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Sample records for soil treatment session

  1. Do Sessions of Different Treatments Have Different Impacts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, William B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Forty clients received eight psychodynamic treatment (exploratory) sessions and eight cognitive/behavioral treatment (prescriptive) sessions in crossover design. Counselors and external raters rated exploratory sessions as deeper and more powerful; counselors, external raters, and clients rated prescriptive sessions as smoother and easier.…

  2. Single session treatment for bleeding hemorrhoids

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, S.J.; Rypins, E.B.; Houck, J.; Thrower, S.

    1987-12-01

    Fifty consecutive outpatients with bleeding internal hemorrhoids were prospectively treated with a single application of rubber band ligation or infrared coagulation. Complete follow-up observation was obtained in 48 patients (23 underwent rubber band ligation and 25 underwent infrared coagulation). At one month after treatment, 22 patients who underwent rubber band ligation and 16 who underwent infrared coagulation, were symptomatically improved (p less than 0.05). At six months, 15 patients who had undergone rubber band ligation and ten who had infrared coagulation treatment, remained improved (p less than 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the discomfort experienced by either group during or after the procedure as determined by a self-assessment scale. Two patients who underwent rubber band ligation experienced complications--a thrombosed external hemorrhoid developed in one patient and another had delayed rectal bleeding. Although associated with occasional complications after treatment, rubber band ligation is more effective than in infrared coagulation for single session treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids.

  3. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  4. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  5. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  6. Sleep the night before and after a treatment session: A critical ingredient for treatment adherence?

    PubMed Central

    Dolsen, Michael R.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Morin, Charles M.; Bélanger, Lynda; Walker, Matthew; Harvey, Allison G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Sleep prepares key neural structures for next-day learning, and sleep obtained after learning promotes subsequent memory consolidation supporting long-term retention. This study examined whether sleep the night before and after a therapy session predicts aspects of treatment adherence. Method As part of a randomized clinical trial, 188 adults (61.7% female, mean age = 47.5, 80.5% Caucasian) with persistent insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Patients completed a sleep diary before and after treatment sessions. Minutes spent awake during the night (total wake time; TWT) and total sleep time (TST) were used as measures of sleep disturbance. At each treatment session, therapists rated participant understanding of the session and homework compliance from the previous session. Results Compared to longer TWT, before session shorter TWT was associated with increased treatment understanding the next day. After session shorter TWT was also associated with increased understanding, but not homework compliance the subsequent session compared to participants with longer TWT. Similar results were obtained for TST. Conclusions Improving sleep may benefit patient adherence to treatment. Sleep may influence processes related to initial learning and subsequent consolidation of treatment information. Future studies should examine whether improved sleep within other psychiatric disorders is also an ingredient to the successful outcome of psychosocial interventions. PMID:28394172

  7. Comparison of multiple session 99% ethanol and single session OK-432 sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Ham, Won Sik; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Kim, Won Tae; Yu, Ho Song; Choi, Young Deuk

    2008-12-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of multiple session 99% ethanol sclerotherapy to single session OK-432 sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between September 2004 and November 2006, 41 patients (50 cysts, group 1) underwent sclerotherapy with 99% ethanol at least twice and 48 (61 cysts, group 2) underwent a single session of OK-432 sclerotherapy. Followup was performed with ultrasound or computerized tomography every 3 months for 1 year. Complete regression of the renal cyst or more than 70% reduction with no symptoms was considered successful treatment. There was no significant difference in the mean size of renal cysts between the 2 treatment groups. The overall success rate was 84.0% in group 1 and 98.4% in group 2. For cysts smaller than 500 ml there was a similar complete regression rate between the 2 groups whereas in cysts 500 ml or larger the complete regression ratio of group 2 was higher than group 1. The symptom relief rate of group 2 was higher than group 1. In group 1 there were 2 patients with a recurrent cyst but in group 2 there was no enlargement of the aspirated cysts. For cysts smaller than 200 ml neither treatment group had complications whereas in cysts 200 ml or larger the frequency of complications was higher in group 1. Single session OK-432 sclerotherapy is simpler, safer and more effective than multiple session 99% ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, especially large cysts.

  8. One-session treatment of specific phobias: a detailed description and review of treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E

    2008-09-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments. Although there are several studies in the literature examining the efficacy of OST, little has been done to summarize this research. In the following review, research on and empirical support for OST are reviewed with an emphasis on the types of stimuli, samples, and methodologies utilized. Research generally supports OST's efficacy, although replication by independent examiners using adult and child samples is needed using more rigorous comparisons (e.g., psychological placebo or other treatments). Overall, OST continues to be a promising treatment for specific phobias; however, a great deal more investigation is needed to identify mechanisms of change, mediators, and moderators.

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Minimal Therapist Contact and 15-Session Treatment for Female Orgasmic Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; LoPiccolo, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Compared a four-session minimal therapist contact (MTC) program for treatment of lifelong global orgasmic dysfunction in women to a 15-session full therapist contact (FTC) program. Both programs were effective in producing female orgasm and in improving satisfaction with the sexual relationship and, for women in MTC treatment, happiness in…

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Minimal Therapist Contact and 15-Session Treatment for Female Orgasmic Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; LoPiccolo, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Compared a four-session minimal therapist contact (MTC) program for treatment of lifelong global orgasmic dysfunction in women to a 15-session full therapist contact (FTC) program. Both programs were effective in producing female orgasm and in improving satisfaction with the sexual relationship and, for women in MTC treatment, happiness in…

  11. Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly…

  12. Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly…

  13. Thermal treatment of polluted soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, H.; Wells, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Thermal treatment for the remediation soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is described. It is recommended tat a thorough analysis be performed of the situation including well monitoring and contamination testing, records review, and sampling.

  14. Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

    This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

  15. LINKING SESSION FOCUS TO TREATMENT OUTCOME IN EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENTS FOR ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    HOGUE, AARON; DAUBER, SARAH; LIDDLE, HOWARD A.; SAMUOLIS, JESSICA

    2010-01-01

    The relation between specific therapy techniques and treatment outcome was examined for 2 empirically supported treatments for adolescent substance abuse: individual cognitive–behavioral therapy and multidimensional family therapy. Participants were 51 inner-city, substance-abusing adolescents receiving outpatient psychotherapy within a larger randomized trial. One session per case was evaluated using a 17-item observational measure of model-specific techniques and therapeutic foci. Exploratory factor analysis identified 2 subscales, Adolescent Focus and Family Focus, with strong interrater reliability and internal consistency. Process–outcome analyses revealed that family focus, but not adolescent focus, predicted posttreatment improvement in drug use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms within both study conditions. Implications for the implementation and dissemination of individual-based and family-based approaches for adolescent drug use are discussed. PMID:20473370

  16. What is the optimal number of treatment sessions of vestibular rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Rossi-Izquierdo, M; Santos-Pérez, S; Rubio-Rodríguez, J P; Lirola-Delgado, A; Zubizarreta-Gutiérrez, A; San Román-Rodríguez, E; Juíz-López, P; Soto-Varela, A

    2014-02-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation is effective and safe in patients with instability. However, there is insufficient evidence for distinguishing between efficacies of different dosage of therapies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify whether there were differences between two computerised dynamic posturography (CDP) therapies of different numbers of sessions, in order to establish the optimal strategy. We conducted a prospective, comparative study of two different dosage of CDP therapy (a 5-session group and another of 10-session group) in patients with instability due to chronic unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder. We used balanced block randomisation to include 13 patients in each group. Improvement was assessed using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the CDP with the sensorial organisation test (SOT) and limits of stability (LOS). We found a statistically significant improvement in both groups in composite score, visual and vestibular input (SOT); and in reaction time, distance and directional control (LOS). If we compare the groups regarding these improvements, we found that 10-session group showed a greater benefit in distance covered and directional control of LOS. Since significant improvement is obtained with only five sessions, we believe this to be the optimal number of treatment sessions for most patients with chronic unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder. Nevertheless, those patients with more reduced limits of stability, and consequently greater likelihood of falling as a result of their diminished base of support, are candidates for rehabilitation protocols with a greater number of sessions.

  17. Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment.

    PubMed

    Sliz, D; Smith, A; Wiebking, C; Northoff, G; Hayley, S

    2012-03-01

    The current study investigated the immediate neurophysiological effects of different types of massage in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Much attention has been given to the default mode network, a set of brain regions showing greater activity in the resting state. These regions (i.e. insula, posterior and anterior cingulate, inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortices) have been postulated to be involved in the neural correlates of consciousness, specifically in arousal and awareness. We posit that massage would modulate these same regions given the benefits and pleasant affective properties of touch. To this end, healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1. Swedish massage, 2. reflexology, 3. massage with an object or 4. a resting control condition. The right foot was massaged while each participant performed a cognitive association task in the scanner. We found that the Swedish massage treatment activated the subgenual anterior and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices. This increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was maintained only in the former brain region during performance of the cognitive task. Interestingly, the reflexology massage condition selectively affected the retrosplenial/posterior cingulate in the resting state, whereas massage with the object augmented the BOLD response in this region during the cognitive task performance. These findings should have implications for better understanding how alternative treatments might affect resting state neural activity and could ultimately be important for devising new targets in the management of mood disorders.

  18. Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing One-Session Treatment to a Parent-Augmented One-Session Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Fraire, Maria G; Austin, Kristin E.; Noguchi, Ryoichi J. P.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Cunningham, Natoshia R.; Canavera, Kristin; Allen, Kristy B.; Whitmore, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the efficacy of a parent-augmented One Session Treatment (A-OST) in treating specific phobias (SP) in youth by comparing this novel treatment to child-focused OST, a well-established treatment. Method A total of 97 youth (ages 6–15, 51.5% female, 84.5% white) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SP were randomized to either A-OST or OST. SPs were assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews, clinician improvement ratings, and parent and child improvement ratings. In addition, measures of treatment satisfaction and parental self-efficacy were obtained. Blind assessments were completed pretreatment, post-treatment, and 1-month and 6-months following treatment. Analyses were undertaken using mixed models. In addition, gender, age, internalizing/externalizing problems, parent overprotection, and parent anxiety were examined as potential predictors and moderators of treatment outcome. Results Both treatment conditions produced similar outcomes with approximately 50% of youth in both treatments diagnosis free and judged to be much or very much improved at post-treatment and 1-month follow up. At 6-month follow up, however, the treatments diverged with OST resulting in marginally superior outcomes to A-OST, contrary to predictions. Only age of child predicted treatment outcome across the two treatments (older children did better); unexpectedly, none of the variables moderated treatment outcomes. Conclusions Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:25645164

  19. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions with Spanish-speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    Bamatter, Wendy; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Añez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, Jose; Martino, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which bilingual counselors initiated informal discussions about topics that were unrelated to the treatment of their monolingual Spanish-speaking Hispanic clients in a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocol examining the effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Session audiotapes were independently rated to assess counselor treatment fidelity and the incidence of informal discussions. Eighty-three percent of the 23 counselors participating in the trial initiated informal discussions at least once in one or more of their sessions. Counselors delivering MET in the trial initiated informal discussion significantly less often than the counselors delivering standard treatment. Counselors delivering standard treatment were likely to talk informally the most when they were ethnically non-Latin. Additionally, informal discussion was found to have significant inverse correlations with client motivation to reduce substance use and client retention in treatment. These results suggest that informal discussion may have adverse consequences on Hispanic clients’ motivation for change and substance abuse treatment outcomes and that maintaining a more formal relationship in early treatment sessions may work best with Hispanic clients. Careful counselor training and supervision in MET may suppress the tendency of counselors to talk informally in sessions. PMID:20817381

  20. The effectiveness of booster sessions in CBT treatment for child and adolescent mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; Schwalbe, Craig S J; Lee, RaeHyuck; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of booster sessions in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with mood or anxiety disorders, whereas controlling for youth demographics (e.g., gender, age), primary diagnosis, and intervention characteristics (e.g., treatment modality, number of sessions). Electronic databases were searched for CBT interventions for youth with mood and anxiety disorders. Fifty-three (k = 53) studies investigating 1,937 youth met criteria for inclusion. Booster sessions were examined using two case-controlled effect sizes: pre-post and pre-follow-up (6 months) effect sizes and employing weighted least squares (WLSs) regressions. Meta-analyses found pre-post studies with booster sessions had a larger effect size r = .58 (k = 15; 95% CI = 0.52-0.65; P < .01) than those without booster sessions r = .45 (k = 38; 95% CI = 0.41-0.49; P < .001). In the WLS regression analyses, controlling for demographic factors, primary diagnosis, and intervention characteristics, studies with booster sessions showed larger pre-post effect sizes than those without booster sessions (B = 0.13, P < .10). Similarly, pre-follow-up studies with booster sessions showed a larger effect size r = .64 (k = 10; 95% CI = 0.57-0.70; P < .10) than those without booster sessions r = .48 (k = 20; 95% CI = 0.42-0.53; P < .01). Also, in the WLS regression analyses, pre-follow-up studies showed larger effect sizes than those without booster sessions (B = 0.08, P < .01) after accounting for all control variables. Result suggests that CBT interventions with booster sessions are more effective and the effect is more sustainable for youth managing mood or anxiety disorders than CBT interventions without booster sessions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Specific phobias in youth: a randomized controlled trial comparing one-session treatment to a parent-augmented one-session treatment.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Fraire, Maria G; Austin, Kristin E; Noguchi, Ryoichi J P; Lewis, Krystal M; Jarrett, Matthew A; Cunningham, Natoshia R; Canavera, Kristin; Allen, Kristy B; Whitmore, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Examine the efficacy of a parent-augmented One-Session Treatment (A-OST) in treating specific phobias (SP) in youth by comparing this novel treatment to child-focused OST, a well-established treatment. A total of 97 youth (ages 6-15, 51.5% female, 84.5% White) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SP were randomized to either A-OST or OST. SPs were assessed with semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician improvement ratings, and parent and child improvement ratings. In addition, measures of treatment satisfaction and parental self-efficacy were obtained. Blind assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and 1month and 6months following treatment. Analyses were undertaken using mixed models. In addition, gender, age, internalizing/externalizing problems, parent overprotection, and parent anxiety were examined as potential predictors and moderators of treatment outcome. Both treatment conditions produced similar outcomes with approximately 50% of youth in both treatments diagnosis free and judged to be much or very much improved at posttreatment and 1-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, however, the treatments diverged with OST resulting in marginally superior outcomes to A-OST, contrary to predictions. Only age of child predicted treatment outcome across the two treatments (older children did better); unexpectedly, none of the variables moderated treatment outcomes. Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. One session treatment for specific phobias in children: Comorbid anxiety disorders and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah M; Strege, Marlene V; Oar, Ella L; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) for specific phobias has been shown to be effective in reducing phobia severity; however, the effect of different types of co-occurring anxiety disorders on OST outcomes is unknown. The present study examined (1) the effects of co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or another non-targeted specific phobia (OSP) on the efficacy of OST for specific phobias, and (2) the effects of OST on these co-occurring disorders following treatment. Three groups of 18 youth (7-15 years) with a specific phobia and comorbid GAD, SAD, or OSP were matched on age, gender, and phobia type. Outcome measures included diagnostic status and severity, and clinician rated improvement. All groups demonstrated an improvement in their specific phobia following treatment. Treatment was equally effective regardless of co-occurring anxiety disorder. In addition, comorbid anxiety disorders improved following OST; however, this effect was not equal across groups. The SAD group showed poorer improvement in their comorbid disorder than the GAD group post-treatment. However, the SAD group continued to improve and this differential effect was not evident six-months following treatment. The current study sample was small, with insufficient power to detect small and medium effect sizes. Further, the sample only included a portion of individuals with primary GAD or SAD, which may have attenuated the findings. The current study demonstrated that co-occurring anxiety disorders did not interfere with phobia treatment. OST, despite targeting a single specific phobia type, significantly reduced comorbid symptomatology across multiple anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Colour preference between adults and children during a dental treatment session.

    PubMed

    Oner Ozdas, Didem; Kazak, Magrur

    2017-02-01

    It is evidently shown that colour has physical, psychological and sociological effects on human beings. There are many studies showing the effects of colours on brain activity. Colour preferences may change from childhood to adulthood and are significantly different in various age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adults and children in their preference for mouthrinses in various colours under stress condition during a dental treatment session. 240 adults and 263 children were included in the study. Three transparent cups were filled with water, two of which were coloured green/pink rinsing by dissolving a tablet in the water. Cups were placed near the dental unit. During dental treatment sessions, patients were told to rinse their mouth with whichever cup they preferred. Preferred colour of cup, gender and age of patient, number of sessions were recorded. Data were statistically analysed by SPSS 15.0 programme and chi-square tests. Half of all cases preferred water. In adults, while females statistically significantly preferred water, males chose cups with coloured contents (p<0.01). Male adults preferred more than one rinsing solution in a dental treatment session. Children mostly preferred water. Even if adults preferred cups with coloured contents in multi-dental treatment sessions, children regularly preferred water (p<0.001). Female and male children mostly preferred water as a rinsing solution. Water was the most often choice for all patients. Both patients' gender and colours of cups affected choices made by adults and children. Female adults and children were not interested in trying colourful mouthrinses, while male adults were curious about trying colourful mouthrinses during dental treatment sessions under stress condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Psychological Structure of African Americans Who Terminate Mental Health Treatment Services after Their Initial Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossman, Craig Arthur, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological research study was to describe and explain the experiences of African Americans who terminated mental health treatment services after their initial sessions. The goal of the study was to expand the available knowledge by scientifically illuminating the lived experiences of African Americans who used…

  5. Affect Following First Exercise Session as a Predictor of Treatment Response in Depression.

    PubMed

    Suterwala, Anisha M; Rethorst, Chad D; Carmody, Thomas J; Greer, Tracy L; Grannemann, Bruce D; Jha, Manish; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-08-01

    Remission rates are low with first-step or even second-step antidepressant treatments. Furthermore, despite extensive investments from National Institutes of Health and from industry, novel treatments are not yet available in clinical care for depression. Predictors of treatment response very early in the course of treatment can avoid unnecessarily lengthy trials with ineffective treatments and reduce the trial and error process. This article examines the expression of positive affect immediately following an acute exercise session at the end of the first exercise session as a predictor of treatment response in the National Institute of Mental Health-funded TREAD (Treatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression) study, which was conducted from April 2003 to August 2007. 122 subjects with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder were randomized to public health dose (16 kcal/kg/wk) or low dose (4 kcal/kg/wk) of exercise for 12 weeks. Affect following the first exercise session was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and depressive symptoms were assessed weekly using the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (IDS-C) (primary outcome measure). The PANAS composite affect score (positive-negative total) predicted change in IDS-C score (P < .05), as well as treatment response (P < .02) and remission (P < .03) for those in the high-dose group but not in the low-dose group. These findings suggest that the composite positive affect following the first exercise session has clinical utility to predict treatment response to exercise in depression and match the "right patient" with the "right" treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00076258. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.

  7. Compliance during sessions and homework in exposure-based treatment of agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Edelman, R E; Chambless, D L

    1993-11-01

    The relationship between compliance with cognitive-behavioral treatment instructions and outcome was examined for 56 agoraphobic clients treated with in vivo exposure and training in anxiety management strategies. Clients who complied more often with anxiety management instructions during treatment sessions tended to improve more on a behavioral avoidance test than those who were less compliant, but did not differ on three other outcome variables. Compliance with instructions for self-directed exposure between sessions was examined in a subset of 28 of these Ss. Clients who spent more time doing homework reported significantly greater decrements in fear of fear than less compliant clients and also tended to report larger changes on avoidance behavior. However, a quasi-experimental comparison of homework vs no-homework treatment protocols yielded no difference in outcome. Less compliant clients were more symptomatic pretreatment and rated their therapists as less caring and less self-confident.

  8. "It was hard work every session": Therapists' view of successful psychoanalytic treatments.

    PubMed

    Werbart, Andrzej; Missios, Peter; Waldenström, Fredrik; Lilliengren, Peter

    2017-07-17

    To explore therapists' experiences of the therapeutic process in successful cases of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A two-stage, mixed-method design was used. Sixteen successful cases were drawn from a sample of 92 young adults in psychoanalytic psychotherapy according to Jacobson's criteria for reliable and clinically significant improvement. Therapist interviews at baseline and termination were analyzed applying Inductive Thematic Analysis. Three core themes emerged: Being Particularly Motivated to be This Patient's Therapist, Maintaining a Safe and Attentive Therapeutic Position, and Assiduous Work Every Session. The therapists experienced positive feelings towards the patient from the outset of treatment and described active, relational work that included paying attention to incongruities in the patient's self-presentation and being mindful of patient's avoidant behavior. The therapist's motivation and attentive position made it possible to balance support and challenge in the therapeutic relationship. Successful therapeutic work presupposes positive expectations, an active therapeutic stance and assiduous work session-by-session. Therapist expertise may involve the ability to mobilize and work effectively with patient-specific resources and obstacles from the beginning of treatment. In addition to identifying the characteristics and actions of effective therapists, research should also focus on processes emerging within effective therapeutic dyads. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: Our study indicates several factors that seem to characterize therapist expertise and can inform psychotherapy training. Successful therapeutic work presupposes positive expectations, an active therapeutic stance, courage to challenge the patient, and assiduous work session-by-session. Therapist expertise may involve the ability to mobilize and work effectively with patient-specific resources and obstacles from the beginning of treatment. In addition to

  9. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. Patients and methods We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. Results According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response. PMID:27069450

  10. Internet-based exposure treatment versus one-session exposure treatment of snake phobia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Waara, Johan; Jonsson, Ulf; Malmaeus, Fredrik; Carlbring, Per; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one-session exposure treatment (OST) in a sample of snake phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following a screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of four weekly text modules which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The OST was delivered in a three-hour session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression were used. Results showed that the groups did not differ at post-treatment or follow-up, with the exception of a significant interaction for the BAT in favour of the OST. At post-treatment, 61.5% of the Internet group and 84.6% of the OST group achieved a clinically significant improvement on the BAT. At follow-up, the corresponding figures were 90% for the Internet group and 100% for the OST group (completer sample). Within-group effect sizes for the Snake Phobia Questionnaire were large (d = 1.63 and d = 2.31 for the Internet and OST groups, respectively, at post-treatment). It is concluded that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a potential treatment option in the treatment of snake phobia, but that OST probably is better.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil.

  12. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  13. Interaction of counseling rapport and topics discussed in sessions with methadone treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Joe, George W; Simpson, D Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic rapport between counselors and clients in drug user treatment has been shown to be an important predictor of follow-up outcomes. This naturalistic study investigated the relationship of counseling rapport to drug-related topics discussed in counseling sessions in a sample of 330 clients and nine counselors. These voluntary clients had been admitted to a private, for-profit outpatient methadone treatment in Texas between September 1995 and August 1997 and received no-fee services for a year for participation in this study. The data were gathered using forms in the TCU community treatment assessments (www.ibr.tcu.edu) that measured intake information, counseling session topics, and counselor evaluation of the client. A majority were males, Hispanic, had a pending legal status and the average age was 39. Co-occurring drug dependence for these heroin users included cocaine (38%) and alcohol (31%). The results supported the hypothesis that higher rapport would be associated with addressing clients in a more "supportive approach" that emphasized relapse prevention and strengths-building while lower rapport would be associated with a punitive counseling style that stressed program rules and compliance. The influences of client background, counselor differences, and during-treatment positive urines were also examined. Although counselors differed in their general manner of dealing with clients, each also showed flexibility determined in part by client behavior (such as continued cocaine use). The findings indicate that focusing on constructive solutions is the preferred counseling approach.

  14. From Catastrophizing to Recovery: a pilot study of a single-session treatment for pain catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D; Sturgeon, John A; Kao, Ming-Chih; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain catastrophizing (PC) – a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to real or anticipated pain – maintains chronic pain and undermines medical treatments. Standard PC treatment involves multiple sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy. To provide efficient treatment, we developed a single-session, 2-hour class that solely treats PC entitled “From Catastrophizing to Recovery” [FCR]. Objectives To determine 1) feasibility of FCR; 2) participant ratings for acceptability, understandability, satisfaction, and likelihood to use the information learned; and 3) preliminary efficacy of FCR for reducing PC. Design and methods Uncontrolled prospective pilot trial with a retrospective chart and database review component. Seventy-six patients receiving care at an outpatient pain clinic (the Stanford Pain Management Center) attended the class as free treatment and 70 attendees completed and returned an anonymous survey immediately post-class. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was administered at class check-in (baseline) and at 2, and 4 weeks post-treatment. Within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Student’s t-test contrasts were used to compare scores across time points. Results All attendees who completed a baseline PCS were included as study participants (N=57; F=82%; mean age =50.2 years); PCS was completed by 46 participants at week 2 and 35 participants at week 4. Participants had significantly reduced PC at both time points (P<0001) and large effect sizes were found (Cohen’s d=0.85 and d=1.15). Conclusion Preliminary data suggest that FCR is an acceptable and effective treatment for PC. Larger, controlled studies of longer duration are needed to determine durability of response, factors contributing to response, and the impact on pain, function and quality of life. PMID:24851056

  15. Optimizing injectable poly-L-lactic acid administration for soft tissue augmentation: The rationale for three treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ute; Graivier, Miles H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability and variety of different injectable modalities has led to a dramatic increase in soft tissue augmentation procedures in recent years. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer device approved in the United States for use in immunocompetent patients as a single regimen of up to four treatment sessions for correction of shallow to deep nasolabial fold contour deficiencies and other facial wrinkles. Injectable PLLA is also approved for restoration and/or correction of signs of facial fat loss (lipoatrophy) in individuals with HIV. METHODS: The present article provides an overview of previous studies with injectable PLLA, and specifically focuses on the number of recommended treatment sessions and intervals between treatment sessions. The authors also provide two case studies to support their recommendations for an average of three treatment sessions. RESULTS: Although the specific mechanisms remain hypothetical, injections of PLLA are believed to cause a cascade of cellular events that lead to collagen repair and subsequent restoration of facial volume. Because the development of a response to injectable PLLA is gradual and its duration of effect is long lasting, sufficient time between treatment sessions should be allocated to avoid overcorrection. CONCLUSION: Studies of injectable PLLA support the hypothesized mode of operation, and the experience and clinical recommendations of the authors that suggest that three treatment sessions are an optimal regimen for use of injectable PLLA in the majority of patients. PMID:22942665

  16. Single-session interventions for problem gambling may be as effective as longer treatments: Results of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Toneatto, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Empirically supported treatments for problem gambling tend to be multimodal combining cognitive, behavior and motivational interventions. Since problem gamblers often prefer briefer treatments it is important that interventions adopt strategies that are optimally effective. In this study, 99 community-recruited problem gamblers (74% male, mean age: 47.5 years) were randomized to one of four treatments: six sessions of cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and motivational therapy or a single-session intervention. The sample was followed up for 12 months post-treatment. In both the Intent-to-Treat and Completer statistical analyses, no significant group differences on key gambling variables (i.e., frequency, expenditures, severity) were found. All four treatments showed significant improvement as a result of treatment that endured throughout the follow-up period. These results, although preliminary, suggest that very brief, single-session interventions may be as effective as longer treatments.

