

  19. Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sterre, Boy-Santhos; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the 150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

  20. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  1. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  2. Development and evaluation of sequential sampling plans for Cryptolestes ferrungineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) infesting farm-stored wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development and evaluation of appropriate sampling plans are needed for cost-effective management of stored-product insects. Sequential sampling plans, which are based on a variable sample size, are generally more cost effective than plans based on a fixed sample size. For adults of the rusty gr...

  3. Adsorption of carbon monoxide by samples of soils and peat-sand mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.; Mazanova, V. S.; Dolzhich, A. R.

    2009-11-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) by loose samples of natural soils and artificial organomineral mixtures depending on the water content was studied in laboratory experiments. The highest adsorption of CO was found for the samples of 100% organic soil modifier and its 80% mixture with sand (200 µg of CO/kg per hour and more). The lowest CO adsorption (10-15 µg of CO/kg per hour) was observed for an Arenosol. The addition of 5 wt % of the modifier to the desert sand increased the adsorption of CO to 50-55 µg of CO/kg per hour, as was typical for the chernozem and soddy-podzolic soil. The adsorption of CO as depending on the water content in the samples was a unimodal function, and the adsorption levels corresponded to the optimum soil water content (about 0.4-0.6 of the maximum water capacity). On the basis of the results, the Arid Grow soil modifier was recommended as a highly efficient agent for the regulation of the gas function of soils in urban areas subjected to increased CO emissions from vehicles and industrial enterprises.

  4. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g(-1). These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  6. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-06-12

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  7. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-14

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations.

  8. How scale influences the effectiveness of sampling strategies for soil organic carbon - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian; Simmons, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    The spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is controlled by a number of factors and these vary with scale. At finer scales at the plot and field scale it can be difficult to identify the specific factors influencing the spatial distribution of SOC, so more reliance is placed on design based sampling patterns. At the regional scale, climatic and soil based variables such as parent material begin to have a strong effect on the spatial distribution of SOC, so model based sampling patterns become more reliable and effective. The purpose and scale of the estimates required from the measurements of SOC will determine the effectiveness of different sampling patterns and procedures. A brief summary of the relationships between the scale and purpose of sampling for SOC and the sampling patterns and methodology is presented. In general, it is apparent that model based sampling patterns can be the most effective at the regional and broad scale while design based sampling patterns can be most effective at the plot and field scale. At more intermediate scales such as the farm and soil landscape scale, there is a mixture of results because this is in a transition zone where environmental variables such as climate and soil related variables (eg terrain) begin to have an influence on the spatial distribution of SOC.

  9. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Dong, Guozhu; Pachepsky, Yakov A.

    2015-09-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only the SWRC and SHC measurements are time-consuming, but also their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from available parameters, such as textural data, organic matter, and bulk density have been under investigation for decades, up to now no research has focused on the effect of sample dimensions on the soil hydraulic properties pedotransfer functions development. The main purpose here is investigating sample internal diameter and height (or length) effects on the prediction of the soil water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We, therefore, develop pedotransfer functions using a novel approach called contrast pattern aided regression (CPXR) and consider the sample dimensions as input variables. Two datasets including 210 and 213 soil samples with known sample dimensions were extracted from the UNSODA database to develop and evaluate pedotransfer functions for the SWRC and SHC, respectively. The 10-fold cross-validation method is applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed regression-based models. Our results show that including sample dimensions, such as sample internal diameter and height (or length) could substantially improve the accuracy of the SWRC and SHC pedotransfer functions developed using the CPXR method.