  17. One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: A controlled multiple baseline trial.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Conlon, Elizabeth G; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the United States and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Ost, Lars-Goran; Reuterskiold, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E., III; Jarrett, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were…

  19. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the United States and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Ost, Lars-Goran; Reuterskiold, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E., III; Jarrett, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were…

  20. The use of clarification sessions in the treatment of incest victims and their families: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Demaio, Christine M; Davis, Joanne L; Smith, Daniel W

    2006-01-01

    The "clarification session" has been implicated as an important component of the treatment of families affected by incest. On the basis of information presented in clinical literature, however, the specific nature of this intervention varies widely. This exploratory study examined the practices and attitudes regarding clarification sessions of select members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. Surveys were completed by 483 members. Results indicated that approximately 77% of respondents had experience in conducting clarification sessions. The top two reported reasons for conducting clarification sessions were for the perpetrator to assume all responsibility for the abuse and to decrease the level of self-blame of the victim. The majority of respondents concurred that several activities needed to occur prior to the clarification session, whereas less consensus was indicated for activities that were deemed essential during the clarification session. Respondents' practices, attitudes, and beliefs are discussed in terms of the current state of limited, empirically based knowledge in this area. Directions for future research are suggested.

  1. A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of a Single-Session Psychoeducation Treatment for Urban, Culturally Diverse, Trauma-Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Bita; Fisher, Dennis; Korosteleva, Olga; Hong, Madelyn

    2016-06-01

    This randomized pilot study aimed to determine whether a single session of psychoeducation improved mental health outcomes, attitudes toward treatment, and service engagement among urban, impoverished, culturally diverse, trauma-exposed adults. Sixty-seven individuals were randomly assigned to a single-session psychoeducation treatment or a delayed treatment comparison control group. The control group was found to be superior to the treatment group at posttest with respect to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and occupational and family disability. At follow-up, all participants had completed the psychoeducation treatment, and a mixed-effects model indicated significant improvements over time in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, somatization, and attitudes toward treatment. Ninety-eight percent of the participants reported the psychoeducation was helpful at follow-up. Participants also reported a 19.1% increase in mental health service utilization at follow-up compared with baseline. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.

  2. A randomized, controlled, pilot study of a single session psychoeducation treatment for urban, culturally diverse, trauma-exposed adults

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Fisher, Dennis; Korosteleva, Olga; Hong, Madelyn

    2016-01-01

    This randomized pilot study aimed to determine whether a single session of psychoeducation improved mental health outcomes, attitudes towards treatment, and service engagement among urban, impoverished, culturally diverse, trauma exposed adults. Sixty-seven individuals were randomly assigned to a single session psychoeducation treatment or a delayed treatment comparison control group. The control group was found to be superior to the treatment group at post-test with respect to symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, occupational and family disability. At follow-up all participants had completed the psychoeducation treatment, and a mixed effects model indicated significant improvements over time in symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, somatization, and attitudes towards treatment. Ninety-eight percent of the participants reported the psychoeducation was helpful at follow-up. Participants also reported a 19.1% increase in mental health service utilization at follow-up compared to baseline. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:27027660

  3. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  4. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  5. One-session treatment for specific phobias: a review of Öst's single-session exposure with children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Davis, Thompson E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this brief paper is to review the current status of one-session treatment (OST) for specific phobias in children and adolescents. Following a brief historical overview and description of OST, we systematically describe eight studies that have examined its efficacy in children and adolescents aged between 7 and17 years. We also explore phobia subtypes, age, gender, and comorbidity as possible moderators of treatment outcome. Studies have been conducted in Australia, Austria, the Netherlands, the USA, and Sweden. Although there is limited evidence that OST works better for animal phobias than other subtypes of phobias and for girls than boys, across studies there is considerable evidence that it is generally effective across phobia subtypes and for both boys and girls. No age differences in outcomes were noted, nor were any differences noted due to comorbidity. OST was found to be equally effective with children and adolescents with co-occurring multiple phobias and other anxiety disorders. Moreover, in at least one study, it was found to reduce untreated phobic and anxiety disorders in addition to the treated phobias. It is concluded that OST is a highly effective intervention for the treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents.

  6. Enzymatic activities in a semiarid soil amended with different soil treatment: Soil quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Elbl, Jakub; Dvořáčková, Helena; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The use of soil quality indicators may be an effective approach to assess the positive effect of the organic amendment as good restoration methods. Relying on the natural fertility of the soil, the most commonly chemical and physical parameters used to evaluate soil quality are depend to the soil biological parameters. The measurement of soil basal respiration and the mineralization of organic matter are commonly accepted as a key indicator for measuring changes to soil quality. Thus, the simultaneous measurement of various enzymes seems to be useful to evaluate soil biochemical activity and related processes. In this line, Dehydrogenase activity is widely used in evaluating the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms and to evaluate the effects caused by the addition of organic amendments. Variations in phosphatase activity, apart from indicating changes in the quantity and quality of soil phosphorated substrates, are also good indicators of soil biological status. This study assesses the effect of five soil amendments as restoration techniques for semiarid Mediterrenean ecosystems. The goal is to interpret the status of biological and chemical parameters in each treatment as soil quality indicators in degraded forests. The main objectives were to: i) analyze the effect of various organic amendments on the enzimatic activity of soil; ii) analyze the effect of the amendments on soil respiration; iii) assess the effect of these parameters on the soil chemical properties which are indicative of soil healthy; and iv) evaluated form the land management point of view which amendment could result a effective method to restore Mediterranean degraded areas. An experimental paired-plot layout was established in southern of Spain (homogeneous slope gradient: 7.5%; aspect: N170). Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage

  7. Analysis of the safety profile of treatment with a large number of shock waves per session in extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Budía Alba, A; López Acón, J D; Polo-Rodrigo, A; Bahílo-Mateu, P; Trassierra-Villa, M; Boronat-Tormo, F

    2015-06-01

    To assess the safety of increasing the number of waves per session in the treatment of urolithiasis using extracorporeal lithotripsy. Prospective, comparative, nonrandomized parallel study of patients with renoureteral lithiasis and an indication for extracorporeal lithotripsy who were consecutively enrolled between 2009 and 2010. We compared group I (160 patients) treated on schedule with a standard number of waves/session (mean 2858,3±302,8) using a Dornier lithotripter U/15/50 against group II (172 patients) treated with an expanded number of waves/session (mean, 6728,9±889,6) using a Siemens Modularis lithotripter. The study variables were age, sex, location, stone size, number of waves/session and total number of waves to resolution, stone-free rate (SFR) and rate of complications (Clavien-Dindo classification). Student's t-test and the chi-squared test were employed for the statistical analysis. The total rate of complications was 11.9% and 10.46% for groups I and II, respectively (P=.39). All complications were minor (Clavien-Dindo grade I). The most common complications were colic pain and hematuria in groups I and II, respectively, with a similar treatment intolerance rate (P>.05). The total number of waves necessary was lower in group II than in group I (P=.001), with SFRs of 96.5% and 71.5%, respectively (P=.001). Treatment with an expanded number of waves per session in extracorporeal lithotripsy does not increase the rate of complications or their severity. However, it could increase the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  9. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  10. Soluble P-selectin during a single hemodialysis session in patients with chronic renal failure and erythropoietin treatment.

    PubMed

    Stasko, Ján; Galajda, Peter; Ivanková, Jela; Hollý, Pavol; Rozborilová, Eva; Kubisz, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In several studies, hemodialysis (HD) patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) because of renal anemia showed increased levels of soluble adhesion molecules. The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes of soluble P-selectin (sSELP) and its relationship to platelet activation during a single HD session in patients with long-term rHuEPO treatment. Fifty-two HD patients with chronic renal failure were involved--26 with rHuEPO treatment (EPO group) and 26 without (non-EPO group). Thirty healthy subjects served as the control group. The sSELP, beta-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor 4 plasma levels were measured before and after a single 4-hour HD session on a cuprophane dialyzer. The basal beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 plasma levels were significantly increased in both HD groups compared with healthy controls but did not change after a single HD session, except for a significant decrease of platelet factor 4 in the non-EPO group. The predialysis sSELP plasma levels did not differ significantly compared with those of the healthy controls, but there was a significant increase of sSELP levels after a single HD session in both groups (EPO, P < .005; non-EPO, P < .05, respectively). These results suppose that the increased sSELP level was released from platelets during the course of a single HD session. The more significant increase of the sSELP plasma levels in EPO group during HD indicates that platelets are more activated in patients with long-term rHuEPO treatment, and this fact could partially explain the suspected tendency for thrombosis in these patients.

  11. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youth: a randomized clinical trial in the United States and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E; Jarrett, Matthew A

    2009-06-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were offered treatment and, if interested, rerandomized to 1 of the 2 active treatments. The phobias were assessed with semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician severity ratings, and behavioral avoidance tests, whereas fears, general anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were assessed with self- and parent report measures. Assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6 months following treatment. Results showed that both treatment conditions were superior to the wait list control condition and that 1-session exposure treatment was superior to education support treatment on clinician ratings of phobic severity, percentage of participants who were diagnosis free, child ratings of anxiety during the behavioral avoidance test, and treatment satisfaction as reported by the youth and their parents. There were no differences on self-report measures. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  13. One-Session Exposure Treatment for Social Anxiety with Specific Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…

  14. One-Session Exposure Treatment for Social Anxiety with Specific Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…

  15. One Session Treatment for Specific Phobias: An Adaptation for Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia in Youth.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, which has largely been neglected in the child literature. The present paper briefly reviews the aetiology of specific phobias with particular attention to BII and provides an integrated developmental model of this disorder in youth. Evidence-based treatments for child-specific phobias are discussed, and the development of a modified one session treatment (OST) approach to enhance treatment outcomes for BII phobia in children and adolescents is described. This approach is illustrated in two children with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia. The cases illustrate the unique challenges associated with treating BII in youth and the need for a modified intervention. Modifications included addressing the role of pain (e.g., psychoeducation, more graduated exposure steps) and disgust (e.g., disgust eliciting exposure tasks) in the expression of the phobia and fainting in the maintenance of this phobia. Moreover, it is recommended that parents be more actively involved throughout treatment (e.g., education session prior to OST, contingency management training, guidance regarding planning exposure tasks following treatment) and for families to participate in a structured e-therapy maintenance programme post-treatment.

  16. Integrated treatment of PAH contaminated soil by soil washing, ozonation and biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Haapea, Pia; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2006-08-21

    The aim of the study was to optimise three different treatment methods and to find out if the integration of soil washing, ozonation and biological treatment could be a feasible method for the remediation of aged oil contaminated with PAHs. Three different ozone doses and soil washing were studied in different pHs in order to assess their effect to the degradation and enhancement of biodegradability of PAH in the soil and water phase. Main target of the study was to find out a method with which the PAH concentrations could be decreased below the Finnish guideline level for total PAHs. In this case, the initial concentration of PAHs was 1200 mg kg(-1) and therefore almost 85% degradation of PAHs was required. Any of the methods studied was not able to reach this target level alone, but by several combinations of the methods studied achieved 90% reduction of PAHs. The consumption of ozone was 5-10 times lower in the integrated treatments of soil washing, ozonation and biological treatment than without prewashing.

  17. Single vs Two-session Root Canal Treatment: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Study using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    de Castro Rizzi-Maia, Claudia; Maia-Filho, Etevaldo M; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Segato, Raquel Ab; de Queiroz, Alexandra M; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wg; da Silva Pereira, Sângela M; Borges, Alvaro H; da Silva, Léa Ab

    2016-07-01

    To compare root canal treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis (AP) in a single or two visits, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-six pairs of teeth (13 patients) were assigned to two groups: Group single-session (GSS): Instrumentation and root canal filling in the same session; and group two-session (GTS): A calcium hydroxide intracanal medication (Calen(®) paste) was used for 14 days between two sessions. Cone beam computed tomography scans were obtained before and 12 months after treatment. The pre- and postoperative volume of the AP lesions was measured in mm(3). The percentages of volume reduction was compared using Student's t-test and the existence of significant difference between the groups for cases with ≤ 50% or > 50% lesion volume reduction was assessed by chi-squared test ratio likelihood test (α = 5%). The volume reduction was greater in GTS (79.25%) than GSS (68.35%), though without significant difference (p > 0.05). After 12 months, complete repair was not observed in any specimen. Lesion volume reduction > 50% was significantly greater with the use of an intracanal medication (p < 0.05). Twelve months posttreatment, CBCT did not show complete repair in any of the teeth, suggesting that this follow-up period is not sufficient for complete lesion regression. In both groups, similar AP lesion volume reduction was observed after 12 months, with a more advanced repair (> 50% volume reduction) in the teeth medicated with calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing provided clinical evidence to indicate its use in teeth with apical periodontitis prior to definitive root canal filling.

  18. Combined Therapies for the Treatment of Technically Unresectable Liver Malignancies: Bland Embolization and Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation within the Same Session

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, Guido Della Vigna, Paolo Monfardini, Lorenzo Orgera, Gianluigi; Chiappa, Antonio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Orsi, Franco

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of combining transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) in a single session for the treatment of technically unresectable liver-only malignancies. Methods: From May 2006 to January 2011, a total of 30 patients affected by liver metastases with single or multiple unresectable liver-only lesions underwent a combined treatment with TAE followed by RFA in the same session, for a total of 36 treated lesions. Patients were extrapolated from a cohort of patients discussed within the weekly institutional tumor board. TAE was performed by using 100 {mu}m microspheres; RFA was performed immediately after TAE by positioning the electrode needle via ultrasound and/or computed tomographic guidance. Local tumor responses and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Results: Completion of both procedures was obtained in all patients for all 36 lesions. Liver lesions had a maximum axial diameter ranging 16-59 mm. Postintervention unenhanced ablated areas ranged 28-104 mm in maximum axial diameter. Safety margins ranged 1-30.5 mm. Complete response, defined as complete devascularization at computed tomography, was obtained in all treated lesions for a maximum period of 12 months. Tumor relapse was observed in one patient at 12 months. Sixteen patients developed new liver lesions or progressive systemic disease during follow-up. Nine patients were still disease-free. Seven patients died as a result of systemic progressive disease. One major treatment-related complication was observed. Conclusions: In patients with technically unresectable liver-only malignancies, single-session combined TAE-RFA is an effective and safe treatment.

  19. Prediction and validation of the duration of hemodialysis sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Iliuta, Ioan-Andrei; Lachance, Philippe; Ghannoum, Marc; Bégin, Yannick; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning is dependent on concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. Ethylene glycol assays are not readily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of HD. We report a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD sessions based retrospectively on a cohort study of 26 cases of acute ethylene glycol poisoning in 24 individuals treated by alcohol dehydrogenase competitive inhibitors, cofactors and HD. Two patients required HD for more than 14 days, and two died. In 19 cases, the mean ethylene glycol elimination half-life during high-efficiency HD was 165 minutes (95% confidence interval of 151-180 minutes). In a training set of 12 patients with acute ethylene glycol poisoning, using the 90th percentile half-life (195 minutes) and a target ethylene glycol concentration of 2 mmol/l (12.4 mg/dl) allowed all cases to reach a safe ethylene glycol under 3 mmol/l (18.6 mg/dl). The prediction model was then validated in a set of seven acute ethylene glycol poisonings. Thus, the HD session time in hours can be estimated using 4.7 x (Ln [the initial ethylene glycol concentration (mmol/l)/2]), provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Anxious Children: Parents' In-Session and Out-Session Activities and Their Relationship with Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.

  1. Sit-to-stand movement changes in preschool-aged children with spastic diplegia following one neurodevelopmental treatment session--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yonetsu, Ryo; Iwata, Akira; Surya, John; Unase, Kazunori; Shimizu, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a better understanding of how a single neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) session affects sit-to-stand (STS) movements in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eight children with spastic diplegia and five typically developing children, aged 4-6 years, participated in this study. The CP participants performed STS movements immediately before and after a 40-min NDT session. Using a three-dimensional, four-camera analysis system, angular movements involving the hip, knee and ankle joints of the participants were obtained. During forward tilt of the trunk, the maximum and final angles after the NDT session significantly decreased compared with those before the session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Moreover, the final hip flexion after the session also significantly decreased compared with that before the session (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the initial, maximum and final ankle dorsiflexion angles after the session were significantly greater (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) than before the session. These findings suggest that a single NDT session enables children with CP to stand from a seated position without using some atypical movement patterns. Preschool-aged children with spastic diplegia, with limited ability to independently transfer from a sitting position, and dependent on a wheelchair for mobility experience obstacles to enhanced activities of daily life and social participation. A single neurodevelopmental treatment session would enable children with spastic diplegia to perform sit-to-stand movements more efficiently, with selective muscle control. Understanding how a single neurodevelopmental treatment session affects sit-to-stand movements in children with spastic diplegia is invaluable for therapists planning more efficient therapeutic programs and may enable children with spastic diplegia to develop improved mobility.

  2. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying; Wu, Dan-Ya

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P<0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  3. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  4. [Role of plasmapheresis in immunological kidney diseases. Experience from 1050 completed plasmapheresis treatment sessions].

    PubMed

    Haris, Agnes; Arányi, József; Braunitzer, Henrik; Kálmán, Eva; Merán, Zoltán; Soltész, Mariann; Polner, Kálmán

    2011-07-10

    Plasmapheresis is an effective treatment modality in several immunological kidney diseases. It is also indicated in certain neurological and hematological abnormalities, and some other diseases. In this study the indications and outcomes of the plasma exchange treatments performed in the Plasmapheresis Unit of the authors during the last 12 years are summarized, and the findings are compared to those published in the literature. The procedure, mechanisms of action and adverse effects are also briefly discussed. Between 1999 and 2010 authors completed 1050 plasma exchanges in 195 patients with an average 5.4 (1-20) treatments/person. In the 78 males and 117 females (age 57±16 years) the indications were as follows: 47% anti-cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, 4% anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, 3% rapidly progressing immunocomplex glomerulonephritis, 11% severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus, 1% treatment resistant focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, 5% hemolytic uremic syndrome, 13% complications of multiple myeloma, 4% HELLP syndrome, 10% neurological diseases, and 2% other abnormalities. Plasmapheresis, completed as part of combined immunosuppressive treatment, resulted in remarkable improvements in patients with anti-cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Out of the 91 patients, 54 needed urgent dialysis on admission, and renal replacement therapy could be discontinued in 44% of them. Renal functions in those patients who did not need dialysis also improved significantly, and pulmonary hemorrhage ceased in all affected subjects. Survival of the patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane diseases was 100%. The treatment significantly improved the renal function in rapidly progressive lupus nephritis, and all the 5 cases of lupus cerebritis were successfully cured. The results showed less effectiveness in therapy resistant focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and in rapidly progressing immunocomplex glomerulonephritis

  5. In-Session Exposure Tasks and Therapeutic Alliance across the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Marker, Craig D.; Creed, Torrey A.; Puliafico, Anthony C.; Hughes, Alicia A.; Martin, Erin D.; Suveg, Cynthia; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the shape of therapeutic alliance using latent growth curve modeling and data from multiple informants (therapist, child, mother, father). Children (n = 86) with anxiety disorders were randomized to family-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (FCBT; N = 47) with exposure tasks or to family education, support, and attention…

  6. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  7. The British nuclear fuels CACITOX soil treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, K.W.; Hultman, C.W.S.

    1994-12-31

    Contamination of soils by heavy metals and radionuclides is a common problem throughout the world. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is extending its patented CACITOX{sup {trademark}} process, originally developed for the treatment of nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes, to the treatment of soils and other materials contaminated with heavy metals and transuranic (TRU) elements. CACITOX{sup {trademark}} is a novel proprietary leaching process which uses a mild, highly selective and environmentally friendly reagent system. It is potentially capable of treating contaminated soils and sediments without depositing unacceptable by-products within the soil matrix or destroying the matrix itself. The low reagent concentrations and its high selectivity result in minimization of secondary waste and conservation of resources. This innovative process is at the heart of BNFL`s development of a modular soil treatment plant, EXCEL*CR{sup {trademark}}. Although many mechanical unit operations employed in the EXCEL*CR{sup {trademark}} plant are similar to conventional soil washing (size classification), it is distinguished by the ability of the process to selectively leach the contaminants from the soil as soluble chemical complexes. This paper describes the CACITOX{sup {trademark}} process and its use in the EXCEL*CR{sup {trademark}} soil treatment plant. The paper outlines the process chemistry, development of its application and reviews progress in the current development program. The design philosophy for the EXCEL*CR{sup {trademark}} plant is further described.

  8. Parental strategies used in the family meal session of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa: Links with treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Wallis, Andrew; Kohn, Michael; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Examine relationships between parental mealtime strategies used in the family meal session of family-based treatment (FBT) and adolescent outcomes at EOT (session 20). Eighteen families with an adolescent receiving FBT-AN participated. Parental strategies during videoed family meals were assessed using a family mealtime coding system. Change scores were calculated for both adolescent %EBW and EDE scores. Increased use of parental direct and non-direct eating prompts during the family meal was associated with greater adolescent weight gain at EOT. Use of parental mealtime strategies was not associated with any significant change in adolescent eating psychopathology at EOT. Parental verbal eating prompts during the family meal may be effective in promoting short-term weight gain. During the family meal session, parents should be encouraged to maintain a direct focus on their adolescent child's eating behaviour which may assist their child with food consumption and potential weight gain. Further research examining food-based interactions among parents and their adolescent child with AN is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:433-436). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Treatment: Conceptual Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    circuit without trans- ferring hear from a metallic resistance element. Contaminated soils may be accepted directly with little or (to pretreatment ...with metals has been demon-- strated. No pretreatment for organics destruction would be required. The system can also readily handle liquid wastes and...applications as a pretreatment /recovery step. J 38 0458Bi 3.7.3 Long term stability/performance. The process would remove metals from the soil. Therefore, if

  10. Deep soil mixing for reagent delivery and contaminant treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Gardner, F.G.; Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.

    1997-12-31

    Deep soil mixing was evaluated for treating clay soils contaminated with TCE and its byproducts at the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The objective of the project was to evaluate the extent of limitations posed by the stiff, silty-clay soil. Three treatment approaches were tested. The first was vapor stripping. In contrast to previous work, however, laboratory treatability studies indicated that mixing saturated, clay soil was not efficient unless powdered lime was added. Thus, powder injection of lime was attempted in conjunction with the mixing/stripping operation. In separate treatment cells, potassium permanganate solution was mixed with the soil as a means of destroying contaminants in situ. Finally, microbial treatment was studied in a third treatment zone. The clay soil caused operational problems such as breakage of the shroud seal and frequent reagent blowouts. Nevertheless, treatment efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the saturated zone with chemical oxidation. Although expensive ($1128/yd{sup 3}), there are few alternatives for soils of this type.

  11. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  12. Combine separation and leaching for cheaper soil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1996-01-01

    To minimize treatment and disposal cost, soil remediation experts tend to favor methods that consolidate the overall volume of tainted materials and cull non-tainted fractions. Soil washing achieves this objective, by mixing contaminated soils, sediments and sludges in a wash solution (which is later treated by conventional wastewater-treatment methods), and then separating the resulting slurry into a clean soil and stone fraction, and a smaller amount of concentrated contaminated residue. Metcalf and Eddy`s (M and E; Somerville, NJ) Hydro-Sep soil-washing process integrates mechanical screening and hydraulic classification. Organic and inorganic contaminants in the concentrated, fine-grained fraction can then be managed by thermal desorption, biodegradation, chemical extraction, stabilization or fixation. Each process operation is modular, so site-specific configurations can be designed to meet changing lithology and contaminant mixes.

  13. Results of treatment evaluations of a contaminated synthetic soil

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, P.; Hessling, J.; Locke, B.B.; Taylor, M.; Szabo, M.; Thurnau, R.; Rogers, C.; Traver, R.; Barth, E.

    1989-03-01

    Under Phase I of EPA's Superfund soil treatability research program, which was conducted from April to November 1987, a surrogate soil containing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring as Superfund sites was prepared and subjected to bench- or pilot-scale performance evaluations using the following treatment technologies; (1) physical separation/volume reduction (soil washing); (2) chemical treatment (KPEG); (3) thermal desorption; (4) incineration; and (5) stabilization/fixation. This report covers the formulation and development of the surrogate soil; it also highlights the results of the five treatment evaluations. Virtually all of the analytical data underlying this research were developed using EPA-SW846 methods. Detailed project reports covering the findings of each study are available through EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  14. Poster Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Poster Session, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Development of correlative measures for the assessment of attention and memory; Biodynamical Responses of the Crewmember Head/Neck System During Emergence Ejection; Fecundation in the Sky, a Ten Years Old Experiment in Microgravity; A Modified Botex Incubator as a Transport System For Developing Crickets into Space; Chromosomal Aberrations in Peripheral Lymphocytes of Cosmonauts and Astronauts after Space Flights; Method for Establishing Long term Bone Marrow; Cultures Under Microgravity Conditions Reproduction Under Simulated Weightlessness --Mammalian in vivo Experiments Under Suspension; Towards Human Movement Analysis Without the Use of Markers; Habitability Requirements For a Cogent Mars Mission; The Saucer Concept for Space Habitats; New Way In Modeling the Growth of the Organism; The Fractionation of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotopes By Life Support Systems of Space Station "MIR"; and Effect of Space Flight on Neutrophil Function.

  15. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

  16. Combined chemical and biological treatment of oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Goi, Anna; Kulik, Niina; Trapido, Marina

    2006-06-01

    Combined chemical (Fenton-like and ozonation) and biological treatment for the remediation of shale oil and transformer oil contaminated soil has been under study. Chemical treatment of shale oil and transformer oil adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants' removal and required higher addition of chemicals than chemical treatment of contaminants in sand matrix. The acidic pH (3.0) conditions favoured Fenton-like oxidation of oil in soil. Nevertheless, it was concluded that remediation of contaminated soil using in situ Fenton-like treatment will be more feasible at natural soil pH. Both investigated chemical processes (Fenton-like and ozonation) allowed improving the subsequent biodegradability of oil. Moderate doses of chemical oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone) should be applied in combination of chemical treatment (both, Fenton-like or ozonation) and biotreatment. For remediation of transformer oil and shale oil contaminated soil Fenton-like pre-treatment followed by biodegradation was found to be the most efficient.

  17. Soil and air temperature and biomass after residue treatment.

    Treesearch

    W.B. Fowler; J.D. Helvey

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature at 0.5 m and soil temperature at 0.01 m were measured during May and early June after forest harvest on four residue treatment sites and a control. Broadcast burning or burning in piles increased daily accumulation of heat in air while scattered chips and scarified and cleared treatments were equal to the control (broadcast, untreated slash). During mid...

  18. Wood preserving waste-contaminated soil: Treatment and toxicity response

    SciTech Connect

    Huling, S.G.; Pope, D.F.; Matthews, J.E.; Sims, J.L.; Sims, R.C.; Sorensen, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote were treated without bioaugmentation at field scale in tow 1-acre land treatment units (LTUs) at Libby, Montana. The concentration of indicator compounds of treatment performance, i.e., PCP, pyrene, total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TCPAHs) were monitored in the soil by taking both composited and discrete soil samples. A statistically significant decrease in PCP, pyrene, and TCPAH concentration occurred at field scale, and first-order degradation rate kinetics, from discrete and composited soil samples, satisfactorily represented the chemical loss for these compounds. Detoxification, as measured by the Microtox{trademark} assay, occurred in the soil; and toxicity reduction corresponded with PCP, pyrene, and TCPAH disappearance. No increase in toxicity in the lower treated soil layers (lifts) of the LTUs was observed with time, while the upper, more recently applied lifts were highly contaminated and toxic. This indicated that vertical migration of soluble contaminants had little effect on microbial activity in lower lifts of treated soil.

  19. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  20. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  1. Treatment of NORM contaminated soil from the oilfields.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, W M; Al-Masri, M S

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrolled disposal of oilfield produced water in the surrounding environment could lead to soil contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Large volumes of soil become highly contaminated with radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). In the present work, laboratory experiments have been conducted to reduce the activity concentration of (226)Ra in soil. Two techniques were used, namely mechanical separation and chemical treatment. Screening of contaminated soil using vibratory sieve shaker was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation. The fractions obtained were ranged from less than 38 μm to higher than 300 μm. The results show that (226)Ra activity concentrations vary widely from fraction to fraction. On the other hand, leaching of (226)Ra from soil by aqueous solutions (distilled water, mineral acids, alkaline medias and selective solvents) has been performed. In most cases, relatively low concentrations of radium were transferred to solutions, which indicates that only small portions of radium are present on the surface of soil particles (around 4.6%), while most radium located within soil particles; only concentrated nitric acid was most effective where 50% of (226)Ra was removed to aqueous phase. However, mechanical method was found to be easy and effective, taking into account safety procedures to be followed during the implementation of the blending and homogenization. Chemical extraction methods were found to be less effective. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to approach the final option for disposal of NORM contaminated soil in the oilfields.

  2. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  3. Treated wastewater effects on water repellency and soil hydraulic properties of soil aquifer treatment infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIrrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) has been reported to induce low to moderate hydrophobicity in soils of different texture with or without vegetation cover. Additional potential sites for adverse effects of TWW are infiltration basins, where TWW undergoes tertiary treatment, known as soil aquifer treatment (SAT). The annual organic matter (OM) loads in SAT are a hundred fold higher than those applied in irrigation with TWW. Therefore, we initially presumed that in the sandy soils of SAT infiltration basins, hydrophobicity would be expressed to a higher extent and would further affect the hydraulic properties of these soils. This hypothesis was tested in the Dan Region Wastewater Reclamation Project, Tel-Aviv, Israel. In terms of water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, the results obtained exhibited similar hydrophobicity levels (0 ⩽ WDPT ⩽ 238 s) to those obtained in the TWW irrigated fields and in a similar manner, soil hydrophobicity was only exhibited in the surface soil layer. It is suggested that the low to moderate hydrophobicity obtained under TWW irrigation and recharge into the SAT basins, may primarily stem from the drying and wetting cycle regimes employed. Under these conditions, hydrophobic compounds, which may impart hydrophobicity to the soil particles, are likely to detach and dissolve into the soil solution at the subsequent irrigation or recharge event. Furthermore, the frequent displacement of the resident TWW derived OM by repeatedly flooding events, prevents maturation and humification of the resident OM. Further investigations on the hydraulic properties of the basin soils were conducted in conjunction with the solid-liquid contact angle ( ω) and the surface tension ( γL) of the soil solution. The results obtained imply that the dependence of the hydraulic properties on ω and/or γL, can be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of both the solid and dissolved OM originating from the recharged TWW.

  4. Comparison of complication rates of unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-session bilateral surgery for the treatment of bilateral medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Bronwyn A; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study compared complication rates in 93 client-owned dogs (119 stifles) undergoing single-session bilateral, staged bilateral, or unilateral surgery for bilateral medial patellar luxation. Clinical characteristics and complication rates were compared and risk factors for major complications were explored. Sixty-five dogs had unilateral, 16 staged bilateral and 11 single-session bilateral surgery. Complications occurred in 28/119 stifles (24%), 11 (9%) of which required revision surgery. Patellar reluxation occurred in 7/119 (6%) stifles, with no revision required. There was no significant association between timing of surgery and incidence of complications. In dogs < 10 kg with bilateral medial patellar luxation, single-session bilateral surgery is a feasible treatment option with a complication rate comparable to staged bilateral or unilateral medial patellar luxation surgery.

  5. Efficacy of Single-Session Percutaneous Drainage and 50% Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Simple Renal Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong Seo, Tae-Seok; Park, Ho Chul

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. Methods. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. Results. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy.

  6. Efficacy of single-session percutaneous drainage and 50% acetic Acid sclerotherapy for treatment of simple renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Seo, Tae-Seok; Park, Ho Chul

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy.

  7. Comparison of single-session transarterial chemoembolization combined with microwave ablation or radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Elshazly; El-Kalla, Ferial; El-Gharib, Mohamed; Kobtan, Abdelrahman; Elhendawy, Mohammed; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Mansour, Loai; Amer, Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    Globally, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality. In recent years, transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave ablation (MWA) have been accepted as treatment modalities for patients with surgically unresectable HCC. This study aimed to compare combination treatment with radiofrequency or MWA, followed by transarterial chemoembolization, and performed in a single session. This study was carried out on 50 patients with nonresectable single-lesion HCC, who were divided into three groups: group A included 20 patients treated by transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization, group B included 20 patients treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and group C included 10 patients treated by MWA combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The combined treatments were performed in a single session, with the ablation performed first. The total success rate in this study at 6 months following the procedure was 50% in group A, 70% in group B, and 80% in group C. Major complications were recorded in 22% of patients. The number of complications was the highest in group A. Combined ablation with chemoembolization is superior in the treatment of nonresectable single masses larger than 4 cm. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and ablation can be performed safely and successfully during a single session, which has not been found to decrease the response rates to treatment. Combined treatment with MWA is more effective in terms of tumor response, and results in the same complication rate as with radiofrequency, but less than chemoembolization alone.

  8. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  9. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter fractions in soils in soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuang; Zhao, Qingliang; Wei, Liangliang; Song, Youtao; Tie, Mei

    2013-06-01

    This work investigated the effect of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) operation on the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in soils through laboratory-scale soil columns with a 2-year operation. The resin adsorption technique (with XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins) was employed to characterize the dissolved organic matter in soils into five fractions, i.e., hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), hydrophobic neutral (HPO-N), transphilic acid (TPI-A), transphilic neutral (TPI-N), and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). The synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed the presence of soluble microbial byproduct- and humic acid-like components and polycyclic aromatic compounds in DOM in soils, and SAT operation resulted in the enrichment of these fluorescent materials in all DOM fractions in the surface soil (0-12.5 cm). More importantly, the quantitative method of fluorescence regional integration was used in the analysis of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of DOM fractions in soils. The cumulative EEM volume (Φ T, n ) results showed that SAT operation led to the enrichment of more fluorescent components in HPO-A and TPI-A, as well as the dominance of less fluorescent components in HPO-N, TPI-N, and HPI in the bottom soil (75-150 cm). Total Φ T, n values, which were calculated as [Formula: see text], suggested an accumulation of fluorescent organic matter in the upper 75 cm of soil as a consequence of SAT operation. The distribution of volumetric fluorescence among five regions (i.e., P i, n ) results revealed that SAT caused the increased content of humic-like fluorophores as well as the decreased content of protein-like fluorophores in both HPO-A and TPI-A in soils.

  11. Evaluation of abiotic fate mechanisms in soil slurry bioreactor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.; McCauley, P.T.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil slurries may offer a viable technology for soil bioremediation. Slurry bioreactor treatment of soils, however, has not sufficiently progressed to be a durable, reliable, and cost-effective treatment option. Critical to the evaluation of slurry bioreactors is a better description of pollutant mass transfer during the treatment phase. Losses attributable to abiotic means are generally overlooked in field application of the technology. Discussions with EPA regional personnel and inspection of active soil slurry bioreactor operations have identified operational problems such as foaming which could result in possible abiotic loss. Field bioslurry operations have adopted various approaches to reduce foaming: (1) the addition of defoaming agents, (2) the reduction of rotational speed of the agitator, and (3) the reduction of gas flow through the bioreactor system. We have conducted two bench-scale slurry bioreactor treatability studies, at the U.S. EPA Testing & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, which were designed to investigate some of the operating factors leading to foam formation and identify the most advantageous means to deal with foaming. The initial study has been previously presented as a general treatability study for treatment of creosote contamination in a soil. During this study, foaming became a major problem for operation. The foaming conditions were mitigated by use of defoamer and, in the more extreme cases, through reduction of the mixer rotational speed and gas flow. A subsequent study which was devoted specifically to investigating the causes and conditions of foaming using a different batch of soil from the same site as the earlier study showed little foaming at the very beginning of the study.

  12. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  13. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  14. Laboratory assessment of factors affecting soil clogging of soil aquifer treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Pavelic, P; Dillon, P J; Mucha, M; Nakai, T; Barry, K E; Bestland, E

    2011-05-01

    In this study the effect of soil type, level of pre-treatment, ponding depth, temperature and sunlight on clogging of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) systems was evaluated over an eight week duration in constant temperature and glasshouse environments. Of the two soil types tested, the more permeable sand media clogged more than the loam, but still retained an order of magnitude higher absolute permeability. A 6- to 8-fold difference in hydraulic loading rates was observed between the four source water types tested (one potable water and three recycled waters), with improved water quality resulting in significantly higher infiltration. Infiltration rates for ponding depths of 30 cm and 50 cm were higher than 10 cm, although for 50 cm clogging rates were higher due to greater compaction of the clogging layer. Overall, physical clogging was more significant than other forms of clogging. Microbial clogging becomes increasingly important when the particulate concentrations in the source waters are reduced through pre-treatment and for finer textured soils due to the higher specific surface area of the media. Clogging by gas binding took place in the glasshouse but not in the lab, and mechanical clogging associated with particle rearrangement was evident in the sand media but not in the loam. These results offer insight into the soil, water quality and operating conditions needed to achieve viable SAT systems. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) infiltration basin soils.

    PubMed

    Arye, Gilboa; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The transport and fate of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (SHAFDAN), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Soil samples were taken from seven subsections of soil profiles (150 cm) in infiltration basins of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. The transport characteristics were studied from the release dynamics of soil-resident CBZ and, subsequently, from applying a pulse input of wastewater containing CBZ. In addition, a monitoring study was performed to evaluate the fate of CBZ after the SAT. Results of this study indicate adsorption, and consequently retardation, in CBZ transport through the top soil layer (0-5 cm) and to a lesser extent in the second layer (5-25 cm), but not in deeper soil layers (25-150 cm). The soluble and adsorbed fractions of CBZ obtained from the two upper soil layers comprised 45% of the total CBZ content in the entire soil profile. This behavior correlated to the higher organic matter content observed in the upper soil layers (0-25 cm). It is therefore deduced that when accounting for the full flow path of CBZ through the vadose zone to the groundwater region, the overall transport of CBZ in the SAT system is essentially conservative. The monitoring study revealed that the average concentration of CBZ decreased from 1094 ± 166 ng L⁻¹ in the recharged wastewater to 560 ± 175 ng L⁻¹ after the SAT. This reduction is explained by dilution of the recharged wastewater with resident groundwater, which may occur as it flows to active reclamation wells.

  16. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, R. )

    1991-02-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd{sup 3} of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work.

  17. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  18. HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

  19. HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

  20. Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment of borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ueli; Kolly, Stéphane; Berthoud, Laurent; Keller, Sabine; Preisig, Martin; Caspar, Franz; Berger, Thomas; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR) was postulated to be a particularly helpful therapeutic ingredient in the early treatment phase of patients with personality disorders, in particular with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present randomized controlled study using an add-on design is the first study to test this assumption in a 10-session general psychiatric treatment with patients presenting with BPD on symptom reduction and therapeutic alliance. A total of 85 patients were randomized. They were either allocated to a manual-based short variant of the general psychiatric management (GPM) treatment (in 10 sessions) or to the same treatment where MOTR was deliberately added to the treatment. Treatment attrition and integrity analyses yielded satisfactory results. The results of the intent-to-treat analyses suggested a global efficacy of MOTR, in the sense of an additional reduction of general problems, i.e. symptoms, interpersonal and social problems (F1, 73 = 7.25, p < 0.05). However, they also showed that MOTR did not yield an additional reduction of specific borderline symptoms. It was also shown that a stronger therapeutic alliance, as assessed by the therapist, developed in MOTR treatments compared to GPM (Z55 = 0.99, p < 0.04). These results suggest that adding MOTR to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments of BPD is promising. Moreover, the findings shed additional light on the perspective of shortening treatments for patients presenting with BPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation of treatment options for mercury/PCB contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate treatment alternatives for soil contaminated with mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) aroclor 1268 at the LCP site, a former chlor-alkali plant, in Brunswick, GA. The site was operated as a petroleum refinery from 1919 to 1930. Based on past experience and a literature search, soil washing and thermal desorption were deemed to be the most promising technologies. A bulk soil sample was collected from the south process area and analyzed to have 190 mg/kg mercury and 405 mg/kg of PCB aroclor 1268. The soil was screened to {1/4} treatability tests. Testing was performed in three parts consisting of a round of geophysical and chemical analyses to determine matrix characteristics; thermal desorption tests at temperatures ranging from 100 C to 700 C to determine the volatility of mercury and PCB aroclor 1268; and a soil-washing study matrix to evaluate the effect of chemical additives such as acids, oxidizers, and surfactants to physically and chemically remove contaminants from the soil matrix.

  2. Soil washwater treatment system operating procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.W.

    1993-11-02

    This report describes the Met-Pro Physical Chemical Treatment System which incorporates numerous integrated processes either physical or chemical in nature. They include the following: coagulation with chemicals; rapid mixing to assure intimate contact of influent and coagulant; controlled flocculation for maximum flock growth via addition of polymer; extended time clarification for optimum settling of solids; solids collection and disposal, and recycle for seeding; filtration for additional suspended solids removal; and ion exchange removal of uranium and heavy metals.

  3. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1(control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6- mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater (p 55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. The purpose of the current research was to examine the feasability of using phosphate based ammend

  4. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  5. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  6. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  7. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy According to Treatment Session on Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Soon; Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) according to treatment session on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twelve children with spastic CP underwent 1 ESWT and 2 sham ESWT sessions for gastrocnemius (group 1) or 3 ESWT sessions (group 2) once per week for 3 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score, passive range of motion (PROM) of the ankle plantar-flexor muscles with knee extension, and median red pixel intensity (RPI) of color histogram of medial gastrocnemius on real-time sonoelastography (RTS) were measured before ESWT, immediately after the first and third ESWT, and at 4 weeks after the third ESWT. Results Mean ankle PROM was significantly increased whereas as mean ankle MAS and median gastrocnemius RPI were significantly decreased in both groups after the first ESWT. Clinical and RTS parameters before ESWT were not significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 1. However, they were significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 2. Mean ankle PROM, mean ankle MAS, and median gastrocnemius RPI in group 2 were significantly different from that in group 1 at 4 weeks or immediately after the third ESWT. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of ESWT on spastic medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic CP is dependent on the number of ESWT sessions. PMID:26798605

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy According to Treatment Session on Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Soon; Kwon, Dong Rak; Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Michael Y

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) according to treatment session on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with spastic CP underwent 1 ESWT and 2 sham ESWT sessions for gastrocnemius (group 1) or 3 ESWT sessions (group 2) once per week for 3 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score, passive range of motion (PROM) of the ankle plantar-flexor muscles with knee extension, and median red pixel intensity (RPI) of color histogram of medial gastrocnemius on real-time sonoelastography (RTS) were measured before ESWT, immediately after the first and third ESWT, and at 4 weeks after the third ESWT. Mean ankle PROM was significantly increased whereas as mean ankle MAS and median gastrocnemius RPI were significantly decreased in both groups after the first ESWT. Clinical and RTS parameters before ESWT were not significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 1. However, they were significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 2. Mean ankle PROM, mean ankle MAS, and median gastrocnemius RPI in group 2 were significantly different from that in group 1 at 4 weeks or immediately after the third ESWT. The therapeutic effect of ESWT on spastic medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic CP is dependent on the number of ESWT sessions.

  10. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  11. EFFECT OF SOIL PB INACTIVATION TREATMENTS ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF JOPLIN, MO, SMELTER CONTAMINATED SOIL PB TO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of treating contaminated soils with various soil amendments on the bioavailability of lead were assessed in the weanling rat model. The effect of treatment was assessed by comparing the adsorption of Pb of animals fed soil samples treated with (0.5%, 1% P and 2.5% Fe ...

  12. EFFECT OF SOIL PB INACTIVATION TREATMENTS ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF JOPLIN, MO, SMELTER CONTAMINATED SOIL PB TO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of treating contaminated soils with various soil amendments on the bioavailability of lead were assessed in the weanling rat model. The effect of treatment was assessed by comparing the adsorption of Pb of animals fed soil samples treated with (0.5%, 1% P and 2.5% Fe ...

  13. Group treatments for sensitive health care problems: a randomised controlled trial of group versus individual physiotherapy sessions for female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, SE; Pepper, J; Lall, R; Jørstad-Stein, EC; Clark, MD; Hill, L; Fereday-Smith, J

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. Results The majority of women expressed no preference (55%) or preference for individual treatment (36%). Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference £52.91 95%, confidence interval (£25.82 - £80.00)). Conclusion Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. Trial Registration Trial Registration number: ISRCTN 16772662 PMID:19751517

  14. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  15. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  16. A retrospective study of canine house soiling: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeon, S C; Erb, H N; Houpt, K A

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relative frequency and type of elimination problem seen in dogs at a university referral practice and to evaluate the efficacy of the suggested treatments. Cases presented to the Animal Behavior Clinic at Cornell University between 1987 and 1996 were reviewed. Of 1,173 cases, 105 (9%) were house-soiling cases. Of these cases, the authors obtained outcome information from 70. Within the diagnosis of house soiling, incomplete housebreaking (n=59; 84%) were the most frequent referral cases, of which 48 cases (81%; 95% confidence interval, 69% to 90%) improved. Separation anxiety was considered the second most common underlying cause (n=27; 39%), of which 85% (n=23; 95% confidence interval, 66% to 96%) improved. Behavior modification was the most often suggested treatment (n=58), with 48 (83%) cases improving. Behavior modification consisted of accompanying the dog to the preferred elimination area, rewarding the dog for eliminating there, and punishing the dog only when caught in the act of house soiling. These results suggest that correct house training, behavior modification involving positive reinforcement, and appropriate punishment are essential to diminish house-soiling problems in dogs.

  17. Session: Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

  18. Session Two Outcome of the Formula First Session Task in Problem- and Solution-Focused Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Karin; Quinn, William H.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated treatment effects in single session process using problem-focused approach and solution-focused approach. Findings indicated significant difference between two approaches when dealing with client's perceived problem improvement, outcome expectancy, session depth, session smoothness, and session positivity. Found no significant…

  19. Two Versus One High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Session per Day for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Theleritis, Christos; Sakkas, Pavlos; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas; Vitoratou, Silia; Tzavara, Chara; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Politis, Antonios; Soldatos, Constantin R; Psarros, Costantin

    2017-09-01

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has proven antidepressant effects, but the optimal frequency of sessions remains unclear. We conducted a 3-week, sham-controlled trial to assess the antidepressant efficacy of 1 active HF-rTMS session per day (A1 group) compared with 2 per day (A2 group) and equivalent sham sessions (once a day, S1 group; twice a day, S2 group) in patients with treatment-resistant major depression with a subsequent 2-week follow-up period. One hundred seventy-seven patients were screened, of whom 105 met eligibility criteria and 98 consented and were randomized. The HF-rTMS (20 Hz) was targeted to the left prefrontal cortex in sessions of approximately 40 trains (2 seconds each) at 100% resting motor threshold with an intertrain interval of 1 minute. Treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score and/or Clinician Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score of 3 or less. Remission was defined as HDRS score less than 8 and/or CGI-S score of 2 or less. Practically none of the subjects in either sham groups achieved remission. Increased odds of remission were present for CGI-S by stimulating twice rather than once per day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.018), whereas there was a marginal result for HDRS (OR = 3.9, P = 0.066). Patients who had lower baseline HDRS (OR = 0.75, P = 0.014) and CGI-S scores (OR = 0.18, P = 0.001) were more likely to achieve remission. Twice per day active HF-rTMS might be more effective than once per day active HF-rTMS or sham stimulation.

  20. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  1. Play-Modified One-Session Treatment for Young Children with a Specific Phobia of Dogs: A Multiple Baseline Case Series.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lara J; Kershaw, Helen; Ollendick, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The one-session treatment (OST) approach for SPs is deemed well-established, and has been found to be highly effective for older children and adults; however, has not yet been trialled with very young children. The present study examines the preliminary effectiveness of play-modified OST for young children with a SP of dogs, using a multiple baseline controlled case series design. Treatment involved play modified one-session of intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy (OST plus Play) which was followed by brief telephone delivered maintenance calls over the 3 weeks immediately following treatment. Four young children (4 years of age) participated and symptoms were assessed at pre-treatment, across a 1-3 week baseline phase, immediately following the OST plus Play, and at 1 and 3 months follow-up. Visual inspection provided evidence for stability of symptoms across the baseline phase, followed by reductions in symptoms over the course of treatment and follow-up. Non-parametric analyses offered further support, with significant improvements in following the intensive OST plus Play intervention.

  2. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  3. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process.

  4. Rare combination and transcatheter treatment during single session in an infant: Patent ductus arteriosus and major aortopulmonary collateral artery concordance.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Osman; Ödemiş, Ender; Saygı, Murat; Demir, İbrahim Halil

    2016-10-01

    Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are abnormal vascular structures that may be seen in cyanotic diseases that progress with reduced pulmonary flow. They occur rather rarely in the absence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Presently described is the case of an infant who underwent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and major aortopulmonary collateral artery occlusion in a single session, without presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital aortopulmonary collateral artery to be reported in a symptomatic infant with PDA.

  5. Microbial Diversity in Soil Treatment Systems for Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cuyk, S.; Spear, J.; Siegrist, R.; Pace, N.