  10. Utility of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) to Detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rongkard, Patpong; Hantrakun, Viriya; Dittrich, Sabine; Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Lim, Cherry; Day, Nicholas P. J.; AuCoin, David; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Background Culture is the gold standard for the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei. In general, soil specimens are cultured in enrichment broth for 2 days, and then the culture broth is streaked on an agar plate and incubated further for 7 days. However, identifying B. pseudomallei on the agar plates among other soil microbes requires expertise and experience. Here, we evaluate a lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) developed to detect B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in clinical samples as a tool to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we determined the limit of detection (LOD) of LFI for enrichment broth of the soil specimens. Soil specimens (10 grams/specimen) culture negative for B. pseudomallei were spiked with B. pseudomallei ranging from 10 to 105 CFU, and incubated in 10 ml of enrichment broth in air at 40°C. Then, on day 2, 4 and 7 of incubation, 50 μL of the upper layer of the broth were tested on the LFI, and colony counts to determine quantity of B. pseudomallei in the broth were performed. We found that all five soil specimens inoculated at 10 CFU were negative by LFI on day 2, but four of those five specimens were LFI positive on day 7. The LOD of the LFI was estimated to be roughly 3.8x106 CFU/ml, and culture broth on day 7 was selected as the optimal sample for LFI testing. Second, we evaluated the utility of the LFI by testing 105 soil samples from Northeast Thailand. All samples were also tested by standard culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting orf2. Of 105 soil samples, 35 (33%) were LFI positive, 25 (24%) were culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and 79 (75%) were qPCR positive. Of 11 LFI positive but standard culture negative specimens, six were confirmed by having the enrichment broth on day 7 culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and an additional three by qPCR. The LFI had 97% (30/31) sensitivity to detect soil specimens culture positive for B. pseudomallei

  11. Utility of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) to Detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Samples.

    PubMed

    Rongkard, Patpong; Hantrakun, Viriya; Dittrich, Sabine; Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Lim, Cherry; Day, Nicholas P J; AuCoin, David; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2016-12-01

    Culture is the gold standard for the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei. In general, soil specimens are cultured in enrichment broth for 2 days, and then the culture broth is streaked on an agar plate and incubated further for 7 days. However, identifying B. pseudomallei on the agar plates among other soil microbes requires expertise and experience. Here, we evaluate a lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) developed to detect B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in clinical samples as a tool to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples. First, we determined the limit of detection (LOD) of LFI for enrichment broth of the soil specimens. Soil specimens (10 grams/specimen) culture negative for B. pseudomallei were spiked with B. pseudomallei ranging from 10 to 105 CFU, and incubated in 10 ml of enrichment broth in air at 40°C. Then, on day 2, 4 and 7 of incubation, 50 μL of the upper layer of the broth were tested on the LFI, and colony counts to determine quantity of B. pseudomallei in the broth were performed. We found that all five soil specimens inoculated at 10 CFU were negative by LFI on day 2, but four of those five specimens were LFI positive on day 7. The LOD of the LFI was estimated to be roughly 3.8x106 CFU/ml, and culture broth on day 7 was selected as the optimal sample for LFI testing. Second, we evaluated the utility of the LFI by testing 105 soil samples from Northeast Thailand. All samples were also tested by standard culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting orf2. Of 105 soil samples, 35 (33%) were LFI positive, 25 (24%) were culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and 79 (75%) were qPCR positive. Of 11 LFI positive but standard culture negative specimens, six were confirmed by having the enrichment broth on day 7 culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and an additional three by qPCR. The LFI had 97% (30/31) sensitivity to detect soil specimens culture positive for B. pseudomallei. The LFI can be used to detect B. pseudomallei in

  12. Representativeness of laboratory sampling procedures for the analysis of trace metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Boudreault, Jean-Philippe; Bost, Régis; Sona, Mirela; Duhaime, François; Éthier, Yannic

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the representativeness of laboratory sampling protocols for purposes of trace metal analysis in soil. Five laboratory protocols were compared, including conventional grab sampling, to assess the influence of sectorial splitting, sieving, and grinding on measured trace metal concentrations and their variability. It was concluded that grinding was the most important factor in controlling the variability of trace metal concentrations. Grinding increased the reproducibility of sample mass reduction by rotary sectorial splitting by up to two orders of magnitude. Combined with rotary sectorial splitting, grinding increased the reproducibility of trace metal concentrations by almost three orders of magnitude compared to grab sampling. Moreover, results showed that if grinding is used as part of a mass reduction protocol by sectorial splitting, the effect of sieving on reproducibility became insignificant. Gy's sampling theory and practice was also used to analyze the aforementioned sampling protocols. While the theoretical relative variances calculated for each sampling protocol qualitatively agreed with the experimental variances, their quantitative agreement was very poor. It was assumed that the parameters used in the calculation of theoretical sampling variances may not correctly estimate the constitutional heterogeneity of soils or soil-like materials. Finally, the results have highlighted the pitfalls of grab sampling, namely, the fact that it does not exert control over incorrect sampling errors and that it is strongly affected by distribution heterogeneity.

  13. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices.

  14. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset

  15. DNA-based determination of microbial biomass suitable for frozen and alkaline soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Blagodatskaya, Evgeniya; Kogut, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Microbial biomass is a sensitive indicator of changes due to soil management, long before other basic soil measures such as Corg or Ntot. Improvement of methods for determination of microbial biomass still remains relevant, and these methods should be correctly applicable for the soil samples being in various state. This study was designed to demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based determination of microbial biomass under conditions when the common basic approaches, namely chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), are restricted by certain soil properties, experimental designs or research needs, e.g. in frozen, alkaline or carbonaceous soils. We compared microbial biomass determined by CFE, SIR and by DNA approaches in the range of neutral and slightly alkaline Chernozem and alkaline Calcisol of semi-arid climate. The samples of natural and agricultural ecosystems were taken throughout the soil profile from long-term static field experiments in the European part of Russia. Extraction and subsequent quantification of dsDNA revealed a strong agreement with SIR and CFE when analyzing the microbial biomass content in soils with pH below 8. The conversion factors (FDNA) from dsDNA to SIR-Cmic (5.10) and CFE-Cmic (4.41) were obtained by testing a range of the soil samples down to 1.5 m depth and indicated a good reproducibility of DNA-based estimations. In alkaline soils (pH > 8), CO2 retention due to alkaline pH and exchange with carbonates resulted in a strong underestimation of soil microbial biomass by SIR or even in the absence of any CO2 emission, especially at low absolute values of microbial biomass in subsoil. Correction of CO2 efflux by theoretical retention pH-dependent factors caused overestimation of SIR-biomass. In alkaline conditions, DNA extraction proved to be a reliable alternative for microbial biomass determination. Moreover, the DNA-based approach can serve as an excellent alternative enabling correct

  16. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  17. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  18. A quest for porphyrins in lunar soil - Samples from Apollo 11, 12 and 14.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, G. W.; Kvenvolden, K.; Peterson, E.; Ponnamperuma , C.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses for porphyrins in the lunar samples were carried out by extracting the lunar soils as received by organic solvents followed by analytical demetallation using methanesulfonic acid after which free-base porphyrins, if present, were recovered and demonstrably recomplexed with divalent cations. Samples from Apollo 11 showed the presence of fluorescent substances attributed to exhaust from the descent engine. One sample from Apollo 12 showed pigments resembling porphyrins. The Apollo 14 results were negative.

  19. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  20. Soil variation and sampling intensity under red pine and aspen in Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1974-01-01

    In red pine or aspen stands only two soil samples were needed to estimate (+/- 10%, 95% confidence) pH, bulk density, or sand, but 25 to 60 samples were required to estimate N, P, K, Ca, Mg, available water, or silt + clay. To estimate most forest floor properties required 30 to 50 samples in red pine stands, but only about half as many in aspen stands.