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness and concern over land based wastewater system performance with respect to the removal of bacteria and virus. The goal of this work is to describe and identify the organismal composition of the microbiota in the applied wastewater effluent, the rich biomat that develops at the infiltrative surface, and in the soil percolate in order to aid in the understanding of bacterial and virus purification in soil treatment systems. The traditional reliance on pure culture techniques to describe microbiota is circumvented by the employment of a molecular approach. Microbial community characterization is underway based on cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and quantity of microbiota that constitute these ecosystems. Knowledge of the organisms naturally present can influence the design and treatment capacity of these widely used land based systems. Laboratory, intermediate and field scale systems are currently under study. Since human pathogens are known to exist in sewage effluents, their removal in wastewater infiltration systems and within the underlying soil are in need of a more fundamental understanding. The relationship between design parameters and environmental conditions, including a microbial characterization, is essential for the prevention of contamination in groundwater sources. Preliminary results indicate the presence of uncultured organisms and phylogenetic kinds that had not been detected in these systems using other methods. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acrobacter cryaerophilus were the two dominant species found in septic tank effluent, comprising 20% and 11% of the library respectively. In soil samples collected from the infiltrative surface of a column dosed with STE, there was no dominant bacterial species present. Percolate samples collected from the outflow of the column showed that a tuber borchii symbiont, a common soil microorganism, dominated the bacterial

  6. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  7. Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic non-parasitic benign liver cysts: single-session alcohol sclerotherapy versus prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver; Imamović, Goran; Omerović, Safet

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate whether prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure yields better results than single-session alcohol sclerotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic non-parasitic benign liver cysts. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups in a 24-month prospective controlled trial. One group was treated with ultrasound-guided prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure (20 patients with 24 cysts) and the other group with single-session alcohol sclerotherapy (20 patients with 23 cysts). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and complications were analyzed. The median volumes and 95% CI (confidence interval) for the medians and interquartile ranges of all 47 cysts before treatment and on last follow-up were: 389 ml, 143-1,127 ml, 136-1,300 ml, and 0 ml, 0-10 ml, and 0-23 ml, respectively (P<0.0001). The average volume reduction was 92.4% (range, 74.9-100%), 94.2 % (range, 74.9-100%) in the drainage and 90.2% (range, 76.9-100%) in the sclerotherapy group. Twenty-seven cysts (57.4%) disappeared completely, 16 (66.7%) in the drainage and 11 (47.8%) in the sclerotherapy group. No differences in average volume reduction, final volume and disappearance of the cysts between the groups were noted. The hospital stay was 1 day for all patients. Percutaneous treatment is safe and effective for hepatic non-parasitic cysts. Prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy had similar results.

  8. Rapid Response of Long-Standing, Treatment-Resistant Non-Catatonic Mutism in Paranoid Schizophrenia with Single ECT session

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mansoor Ahmad; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Shah, Majid Shafi; Wani, Rayees Ahmad; Hussain, Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Context: Mutism is a common manifestation of catatonia, but mutism due to other forms of psychopathology and neurological disorders have also been described. Although not common, long-standing mutism has also been a feature of non-catatonic schizophrenia and traditionally responds less to conventional therapies. Case Report: We describe a rare case of paranoid schizophrenia presenting with continuous mutism for about 4 years. This 26-year-old male had symptoms of schizophrenia without catatonia. After failed trial of adequate pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention and considering his level of dysfunction, he was started on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To our surprise, he improved with a single session of ECT while he was on concurrent pharmacotherapy. We also discuss the possible explanation for this rapid effect of ECT in such clinical presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-catatonic mutism of schizophrenia of this long duration responding so promptly to ECT, although there are other reports as well in literature, but multiple ECT sessions were applied in those cases. Conclusion: Non-catatonic mutism is perhaps presenting as a cultural variant in this part of the world and whenever encountered, ECT should be an option. Further research should be carried out to validate this idea. PMID:25535609

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  10. Calcium polysulfide treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Ferreira, Daniel R; Johnston, Chad P

    2010-07-15

    Batch treatability studies for a Cr(VI)-contaminated glacial soil from a Cr plating facility were conducted using 1X and 2X the stoichiometric ratio of calcium polysulfide (CPS). The pH of the treated soil increased from 6 to 11 upon CPS addition, but progressively returned to 8-8.5 over the course of 1 year. The 1X dosage maintained a highly reducing environment up to 21 days of monitoring with the samples exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while 2X was reducing up to 180 days of curing. The EPA regulatory method for solid Cr(VI) could not reliably predict Cr(VI) in the treated solid due to ongoing reduction during the test. SPLP results showed that the CPS created an apparent Cr(VI) mobilization during the first 60 days of treatment, with subsequent decrease in soluble Cr(VI) up to 1 year of monitoring. Synchrotron micro-X-ray analyses at 60 days curing showed that Cr(VI) was predominantly bound as highly insoluble PbCrO(4) that precipitated in the interstitial pores of the soil, with very little to no Cr(VI) associated with the abundant iron oxyhydroxides. Despite its spatial accessibility and due to its low solubility, PbCrO(4) was recalcitrant to treatment, which proceeded only very slowly as judged by the SPLP data. It is concluded that, while CPS has a long residence time in the environment and is a promising reductant, in situ reduction is not an efficient treatment method for soils with highly insoluble Cr(VI) compounds, especially in surficial layers such as the one studied.

  11. One-session computer-based exposure treatment for spider-fearful individuals--efficacy of a minimal self-help intervention in a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Birgit H; Kull, Sandra; Wilhelm, Frank H; Michael, Tanja

    2011-06-01

    Computer-based self-help treatments have been proposed to provide greater access to treatment while requiring minimum input from a therapist. The authors employed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of one-session computer-based exposure (CBE) as a self-help treatment for spider-fearful individuals. Spider-fearful participants in a CBE group underwent one 27-min session of standardised exposure to nine fear-eliciting spider pictures. Treatment outcome was compared to spider-fearful control participants exposed to nine neutral pictures. Fear reduction was quantified on a subjective level by the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) and complemented with a behavioural approach test (BAT). Results demonstrate that compared to control participants, CBE participants showed greater fear reduction from pre- to posttreatment on both the subjective level (FSQ) and the behavioural level (BAT). Moreover, in contrast to the control group, the obtained subjective fear reduction effect remained stable in the CBE group at 1-month follow-up. These findings highlight the role of computer-based self-help as a minimal but effective intervention to reduce fear of spiders.

  12. Treatment of Aroclor 1016 contaminated soil by hydrogen peroxide: laboratory column study.

    PubMed

    Viisimaa, Marika; Veressinina, Jelena; Goi, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The potential and feasibility of treating soil contaminated with electrical insulating oil, Aroclor 1016, containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with stabilized hydrogen peroxide were evaluated using columns packed with soils of two different matrixes. The column experiments showed that PCBs degraded by the stabilized hydrogen peroxide treatment in both soil matrixes, although the efficacy of the treatment depended strongly on the soil characteristics. The removal of PCB-containing oil was higher in sandy silt soil than in sandy soil. While a higher iron content promoted hydrogen peroxide oxidation of the contaminant in sandy silt soil, lower permeability and higher organic matter content contributed to an oxidation decrease as a function of depth. Dehydrogenase activity measurements indicated no substantial changes in microbial activity during the treatment of both sandy and sandy silt soils, thus offering opportunities to apply the hydrogen peroxide treatment to the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  13. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  14. Nutrient and toxic element soil concentrations during repeated mineral and compost fertilization treatments in a Mediterranean agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Saviello, Giovanni; Alfani, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural soils of semi-arid Mediterranean areas are often subjected to depletion of their chemical, physical, and biological properties. In this context, organic fertilization, in addition to providing nutrients for a longer time in respect to mineral fertilization, improves many other characteristics related to soil fertility. Moreover, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers may promote a more sustainable crop production. However, a concern on the long-term use of organic fertilizers arises in relation to the possible accumulation of toxic elements in soil and their transfer to human beings. For this reason, a long-term study on nutrient and toxic element total concentrations and availabilities during fertilization treatments was carried out. In particular, mineral NPK fertilized soils, soils amended with biowaste compost, soils amended with biowaste compost plus mineral nitrogen, and unfertilized soils were analyzed for 11 chemical elements. The results highlighted that temporal variations in total and bioavailable concentrations of both nutrients and toxic elements, occurring also in unfertilized soils, are wider than those related to fertilization treatments. Anyway, soil amendments with biowaste compost, alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers, reduce Cu bioavailability but improve K, Fe, Mn, and Zn availabilities, excluding at the same time a long-term accumulation in soil. Total and bioavailable toxic element concentrations (apart from available Cd) do not vary in relation to fertilization treatments.

  15. Large-scale experience with biological treatment of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz-Berendt, V.; Poetzsch, E.

    1995-12-31

    The efficiency of biological methods for the cleanup of soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was demonstrated by a large-scale example in which 38,000 tons of TPH- and PAH-polluted soil was treated onsite with the TERRAFERM{reg_sign} degradation system to reach the target values of 300 mg/kg TPH and 5 mg/kg PAH. Detection of the ecotoxicological potential (Microtox{reg_sign} assay) showed a significant decrease during the remediation. Low concentrations of PAH in the ground were treated by an in situ technology. The in situ treatment was combined with mechanical measures (slurry wall) to prevent the contamination from dispersing from the site.

  16. Amend soils with residues from water-treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1993-09-01

    This article reports that land application is emerging as a viable disposal/reuse method for water-treatment-process residues. In many cases, these residues actually enhance soil quality and arrest fertilizer loss. Water treatment usually generates solid residues requiring disposal. These include sludges from lime softening and related pretreatment processes and spent ion-exchange resins and adsorbents used for softening, dealkalization, and deionization of surface and well water. Although it may not appear so at first glance, according to consultant Dr. Robert Kunin, these materials have properties that can benefit the soil for agricultural and horticultural needs. Treating water with lime is popular and effective for removing hardness, phosphates, and some silica. Small amounts of alum, chlorine, and/or organic flocculants may also be added in lime-softening processes. Resulting sludge consists of calcium carbonate (CaCO[sub 3]), magnesium hydroxide, and calcium/magnesium/phosphate compounds, along with humic matter and related organic compounds that originate in the raw water. If softening is conducted at high temperatures, large, dense CaCO[sub 3] particles form as the compound crystallizes around sand particles. Disposal of this sludge is often considered a major disadvantage of lime softening. But if the water being treated meets EPA regulations for heavy metals, especially arsenic, then chemical analysis suggests benefits for soils. This has been well-described in texts addressing water treatment. For example, the sludge serves as a mild liming agent and may even supply various plant nutrients. Note that this application is different from municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge, which is difficult to land apply.

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  18. Single-session intense pulsed light combined with stable fixed-dose triple combination topical therapy for the treatment of refractory melasma.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo Souza, Linton; Trancoso Souza, Simone

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of intense pulsed light (IPL) has been reported in adults with melasma, but there is little information about IPL with triple combination topical therapy (TC) and refractory melasma. Sixty-two patients with totally or partially refractory melasma were enrolled in this randomized open-label study. Thirty-one patients were treated with IPL in a single session, bleaching agents and broad-spectrum sunscreens. Thirty-one patients were in the control group, receiving only bleaching agents and broad-spectrum sunscreens. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the investigator's global assessment using a seven-point scale were used to determine the impact and effectiveness of the treatment. The IPL group results based on MASI showed a 49.4% reduction (from 17.6 to 8.9; p < 0.001) after six months and a 44.9% reduction after 12 months (from 17.6 to 9.7; p < 0.001). The investigator's global assessment showed that the difference in the improvement rate between the IPL group and control group was significant (p = 0.002), with a better response in the IPL group. Single session IPL combined with stable fixed-dose triple combination treatment is a safe and effective treatment for refractory mixed and dermal melasma.

  19. Assessing the removal potential of soil-aquifer treatment system (soil column) for endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Kato, Hideaki; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) of wastewater is an increasingly valued practice for replenishing aquifers due to ease of operation and low maintenance needs and therefore low cost. In this study, we investigated the fate of endotoxins through laboratory-scale SAT soil columns over a four month period. The effluent of rapid sand filtration was run through the columns under gravity flow conditions. Four SAT columns were packed with four different filter materials (fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand and very coarse sand). The effluent of rapid sand filtration (average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 4 mg l(-1) and average endotoxin concentration = 4 EU ml(-1)) was collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant in Sapporo, Japan. DOC removal ranged from 12.5% to greater than 22.5% during the study, with DOC levels averaging 3.1 and 3.5 mg l(-1) for the SAT columns packed with different soils. Endotoxin transformation exhibited different profiles, depending on the time and soil type. Reduction in endotoxin concentration averaged 64.3% and was as high as 86.7% across the soil columns 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. While DOC removal was gradual, the reductions in endotoxin levels were rather rapid and most of the removal was achieved in the top layers. Soil with a larger grain size had lower efficiency in removing endotoxin. Tests were performed to evaluate the transformation of organic matter showing endotoxicity and to determine the mechanisms responsible for changes in the structural and size properties of dissolved organic matter (OM) during SAT. Dissolved OM was fractionated using Sep-Pack C18 Cartridges into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. Dialysis tubes with different molecular weight cut-offs were used to perform size fractions of OM showing endotoxicity. Evaluation of the transformation of organic matter showing endotoxicity during SAT indicated that both hydrophobic and large molecules were reduced. Moreover, experimental findings showed that

  20. Virus removal during simulated soil-aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Quanrud, David M; Carroll, Sean M; Gerba, Charles P; Arnold, Robert G

    2003-02-01

    Removals of indigenous coliphage and seeded poliovirus type 1 during simulated soil-aquifer treatment were evaluated during transport of secondary effluent under unsaturated flow conditions in 1-m soil columns. Independent variables included soil type (river sand or sandy loam) and infiltration rate. Removal of coliphage was in all cases less than removal of poliovirus type 1 (strain LSc-2ab), supporting contentions that indigenous coliphage can act as a conservative indicator of groundwater contamination by viral pathogens of human origin. Coliphage retention was significantly more efficient (p<0.001) in the finer-grained sandy loam (93%) than in sand (76%). Increasing reactor detention time from 5 to 20 h increased coliphage attenuation from 70% to 99% in a 1-m sand column. There was a significant linear correlation (p=0.012) between log-transformed (fractional) coliphage concentration [log(C/C(0))] and reactor detention time. Re-mobilization of attached coliphage occurred during simulated rainfall using low-ionic-strength water. Inhibition of aerobic respiration resulted in significantly less efficient coliphage attenuation (p=0.033), suggesting the involvement of aerobic microorganisms in the survival/retention of this virus.

  1. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, H M K; Tizaoui, C; Mohamed, M H A; Amy, G; Brdjanovic, D

    2011-08-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L⁻¹-135 mg L⁻¹) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d⁻¹-1780 mg d⁻¹ applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency.

  2. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  3. Steam-treatment-based soil remediation promotes heat-tolerant, potentially pathogenic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Andreas; Bender, Mikkel; Ekelund, Flemming; Elmholt, Susanne; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-01-01

    We investigated microbiota in surface and subsurface soil from a site, above steam-treated deep sub-soil originally contaminated with chlorinated solvents. During the steam treatment, the surface soil reached temperatures c. 30 degrees C higher than the temperature in untreated soil; whereas the subsurface soil, at a depth of about 40 cm, reached a temperature c. 45 degrees C higher than untreated soil. The soil was examined prior to, during, and 6, 12, 14, 20 and 31 months after treatment. Numbers of bacteria cultivable at 42 degrees C increased significantly in subsurface soil. Similarly, substrate utilization in ECOLOG plates, incubated at 42 degrees C, increased from less than 10% of available carbon sources in the untreated soil to more than 60% of the available carbon sources in the steam-treated soil. Aspergillus fumigatus was quantified as an example ofheat-tolerant fungi normally found in compost. These organisms are rarely detected in Danish soils but high numbers (c. 10(5) hyphal forming units g(-1)) occurred in the treated soil up to 31 months after the steam-treatment. We conclude that steam-treatment leads to changes of the microbial communities. Some changes are temporary while others can last for years after termination of the steam-treatment; reflecting different strategies that soil microorganisms follow.

  4. Short-term Beneficial Effects of 12 Sessions of Neurofeedback on Avoidant Personality Accentuation in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dalkner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Wood, Guilherme; Skliris, Dimitris; Holasek, Sandra J; Gruzelier, John H; Neuper, Christa

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (n = 13) receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group (n = 12) receiving treatment as usual. The Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory were applied at pre- and post-test. The neurofeedback protocol focused on enhancement of the EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) and used a visual feedback paradigm. Analyses of covariance showed improvements in Avoidant Personality Accentuation within the experimental group. Our data suggest that 12 sessions of this neurofeedback intervention might be effective in reducing avoidant and stress-related personality traits in patients with alcohol use disorder.

  5. Inference-Based Approach versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Poor Insight: A 24-Session Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Visser, Henny A; van Megen, Harold; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Hoogendorn, Adriaan W; Kaarsemaker, Maarten; van Balkom, Anton J

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with poor insight has severe consequences for patients; nonetheless, no randomized controlled trial has ever been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of any treatment specifically for poor-insight OCD. A new psychotherapy for OCD, the inference-based approach (IBA), targets insight in OCD by strengthening normal sensory-driven reality testing. The goal of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of this new treatment to the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for patients with OCD with poor insight. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 90 patients with OCD with poor insight received either 24 CBT sessions or 24 IBA sessions. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Secondary outcome measures were level of insight, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Mixed-effects models were used to determine the treatment effect. In both conditions, a significant OCD symptom reduction was reached, but no condition effects were established. Post hoc, in a small subgroup of patients with the worst insight (n = 23), it was found that the patients treated with the IBA reached a significantly higher OCD symptom reduction than the patients treated with CBT [estimated marginal mean = -7.77, t(219.45) = -2.4, p = 0.017]. Patients with OCD with poor insight improve significantly after psychological treatment. The results of this study suggest that both CBT and the IBA are effective treatments for OCD with poor insight. The IBA might be more promising than CBT for patients with more extreme poor insight. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation for treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forogh, Bijan; Mirshaki, Zohre; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Ali; Mansoori, Korosh; Ahadi, Tannaz

    2016-02-01

    Subjective tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an identifiable external source. This distressing audiological symptom can severely affect the quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that can induce short-term relief in tinnitus in some patients. The purpose of this pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether repeated application of anodal tDCS over left temporoparietal area could induce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic tinnitus. Twenty-two patients with chronic tinnitus for at least 6 months were randomly allocated into two groups and received five sessions of anodal (N = 11) or sham (N = 11) stimulation in five consecutive days. A current intensity of 2 mA for 20 min was used for anodal stimulation. Outcomes were assessed using Persian version of tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), loudness and distress visual analog scale (VAS) scores and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The trial is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the reference ID of IRCT2014082018871N1. No statistically significant difference was found between anodal and sham stimulation regarding either immediate or long-lasting effects over the 2 weeks follow-up period. Deterioration of symptoms and alteration in tinnitus characteristics were reported by a few patients. There were no significant long-term beneficial effects following tDCS of the left temporoparietal area.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of Bibliotherapy and Telephone Sessions for the Treatment of Late-life Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Gretchen A.; McCall, W. Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:20661315

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of Bibliotherapy and Telephone Sessions for the Treatment of Late-life Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Gretchen A; McCall, W Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D; Stanley, Melinda A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed.

  9. Pilot-scale electrokinetic treatment of a Cu contaminated red soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Cang, Long; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Wang, Yu-Jun; Hao, Xiu-Zhen

    2006-05-01

    A pilot-scale experiment for electrokinetic treatment of 700 kg of copper contaminated red soil was conducted using a constant voltage of 80 V. Dynamic removal percentages of Cu from the soil and energy consumption during the treatment were evaluated together with changes of soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil microbial functional diversity before and after the electrokinetic treatment. The results indicate that 76% of Cu was successfully removed from the soil after 140 d of treatment when lactic acid was used as enhancing reagent for adjusting the catholyte pH and dissolving soil Cu by complexation, and the pilot-scale electrokinetic experiment consumed electric energy of 224 kW h t-1 soil. The post-treatment soil pH values decreased about 0.1-1.6 units compared with the initial value (pH 4.8), and soil electrical conductivities in most of soil sections also significantly decreased. Soil microbial functional diversity varied after the electrokinetic treatment, particularly the increase of substrate richness index, which is possibly due to the stimulation of lactic acid that was introduced into the soil column during the experiment.

  10. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration.

  11. Do therapist behaviors differ with Hispanic youth? A brief look at within-session therapist behaviors and youth treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Gaume, Jacques; Ernst, Denise B.; Rivera, Liana; Houck, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Brief addiction treatments, including motivational interviewing (MI), have shown promise with youth. One under-examined factor in this equation is the role of therapist behaviors. We therefore sought to assess whether and how therapist behaviors differ for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth and how that may be related to treatment outcome. With 80 substance-using adolescents (M age = 16 years; 65% male; 59% Hispanic; 41% non-Hispanic) we examined the relationship between youth ethnicity and therapist behaviors across two brief treatments (MI and Alcohol/Marijuana Education; AME). We then explored relationships to youth three-month treatment response across four target outcomes: binge drinking days, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use days, and marijuana-related problems. In this study, therapists showed significantly more MI skills within the MI condition and more didactic skills in the AME condition. With respect to youth ethnicity, across both conditions (MI and AME), therapists used less MI skills with Hispanic youth. Contrary to expectations, therapists’ use of MI skills was not connected to poorer outcomes for Hispanic youth across the board (e.g., for binge drinking days, marijuana use days, or marijuana-related problems). Rather, for Hispanic youth, therapists’ use of lower MI skills was only related to poorer treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol-related problems. The observed relationships highlight the importance of investigating salient treatment interactions between therapist factors and youth ethnicity to guide improvements in youth treatment response. PMID:25961144

  12. Effects of aluminium water treatment residuals, used as a soil amendment to control phosphorus mobility in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ulén, Barbro; Etana, Ararso; Lindström, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from agricultural soils is a serious environmental concern. Application of aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) at a rate of 20 Mg ha(-1) to clay soils from central Sweden significantly increased mean topsoil P sorption index (PSI) from 4.6 to 5.5 μmol kg(-1) soil. Mean degree of P saturation in ammonium lactate extract (DPS-AL) significantly decreased from 17 to 13%, as did plant-available P (P-AL). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) decreased by 10-85% in leaching water with Al-WTR treatments after exposure of topsoil lysimeters to simulated rain. Soil aggregate stability (AgS) for 15 test soils rarely improved. Three soils (clay loam, silty loam and loam sand) were tested in greenhouse pot experiments. Aluminium-WTR application of 15 or 30 ton ha(-1) to loam sand and a clay loam with P-AL values of 80-100 mg kg(-1) soil significantly increased growth of Italian ryegrass when fertilised with P but did not significantly affect growth of spring barley on any soil. Al-WTR should only be applied to soils with high P fertility where improved crop production is not required.

  13. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  14. Yarding-method and slash-treatment effects on compaction, humus, and variation in plantation soils.

    Treesearch

    Don Minore; Howard G. Weatherly

    1988-01-01

    Soil penetration-resistance and soil-humus frequency were measured on 86 progeny-test plantations in southwestern Oregon to determine the effects of yarding method and slash treatment on soil compaction and humus, and a disturbance index was calculated for each plantation. Compaction and humus loss were more severe on tractor-yarded, machine-piled plantations than on...

  15. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of...

  16. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of...

  17. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of...

  18. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  19. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  20. Treating Self-Injection Phobia in Patients Prescribed Injectable Medications: A Case Example Illustrating a Six-Session Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Darcy; Mohr, David C.; Epstein, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a case description of a patient with multiple sclerosis prescribed interferon beta-1a (IFN[beta]-1a), a weekly intramuscular injection, who met "DSM-IV" criteria for specific phobia, blood/injection type. This patient successfully completed a 6-week manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for self-injection anxiety. Issues…

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  3. Treating Self-Injection Phobia in Patients Prescribed Injectable Medications: A Case Example Illustrating a Six-Session Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Darcy; Mohr, David C.; Epstein, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a case description of a patient with multiple sclerosis prescribed interferon beta-1a (IFN[beta]-1a), a weekly intramuscular injection, who met "DSM-IV" criteria for specific phobia, blood/injection type. This patient successfully completed a 6-week manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for self-injection anxiety. Issues…

  4. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to < 0.25 mm, but the distribution of water-stable aggregates did not follow this pattern. Compared with the chemical fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long

  5. Single-Session Combined Anterior-Posterior Approach for Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis with Obvious Displaced Lower Cervical Spine Fractures and Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng

    2017-01-01

    For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications. PMID:28133616

  6. Single-Session Combined Anterior-Posterior Approach for Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis with Obvious Displaced Lower Cervical Spine Fractures and Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baohui; Lu, Teng; Li, Haopeng

    2017-01-01

    For patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures, surgical methods have mainly included the single anterior approach, single posterior approach, and combined anterior-posterior approach. However, various surgical procedures were utilized because the fractures have not been clearly classified according to presence of displacement in these previous studies. Consequently, controversies have been raised regarding the selection of the surgical procedure. This study retrospective analysis was conducted in 12 patients with AS and lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations and explored single-session combined anterior-posterior approach for the treatment of AS with obvious displaced lower cervical spine fractures and dislocations which has demonstrated advantages such as good stabilization, satisfied fracture healing, and easy postoperative cares. However, to some extent, the difficulty and risk of this approach should be considered. Attention should be paid to the prevention of perioperative complications.