  1. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans for Grapevine Plant Canopy-Inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Nymphs.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Ivo E; Brambilla, Carla; Colleoni, Emanuele; Jermini, Mauro; Trivellone, Valeria; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the study of the spatial distribution and the design of sampling plans for estimating nymph densities of the grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball in vine plant canopies. In a reference vineyard sampled for model parameterization, leaf samples were repeatedly taken according to a multistage, stratified, random sampling procedure, and data were subjected to an ANOVA. There were no significant differences in density neither among the strata within the vineyard nor between the two strata with basal and apical leaves. The significant differences between densities on trunk and productive shoots led to the adoption of two-stage (leaves and plants) and three-stage (leaves, shoots, and plants) sampling plans for trunk shoots- and productive shoots-inhabiting individuals, respectively. The mean crowding to mean relationship used to analyze the nymphs spatial distribution revealed aggregated distributions. In both the enumerative and the sequential enumerative sampling plans, the number of leaves of trunk shoots, and of leaves and shoots of productive shoots, was kept constant while the number of plants varied. In additional vineyards data were collected and used to test the applicability of the distribution model and the sampling plans. The tests confirmed the applicability 1) of the mean crowding to mean regression model on the plant and leaf stages for representing trunk shoot-inhabiting distributions, and on the plant, shoot, and leaf stages for productive shoot-inhabiting nymphs, 2) of the enumerative sampling plan, and 3) of the sequential enumerative sampling plan. In general, sequential enumerative sampling was more cost efficient than enumerative sampling.

  2. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  3. Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for total carbon quantification in soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.; Ayyalasomayajula, K.; Yu-Yueh, F.; Singh, J.; Jain, J.

    2012-01-01

    The increase of greenhouse gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) levels in the atmosphere has caused noticeable climate change. Many nations are currently looking into methods of permanent underground storage for CO{sub 2} in an attempt to mitigate this problem. The goal of this work is to develop a process for studying the total carbon content in soils before, during, and after CO{sub 2} injection to ensure that no leakage is occurring or to determine how much is leaking if it is occurring and what effect it will have on the ecosystem between the injection formation and the atmosphere. In this study, we quantitatively determine the total carbon concentration in soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A soil sample from Starkville, Mississippi, USA was mixed with different amounts of carbon powder, which was used as a calibration for additional carbon in soil. Test samples were prepared by adding different but known amounts of carbon powder to a soil sample and then mixing with polyvinyl alcohol binder before being pressed into pellets. LIBS spectra of the test samples were collected and analyzed to obtain optimized conditions for the measurement of total carbon in soil with LIBS. The total carbon content in the samples was also measured by a carbon analyzer, and the data (average of triplicates) were used as a reference in developing calibration curves for a modified version of the single linear regression model and the multiple linear regression model. The calibration data were then used to determine the total carbon concentration of an unknown sample. This work is intended to be used in the initial development of a miniaturized, field-portable LIBS analyzer for CO{sub 2} leak detection.

  4. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    SciTech Connect

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  5. Demonstration Report for Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Verification Sampling Methods at the Navy/DRI Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    STATISTICAL VERIFICATION AND REMEDIATION SAMPLING METHODS (200837) August 2011 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Brent Pulsipher...17. LIMIT ATIOH OF 1S. NUMSER 19~. NAME OS: RESPONSI’SLE PERSON ABSTRACT o• Brent Pulsipher ... ...., .. •. ’ · ’"" .... PAG .’ES uu 93 19b... Statistical Verification Sampling Methods in VSP ii August 2011 6.2.1  Transect Survey Design and Parameter Settings

  6. 50 CFR 260.61 - Sampling plans and procedures for determining lot compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... numbers, c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cumulative sample sizes, n c, and acceptance numbers, c, n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r and rejection numbers, r, for multiple sampling. 4 0 2 8 0... requirement. (c) Under the multiple sampling plans inspection commences with the smallest sample size...

  7. 50 CFR 260.61 - Sampling plans and procedures for determining lot compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... numbers, c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cumulative sample sizes, n c, and acceptance numbers, c, n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r n c c r and rejection numbers, r, for multiple sampling. 4 0 2 8 0... requirement. (c) Under the multiple sampling plans inspection commences with the smallest sample size...

  8. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities for calendar year 1995 to 1997 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Naturita, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, sampling frequency, and specific rationale for each routine monitoring station at the site. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  9. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  10. Assessment of sampling and analytical uncertainty of trace element contents in arable field soils.

    PubMed

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf O; Ubelhör, Walter; Nätscher, Ludwig

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of trace element contents in soils is required in Germany (and other countries) before sewage sludge application on arable soils. The reliability of measured element contents is affected by measurement uncertainty, which consists of components due to (1) sampling, (2) laboratory repeatability (intra-lab) and (3) reproducibility (between-lab). A complete characterization of average trace element contents in field soils should encompass the uncertainty of all these components. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the magnitude and relative proportions of uncertainty components for the metals As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn in three arable fields of different field-scale heterogeneity, based on a collaborative trial (CT) (standardized procedure) and two sampling proficiency tests (PT) (individual sampling procedure). To obtain reference values and estimates of field-scale heterogeneity, a detailed reference sampling was conducted. Components of uncertainty (sampling person, sampling repetition, laboratory) were estimated by variance component analysis, whereas reproducibility uncertainty was estimated using results from numerous laboratory proficiency tests. Sampling uncertainty in general increased with field-scale heterogeneity; however, total uncertainty was mostly dominated by (total) laboratory uncertainty. Reproducibility analytical uncertainty was on average by a factor of about 3 higher than repeatability uncertainty. Therefore, analysis within one single laboratory and, for heterogeneous fields, a reduction of sampling uncertainty (for instance by larger numbers of sample increments and/or a denser coverage of the field area) would be most effective to reduce total uncertainty. On the other hand, when only intra-laboratory analytical uncertainty was considered, total sampling uncertainty on average prevailed over analytical uncertainty by a factor of 2. Both sampling and laboratory repeatability uncertainty were highly variable

  11. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  12. [Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profiles by high-resolution sampling].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xin-ling; Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhao, Yu-guo; Yuan, Da-gang; Wu, Yun-jin

    2006-05-01

    The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soils profiles is a result of heavy metals accumulation and migration under combining influence of edaphic factors and environmental conditions. It's an important basis for evaluation of heavy metals pollution and remediation of contaminated soils. By traditional sampling methods, i.e., soils were sampled according to pedogenetic horizons, only very general information about element migration can be learned. In the current study, three sites near a steel factory were selected to represent three types of land use, i.e. forest, dry land for vegetable cultivation and rice paddy field. Soils were sampled horizontally by high-resolution sampling method. In the top of 40 cm soils were sectioned in 2 cm intervals, then 5 cm intervals in next 40 cm, and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm of profile. Total content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were determined, and the vertical distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd in every profile was analyzed. The results indicated that enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the upper most layer of the natural forest soil that without any anthropic disturbance, and this phenomenon proved that heavy metals were coming from atmospheric deposition. We found that Cu, Zn and Pb moved downward in a short distance, Cd migrated relatively faster than Cu, Zn and Pb, while Cr had no recognizable location of migration front. In the soil profiles of dry land and paddy field, there were influences of agricultural practice, the distribution and movement of metals were thus different form those of the forest soil. In cultivated layer heavy metals were evenly distributed because soils in the upper layer were mixed by cultivation, however, bellow the cultivated layer obvious migration took place again. It is concluded that different heavy metals have different mobility and there is such a relative order: Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb. The study shows that the distribution pattern can be obtained with the currently adopted high

  13. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

  14. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Erin E; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John; Nichols, Tonya L; Shah, Sanjiv R; Pemberton, Adin; Schaefer, Frank W

    2016-11-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  16. Effect of Sampling Plans on the Risk of Escherichia coli O157 Illness.