  7. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    Soils can act as a net sink for sequestering carbon and thus attenuating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide if appropriate soil and crop management is applied. Adapted soil management strategies like less intensive or even no tillage treatments may result in slower mineralization of soil organic carbon and enhanced carbon sequestration. In order to assess the impact of different soil tillage systems on carbon dioxide emissions due to soil respiration and on soil biological activity parameters, a field study of three years duration (2007-2010)has been performed at different sites in Austria. Following tillage treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT) with plough with and without cover crop during winter period, 2) reduced tillage (RT) with cultivator with cover crop, and 3) no-till (NT) with cover crop. Each treatment was replicated three times. At two sites with similar climatic conditions but different soil textures soil CO2 efflux was measured during the growing seasons in intervals of one to two weeks using a portable soil respiration system consisting of a soil respiration chamber attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Additionally, concurrent soil temperature and soil water contents of the top layer (0-5 cm)were measured. For these and additional three other sites with different soil and climatic conditions soil samples were taken to assess the impact of tillage treatment on soil biological activity parameters. In spring, summer and autumn samples were taken from each plot at the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm to analyze soil microbial respiration (MR), substrate induced respiration (SIR), beta-glucasidase activity (GLU) and dehydrogenase (BHY). Samples were sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator. Analyses of were performed within one month after sampling. The measurements show a high spatial variability of soil respiration data even within one plot. Nevertheless, the level of soil carbon dioxide efflux was similar for

  8. The "Session Libre".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. T.

    At the Institut Universitaire de Technologie in Nancy, France, most English language teaching has been organized on a mixed extensive/intensive pattern. As a result of certain negative effects of the established "session intensive," another methodology was tried, called "session libre." This session involved several techniques:…

  9. Concentration of soil CO2 as an indicator of the decalcification rate after liming treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiel, Stanisław; Hałas, Stanisław; Głowacki, Sławomir; Sposób, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of decalcification of acid sandy and loamy sand soils by infiltration waters, and potential Ca-leaching after liming treatment. For this purpose, monthly measurements were made of the concentration of CO2 in the soil air, dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil waters, and their ionic composition. The determined dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 5.9 to 10.6 mg dm-3 and from 9.9 to 16.5 mg dm-3 for the sandy and loamy sand soil, respectively. The Ca concentration in soil waters was determined as 5.9-12.4 mg dm-3 in sandy soil and 14.2-19.8 mg dm-3 in soil loamy sand. The calculated rate of decalcification amounted to 23.0 kg ha-1 year-1 in soil sandy and 19.4 kg ha-1 year-1 in loamy sand soil. The potential Ca-leaching is predicted as 124 kg ha-1 year-1 for S and 87 kg ha-1 year-1 for loamy sand soil. At the treatment level of 3 000 kg ha-1 4 year-1 of CaO, 20% of the Ca-fertilizer can be leached after the liming treatment. The results of the CO2 concentration in the soil air may be useful in estimation of Ca-leaching from soils developed by slightly clayey sands and clayey sands in zones with a moderate climate.

  10. Electrokinetic treatment of hazardous wastes in soil and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, W.W.

    1995-09-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) treatment processes are recognized by the US department of Defense, US Department of Energy, and the US EPA as the most potentially cost effective treatment of hazardous wastes. Recently, EK has attracted the attention of Dupont, General Electric, and Monsanto for various aspects of hazardous waste treatment. Electrolysis and electro-osmosis are known electrokinetic processes. Electrolysis is one of the principal industrial process used in the production of aluminum, chlorine, metal plating, welding, corrosion protection, etc. Electro-osmosis is a very well established process used to dewater and stabilize the clayey foundations of buildings and structures. These processes are very effective in the treatment of hazardous metals and organic compounds in soil, sludge, and water. Electrolysis can be applied in both permeable and impermeable media. It can be used as a neutralization process for pH control. It can also be used for the isolation or capture of metallic ions, or positively charged ions, at and near the cathode electrode. and negatively charged ions at and near the anode electrode. Electrolyis will also oxidize petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-based organic chemicals such as PCBs, pesticides, and PAHs. Electro-osmosis can be used in the treatment of hazardous chemicals in silty and clayey material. The electro-osmotic process causes and imbalance of charge bonds in clayey material that results in clay compaction and chemical desorption. The compaction and desorption processes will reduce the cleanup time and are particularly successful in the desorption of organic chemicals and metals from clayey materials. This accelerates and improves the performance of typically inefficient pump and treat projects. Electrokinetic processes can be applied both above ground (ex situ) or in the subsurface (in situ).

  11. Recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metal Contaminated Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and...

  12. Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Soils Treatment Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document providing guidance on how to design and conduct soil remediation activities at RCRA and other hazardous waste sites so that transfers of contaminants from contaminated soil to other media are minimized.

  13. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils.

  14. Ecosystem restoration treatments affect soil physical and chemical properties in Appalachian mixed oak forests

    Treesearch

    Ralph E.J. Boerner; Jennifer a. Brinkman; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the effect of ecosystem restoration treatments on soil properties in the oak forests of southern Ohio. The treatments were (1) prescribed fire, (2) mechanical thinning, (3) fire and thinning, and (4) passive management (control). Fire and thinning resulted in increased mineral soil exposure, with the effect decreasing by the fourth...

  15. The effectiveness of neuro-music therapy according to the Heidelberg model compared to a single session of educational counseling as treatment for tinnitus: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Argstatter, Heike; Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans-Volker

    2015-03-01

    Tinnitus is a very common symptom, yet the quest for an effective treatment is challenging. Results from several clinical trials support the notion that neuro-music therapy is an effective means to reduce tinnitus distress with short duration and long lasting effect. However, until now, the effectiveness has not been tested in a controlled trial against an active comparator. The trial was designed as two-center, parallel intervention group controlled study with two intervention groups: Counseling (50minute individualized personal instruction) or neuro-music therapy (counseling plus eight 50-minute sessions of individualized music therapy). Data of n=290 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus were analyzed. Outcome measure was the change in Tinnitus Questionnaire Total Scores (TQ) from baseline (admission) to end of treatment. Both treatment groups achieved a statistically relevant reduction in TQ scores, though 66% of patients in the music therapy group attained a clinically meaningful improvement compared to 33% in the counseling group. A binary logistic regression revealed two variables significantly influencing therapy outcome: initial tinnitus score and type of therapy with an OR for the music therapy compared to the counseling of 4.34 (CI 2.33-8.09). Counseling is an appropriate treatment option with well above chance of improvement. The neuro-music therapy outperformed the counseling. This treatment targets the tinnitus sound itself, is short in duration, intrinsically motivating and easy to operate and thus presents a possible complement to the therapeutic spectrum in chronic tinnitus. The trial was registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (ID: NCT01845155). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  17. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  19. Effectiveness of soil washing, nanofiltration and electrochemical treatment for the recovery of metal ions coming from a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Lina M; Lebrun, Rémi; Blais, Jean-François; Hausler, Robert; Drogui, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    This research was conducted to integrate soil washing, nanofiltration (NF) membranes and electrochemical treatment as feasible methods for the remediation of contaminated soils. For this investigation, two acidic leachates (pH=2) were prepared using HCl and H(2)SO(4)-NaCl as soil-washing agents. The results of the soil washing indicated that HCl and the combined H(2)SO(4)-NaCl were effective for the extraction of ions resulting from a contaminated soil. It was observed that both leachates presented similar chemical compositions. Following this procedure, the leachate solutions were pre-filtered by microfiltration, followed by NF using the Desal-5 (DK) membrane. The experiment results showed that NF membranes presented a high ion-retention rate for the two leachates. In general, better retentions were observed with the leachate prepared with HCl than H(2)SO(4)-NaCl. In order to treat the concentrate resulting from the NF treatment, it underwent an electrochemical procedure (electrochemical deposition) as an alternative method for safe disposal. The results showed a high reduction of toxic ions, such as Pb and Cu, from the solution. These three processes applied in conjunction not only indicated that the treatment of solutions heavily contaminated with inorganic pollutants resulting from contaminated soils were feasible but also suggested the possibility of treating different types of heavy industrial effluents.

  20. Mercury removal from contaminated soil by thermal treatment with FeCl₃ at reduced temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Duanping; Hou, Deyi; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal treatment has been used to remediate mercury-contaminated soils; however, existing thermal technologies use high temperatures (e.g., 600-800°C) and require high energy costs. Moreover, the treated soil is unfavorable for agricultural reuse. To address these issues, the present study developed a method for the thermal treatment of mercury-contaminated soils at a reduced temperature (400°C) by adding FeCl3. A FeCl3/Hg molar ratio of 100:1 in the soil was adopted as the optimum dosage of FeCl3 required to achieve maximum reduction of mercury. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced to 0.8 mg kg(-)(1) when treated at 400°C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil properties. FeCl3 addition during thermal treatment not only accelerated the volatilization of mercury in the easily removed fraction but also reduced the volatilization temperature of mercury in the hardly removed fraction. The adsorbable organic halogens and PCDD/Fs formed during thermal treatment with FeCl3 would not affect the soil reuse in agriculture. The thermal decontamination method reduces energy costs and leads to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury-contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  1. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Öberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19274766

  2. Soil C and N minimum detectable changes and treatment differences in a multi-treatment forest experiment.

    Treesearch

    P.S. Homann; B.T. Bormann; J.R. Boyle; R.L. Darbyshire; R. Bigley

    2008-01-01

    Detecting changes in forest soil C and N is vital to the study of global budgets and long-term ecosystem productivity. Identifying differences among land-use practices may guide future management. Our objective was to determine the relation of minimum detectable changes (MDCs) and minimum detectable differences between treatments (MDDs) to soil C and N variability at...

  3. Improving revegetation success: Evaluation of several soil treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, W.M.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Hanford practice for stabilizing contaminated soil sites and retired burial grounds involves placing clean soil over the surface, followed by revegetation. This procedure has resulted in the establishment of a viable plant cover at a number of locations. In other cases, however, these efforts have failed to establish healthy shallow-rooted grass coverage. The establishment of a viable plant community is inherently difficult on the Hanford Site for a variety of reasons, including inadequate and sporadic natural precipitation; windy conditions that produce large erosive forces; soils low in nutrients and organic matter; invasion of disturbed sites by aggressive, weedy annuals; and limited supplies of quality topsoil. This report describes the results of work designed to address three environmental issues (soil moisture, erosion, and soil nutrients). Compost and soil sealants were evaluated in various combinations with the expectation of developing revegetation procedures with a higher probability of success.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil contaminated soil treatment with calcium and magnesium peroxides.

    PubMed

    Goi, Anna; Viisimaa, Marika; Trapido, Marina; Munter, Rein

    2011-02-01

    Calcium and magnesium peroxides were applied for the treatment of soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil (Aroclor 1016). The removal of PCB-containing electrical insulating oil was achieved with the addition of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide alone and dependent on dosages of the chemical. A 21-d treatment of 60% watered soil with the moderate addition (chemical/oil weight ratio of 0.005/1) of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide resulted in nearly complete (96 ± 2%) oil removal, unsubstantial increase in soil pH and almost no changes in oxygen consumption and dehydrogenase activity, making it suitable for the soil decontamination.

  5. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  6. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically <1% by weight) within 3 h using only 40-60% of the energy required for incineration at 600-1200 °C. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  7. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  8. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity.

  9. Effect of dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease activity in cotton soil after applying thiamethoxam as seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-05-01

    Soil enzymes are indicators of microbial activities in soil and are often considered as an indicator of soil health and fertility. They are very sensitive to the agricultural practices, pH of the soil, nutrients, inhibitors and weather conditions. To understand the effect of an insecticide, thiamethoxam, on different soil enzyme activities, the experiments were conducted at cotton experimental fields of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The results here were presented to understand the impact of thiamethoxam on soil enzyme activities. Thiamethoxam was applied as seed treatment to control the pest. Soil from three localities, i.e. soil in which seed was treated with recommended dose at 2.1 g a.i. kg(-1), soil in which seed was treated with four times recommended dose at 8.4 g a.i. kg(-1) and from the control field, were tested for different enzyme activities. Phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities were high in control soil in comparison to control soil while no effect of this insecticide on urease activity. Thiamethoxam had inhibitory effects on dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities. Therefore, it can be attributed that agricultural practices, weather conditions and use of thiamethoxam might be responsible for the different level of enzyme activities in soil.

  10. Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate metabolites during soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Brown, John; Drewes, Jörg E; Fox, Peter; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-09-01

    The attenuation of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites was studied at a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) site located in Arizona, USA. Two parcels of water were monitored during infiltration; one parcel was predominantly oxic while the other was predominantly anoxic. In this study, only alkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (APECs) and carboxyalkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (CAPECs) were detected, no short-chained APEOs were observed-even under anoxic conditions. APEO metabolites were rapidly (<7 days) removed under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. In general, the length of the ethoxycarboxylate chain decreases with depth--at depths greater than 3m, only alkylphenoxy acetic acids (AP1ECs), carboxyalkylphenoxy acetic acids (CAP1ECs), and alkylphenols (APs) remain. Under aerobic conditions, octylphenol and nonylphenol concentrations decreased by approximately 80% (w/w) within 3m of the ground surface. Under anoxic conditions however, alkylphenol concentrations increased by approximately 200% during the first 1.5m and then decreased during the next 1.5m; overall, under anoxic conditions, alkylphenol concentrations increased by approximately 38% within 3m. During infiltration, APEC and CAPEC concentrations decrease by more than 95% within 3m of SAT. Alternate flooding and drying cycles appear to enhance overall APEO metabolite removal efficiencies.

  11. Whole-body cryostimulation--potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men--significance of the number of sessions.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Szyguła, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy) enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8±6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34±6.15 ml kg(-1) •min(-1)). The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130°C). Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st), 10(th) and 20(th) session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.

  12. Clinical experience of single-session percutaneous aspiration and OK-432 sclerotherapy for treatment of simple renal cysts: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Deuk; Ham, Won Sik; Kim, Won Tae; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Cho, Soung Yong; Seo, Ju Wan; Jin, Ok Hyun

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-session OK-432 sclerotherapy for the treatment of renal cysts. From October 2005 to November 2006, 48 patients (61 simple renal cysts) were included in the study. Indications were determined as flank discomfort (n = 37) or patient reassurance due to increasing size (n = 11). The simple renal cysts were aspirated under ultrasonography (US), at which point OK-432 was injected into the cyst. Follow-up was performed with US or computed tomography scan every 3 months until 1 year. Complete regression of the renal cyst or more than 70% reduction in size with no symptoms indicated a successful treatment. Among 61 renal cysts of 48 patients, the overall success rate was 98.4%. Complete regression occurred in 46 cysts (75.4%), and more than 90% reduction in size occurred in 6 cysts (9.8%). A size reduction of 80% to 90% and 70% to 80% occurred in five (8.2%) and three cysts (4.9%), respectively. A size reduction less than 70% occurred in only one cyst (1.6%). The success of cyst regression was correlated with cyst volume. Clinical symptoms resolved in 100% of patients with symptomatic cysts, and there was no enlargement of the aspirated cysts at the 1-year follow-up. After the procedure, there were only some minor complications, such as mild fever, flank pain, and leukocytosis, which subsided with the conservative treatment. Percutaneous OK-432 sclerotherapy is simple, safe, and effective, and it can be an alternative first-line therapy for simple renal cysts.

  13. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  14. Biological treatment of saline-alkali soil by Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shuochao; Wang, Qing; Bao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Wang, Zijian

    2016-09-02

    The western area of the Jilin province, a typical seasonal frost region, is located in the southern Songnen plain of China. Significantly salinized soils are widely distributed on the Songnen plain in western Jilin. Soil salinization can cause degradation of cultivated land and grass, which threatens the human environment. To investigate the treatment of saline-alkali soil, a laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the ability of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to improve the performance of saline-alkali soil in western Jilin. The results showed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria treatment was suitable for the soil from pH 7.5 to 8, and 50 ml thiobacillusthiooxidans showed the best improvement to the saline-alkali soil.

  15. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: II. Treatment efficiency and in situ mobilization in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Use of roadside infiltration systems using engineered filter soil for optimized treatment has been common practice in Germany for decades, but little documentation is available regarding their long-term treatment performance. Here we present the results of laboratory leaching experiments with intact soil columns (15 cm i.d., 25-30 cm length) collected from two German roadside infiltration swales constructed in 1997. The columns were irrigated with synthetic solutions of unpolluted or polluted (dissolved heavy metals and fine suspended solids) road runoff, as well as a soluble nonreactive tracer (bromide) and a dye (brilliant blue). The experiments were performed at two irrigation rates corresponding to catchment rainfall intensities of approximately 5.1 and 34 mm/h. The bromide curves indicated that preferential flow was more pronounced at high irrigation rates, which was supported by the flow patterns revealed in the dye tracing experiment. Nonetheless, the soils seemed to be capable of retaining most of the dissolved heavy metals from the polluted road runoff at both low and high irrigation rates, except for Cr, which appears to pass through the soil as chromate. Fluorescent microspheres (diameter = 5 μm) used as surrogates for fine suspended solids were efficiently retained by the soils (>99%). However, despite promising treatment abilities, internal mobilization of heavy metals and P from the soil was observed, resulting in potentially critical effluent concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. This is mainly ascribed to high concentrations of in situ mobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Suggestions are provided for possible improvements and further research to minimize DOC mobilization in engineered filter soils.

  16. Microbial response to repeated treatments of manure containing sulfadiazine and chlortetracycline in soil.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Han, Yu L; Yin, Yuan M; Jin, Xiang X; Wang, Shao Y; Tang, Fei F; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yun L

    2014-01-01

    Substantive addition of antibiotic-contaminated manure to agricultural soil may lead to "persistent" residues of antibiotics and may affect soil health. Therefore, this study examines the effects of repeated manure treatments containing sulfadiazine (SDZ) and chlortetracycline (CTC) residues, both individually and combined, on the functional diversity and structure of soil microbial communities in the soils under laboratory conditions. The average well color development (AWCD), Simpson diversity index (1/D, dominant populations), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H', richness), and McIntosh diversity index (U, evenness) in the antibiotics-treated soils decreased in the first 60-day treatment and then gradually recovered or even exceeded the initial level in the unamended soils with increasing treatment frequency. A total of 11 specific bands in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) profiles were observed and sequence analyzed for five repeated treatments, and most of them belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. These results indicate that repeated treatments of manure containing SDZ and CTC residues can alter soil microbial community structure, although they have a temporary suppression effect on soil microbial functional diversity.

  17. Bryoid layer response to soil disturbance by fuel reduction treatments in a dry conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Amanda Hardman; Bruce McCune

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the response of the bryoid layer, bryophyte and lichen communities on the soil surface three years after fuel reduction treatment (logging and burning) in the central Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Both treatment and control areas had been decimated by spruce budworm and drought before the fuel reduction treatments. Treatments reduced overstory and...

  18. A Radical Poster Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Camp, Cameron J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the use of a poster session as an integral part of an experimental design course. Describes how the principles of experimental design are demonstrated when undergraduates design and conduct original experiments, using radishes as subjects, and present their results in a poster session. Discusses the benefits of using radishes as subjects.…

  19. The outreach sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius

    2017-06-01

    These are moderator's remarks about the outreach sessions on the Saturday in the middle of the Carpathian Summer School of Physics 2016, on July 2nd, and in particular about the afternoon session in round table format with the subject: "JINR Dubna at 60 and the internationalization of science".

  20. The Public Poster Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the use of a student poster session as an innovative approach to student learning. The local context for the assignment is provided, followed by a description of the course for which the poster was prepared, details about the assignment including its evaluation, and practical considerations for planning a poster session. The…

  1. The "Session Libre"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a strategy attempted as an alternative to the traditional instruction in intensive sessions of English at the Institut Universitaitre de Technologie in Nancy, France. Included were six basic activities (films, TV, press, tape library, games, and language laboratory) in a minimally-structured three-day session. (MSE)

  2. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  3. Evaluating Microbial Purification during Soil Treatment of Wastewater with Multicomponent Tracer and Surrogate Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Cuyk, S.; Siegrist, R.L.; Lowe, K.; Harvey, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Soil treatment of wastewater has the potential to achieve high purification efficiency, yet the understanding and predictability of purification with respect to removal of viruses and other pathogens is limited. Research has been completed to quantify the removal of virus and bacteria through the use of microbial surrogates and conservative tracers during controlled experiments with three-dimensional pilot-scale soil treatment systems in the laboratory and during the testing of full-scale systems under field conditions. The surrogates and tracers employed included two viruses (MS-2 and PRID-1 bacteriophages), one bacterium (ice-nucleating active Pseudomonas), and one conservative tracer (bromide ion). Efforts have also been made to determine the relationship between viruses and fecal coliform bacteria in soil samples below the wastewater infiltrative surface, and the correlation between Escherichia coil concentrations measured in percolating soil solution as compared with those estimated from analyses of soil solids. The results suggest episodic breakthrough of virus and bacteria during soil treatment of wastewater and a 2 to 3 log (99-99.9%) removal of virus and near complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria during unsaturated flow through 60 to 90 cm of sandy medium. Results also suggest that the fate of fecal coliform bacteria may be indicative of that of viruses in soil media near the infiltrative surface receiving wastewater effluent. Concentrations of fecal coliform in percolating soil solution may be conservatively estimated from analysis of extracted soil solids.

  4. Response of Soil Bulk Density and Mineral Nitrogen to Harvesting and Cultural Treatments

    Treesearch

    Minyi Zhou; Mason C. Carter; Thomas J. Dean

    1998-01-01

    The interactive effects of harvest intensity, site preparation, and fertilization on soil compaction and nitrogen mineralization were examined in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a sandy, well-drained soil in eastern Texas. The experimental design was 2 by 2 by 2 factorial, consisting of two harvesting treatments (mechanical whole-...

  5. Feasibility for Application of Soil Bioengineering Techniques to Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    and management of natural wastewater treatment systems. Soil Bioengineering is an applied science that combines structural, biological , and ecological ...structural, biological , and ecological concepts to construct living structures for erosion, sediment, and flood control (Sotir and Gray, 1989). Using...physically, chemically, and biologically as the wastewater percolates vertically through the soil. Organics are degraded within the first few feet of

  6. Persistence and efficacy of termiticides used in preconstruction treatments to soil in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    J.E. Mulrooney; M.K. Davis; T.L. Wagner; R.L. Ingram

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the persistence and efficacy of termiticides used as preconstruction treatments against subterranean termites. Bifenthrin (0.067%), chlorpyrifos (0.75%), and imidacloprid (0.05%) ( [AI]; wt:wt) were applied to soil beneath a monolithic concrete slab at their minimum labeled rates. Soil samples were taken from...

  7. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-12-30

    Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600°C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1mg/kg when treated at 400°C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  9. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  10. Pilot-scale treatment of RDX-contaminated soil with zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Comfort, S D; Shea, P J; Machacek, T A; Satapanajaru, T

    2003-01-01

    Soils in Technical Area 16 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are severely contaminated from past explosives testing and research. Our objective was to conduct laboratory and pilot-scale experiments to determine if zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) could effectively transform RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in two LANL soils that differed in physicochemical properties (Soils A and B). Laboratory tests indicated that Soil A was highly alkaline and needed to be acidified [with H2SO4, Al2(SO4)3, or CH3COOH] before Fe(0) could transform RDX. Pilot-scale experiments were performed by mixing Fe(0) and contaminated soil (70 kg), and acidifying amendments with a high-speed mixer that was a one-sixth replica of a field-scale unit. Soils were kept unsaturated (soil water content = 0.30-0.34 kg kg(-1)) and sampled with time (0-120 d). While adding CH3COOH improved the effectiveness of Fe(0) to remove RDX in Soil A (98% destruction), CH3COOH had a negative effect in Soil B. We believe that this difference is a result of high concentrations of organic matter and Ba. Adding CH3COOH to Soil B lowered pH and facilitated Ba release from BaSO4 or BaCO3, which decreased Fe(0) performance by promoting flocculation of humic material on the iron. Despite problems encountered with CH3COOH, pilot-scale treatment of Soil B (12 100 mg RDX kg(-1)) with Fe(0) or Fe(0) + Al2(SO4)3 showed high RDX destruction (96-98%). This indicates that RDX-contaminated soil can be remediated at the field scale with Fe(0) and soil-specific problems (i.e., alkalinity, high organic matter or Ba) can be overcome by adjustments to the Fe(0) treatment.

  11. Single-session primary high-intensity focused ultrasonography treatment for localized prostate cancer: biochemical outcomes using third generation-based technology.