    PubMed

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Sumner, John; Jenson, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Australia exports about 150,000 to 200,000 tons of manufacturing beef to the United States annually. Each lot is tested for Escherichia coli O157 using the N-60 sampling protocol, where 60 small pieces of surface meat from each lot of production are tested. A risk assessment of E. coli O157 illness from the consumption of hamburgers made from Australian manufacturing meat formed the basis to evaluate the effect of sample size and amount on the number of illnesses predicted. The sampling plans evaluated included no sampling (resulting in an estimated 55.2 illnesses per annum), the current N-60 plan (50.2 illnesses), N-90 (49.6 illnesses), N-120 (48.4 illnesses), and a more stringent N-60 sampling plan taking five 25-g samples from each of 12 cartons (47.4 illnesses per annum). While sampling may detect some highly contaminated lots, it does not guarantee that all such lots are removed from commerce. It is concluded that increasing the sample size or sample amount from the current N-60 plan would have a very small public health effect.

  17. Uranium content and dose assessment for phosphate fertiliser and soil samples: comparison of uranium concentration between virgin soil and fertilised soil.

    PubMed

    Boukhenfouf, Wassila; Boucenna, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Specific activity of (235)U and (238)U in soil and fertiliser samples from Guellal region in Setif (Algeria) was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The selected phosphate fertilisers samples were collected from two types of fertilisers NPK (N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus; K, potassium) and NPKs (sulphate-based NPK). These last ones are used to fertilise the studied area as well as a radioactivity comparison between the soils before and after fertilisation. NPK and NPKs fertilisers have presented higher concentrations of the radionuclide (238)U, up to 1125 and 1545 Bq kg(-1), respectively. For soils before and after fertilisation, the concentrations of (238)U were, respectively, 252.8 and 316.2 Bq kg(-1). The average value and range of measured concentration of (235)U for soils before fertilisation was 12.16 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1) and for the fertilised soils was 15.16 ± 1.8 Bq kg(-1), whereas the corresponding values for NPK and NPKs fertilisers were, respectively, 49.38 ± 5.7 and 50.61 ± 5.2 Bq kg(-1).

  18. A sequential binomial sampling plan for potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on bell pepper (Capsicum annum).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2013-10-01

    Potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc) are a pest on solanaceous crop plants, including bell peppers. Potato psyllids vector Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous, but bell peppers (Capsicum annum L.) do not exhibit symptoms from infection. Potato psyllids show variation in spatial patterns and host choice with cultivar and plant species. Consequently, a study of spatial distribution and sampling plan specific to bell peppers is necessary for management of this insect pest, as those developed for other crops are unlikely to transfer among crops. Potato psyllids were evenly distributed on both sides of leaves but prefer the top two-thirds of pepper plants. Within fields, psyllids demonstrated an aggregated spatial distribution, but the edge effect observed in other crop plants was absent. Eggs and nymphs had similar spatial distributions that differed from adults. A series of nymph-based sampling plans were examined. Sampling plans based on an infestation of less than 41% of plants infested (5 nymphs plant(-1)) were statistically unacceptable, while little difference was found between the 41% infestation plan and 56% (20 nymphs plant(-1)) infestation plan. At 41%, an average of 11 and maximum of 49 samples would be necessary to make a treatment decision. The binomial sequential sampling plan presented here offers an important yet simple tool for managing potato psyllids in bell pepper. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  20. A Needed Paradigm Change for Environmental Soil Sampling at Urban Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, J. L.; Bednar, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of solid contaminant residues in surface soils creates an unique challenge for collecting soil samples yielding representative and reproducible results. Research over the past decade involving energetic and metallic residues indicates conventional grab sampling yields unreproducible, biased, results with poor precision non-representative of site conditions. Spatially, grab sampling yields information only about the point sampled. However, risk assessment and remedial decisions are based on contaminant distribution over an area. Multiple grab samples are collected for spatial coverage with the number often based on "expert opinion". Recent research suggests new field sampling and laboratory processing procedures encompassed in the Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) and incorporated into United States Environmental Protection (USEPA) Method 8330B for energetics and the update to Method 3050B for metals are necessary to overcome heterogeneity issues. The ISM approach is different from conventional grab sampling due to the focus on a spatially averaged result over a decision unit (DU) obtained by the collection of many increments using a systematic random sampling approach to form a single sample. Total precision error using ISM is typically <30%, whereas relative errors > 100% are observed between field splits and laboratory replicates with conventional grab sampling. Field splitting often employed prior to laboratory sample processing resulted in poor precision and is not recommended. Milling or grinding of soil samples is necessary to reduce the total error of the sample and to obtain acceptable precision, especially in situations where the mean contaminant concentration is expected to be near the action level or other regulatory value.

  1. Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-30

    1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

  2. Impacts of heterogeneous organic matter on phenanthrene sorption--Different soil and sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Childs, Jeffrey; Sabatini, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Organic petrography has been proposed as a tool for characterizing the heterogeneous organic matter present in soil and sediment samples. A new simplified method is proposed as a quantitative means of interpreting observed sorption behavior for phenanthrene and different soils and sediments based on their organic petrographical characterization. This method is tested under singe solute conditions and at phenanthrene concentration of 1 μg/L. Since the opaque organic matter fraction dominates the sorption process, we propose that by quantifying this fraction one can interpret organic content normalized sorption distribution coefficient (Koc) values for a sample. While this method was developed and tested for various samples within the same aquifer, in the current study the method is validated for soil and sediment samples from different sites that cover a wide range of organic matter origin, age, and organic content. All 10 soil and sediment samples studied had log Koc values for the opaque particles between 5.6 and 6.8. This range of Koc values illustrates the heterogeneity of opaque particles between sites and geological formations and thus the need to characterize the opaque fraction of materials on a site-by-site basis.

  3. Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Purola area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Mukesh; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are widely spread in the earth's environment, being distributed in soil, rocks, water, air, plants and even within the human body. All of these sources have contributed to an increase in the levels of environmental radioactivity and population radiation doses. This paper presents the activity level due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples of Purola area in Garhwal Himalaya region. The measured activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in collected soil samples of Purola was found to vary from 13±10 to 55±10 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 31±2 Bq kg(-1), 13±10 to 101±13 Bq kg(-1) with an average 30±3 Bq kg(-1) and 150±81 to 1310±154 Bq kg(-1) with an average 583±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity in collected soil samples was found to vary from 47 to 221 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 115 Bq kg(-1). The total absorbed gamma dose rate in this area was found to vary from 22 to 93 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1). The distribution of these radionuclides in the soil of study area is discussed in details. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  5. The influence of sample drying and storage conditions on methylmercury determination in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Maeda, Chihiro; Balogh, Steven J; Nollet, Yabing H; Kanzaki, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    The separate influences of drying and storage conditions on methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in soil and sediment samples were investigated. Concentrations of MeHg and total Hg were determined in various soil and sediment samples that had been stored or dried under differing conditions. The influence of drying conditions (oven-drying (40 °C) versus freeze-drying) on MeHg concentrations in marine sediments, river sediments, soils, and paddy field soils was investigated (n = 43). The ratio of the MeHg concentration in oven-dried sub-samples divided by the concentration in freeze-dried sub-samples ranged from 0 to 336%. In order to confirm the production of MeHg during storage in some samples, Hg(2+) was added at 15 mg kg(-1) to a paddy soil, and the sample was then stored at 30 °C. The concentrations of MeHg at 1-h, 1-day, 4-days and 7-days after Hg(2+) spiking were 2.0 ± 0.1, 13.8 ± 1.0, 36.0 ± 5.0, and 24.9 ± 1.6 μg kg(-1) (n = 3), respectively. The concentration of MeHg at 4-days after Hg spiking and sterilizing (121 °C, 30 min) was 1.8 μg kg(-1), similar to the original value. These results indicate that bacterial Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation occurred within days in the soil. In addition, tests of the stability of MeHg in wet and dry samples during storage were also performed. Overall, our results indicate that the best way to preserve MeHg in soil and sediment samples is to freeze the samples immediately after collection, followed subsequently by freeze-drying, grinding, homogenization, and storage of the dry material in cool, dark conditions until analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than farmers irrigating with clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  7. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  8. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... and if the mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the lower...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... and if the mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the lower...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the lower control limit...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... and if the mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the lower...