    PubMed

    Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Farrokhyar, Forough; Hassouna, Magdy M; Woods, Edward; Whelan, Kaitlyn; Shayegan, Bobby; Orovan, William L

    2012-10-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The experience with HIFU as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer is relatively new and most reports are from European centres. Our study is unique in five regards: 1. Data was collected prospectively. 2. All patients were treated with contemporary technology. 3. Outcomes are reported after a single HIFU session using two definitions of biochemical failure that have the ability to predict longer-term clinical failure after primary ablative therapies for prostate cancer (Stuttgart definition for HIFU and Horwitz definition for radiation). 4. All patients were treated in a single centre. 5. No patients underwent peri-HIFU TURP. The present study represents the largest North American prospective cohort of primary HIFU for prostate cancer with mid-term oncological outcome data. To assess 4-year biochemical failure (BCF) rates in patients after high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) treatment using the Horwitz and Stuttgart definitions. A total of 447 consecutive patients were treated with a single session of HIFU between May 2005 and December 2010. Follow-up included prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement every 3 months during the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Patients who had previously received radiation, androgen deprivation or HIFU therapy, and patients with <2 consecutive PSA measurements were excluded. BCF was reported using the Stuttgart (PSA nadir + 1.2 ng/mL rising) and the Horwitz (two consecutive increases of at least 0.5 ng/mL) definitions. In all, 402 patients met the inclusion criteria and the median (range) follow-up was 24 (6-48) months. Of these patients, 183 (45.5%) had low and 219 (54.5%) had intermediate D'Amico's risk stratification disease. Mean and median absolute PSA nadir levels were 0.36 ± 0.69 and 0.1 ng/mL (Q(1):0, Q(3):0.37), respectively and these were achieved in median time of 3 months. Overall 4-year mean (range) BCF-free rates were

  12. Thermal treatment of low permeability soils using electrical resistance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Udell, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by increasing the soil and ground water temperature. Electrical heating with AC current is one method of increasing the soil and groundwater temperature and has particular applicability to low permeability soils. Several mechanisms have been identified that account for the enhanced removal of the contaminants during electrical heating. These are vaporization of liquid contaminants with low boiling points, temperature-enhanced evaporation rates of semi-volatile components, and removal of residual contaminants by the boiling of residual water. Field scale studies of electrical heating and fluid extraction show the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found both above and below the water table and within low permeability soils. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Plasma treatment of INEL soil contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Batdorf, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    INEL soil spiked with inorganic salts of chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc was melted in a 150 kW plasma furnace to produce a glassy slag product. This glassy slag is an environmentally safe waste form. In order to reduce the melting temperature of the soil, sodium carbonate was added to half of the test batches. Random sample from each batch of glassy slag product were analyzed by an independent laboratory for total metals concentration and leachability of metals via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characterization leaching procedure (RCLP) tests. These tests showed the residual metals were very tightly bound to the slag matrix and were within EPA TCLP limits under these test conditions. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and emissions dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the vitrified soil also confirmed that the added metals present in the vitrified soil were totally contained in the crystalline phase as distinct oxide crystallites.

  14. ON-SITE TREATMENT OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL SLUDGES AND CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. The study was conducted in three phases: 1) characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. Data...

  15. ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF SOIL WASH FLUIDS FROM A WOOD PRESERVING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate sols contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specif...

  16. Guidance: Demonstrating Compliance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Alternative Soil Treatment Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides suggestions and perspectives on how members of the regulated community, states, and the public can demonstrate compliance with the alternative treatment standards for certain contaminated soils that will be land disposed.

  17. ON-SITE TREATMENT OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL SLUDGES AND CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. The study was conducted in three phases: 1) characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. Data...

  18. ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF SOIL WASH FLUIDS FROM A WOOD PRESERVING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate sols contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specif...

  19. Response of autochthonous microbiota of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments.

    PubMed

    Silva-Castro, Gloria Andrea; Uad, Imane; Rodríguez-Calvo, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Calvo, Concepción

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the response of autochthonous microorganisms of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments. Inorganic NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) fertilizer and Ivey surfactant were applied alone or in combination as biostimulating agents. The study was carried out in experimental separated land-farming plots performed with two soils: a sandy clay soil with low biological activity and a sandy clay soil with higher biological activity, contaminated with two concentrations of diesel: 10,000 and 20,000mgkg(-1). Bacterial growth, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 production were the biological parameters evaluated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis proved that moisture content showed a tendency related to microbial growth and that heterotrophic and degrading microorganisms had the best relationship. Initial biological activity of soil influenced the response with 11.1% of variability attributed to this parameter. Soils with low activity had higher degree of response to nutrient addition.

  20. The Treatment of Giant Periurethral Condyloma in Pregnancy Using an Ultrasonic Thermal Scalpel: A Case Report and New Single Session Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzcan, Ali; Çağlar, Mete; Turan, Hakan; Tekin, Ali; Topuz, Seren; Yavuzcan, Gizem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Üstün, Yusuf; Aliağaoğlu, Cihangir; Kumru, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple large polypoid lesions with exophytic appearance occurring in anal and perineal region as a result of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are referred to as giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA). The conventional treatment of these lesions involves the use of surgical excision, laser, electrocautery, and/or application of trichloroacetic acid. A 28-year-old primigravid patient at 22 weeks of pregnancy presented to the hospital complaining of vaginal bleeding and palpable mass in the vulva. The physical examination revealed a 60 × 35 mm broad-based, fragile, and patchy hemorrhagic polypoid lesion originating 1 cm below the clitoris and completely occupying urethral orifice and partially occluding vaginal vestibule. The patient underwent excision of GCA in the midtrimester using an ultrasonic thermal scalpel (Harmonic Scalpel) without any additional treatment and subsequently delivered a single live healthy baby. The excision of GCA occurring during pregnancy using Harmonic Scalpel can be regarded as a new successful method. Prospective, randomized, and controlled studies are warranted in order to provide clear evidence of the efficiency and safety of HS in the treatment of GCA. PMID:25648983

  1. Biodegradation for Treatment of POL-Contaminated Soil - Introducing a New Guidance Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center Biodegradation for Treatment of POL-Contaminated Soil - Introducing a New...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biodegradation for Treatment of POL-Contaminated Soil -Introducing a New...Alternate Path – CCB, Army/COE, then PWTB US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center PWTB Contents • Biodegradation

  2. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  3. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands.

  4. Soil biogeochemical characteristics influenced by alum application in a municipal wastewater treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    Malecki-Brown, Lynette M; White, John R; Reddy, K R

    2007-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands are a relatively low-cost alternative used for tertiary treatment of wastewater. Phosphorus (P) removal capacity of these wetlands may decline, however, as P is released from the accrued organic soils. Little research has been done on methods to restore the treatment capacity of aging constructed wetlands. One possibility is the seasonal addition of alum during periods of low productivity and nutrient removal. Our 3-mo mesocosm study investigated the effectiveness of alum in immobilizing P during periods of reduced treatment efficiency, as well as the effects on soil biogeochemistry. Eighteen mesocosms were established, triplicate experimental and control units for Typha sp., Schoenoplectus californicus, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) (Najas guadalupensis dominated). Alum was slowly dripped to the water column of the experimental units at a rate of 0.91 g Al m(-2) d(-1) and water quality parameters were monitored. Soil cores were collected at experiment initiation and completion and sectioned into 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm intervals for characterization. The alum floc remained in the 0- to 5-cm surface soil, however, soil pH and microbial parameters were impacted throughout the upper 10 cm with the lowest pH found in the Typha treatment. Plant type did not impact most biogeochemical parameters; however, data were more variable in the SAV mesocosms. Amorphous Al was greater in the surface soil of alum-treated mesocosms, inversely correlated with soil pH and microbial biomass P in both soil layers. Microbial activity was also suppressed in the surface soil of alum-treated mesocosms. This research suggests alum may significantly affect the biogeochemistry of treatment wetlands and needs further investigation.

  5. Study on ozone treatment of soil for agricultural application of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Takuya; Abiru, Tomoya; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ebihara, Kenji; Nagahama, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, application of plasma technologies to the agricultural field has attracted much interest because residual pesticides and excessive nitrogen oxides contained in plants, soil, and groundwater have become a serious issue worldwide. Since almost all of the atmospheric discharge plasma generates ozone, the effects of ozone are among the key factors for their agricultural applications. We have proposed the use of ozone generated using surface barrier discharge plasma for soil disinfection or sterilization. In this work, the ozone consumption coefficient and diffusion coefficient in soil were measured by the ultraviolet absorption method. The pH(H2O) and amount of nitrogen nutrient in soil after ozone diffusion treatment were studied and plant growth was observed simultaneously. The effect of ozone treatment on the amount of DNA in soil was also investigated and compared with that determined from the obtained ozone consumption coefficient.

  6. Thrice-weekly temocillin administered after each dialysis session is appropriate for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Stefaan J; Miranda Bastos, Ana C; Capron, Arnaud; Spinewine, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with intermittent haemodialysis, a limited number of antibiotics have been studied for their suitability for parenteral administration after dialysis sessions only in a thrice-weekly regimen. Temocillin is a β-lactam antibiotic with a long half-live and enhanced activity against most Gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producers, thus making it an ideal candidate for use in this setting. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of thrice-weekly parenteral temocillin in haemodialysis patients by characterising the pharmacokinetics of total and free temocillin. Free and total temocillin concentrations were determined with a validated HPLC method in 448 samples derived from 48 administration cycles in 16 patients with ESRD treated with intermittent haemodialysis and temocillin. Pharmacokinetics were non-linear partly due to saturation in protein binding. Median clearance and half-life for the free drug during intradialysis and interdialysis periods were 113 mL/min vs. 26 mL/min and 3.6 h vs. 24 h, respectively, with dialysis extracting approximately one-half of the residual concentration. The free temocillin concentration remained >16 mg/L (MIC90 threshold for most Enterobacteriaceae) during 48%, 67% and 71% of the dosing interval for patients receiving 1 g q24h, 2 g q48h and 3 g q72h, respectively, suggesting appropriate exposure for the two latter therapeutic schemes. Temocillin administered on dialysis days only in a dosing schedule of 2 g q48h and 3 g q72h is appropriate for the treatment of serious and/or resistant Gram-negative infections in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent haemodialysis. These doses are higher than those previously recommended.

  7. The enhancement of beneficial effects following audio feedback by cognitive preparation in the treatment of social anxiety: a single-session experiment.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jan-Erik; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Faghihi, Shahriar; Roth-Andersson, Gun

    2011-12-01

    According to cognitive models, negatively biased processing of the publicly observable self is an important aspect of social phobia; if this is true, effective methods for producing corrective feedback concerning the public self should be strived for. Video feedback is proven effective, but since one's voice represents another aspect of the self, audio feedback should produce equivalent results. This is the first study to assess the enhancement of audio feedback by cognitive preparation in a single-session randomized controlled experiment. Forty socially anxious participants were asked to give a speech, then to listen to and evaluate a taped recording of their performance. Half of the sample was given cognitive preparation prior to the audio feedback and the remainder received audio feedback only. Cognitive preparation involved asking participants to (1) predict in detail what they would hear on the audiotape, (2) form an image of themselves giving the speech and (3) listen to the audio recording as though they were listening to a stranger. To assess generalization effects all participants were asked to give a second speech. Audio feedback with cognitive preparation was shown to produce less negative ratings after the first speech, and effects generalized to the evaluation of the second speech. More positive speech evaluations were associated with corresponding reductions of state anxiety. Social anxiety as indexed by the Implicit Association Test was reduced in participants given cognitive preparation. Small sample size; analogue study. Audio feedback with cognitive preparation may be utilized as a treatment intervention for social phobia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CHROMIUM - TECHNICAL RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New information and treatment approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater treatment. The prupose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the insitu treatment and co...

  9. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CHROMIUM - TECHNICAL RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New information and treatment approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater treatment. The prupose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the insitu treatment and co...

  10. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  11. CEC Council Sessions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year, the North American Ministers to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation meet at least once for the CEC Council Session to set the CEC’s overall direction, including budget, and activities pursued through the cooperative work plan.

  12. Development and deployment of a chemical extraction treatment technology for uranium contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The remediation of contaminated soils is a major contributor to the cost of the environmental restoration effort at DOE sites previously employed in the DOE weapons production complex. At the RMI Decommissioning Project (RMIDP) in Ashtabula, Ohio, soil remediation by traditional ship and bury methods comprised over $44 million of the $164 million decommission baseline budget. The RMIDP has developed and is preparing to deploy a chemical treatment technology for washing uranium contaminated soil. Soil washing provides a significant volume reduction alternative to transportation and burial or on-site disposal when all life cycle costs of burial are considered. Soil washing at the RMIDP is projected to save the DOE over $13 million in direct remediation costs of the 40,000 tons of uranium contaminated soil, and $12 million in indirect project savings through schedule reduction. From August 1996 through February 1997, the RMIDP performed Process Definitive Testing (PDT) to validate initial screening study findings regarding the viability of soil washing. PDT defined the operating process parameter requirements for the soil washing carbonate leaching system, and provided valuable design data to be used in production plant design. A 2 ton per batch soil washing plant was designed, constructed, and operated in a 6 month period. Over 68 tons of soil were processed to provide operating data at a scale close to production scale. The data derived from pilot operations proved the technical viability of carbonate leaching on RMI soil and provided sufficient plant operating data to allow a cost-benefit assessment of soil washing to be performed. The RMIDP soil washing production facility design is complete and the facility was started up in April 1999.

  13. Reducing phosphorus flux from organic soils in surface flow treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Susan M; White, John R

    2011-10-01

    Treatment wetlands have a finite period of effective nutrient removal after which treatment efficiency declines. This is due to the accumulation of organic matter which decreases the capacity and hydraulic retention time of the wetland. We investigated four potential solutions to improve the soluble reactive P (SRP) removal of a municipal wastewater treatment wetland soil including; dry down, surface additions of alum or calcium carbonate and physical removal of the accreted organic soil under both aerobic and anaerobic water column conditions. The flux of SRP from the soil to the water column under aerobic conditions was higher for the continuously flooded controls (1.1±0.4 mg P m(-2) d(-1)), dry down (1.5±0.9 mg P m(-2) d(-1)) and CaCO3 (0.8±0.7 mg P m(-2) d(-1)) treatments while the soil removal and alum treatments were significantly lower at 0.02±0.10 and -0.07±0.02 mg P m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the two most effective management strategies at sequestering SRP were organic soil removal and alum additions. There are difficulties and costs associated with removal and disposal of soils from a treatment wetland. Therefore our findings suggest that alum addition may be the most cost effective and efficient means of increasing the sequestering of P in aging treatment wetlands experiencing reduced P removal rates. However, more research is needed to determine the longer term effects of alum buildup in the organic soil on the wetland biota, in particular, on the macrophytes and invertebrates. Since alum effectiveness is time limited, a longer term solution to P flux may favor the organic soil removal.

  14. Short- and medium-term effects of fuel reduction mulch treatments on soil nitrogen availability in Colorado conifer forests

    Treesearch

    C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; M. E. Rocca; M. G. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical fuel reduction treatments have been implemented on millions of hectares of western North American forests. The redistribution of standing forest biomass to the soil surface by mulching treatments has no ecological analog, and this practice may alter soil processes and forest productivity. We evaluated the effects of mulch addition on soil nitrogen...

  15. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-11-19

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu.

  16. The physical effect of biological and chemical treatments on water repellent soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Loke, Meng Heng; Murphy, Daniel; Leopold, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Water repellence in soils is a naturally occurring phenomenon caused by long-chain hydrophobic organic molecules that affect millions of hectares of agricultural land in Australia. Breakdown of the hydrophobicity in soils has been attributed to both biological and chemical interactions, it being unclear which is the primary contributor. We employed a novel approach investigating the ability of bio-chemical treatments to breakdown the physical effects of water repellence using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The experiment consisted of sterile soil with a hydrophilic, heat treated outer section that framed a 4 cm3 severely hydrophobic inclusion. Treatments included wax-degrading microbes, a surfactant, the combination of the two, as well as controls, all on sterile and non-sterile hydrophobic soil. The experiment used 3D, borehole ERT to measure the electric resistivity in the soil after wetting. Electric resistivities were converted to volumetric water contents allowing determination of in-situ time-lapse water contents. On all treatments, over time, there was a visible decrease in the definition of the boundary between the water repellent core and the wetting soil, with the treatment defining the pattern and speed of wetting. We observed the wetting of the surfactant treated soil with a fast, stable wetting front. Return of repellence after drying had varied outcomes for the controls, both sterile and non-sterile, with some tests returning with severe water repellence while others with no repellence, the repellence more likely to return at the lower depth. The drying of soils with the surfactant treatment showed that there was a return of repellence on all depths of excavation and these ranged from low to severe repellence. The aim of this experiment is to a better understand the hydrological impacts of the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of water-repellent soils through how they affect the pattern and longevity of the breakdown.

  17. Impacts of fire and fire surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Ralph E J; Huang, Jianjun; Hart, Stephen C

    2009-03-01

    The soils underlying the 12 Fire and Fire Surrogates Network include six soil orders and >50 named soil series. Across the network, pretreatment soils varied from 3.7 to 7.1 in pH, and exhibited ranges of twofold in bulk density, fourfold in soil organic C (SOC) content, 10-fold in total inorganic N (TIN), and 200-1000-fold in extractable Ca and K. Nonmetric multidimensional (NMS) ordination of pretreatment soil conditions arrayed the FFS sites along gradients of pH/base cation status, net N transformation rates, bulk density, and SOC. At the network scale, mineral soil exposure was significantly greater in fire-only (mean of 9.2%) and mechanical + fire (5.0%) treatments than in the controls (1.5%) during the first posttreatment year, and this persisted through the later sampling year (second through fourth year, depending on site) in the fire-only treatment (fire 4.1%, control 1.1%). Bulk density was not affected significantly at the network scale. TIN concentrations during the first posttreatment year increased after all three manipulative treatments, but this effect did not persist to the later sampling year. Neither SOC content nor soil C:N ratio was affected by any of the treatments at the network scale. At the individual site scale, the combined mechanical + fire treatment produced more significant site x treatment x year effects than did the fire-only or mechanical-only treatments, though in most cases even the statistically significant differences produced by the manipulative treatments were modest in magnitude. Ordination of first-year standardized effect sizes produced no discernable separation of the three manipulative treatments but did separate the three sites with the greatest fire severity (based on proportional fuel consumption) from the majority of the network sites, with changes in pH, TIN, SOC content, and soil C:N ratio correlating most strongly with this separation. Ordination of the effect sizes from the later sampling year produced somewhat

  18. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lombi, E; Stevens, D P; McLaughlin, M J

    2010-06-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil.

  19. Land treatment of PAH-contaminated soil: Performance measured by chemical and toxicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, G.D.; Acheson, C.M.; Kupferle, M.J.; Shan, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.; Brenner, R.C.

    1999-12-01

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former wood-treating site was simulated at pilot scale in temperature-controlled sol pans. Nineteen two- through six-ring PAHs were monitored with time (initial total PAHs = 2,800 mg/kg). Twenty-five weeks of treatment yielded a final total PAH level of 1,160 mg/kg. Statistically significant decreases in concentrations were seen in total, two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs. Carcinogenic and five- and six-ring PAHs showed no significant change in concentration. Land treatment resulted in significant toxicity reduction based on root elongation, Allium chromosomal aberration, and solid-phase Microtox bioassays. Acute toxicity, as measured by the earthworm survival assay, was significantly reduced and completely removed. The Ames spiral plate mutagenicity assay revealed that the untreated soil was slightly mutagenic and that treatment may have reduced mutagenicity. The variety of results generated from the chemical and toxicity assays emphasize the need for conducting a battery of such tests to fully understand soil remediation processes.

  20. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  1. Medium-long term soil resilience against different disturbances: wildfires, silvicultural treatments and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Soils of semiarid Mediterranean forest ecosystems are very fragile and sensitive to changes due to different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The increasing vulnerability of semiarid lands within this world framework has generated growing awareness in the field of research, with highly intensified study into soils properties. One of the main problems of Mediterranean forests is wildfire disturbance. Fire should be considered more an ecological factor but, in contrast to the role of fire, it is now a closely related factor to human action. On the other hand, to improve the recovery of forest communities after fire, silvicultural treatments are needed and, for that matter, another disturbance is added to the ecosystem. By last, climate change is also affecting the fire regime increasing fire frequency and burned area, enhancing the destructiveness to Mediterranean ecosystems. After all of these three disturbances, changes in vegetation dynamics and soil properties are expected to occur due to the plant-soil feedback. Soil plays an essential role in the forest ecosystem's fertility and stability and specifically soil microorganisms, which accomplish reactions to release soil nutrients for vegetation development, for that is essential to enlarge knowledge about soil properties resilience in semiarid forest ecosystems. Physico-chemical and microbiological soil properties, and enzyme activities have been studied in two Aleppo pine forest stands that have suffered three disturbances: 1) a wildfire event, 2) silvicultural treatments (thinning) and 3) an artificial drought (simulating climate change) and results showed that soil recovered after 15 years. Final results showed that soils have been recovered from the three disturbances at the medium-long term.

  2. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  3. Immobilization and reduction of bioavailability of lead in shooting range soil through hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-04-15

    Immobilization of Pb in contaminated soil by hydrothermal treatment (HT) under subcritical conditions was investigated using a lab-scale apparatus. The Pb immobilization was evaluated thorough investigating the transformation of Pb fractions and by single chemical extraction. The results showed that HT and treatment temperature significantly affected the immobilization through redistribution of Pb fractions. The results of bioavailability and eco-toxicity assessment demonstrated a drastic decrease in the bioavailable fraction from 41.33 to 14.66%, and an increase in the non-bioavailable fraction from 2.90 to 15.76%. Moreover, the leaching potential of Pb was significantly reduced after treatment. Based on the risk assessment code (RAC), the treated soil residues exhibited medium risk (21.7-14.6 of RAC value for treated soil), which represented a decrease from high risk (41.3 for untreated soil). Immobilization was associated with Pb fractionation from weakly bound to stable fractions. A variety of mechanisms including adsorption and precipitation were suspected to be responsible for Pb immobilization. The findings of this study suggest that the HT may facilitate quantitative reduction of the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil. Considering the effectiveness of HT in remediating contaminated soil with organic pollutants, this approach might enable remediation of soil co-contaminated with organics and heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, A. S.; Londergan, J. T.

    Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman, and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth, and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves, and Gyulassy; the fourth session, Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer, and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson, and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and eta physics are reviewed by the organizers of the eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics.

  5. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Thinning Treatments on Subsurface Soil Carbon and Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, C. D.; James, J. N.; Harrison, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Increases in intensively managed forest plantations have caused concern for the long-term productivity and sustainability of these stands, as decreased organic matter retention and shorter rotations can substantially impact soil nutrition both in the short- and long-term. This study aims to provide data for regional responses of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by depth to fertilization and thinning treatments. Soil was sampled at an intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation in northwestern Oregon, USA. Nine 0.2-ha plots were sampled with at least three pits per plot. Management regimes included no treatment (control), fertilization (F+), minimal thinning (mT), repeated thinning (rT), and combination treatments (mTF+ and rTF+). Fertilized plots received a total of 1120 kg N ha-1 as urea over 16 years. Bulk density and chemical analysis samples were taken in the middle of succeeding soil layers at depths of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m. Forest floor samples were collected from a randomly placed quadrat. Preliminary results show an increase in total soil C and N of 113 and 106%, respectively, on the mTF+ plot compared to a control plot. The subsoil, defined here as below 0.2 m, contained over 50% of both soil C and N on the mTF+ plot and experienced greater C and N increases than the surface soil following treatment. This study demonstrates that forest management practices over a relatively short time span (<30 years) can significantly alter subsoil, which comprises a substantial portion of biologically available C and N in terrestrial ecosystems. Subsoil processes are critical to our understanding of changes in soil quality and our ability to accurately assess changes in soil C and N reservoirs.

  7. Photocatalytic processes assisted by artificial solar light for soil washing effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Satyro, Suéllen; Race, Marco; Marotta, Raffaele; Dezotti, Márcia; Guida, Marco; Clarizia, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Contaminated soil has become a growing issue in recent years. The most common technique used to remove contaminants (such as metals) from the soil is the soil washing process. However, this process produces a final effluent containing chelating agents (i.e., ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, also known as EDDS) and extracted metals (i.e., Cu, Fe, and Zn) at concentrations higher than discharge limits allowed by the Italian and Brazilian environmental law. Therefore, it is necessary to develop further treatments before its proper disposal or reuse. In the present study, soil washing tests were carried out through two sequential paths. Moreover, different artificial sunlight-driven photocatalytic treatments were used to remove Cu, Zn, Fe, and EDDS from soil washing effluents. Metal concentrations after the additional treatment were within the Brazilian and Italian regulatory limits for discharging in public sewers. The combined TiO2-photocatalytic processes applied were enough to decontaminate the effluents, allowing their reuse in soil washing treatment. Ecotoxicological assessment using different living organisms was carried out to assess the impact of the proposed two-step photocatalytic process on the effluent ecotoxicity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  9. Country breakout session highlights.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Angelo; Filli, Linard; Solaro, Claudio; Mekies, Claude; Landete, Lamberto; Lycke, Jan

    2016-12-01

    At the 2016 MS Experts Summit, country-relevant aspects pertaining to the management of symptoms and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), with emphasis on those associated with spasticity, were explored in interactive country breakout sessions chaired by selected MS experts. Attendees had the opportunity to review and discuss topics in their own native language. After feedback from each session leader, key messages were collated and presented in a Plenary Session by Summit chair, Professor Angelo Ghezzi. Topics at this year's Summit included: gait tracking (Germany/Switzerland); the Care Alliance against MS spasticity (Italy); MS spasticity and associated symptoms (France); improvement in MS symptoms and functionality and patients' independence (Spain); Swedish MS guidelines (Sweden/Rest of World).

  10. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlo-rophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). The concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  11. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlo-rophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). The concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  12. IN SITU SOIL TREATMENTS TO REDUCE THE PHYTO- AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD, ZINC, AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was established in Joplin, MO near a former Pb smelter to test a range of treatments to reduce the avialability of Pb, Zn, and Cd in situ. Soil from the field was incubated in lab studies prior to amendment addition in the field. Treatments induded P added as triple sup...

  13. IN SITU SOIL TREATMENTS TO REDUCE THE PHYTO- AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD, ZINC, AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was established in Joplin, MO near a former Pb smelter to test a range of treatments to reduce the avialability of Pb, Zn, and Cd in situ. Soil from the field was incubated in lab studies prior to amendment addition in the field. Treatments induded P added as triple sup...

  14. Physician's Breakout Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, William

    2001-01-01

    Dr. William Barry, Manager, NASA Occupational Health Program, moderated this session. As in one of the opening sessions, he re-iterated that the overall theme for the next year will be facilitating and implementing NIAT-1 (NASA Integrated Action Team - Action 1). He presented a candidate list of topics for consideration and discussion: (1) NIAT-1; (2) Skin cancer detection and the NASA Solar Safe Program; (3) Weapons of mass destruction; (4) Quality assurance; (5) Audits; (6) Environment of care; (7) Infection control; (8) Medication management; and (9) Confidentiality of medical records.

  15. Physician's Breakout Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, William

    2001-01-01

    Dr. William Barry, Manager, NASA Occupational Health Program, moderated this session. As in one of the opening sessions, he re-iterated that the overall theme for the next year will be facilitating and implementing NIAT-1 (NASA Integrated Action Team - Action 1). He presented a candidate list of topics for consideration and discussion: (1) NIAT-1; (2) Skin cancer detection and the NASA Solar Safe Program; (3) Weapons of mass destruction; (4) Quality assurance; (5) Audits; (6) Environment of care; (7) Infection control; (8) Medication management; and (9) Confidentiality of medical records.

  16. Biotrol soil-washing system for treatment of a wood-preserving site: Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Skovronek, H.S.

    1992-03-01

    The report analyzes the results of the SITE Program demonstration of BioTrol's Soil Washing System at the MacGillis and Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. The contaminants of primary interest are pentachlorophenol (penta) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). From tests with two soils (130 mg/kg and 680 mg/kg penta), it is concluded that the soil washer effectively segregates contaminated soil into a large fraction of relatively uncontaminated washed soil, a small fraction of fine clay and silt retaining about 30% of the original penta contamination, contaminated woody debris and contaminated process water. Biotreatment of the process water from the two soil washing tests degraded 91-94% of the penta; removal of PAHs could not be determined. While steady state was not achieved, the biological treatment of the contaminated fines in a Slurry Bio-Reactor suggested that >90% removal of penta and PAHs could be achieved with a fully acclimated system. Combined operating and capital costs for an integrated, full-scale system are estimated to be $168/ton of soil treated; incineration of the woody debris is a major cost factor.

  17. Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

  18. Evaluation of pulsed corona discharge plasma for the treatment of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yanan; Mu, Ruiwen; Cheng, Wenyan; Ognier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons released to the environment caused by leakage or illegal dumping pose a threat to human health and the natural environment. In this study, the potential of a pulsed corona discharge plasma system for treating petroleum-polluted soils was evaluated. This system removed 76.93 % of the petroleum from the soil in 60 min with an energy efficiency of 0.20 mg/kJ. Furthermore, the energy and degradation efficiencies for the remediation of soil contaminated by single polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, were also compared, and the results showed that this technology had potential in organic-polluted soil remediation. In addition, the role of water molecules was investigated for their direct involvement in the formation and transportation of active species. The increase of soil moisture to a certain extent clearly benefitted degradation efficiency. Then, treated soils were analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS for proposing the degradation mechanism of petroleum. During the plasma discharging processes, the change of functional group and the detection of small aromatic hydrocarbons indicated that the plasma active species attached petroleum hydrocarbons and degradation occurred. This technique reported herein demonstrated significant potential for the remediation of heavily petroleum-polluted soil, as well as for the treatment of organic-polluted soils.

  19. Effect of soil fortified by polyurethane foam on septic tank effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Nie, J Y; Zhu, N W; Lin, K M; Song, F Y

    2011-01-01

    Fortified soil was made up of a mixture at a mass ratio 4/1000-6/1000 of sponge and natural soil according to the results of column experiment. The fortified soil had bigger porosity and higher hydraulic conductivity than the natural soil. The columns packed with 900 mm of the fortified soil endured a flow rate equivalent to 100 L/m(2)/d of septic tank effluent and the average chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal rates were around 92%, 75% and 96%, respectively. After 100 weeks of operation, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fortified soil kept higher than 0.2 m/d. The bigger porosity of sponge improved the effective porosity, and the bigger specific surface area of sponge acted as an ideal support for biomat growth and ensured the sewage treatment performance of the fortified soil. The comparable performance was due to a similar and sufficient degree of soil clogging genesis coupled with bioprocesses that effectively purified the septic tank effluent given the adequate retention times.

  20. Soil-based treatments of mechanically collected cyanobacterial blooms from Lake Taihu: efficiencies and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Li, Enhua; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Qichao; Liu, Liming; Song, Lirong

    2012-12-18

    In China, mechanical collection of cyanoblooms followed by soil-based treatments has been widely used as emergency strategies in many eutrophicated freshwaters. This study was to evaluate both efficiencies and potential risks of typical soil-based technologies. Results from this study indicated that over 90% of cyanobacterial biomass and 96% of dissolved microcystins (MCs) could be restrained in soils via three-level systems, which were much better than single-level systems. High concentrations of MCs, ranged from 65 to 276 ng g⁻¹ and from 2.12 to 6.6 ng g⁻¹, were found in soils around treatment systems and croplands, respectively. In the soil solutions, MCs ranged from 0.35 to 2.0 μg L⁻¹, showing a potentially high leaching risk. In the samples from shallow groundwater near the treatment systems, MC concentrations were detected as high as 1.2 μg L⁻¹. Moreover, bioaccumulations of MCs varied between 22 and 365 μg kg⁻¹, and 19-222 μg kg⁻¹ were found in 13 kinds of crops and 7 kinds of wild grass, respectively. Our results indicated for the first time that current soil-based technologies were effective but could pose potential environmental, ecological, and public health risks. Further improvements of these technologies were also proposed based on our findings.

  1. Results of thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from wood treatment sites

    SciTech Connect

    Shealy, S.E.; Lin, W.C.; Richards, M.K.; Culp, J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermal desorption is one of the most effective technologies for treatment of soils or wastes containing organic contaminants. This includes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and dioxins/furans that are the typical contaminants of concern at wood treatment sites. This paper summarizes the results of bench-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from two wood treatment sites. The testing identified the time-temperature combination needed for contaminant removal and provided data on the composition of the treatment residuals from the thermal treatment process. This study included testing in static trays and in a small bench-scale rotary kiln. The static tray tests are a bench-scale method of readily evaluating the effect of various target temperatures and residence times on contaminant removal. These tests use 40--50 grams, of soil, which is aliquoted into a tray and placed into a muffle furnace at a pre-determined time and temperature. These tests are used to identify effective treatment conditions. The Rotary Thermal Apparatus (RTA) is also a bench-scale device that is used to treat 1 to 1.5 kilograms of soil in an indirectly heated rotary tube. This device simulates the heat and mass transfer in rotary kiln. The RTA is a batch device and can be purged with nitrogen, oxygen or other gases to simulate the atmosphere of various thermal treatment processes.

  2. Phosphorus runoff from waste water treatment biosolids and poultry litter applied to agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    White, John W; Coale, Frank J; Sims, J Thomas; Shober, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the properties of organic phosphorus (P) sources, particularly those that undergo treatment to reduce soluble P, can affect soil P solubility and P transport in surface runoff. This 2-yr field study investigated soil P solubility and runoff P losses from two agricultural soils in the Mid-Atlantic region after land application of biosolids derived from different waste water treatment processes and poultry litter. Phosphorus speciation in the biosolids and poultry litter differed due to treatment processes and significantly altered soil P solubility and dissolved reactive P (DRP) and bioavailable P (FeO-P) concentrations in surface runoff. Runoff total P (TP) concentrations were closely related to sediment transport. Initial runoff DRP and FeO-P concentrations varied among the different biosolids and poultry litter applied. Over time, as sediment transport declined and DRP concentrations became an increasingly important component of runoff FeO-P and TP, total runoff P was more strongly influenced by the type of biosolids applied. Throughout the study, application of lime-stabilized biosolids and poultry litter increased concentrations of soil-soluble P, readily desorbable P, and soil P saturation, resulting in increased DRP and FeO-P concentrations in runoff. Land application of biosolids generated from waste water treatment processes that used amendments to reduce P solubility (e.g., FeCl(3)) did not increase soil P saturation and reduced the potential for DRP and FeO-P transport in surface runoff. These results illustrate the importance of waste water treatment plant process and determination of specific P source coefficients to account for differential P availability among organic P sources.

  3. Summary of Session 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, J.

    2004-11-01

    In Session 3, the speakers were dealing with the following topics: Automatization of Feynman Diagram Calculations (FDC), Event generators, Analytical approaches to FDC and various Mathematical innovations related to different physical problems. A more general, ` brainstorming', talk was given by J. Vermaseren as first talk.

  4. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  5. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  6. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  7. The outreach sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Trache, Livius

    2015-02-24

    These are moderator’s remarks about the outreach day in the middle of the CSSP14, and in particular about the afternoon outreach session in round table format with the announced theme: “CERN at 60 and the internationalization of science”.

  8. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  9. Student Poster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Poster presentations are one way scientists present their latest research findings at professional meetings. This format also works well in the classroom and gives students the opportunity to communicate the results of their experiments (perhaps the most critical portion of their studies). In a performance-based task such as a poster session,…

  10. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  11. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-04

    ISS036-E-039685 (4 Sept. 2013) --- In the International Space Station's Kibo laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  12. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-04

    ISS036-E-039743 (4 Sept. 2013) --- In the International Space Station's Kibo laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  13. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-04

    ISS036-E-039697 (4 Sept. 2013) --- In the International Space Station's Kibo laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  14. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-13

    ISS036-E-032134 (13 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  15. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-13

    ISS036-E-032138 (13 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  16. SPHERES Zero Robotics Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-13

    ISS036-E-032180 (13 Aug. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  17. Educational poster session

    Treesearch

    Deborah Chavez

    1995-01-01

    The educational poster session provided a way of increasing the ordinarily limited time available for discussion of papers, while simultaneously making it easier to communicate visual materials not well suited to oral presentations. Poster presenters were available for 2 hours to discuss their displays. Poster presentations were divided into five categories: user...

  18. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  19. Wakata during SPHERES session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-10

    ISS038-E-000078 (10 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, poses for a photo while conducting a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES.

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  1. Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (ΔHp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ΔHp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

  2. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  4. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  5. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  6. Plant reestablishment after soil disturbance: Effects of soils, treatment, and time

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Alford, K.; McIlveny, G.; Tijerina, A.

    1993-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined plant growth and establishment on 16 sites where severe land disturbance had taken place. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the different methods in term of their effects on establishment of native and alien plants. Disturbances ranged from 1 to 50 years in age. Revegetation using native plants had been attempted at 14 of the sites; the remainder were abandoned without any further management. Revegetation efforts variously included seeding, fertilizer application, mulching with various organic sources, compost application, application of Warden silt loam topsoil over sand and gravel soils, and moderate irrigation.

  7. Physical characterization of water treatment plant residual and top soil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Hsieh, H.N.; Basim, S.C.; Morgan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Disposal of water treatment plant residuals is not economically feasible due to their high moisture contents, high compressibilities and very low shear strengths. This paper evaluates the physical and geotechnical characteristics of water treatment residual-top soil mixtures for beneficial reuse in construction and land application. Index, compaction, consolidation, strength and durability tests were performed in accordance with the relevant ASTM standards. It was observed that the plasticity of the mixtures decreased and handling (compaction) and other engineering characteristics improved due to the addition of top soil to residuals. There is a potential for these mixtures to be used as liner material for landfills.

  8. Technology evaluation report: Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-07-01

    The report summarizes the results and activities of the demonstration testing of Toronto Harbor Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The Demonstration was conducted at a site within the Port Industrial District (PID) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The demonstration examined a part of THC's on-going evaluation of the treatment train during the first nine months of 1992. EPA elected to sample the process during the processing of Soil B, which based on field sampling, was expected to exhibit relatively high organic (oil and grease, s) and inorganic (heavy metals) contaminants.

  9. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrochemical Processes for In-situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.; Cha, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Soils at typical DOE (Department of Energy) waste sites are known to be contaminated by a host of hazardous organic chemicals, heavy metals and radionuclides. Typical hazardous organic contaminants include chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. It is also known that major toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, As, Zn, Cu, Hg, and Cd and major radionuclides such as Tritium, U, Sr90, Pu, Cs137, and Tc are also commonly present at some DOE waste sites. Some of these chemicals are relatively mobile and can migrate down to the vadose zone and/or the aquifer region.

  11. Hazardous lead-contaminated soil treatment: Lead recovery and recycling of 150,000 tons of soil at the Longue Pointe site

    SciTech Connect

    Holbein, B.E.; Hall, D.W.; MacDonald, M.W.; Hulley, I.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Longue Pointe site is in Montreal, Canada and involves the treatment of approximately 115,000 tonnes of soil (dry) containing hazardous quantities of Ph (2,000 to 30,000 ppm), making this the largest soil treatment project of its kind in North America. The site had become contaminated through both automotive battery recycling operations which contributed substantial coarse Ph contamination and a secondary lead smelter which contributed extensive fine lead fly ash contamination. The soil is also a high clay matrix (50% clay of size < 5 {micro}m) and approximately 80% of the lead resides in this fine soil fraction. Conventional soil washing/volume reduction was thus shown to have very limited utility. The authors are currently operating an 800 tons per day treatment plant on the site which provides recovery of coarse lead by advanced soil washing and gravity separation techniques and extraction and recovery of fine lead by hydrometallurgical techniques. Recovered lead products are recycled in the base metal industry whereas treated soil with residual concentrations of < 500 ppm or < 900 ppm Ph (area dependent) is reused as backfill on the site. The site is bordered by residential areas and is enjoying continued use for military activities. The project has demonstrated the merits of full treatment and reuse of treated soil.

  12. Pumice soil: a potential wetland substrate for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Njau, K N; Minja, R J A; Katima, J H Y

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory and fieldwork studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of pumice soil for use as a wetland substrate in wastewater treatment. The composition of pumice soil was analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Adsorption kinetic studies were carried out in a semi-batch recycle system. Fieldwork tests were carried out on Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSFCW) cells planted with Phragmites mauritianus and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results have shown that pumice soil composition contains among other elements Al, Ca, Fe and Mg, which are positive indicators for phosphorus adsorption. The main minerals observed by XRD were augite, hematite, and sodium titanium silicate. Phosphorus adsorption kinetics have shown that phosphorus is adsorbed on pumice soil following first order kinetics and the adsorption was highly influenced by mass transfer. Approximately 3% of the phosphorus was removed by plant uptake.

  13. Removal of fluorine from contaminated soil by electrokinetic treatment driven by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Wang, Xuejian

    2013-08-01

    Instead of direct current power supply, a series of electrokinetic remediation experiments driven by solar energy on fluorine-contaminated soil were conducted in a self-made electrolyzer, in order to reduce energy expenditure of electrokinetic remediation. After the 12-day electrokinetic remediation driven by solar energy, the removal efficiency of fluorine was 22.3%, and electrokinetic treatment had an impact on changes in partitioning of fluorine in soil. It proved that the combination of electrokinetics and solar energy was feasible and effective to some extent for the remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil. Meanwhile, the experimental results also indicated that the electromigration was a more dominant transport mechanism for the removal of fluorine from contaminated soil than electroosmosis, and the weather condition was the important factor in affecting the removal efficiency.

  14. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  15. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  16. Treatment of TNT-contaminated soils using Fenton`s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, B.; Allen, H.E.; Huang, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (Fenton`s reagent) was evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments. Three characterized soils, which varied in organic matter content were treated in batch experiments with a 1M hydrogen peroxide and 10 mM ferrous iron solution. Hydrogen peroxide slurry concentration of 1M was found to provide optimum degradation of TNT in soils. Slurry soil:solution ratio of 2:11 (w:w) was used and pH was maintained between 2 and 3. Compound degradation was monitored over 16 hours. Total mass of TNT was monitored by analyzing both the aqueous phase and sorbed phase. Greater than 95% of TNT was oxidized in all soils after eight hours of reaction time with a single treatment. The rate of TNT oxidation was shown to be slightly lower in the soil containing the highest percentage of organic matter, however, total oxidation after eight hours was the same for all three soils. The formation and oxidation of several oxidation products was also observed with HPLC and GC-MS. All oxidation products are intermediate products that existed in trace amounts relative to TNT and are therefore believed to not accumulate. Hydroxyl radical attack on TNT is initiated by hydrogen abstractions from the methyl group to form 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde, which then rapidly degrades to form other, currently unidentified, oxidation products. Advanced oxidation using Fenton`s reagent appears to be a promising treatment for TNT-contaminated soils.

  17. Biological permeable reactive barriers coupled with electrokinetic soil flushing for the treatment of diesel-polluted clay soil.

    PubMed

    Mena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Clara; Villaseñor, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Removal of diesel from spiked kaolin has been studied in the laboratory using coupled electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) and bioremediation through an innovative biological permeable reactive barriers (Bio-PRBs) positioned between electrode wells. The results show that this technology is efficient in the removal of pollutants and allows the soil to maintain the appropriate conditions for microorganism growth in terms of pH, temperature, and nutrients. At the same time, EKSF was demonstrated to be a very interesting technology for transporting pollutants, microorganisms and nutrients, although results indicate that careful management is necessary to avoid the depletion of nutrients, which are effectively transported by electro-migration. After two weeks of operation, 30% of pollutants are removed and energy consumption is under 70 kWh m(-3). Main fluxes (electroosmosis and evaporation) and changes in the most relevant parameters (nutrients, diesel, microorganisms, surfactants, moisture conductivity and pH) during treatment and in a complete post-study analysis are studied to give a comprehensive description of the most relevant processes occurring in the soil (pollutant transport and biodegradation).

  18. Influence of pre-treatment step on PAHs analyses in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Belkessam, Laurence; Lecomte, Paul; Milon, Véronique; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    There is no specific standardization for the pre-treatment of a soil sample for PAHs analyses. The ISO/FDIS 14507 method for soil quality gives a guidance for sample pre-treatment before measurement of organic contaminants in soil. It refers to cryogenic crushing which is not so easy to carry out. So, analysts lead to develop in house methods which can be very different from a laboratory to another and can involve deviations in the pollution quantification. This study has explored different ways of drying, grinding and sieving in order to determine the influence of the soil sample handling on the measured pollutant concentration. It appears that the influence of pre-treatment depends on the soil nature and on the PAHs distribution. As a conclusion, it is advised "light" drying ways like air drying or drying at 40 degrees C in a drying oven instead of more "drastic" ways (freeze-drying, cryogenic crushing) which can induce some losses. Crushing and sieving are also recommended for more reproducible measures.

  19. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007417 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  20. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007419 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  1. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007418 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  2. Swanson conducts CFE session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-03

    ISS040-E-032825 (3 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids move up surfaces in microgravity. The results aim to improve current computer models that are used by designers of low gravity fluid systems and may improve fluid transfer systems for water on future spacecraft.

  3. Swanson conducts CFE session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-03

    ISS040-E-032820 (3 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids move up surfaces in microgravity. The results aim to improve current computer models that are used by designers of low gravity fluid systems and may improve fluid transfer systems for water on future spacecraft.

  4. Swanson conducts CFE session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-03

    ISS040-E-032827 (3 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids move up surfaces in microgravity. The results aim to improve current computer models that are used by designers of low gravity fluid systems and may improve fluid transfer systems for water on future spacecraft.

  5. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  6. Dreaming about the session.

    PubMed

    Sirois, F

    1994-04-01

    Dreams about the analytic session in which the analyst appears undisguised but the setting is changed are reported by most analysands. Such dreams are studied here as indicators of sensitive moments in the analysis. They are counterproposals by the analysand to the analytic activity of the analyst. They occur when the analyst's activity needs to be denied because it is experienced traumatically. Two particular disruptions are explored: the challenging of a narcissistic resistance, and one countertransferentially inspired deep interpretation.

  7. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  8. Field assessment of treatment efficacy by three methods of phosphoric acid application in lead-contaminated urban soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, John; Mosby, David

    2006-07-31

    In situ soil treatment using phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) may be an effective remedial technology for immobilizing soil Pb and reducing Pb risk to human health and ecosystem. The treatment efficacy of three H(3)PO(4) application methods was assessed in a smelter-contaminated urban soil located in the Jasper County Superfund Site, Missouri. Soil, with an average of 3529 mg Pb kg(-1) and in the 2- by 4-m plot size, was treated with H(3)PO(4) at a rate of 10 g P kg(-1) in four replicates by each of three methods: rototilling; surface application; pressure injection. Three soil cores, 2.5-cm diameter and 30-cm long, were taken from each plot before and 90 days after treatment and analyzed for soluble P, bioaccessible Pb and solid-Pb speciation. Applications of H(3)PO(4) induced the heterogeneity of soluble P in soil, with the highest concentrations in the surface. Three application methods mixed the H(3)PO(4) more effectively in the horizontals than the verticals of treated soil zone. The H(3)PO(4) applications significantly reduced Pb bioaccessibility in the soil, which was influenced by the concentrations of soil soluble P and solid-Pb species. The risk reductions of soil Pb were achieved by formation of pyromorphites or pyromorphite-like minerals. The rototilling appears to be the most effective treatment method in context of the homogeneity of soluble P and the reduction of Pb bioaccessibility in treated soil.

  9. Application of calcium peroxide in water and soil treatment: A review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Xiang; Xue, Yunfei

    2017-09-05

    Calcium peroxide (CP) has been progressively applied in terms of environmental protection due to its certain physical and chemical properties. This review focuses on the latest progresses in the applications of CP in water and soil treatment, including wastewater treatment, surface water restoration and groundwater and soil remediation. The stability of CP makes it an effective solid phase to supply H2O2 and O2 for aerobic biodegradation and chemical degradation of contaminants in water and soil. CP has exerted great performance in the removal of dyes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, heavy metals and various other contaminants. The research progress in the encapsulation technologies of CP with other materials and the preparation of CP nanoparticles were also presented in this review. Based on the summarized research progresses, the perspective of CP application in the future was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrologic Treatments Affect Gaseous Carbon Loss From Organic Soils, Twitchell Island, California, October 1995-December 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robin L.; Hastings, Lauren; Fujii, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, has increased the potential for levee failure and flooding in the region. Because oxidation of the peat soils is a primary cause of subsidence, reversion of affected lands to wetlands has been proposed as a mitigation tool. To test this hypothesis, three 10 x 10 meter enclosures were built on Twitchell Island in the Delta and managed as different wetland habitats. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane were measured in situ from October 1995 through December 1997, from the systems that developed under the different water-management treatments. Treatments included a seasonal control (SC) under current island management conditions; reverse flooding (RF), where the land is intentionally flooded from early dry season until midsummer; permanent shallow flooding (F); and a more deeply flooded, open-water (OW) treatment. Hydrologic treatments affected microbial processes, plant community and temperature dynamics which, in turn, affected carbon cycling. Water-management treatments with a period of flooding significantly decreased gaseous carbon emissions compared to the seasonal control. Permanent flooding treatments showed significantly higher methane fluxes than treatments with some period of aerobic conditions. Shallow flooding treatments created conditions that support cattail [Typha species (spp.)] marshes, while deep flooding precluded emergent vegetation. Carbon inputs to the permanent shallow flooding treatment tended to be greater than the measured losses. This suggests that permanent shallow flooding has the greatest potential for managing subsidence of these soils by generating organic substrate more rapidly than is lost through decomposition. Carbon input estimates of plant biomass compared to measurements of gaseous carbon losses indicate the potential for mitigation of subsidence through hydrologic management of the organic soils in the area.

  11. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  12. Cooperative effects of field traffic and organic matter treatments on some compaction-related soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujdeci, Metin; Isildar, Ahmet Ali; Uygur, Veli; Alaboz, Pelin; Unlu, Husnu; Senol, Huseyin

    2017-02-01

    Soil compaction is a common problem of mineral soils under conventional tillage practices. Organic matter addition is an efficient way of reducing the effects of field traffic in soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of number of tractor passes (one, three, and five) on depth-dependent (0-10 and 10-20 cm) penetration resistance, bulk density, and porosity of clay-textured soil (Typic Xerofluvent) under organic vegetable cultivation practices in the 2010-2013 growing seasons. Fields were treated with farmyard manure (FYM, 35 t ha-1), green manure (GM; common vetch, Vicia sativa L.), and conventional tillage (CT). The number of tractor passes resulted in increases in bulk density and penetration resistance (CT > GM > FYM), whereas the volume of total and macropores decreased. The maximum penetration resistance (3.60 MPa) was recorded in the CT treatment with five passes at 0-10 cm depth, whereas the minimum (1.64 MPa) was observed for the FYM treatment with one pass at 10-20 cm depth. The highest bulk density was determined as 1.61 g cm-3 for the CT treatment with five passes at 10-20 cm depth; the smallest value was 1.25 g cm-3 in the FYM treatment with only one pass at 0-10 cm depth. The highest total and macropore volumes were determined as 0.53 and 0.16 cm3 cm-3 respectively at 0-10 cm depth for the FYM treatment with one pass. The volume of micropores (0.38 cm3 cm-3) was higher at 0-10 cm depth for the FYM treatment with three passes. It can be concluded that organic pre-composted organic amendment rather than green manure is likely to be more efficient in mitigating compaction problems in soil.

  13. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    PubMed

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  14. Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train. Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-04-01

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three processes. The first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavily contaminated fine slurry. The contaminated fine slurry is then further processed in a metals removal process or a bioslurry reactor process or both to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals contamination. The Toronto Harbour Commissioners conducted a long-term evaluation of this treatment train at a 55 tons per day pilot plant at 185 Cherry Street in the port of Toronto, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program conducted a demonstration project that examined in detail the processing of soil from one of the sites being evaluated in the overall project. The goals of this study were to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economics of a treatment process sequence and to assess the potential applicability of the process to other wastes and/or other Superfund and hazardous waste sites.