  13. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  14. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOEpatents

    Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

  15. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOEpatents

    Rossabi, Joseph; May, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Bradley E.; Shinn, Jim; Sprague, Keith

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

  16. New sample treatment for the determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-06-01

    A new sample treatment for alkylphenols (AP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) determination in agricultural soil samples has been developed. In a first stage these compounds were isolated from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using methanol. In a second stage the extracts were cleaned up and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using ENV+cartridges. The effect of different variables on PLE and SPE was also studied. In the last place, separation and quantification of analytes were performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification limits (QL) ranged from 20 to 200 ng g(-1) for LC-FD and from 3 to 126 ng g(-1) for GC-MS. This method was satisfactorily applied in a study field designed to evaluate the environmental behaviour of APEOs in agricultural soils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring effective sampling design for monitoring soil organic carbon in degraded Tibetan grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wilkes, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    The effects of climate change and human activities on grassland degradation and soil carbon stocks have become a focus of both research and policy. However, lack of research on appropriate sampling design prevents accurate assessment of soil carbon stocks and stock changes at community and regional scales. Here, we conducted an intensive survey with 1196 sampling sites over an area of 190 km(2) of degraded alpine meadow. Compared to lightly degraded meadow, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadow were reduced by 11.0%, 13.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Our field survey sampling design was overly intensive to estimate SOC status with a tolerable uncertainty of 10%. Power analysis showed that the optimal sampling density to achieve the desired accuracy would be 2, 3, 5 and 7 sites per 10 km(2) for lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadows, respectively. If a subsequent paired sampling design with the optimum sample size were performed, assuming stock change rates predicted by experimental and modeling results, we estimate that about 5-10 years would be necessary to detect expected trends in SOC in the top 20 cm soil layer. Our results highlight the utility of conducting preliminary surveys to estimate the appropriate sampling density and avoid wasting resources due to over-sampling, and to estimate the sampling interval required to detect an expected sequestration rate. Future studies will be needed to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of SOC variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

    2005-01-01

    The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

  19. Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

    2005-01-01

    The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

  20. Soil quality is key for planning and managing urban allotments intended for the sustainable production of home-consumption vegetables.

    PubMed

    Bretzel, F; Calderisi, M; Scatena, M; Pini, R

    2016-09-01

    The growing importance of urban allotments in planning and managing urban areas is due to the combined positive effects on ecosystem services, the economy and human well-being, especially of groups of the urban population that can be vulnerable (e.g. the elderly, immigrants, low-income families). Some studies have highlighted the potential risk of contamination by metals of vegetables grown in urban areas and the lack of appropriate site-specific risk assessments. However, surveys are still lacking on the possibilities of using urban soil as a good substrate to produce vegetables for home consumption. We assessed the soil quality in two areas in Pisa (Italy), one intended for urban horticulture and the other already cultivated for that purpose. We analysed the soils for the main chemical and physical characteristics (texture, bulk density, water stability index, pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorous) and elements (Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, K, Al and Mn). Our results showed that both areas had physical and chemical heterogeneity due to the effects of urbanization and to the different cultivation techniques employed. The metal content was lower than the guidelines limits, and the soil conditions (pH = 8) greatly reduced the metal mobility. Copper concentration in some of the cultivated area samples was higher than the limits, representing a possible stress factor for the microbial biodiversity and fauna. Our findings demonstrate that site-specific surveys are necessary before planning urban cultivation areas, and educating urban gardeners regarding sustainable cultivation techniques is a priority for a safe environment.