  15. Effect of thinning and soil treatments on Pinus ponderosa plantations: 15-year results

    Treesearch

    Jianwei Zhang; Jeff Webster; David H. Young; Gary O. Fiddler

    2016-01-01

    Thinning with removal of whole trees in a plantation or natural forest stand raises two main concerns – soil compaction from the ground-based machinery and nutrient depletion particularly with whole tree harvest as is often practiced for attendant fuels reduction. To address these concerns, two sets of experimental treatments were imposed in young ponderosa pine...

  16. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  17. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.49 Alternative LDR... soil that exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, or exhibited a characteristic of hazardous waste at the time it was generated, into a land disposal unit. The following chart describes whether...

  18. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  19. BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report analyzes the results of the SITE Program demonstration of BioTrol's Soil Washing System at the MacGillis & Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. The contaminants of primary interest are pentachlorophenol (penta) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and evaluates the extensive database from the SITE Program demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. Soil washing and segregation, biotreatment of contaminated process water, and biodegradation of a slurry of the con...

  1. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  2. Mesquite removal and mulching treatment impacts on herbage production and selected soil chemical properties

    Treesearch

    Stacy Pease; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2003-01-01

    Determining the effects of mesquite (Prosopis velutina) overstory removal, posttreatment control of sprouting, and mulching treatments on herbage production (standing biomass) and selected soil chemical properties on the Santa Rita Experimental Range were the objectives of this study. Mesquite control consisted of complete overstory removals with and without the...

  3. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  4. Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration Responses to Fuel-Reduction Treatments in Piedmond Loblolly Pine Forests

    Treesearch

    Mac A. Callaham; Peter H. Anderson; Thomas A. Waldrop; Darren J. Lione; Victor B. Shelburne

    2004-01-01

    As part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study, we measured the short-term effects of different fuel-management practices on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration in loblolly pine stands on the upper Piedmont of South Carolina. These stands had been subjected to a factorial arrangement of experimental fuel-management treatments that included prescribed...

  5. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of in situ vapor stripping

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Greene, D.W.; Schmunk, S.W.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the study described in this report was to determine the efficiency of vapor stripping coupled with soil mixing for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from clay soils such as those that underlie the PORTS X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit. This was accomplished by conducting experiments wherein contaminated soil cores were treated in the laboratory using a system that simulated a field-scale vapor stripping/soil mixing treatment process. Treatment efficiencies obtained using several sets of process conditions, such as air temperature and flow rate, were determined through subsampling of the soil cores to establish pre- and posttreatment levels of VOCs in the soil. Two series of experiments were conducted under this study. In the first series, laboratory treatment was performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated zones within the PORTS X-231B Unit using sampler liners that could be adapted as reaction lysimeters. Since soil core disturbance was minimized using this approach, the treatability experiments were conducted on soil that was fairly close to in situ conditions in terms of both soil structure and contaminant levels. The second series of experiments were performed on cores that were packed using X-231B soil and spiked with known amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). This approach was taken for the second series because the VOC levels in the intact cores were found to be much lower than field values. In addition, the packed cores were smaller than the intact soil cores, with treatment volumes that were about a fifth of the treatment volumes in the intact soil cores. The smaller packed cores were not only easier to handle but were also more reliably characterized due to smaller treatment volumes from which samples were taken.

  6. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  7. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  8. Arsenic immobilization in soils amended with drinking-water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Vandanapu, Vandana; Datta, Rupali

    2007-03-01

    Use of Fe/Al hydroxide-containing materials to remediate As-contaminated sites is based on the general notion that As adsorption in soils is primarily controlled by Fe/Al (hydr)oxides. A low-cost and potentially effective substitute for natural Fe/Al hydroxides could be the drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs). Earlier work in our laboratory has shown that WTRs are effective sorbents for As in water. We hypothesized that land-applied WTRs would work equally well for As-contaminated soils. Results showed that WTRs significantly (p<0.001) increased the soil As sorption capacity. All WTR loads (2.5, 5, and 10%) significantly (p<0.001) increased the overall amount of As sorbed by both soils when compared with that of the unamended controls. The amount of As desorbed with phosphate (7500 mg kg(-1) load) was approximately 50%. The WTR effectiveness in increasing soil As sorption capacities was unaffected by differences in both soils' chemical properties.

  9. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments.

  10. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    SciTech Connect

    Wrapp, John; Julius, Jonathon; Browning, Debbie; Kane, Michael; Whaley, Katherine; Estes, Chuck; Witzeman, John

    2013-07-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  11. Two engineered approaches for treatment of explosives contaminated soils using both aerobic and anaerobic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fredrickson, H.; Hill, D.O.; Zappi, M.; Stryker, R.; Eng, S.; Harlow, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia (WPNSTA Yorktown) has contaminated soils from past handling, loading, and packing activities involving explosive compounds. Bench scale experiments were undertaken to examine the effectiveness of biological treatment. The experiments were conducted in two different reactor configurations: bioslurry (continuous mixing) and biocell (intermittent mixing). Treatments examined the effects of different cometabolites, bioaugmentation, surfactant enhanced desorption and both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  12. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  13. Application of pig slurry to soils. Effect of air stripping treatment on nitrogen and TOC leaching.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; García-Sinovas, David; Alvarez-Benedí, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The effect of physical-chemical slurry treatment on the mobility and transformation of nitrogen and organic matter from pig slurry after soil application is evaluated. Two different pig slurries (one treated by stripping with air at pH=9 and another non-treated) were applied at the top of a soil column, containing approximately 100 kg of soil. Effluents were monitored measuring concentration values of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total organic carbon (TOC). The breakthrough curves were modelled using STANMOD and HYDRUS 1D codes. Low concentrations of ammonia were detected in the effluent recovered at the bottom of the soil profile for both types of slurry. Nitrate concentration in effluent was lower and more homogenous over time when applying stripping treated pig slurry. In N modelling, adsorption of ammonia by soil proved an important process, nitrite and nitrate adsorption being less significant, although not negligible. Transformation from ammonia to nitrite controls the kinetics of the nitrification process. Total organic carbon in the column effluent was higher in the experiment using treated pig slurry, which can be attributed to organic matter solubilisation in the stripping treatment process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Li; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that pentachlorophenol contaminated soil can be efficiently remediated with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent zerovalent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment. 2 mmol L(-1) of tetrapolyphosphate could wash away 52.8% of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at pH 7.0 and 84.2% of pentachlorophenol at pH 11.0 from contaminated soil owing to the promotion effect of tetrapolyphosphate on the soil matrix dispersion and the subsequent solubilization of pentachlorophenol. More importantly, tetrapolyphosphate ions remained in the washing effluent could greatly enhance the molecular oxygen activation by ZVI to oxidize the desorbed PCP without any pH adjustment, and also avoid the competitive consumption of reactive oxygen species, as caused by the common organic surfactants in the washing effluent. Therefore, 85.1% of pentachlorophenol could be aerobically removed from the washing effluent by merely using 5 g L(-1) of ZVI. We also interestingly found that the dissolved iron ions released from the soil could enhance the oxidation of pentachlorophenol in the washing effluent, but the dissolved organic matter had the opposite effect. This study suggests the coupling tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment is an optional approach to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Treatment of tannery wastewater by infiltration percolation: chromium removal and speciation in soil].

    PubMed

    Tiglyene, S; Jaouad, A; Mandi, L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper was, on one hand, to study the treatment of raw tannery effluent by infiltration percolation system and, on the other hand, to determine the distribution and speciation of chromium in the used soil. The system pilot consisted of columns filled to 15 cm of gravel and 60 cm of soil (88% of sand). The columns irrigated by raw tannery wastewater with a daily hydraulic load of 5 cm per day (approximately 10 L every day). The water flowed vertically through the soil. The speciation of Cr was investigated by using selective five steps sequential extraction method. The results indicated that the pH of the treated wastewater increases by three units in comparison to the raw wastewater. The electrical conductivity of the effluent increases also after treatment. Over the whole experimental period, results revealed significant performances of infiltration percolation system for organic load reduction. The mean elimination rate was 74% for total COD. In addition, there was a significant accumulation of organic carbon (62%) in the surface strata for the system. The total chromium undergoes an overall removal of 98%. After seven months of experiment, the results indicated that the whole retention of Cr occurring in the surface horizon of the soil (69%). Furthermore, the speciation study of Cr in the soil revealed that the oxidizable fraction is the most represented 55%. The reducible and residual phases represent 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The carbonate fraction presented 9% while exchangeable fraction presented only 0.02%.

  16. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Samanpreet; Singh, Mandeep

    2002-07-01

    Water scarcity is the major issue in all parts of world. Wastewater reuse is one alternative. SAT proves to efficient, economical and feasible method for wastewater treatment. SAT system achieves an excellent reduction of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and fecal coliform. About 90% of water applied to SAT site is returned to watershed. A case study has been made by the authors to increase the efficiency of this system.

  17. Water quality transformations during soil aquifer treatment at the Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant, USA.

    PubMed

    Fox, P; Narayanaswamy, K; Genz, A; Drewes, J E

    2001-01-01

    Water quality transformations during soil aquifer treatment at the Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant (NWWRP) were evaluated by sampling a network of groundwater monitoring wells located within the reclaimed water plume. The Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant has used soil aquifer treatment (SAT) since it began operation in 1990 and the recovery of reclaimed water from the impacted groundwater has been minimal. Groundwater samples obtained represent travel times from several days to greater than five years. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of organic and inorganic constituents. Sulfate was used as a tracer to estimate travel times and define reclaimed water plume movement. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were reduced to approximately 1 mg/L after 12 to 24 months of soil aquifer treatment with an applied DOC concentration from the NWWRP of 5 to 7 mg/L. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) increased during initial soil aquifer treatment on a time-scale of days and then decreased as longer term soil aquifer treatment removed UV absorbing compounds. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was a function of the dissolved organic carbon concentration and ranged from 50 to 65 micrograms THMFP/mg DOC. Analysis of trace organics revealed that the majority of trace organics were removed as DOC was removed with the exception of organic iodine. The majority of nitrogen was applied as nitrate-nitrogen and the reclaimed water plume had lower nitrate-nitrogen concentrations as compared to the background groundwater. The average dissolved organic carbon concentrations in the reclaimed water plume were less than 50% of the drinking water dissolved organic concentrations from which the reclaimed water originated.

  18. Overstory removal and residue treatments affect soil surface, air, and soil temperature: implications for seedling survival

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Hungerford; Ronald E. Babbitt

    1987-01-01

    Potentially lethal ground surface temperatures were measured at three locations in the Northern Rocky Mountains but occurred more frequently under treatments with greater overstory removal. Observed maximum and minimum temperatures of exposed surfaces are directly related to the thermal properties of the surface materials. Survival of planted seedlings was consistent...

  19. Removal of PAHs and pesticides from polluted soils by enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Fernández-Costas, Carmen; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    In this study, electrokinetic-Fenton treatment was used to remediate a soil polluted with PAHs and the pesticide pyrimethanil. Recently, this treatment has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional soil treatments due to its peculiar advantages, namely the capability of treating fine and low-permeability materials, as well as that of achieving a high yield in the removals of salt content and inorganic and organic pollutants. In a standard electrokinetic-Fenton treatment, the maximum degradation of the pollutant load achieved was 67%, due to the precipitation of the metals near the cathode chamber that reduces the electro-osmotic flow of the system and thus the efficiency of the treatment. To overcome this problem, different complexing agents and pH control in the cathode chamber were evaluated to increase the electro-osmotic flux as well as to render easier the solubilization of the metal species present in the soil. Four complexing agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the Fenton-like treatment were evaluated. Results revealed the citric acid as the most suitable complexing agent. Thereby its efficiency was tested as pH controller by flushing it in the cathode chamber (pH 2 and 5). For the latter treatments, near total degradation was achieved after 27 d. Finally, phytotoxicity tests for polluted and treated samples were carried out. The high germination levels of the soil treated under enhanced conditions concluded that nearly complete restoration was achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil dust and associated parent soil in fields with a history of seed treatment use on crops in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Limay-Rios, Victor; Forero, Luis Gabriel; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Using neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments is a common practice in field crop production. Exposure of nontarget organisms to neonicotinoids present in various environmental matrices is debated. In the present study, concentrations of neonicotinoid residues were measured in the top 5 cm of soil and overlying soil surface dust before planting in 25 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The mean total concentrations were 3.05 ng/g and 47.84 ng/g in 2013 and 5.59 ng/g and 71.17 ng/g in 2014 for parent soil and soil surface dust, respectively. When surface and parent soil residues were compared the mean concentration in surface dust was 15.6-fold and 12.7-fold higher than that in parent soil in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Pooled over years, the surface dust to parent soil ratio was 13.7, with mean concentrations of 4.36 ng/g and 59.86 ng/g for parent soil and surface dust, respectively. The present study's results will contribute important knowledge about the role these residues may play in the overall risk assessment currently under way for the source, transport, and impact of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in a maize ecosystem. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Transformation of PAHs during ethanol-Fenton treatment of an aged gasworks' soil.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; Persson, Ylva; Oberg, Lars

    2006-11-01

    PAH-contaminated soil from a former gasworks site was treated with Fenton's reagent in a number of lab-scale slurry reactors. The degradation result obtained by traditional Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by ethanol treatment were compared. The ethanol pre-treatment enhanced the depletion of all PAHs in the soil by facilitating their desorption from the soil matrix. However, some PAHs, especially anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and perylene, were more extensively depleted than other PAHs with fewer or equal numbers of fused rings, indicating that the hydroxyl radicals react faster with these PAHs than with other kinds. The ethanol present in the slurry also appeared to influence the relative reactivity of the PAHs. Furthermore, the enhanced oxidation that occurred in the ethanol pre-treated soil resulted in the accumulation of oxidation products. For example, 1-indanone, anthracene-9,10-dione, 1-methylanthracenedione, 2-methylanthracenedione, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione and two compounds tentatively identified as hydroxy-9-fluorenones were found at higher concentrations after the treatment than before it. The accumulation was most evident for the quinones, and in many cases it could be attributed to extensive oxidation of their parent PAHs, although the total oxidation efficiency in this study was relatively poor.

  2. Simulation of soil aquifer treatment - determination of reliable water quality benefits and process mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Quanrud, D.M.; Chipello, P.L.; Carroll, S.; Arnold, R.G.

    1996-11-01

    Significant improvements in water quality are obtained during percolation of municipal wastewater through the vadose zone, and eventually mixes with native ground water. Dissolved organics, nitrogen species, and pathogens present in the effluent are removed (or transformed) during percolation and storage by a combination of biological, chemical, and physical processes (biodegradation and adsorption being the most important) in the vadose zone and subsequently in the aquifer (saturated zone). Most treatment benefits are achieved during percolation through the vadose zone. Recharge basins are typically operated under alternating wet and dry cycles. During flooding, a clogging layer develops at the soil surface due to the combined effects of algal growth, suspended solids deposition, and bacterial growth in soil pore spaces. This clogging layer, or schmutzdecke, impedes wastewater infiltration. Drying cycles re-establish rates by allowing the soils surface to dry and crack apart.

  3. New sample treatment for the determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-06-01

    A new sample treatment for alkylphenols (AP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) determination in agricultural soil samples has been developed. In a first stage these compounds were isolated from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using methanol. In a second stage the extracts were cleaned up and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using ENV+cartridges. The effect of different variables on PLE and SPE was also studied. In the last place, separation and quantification of analytes were performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification limits (QL) ranged from 20 to 200 ng g(-1) for LC-FD and from 3 to 126 ng g(-1) for GC-MS. This method was satisfactorily applied in a study field designed to evaluate the environmental behaviour of APEOs in agricultural soils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioavailability of (Geno)toxic Contaminants in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Contaminated Soil Before and After Biological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Adrion, Alden C.; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site was treated in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. Desorbability and biodegradability of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were investigated throughout a treatment cycle. Desorbability was determined using a mixed-function sorbent (Oasis® HLB) or a hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax®) in dialysis tubing suspended in the soil slurry. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the whole soil and the desorbable fractions were determined by DNA damage response analysis with the chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic cell line and its DNA repair-deficient mutant Rad54−/−. Biological treatment significantly removed both PAHs and oxy-PAHs, and their desorbability decreased throughout the bioreactor treatment cycle. Collectively, oxy-PAHs were more desorbable and biodegradable than the corresponding PAHs; for example, the oxy-PAH present at the highest concentration, 9,10-anthraquinone, was more desorbable and biodegradable than anthracene. For both PAHs and oxy-PAHs, the percentage removed in the bioreactor significantly exceeded the percentage desorbed from untreated soil, indicating that desorption did not control the extent of biodegradation. Consistent with previous results on the same soil, genotoxicity of the whole soil slightly increased after biological treatment. However, both toxicity and genotoxicity of the desorbable constituents in the soil decreased after treatment, suggesting that any genotoxic constituents that may have formed during treatment were primarily associated with less accessible domains in the soil. PMID:24803838

  5. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4+-N and NO3−-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3−-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4+-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  6. Numerical Simulation Of The Treatment Of Soil Swelling Using Grid Geocell Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, Mohammed Y.; Al-Omari, Raid R.; Ali, Haifaa A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for the treatment of the swelling of expansive soil is numerically simulated. The method is simply based on the embedment of a geogrid (or a geomesh) in the soil. The geogrid is extended continuously inside the volume of the soil where the swell is needed to be controlled and orientated towards the direction of the swell. Soils with different swelling potentials are employed: bentonite base-Na and bentonite base-Ca samples in addition to kaolinite mixed with bentonite. A numerical analysis was carried out by the finite element method to study the swelling soil's behavior and investigate the distribution of the stresses and pore water pressures around the geocells beneath the shallow footings. The ABAQUS computer program was used as a finite element tool, and the soil is represented by the modified Drucker-Prager/cap model. The geogrid surrounding the geocell is assumed to be a linear elastic material throughout the analysis. The soil properties used in the modeling were experimentally obtained. It is concluded that the degree of saturation and the matric suction (the negative pore water pressure) decrease as the angle of friction of the geocell column material increases due to the activity of the sand fill in the dissipation of the pore water pressure and the acceleration of the drainage through its function as a drain. When the plasticity index and the active depth (the active zone is considered to be equal to the overall depth of the clay model) increase, the axial movement (swelling movement) and matric suction, as a result of the increase in the axial forces, vary between this maximum value at the top of the layer and the minimum value in the last third of the active depth and then return to a consolidation at the end of the depth layer.

  7. Effective treatment of PAH contaminated Superfund site soil with the peroxy-acid process.

    PubMed

    Scott Alderman, N; N'Guessan, Adeola L; Nyman, Marianne C

    2007-07-31

    Peroxy-organic acids are formed by the chemical reaction between organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy-acid process was applied to two Superfund site soils provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Initial small-scale experiments applied ratios of 3:5:7 (v/v/v) or 3:3:9 (v/v/v) hydrogen peroxide:acetic acid:deionized (DI) water solution to 5g of Superfund site soil. The experiment using 3:5:7 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in an almost complete degradation of the 14 EPA regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bedford LT soil during a 24-h reaction period, while the 3:3:9 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in no applicable degradation in Bedford LT lot 10 soil over the same reaction period. Specific Superfund site soil characteristics (e.g., pH, total organic carbon content and particle size distribution) were found to play an important role in the availability of the PAHs and the efficiency of the transformation during the peroxy-acid process. A scaled-up experiment followed treating 150g of Bedford LT lot 10 soil with and without mixing. The scaled-up processes applied a 3:3:9 (v/v/v) solution resulting in significant decrease in PAH contamination. These findings demonstrate the peroxy-acid process as a viable option for the treatment of PAH contaminated soils. Further work is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms of this process.

  8. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of arsenic in a soil amended with drinking-water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Datta, Rupali; Sylvia, Victor L

    2009-11-01

    Earlier incubation and greenhouse studies in our laboratory confirmed the effectiveness of drinking-water treatment residual (WTR) in decreasing soil arsenic (As) bioaccessibility as determined with in vitro tests, which led us to hypothesize a similar outcome if animal studies were to be conducted. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of WTR in lowering soil As bioavailability by conducting in vivo experiments and compare the in vitro to the in vivo As data. This study was performed using 6-week-old male BALB/c mice that were fed with an As-contaminated soil slurry using the gavage method. Blood and stomach contents were collected at 1 and 24 h after feeding. Urine and excreta were collected at time 0 (before feeding) and 24 h after feeding. Relative As bioavailability (RBA) values calculated from the blood samples of mice fed with WTR and WTR-amended soil samples ranged from 13% to 24% and from 25% to 29%, respectively; both were significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that of the unamended (no-WTR) soil (approximately 100% RBA). Absolute As bioavailability (ABA) in the gastric phase was significantly (p < 0.001) lowered, to 7-16%, in the WTR-amended soil compared with that of the unamended control (26%). A significant (p < 0.001) linear correlation (r = 0.94) was observed between the in vitro (stomach-phase) and the in vivo RBA data. Percentage recovery of As obtained from four mice tissue compartments (i.e., blood, stomach, urine, and fecal matter) after oral and intramuscular administrations was 63-80%. Results illustrate the effectiveness of in situ WTR amendment in decreasing in vivo soil As bioavailability, thereby lowering the potential cancer risk via an oral ingestion pathway.

  9. Comparison of reactor designs for biological ex-situ soil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.; Haught, R.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential of biological ex-situ soil treatment systems to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals. A laminar-type flow pilot-scale reactor with volume of 3 cu. yd has been constructed at EPA`s Test & Evaluation J&D Facility in Cincinnati. Laminar-type flow from one side of the reactor to the other may provide even aeration to all areas of the reactor while avoiding the use of pipes inside the reactor. This design greatly facilitates loading and unloading the reactor and is readily scalable to larger systems. Passing smoke through the reactor for visual observation of flow indicated uniform flow in the empty reactor. Further testing involves filling the reactor with vermiculite, flushing with Argon, and then passing air through the reactor at about 1 volume change per day to evaluate air flow through this uniform solid matrix. Oxygen probes, located at 27 positions within the reactor, provide information on air progression through the system. Analysis of gas flow through an empty reactor and through a uniform matrix (vermiculite) allows separation of reactor flaws from soil inhomogeneities as causes of any nonuniform aeration of the reactor space. Soil contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from The Reilly Tar Pit Superfund Site in St. Louis Park, MN has been shipped under the small quantity treatability exemption to the T&E Facility for research on soil aeration and effectiveness of this ex-situ reactor design for biological treatment of contaminated soils.

  10. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  11. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    PubMed

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length.

  12. Bioremediation using composting or anaerobic treatment for ordnance-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, E.; Coover, M.P.; Stroo, H.F.

    1996-12-01

    Government installations nationwide are faced with the problem of cleaning up soils contaminated with ordnance compounds. The materials have been introduced into the environment through the manufacture, use, storage, and disposal of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1-3-5-7-tetraazocine (HMX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The effectiveness of aerobic biological treatment (composting) for the remediation of nitroaromatics-impacted soils has been confirmed in several laboratory and field studies. Composting involves the incubation of contaminated soils with organic amendments under thermophilic conditions (40 to 70 C). Over the last several years, the remediation of nitroaromatics-contaminated soils has been demonstrated using the Simplot Anaerobic Bioremediation (SABRE{trademark}) process developed by the University of Idaho and the J.R. Simplot Company. Both process were proven effective at the bench-scale for the remediation of two ordnance-contaminated soils from a local Naval Installation. This paper presents the results of the pilot-scale testing of these technologies conducted from December 1994 through March 1995 at the Bangor Naval Submarine Base (Silverdale, Washington). Goals of the pilot study were to provide cost and design information for the implementation of the full-scale remediation scheduled for mid 1996.

  13. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by a two-step sequential treatment.

    PubMed

    Pizzul, Leticia; Sjögren, Asa; Castillo, María Del Pilar; Stenström, John

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to isolate the microorganisms responsible for a previously observed degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and to test a method for cleaning a PAH-contaminated soil. An efficient PAH degrader was isolated from an agricultural soil and designated as Mycobacterium LP1. In liquid culture, it degraded phenanthrene (58%), pyrene (24%), anthracene (21%) and benzo(a)pyrene (10%) present in mixture (initial concentration 50 microg ml(-1) each) and phenanthrene (92%) and pyrene (94%) as sole carbon sources after 14 days of incubation at 30 degrees C. In soil, Mycobacterium LP1 mineralised (14)C-phenanthrene (45%) and (14)C-pyrene (65%) after 10 days. The good ability of this Mycobacterium was combined with the benzo(a)pyrene oxidation effect obtained by 1% w/w rapeseed oil in a sequential treatment of a PAH-spiked soil (total PAH concentration 200 mg kg(-1)). The first step was incubation with the bacterium for 12 days and the second step was the addition of the rapeseed oil after this time and a further incubation of 22 days. Phenanthrene (99%), pyrene (95%) and anthracene (99%) were mainly degraded in the first 12 days and a total of 85% of benzo(a)pyrene was transformed during the whole process. The feasibility of the method is discussed.

  14. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  15. Three featured plenary sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

  16. The Hydro Models Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. A.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrodynamic models play a central role in our understanding of how planetary nebulae form and evolve. The hydro models session at this conference was particularly interesting for it included excellent talks ranging from the development of large scale structures in PNe, such as halos, to studies of collimated outflows and hypersonic bullets, the effects of stellar rotation on the nebular shell and warped toroids as a way to explain the origin of point-symmetry and poly-polarity. This diversity of topics exemplifies the current vigorous quest in the field for answers to topical problems in PN research. I present here a brief overview of these talks in the order they were scheduled during the conference.

  17. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  18. New Conceptual Model for Soil Treatment Units: Formation of Multiple Hydraulic Zones during Unsaturated Wastewater Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E

    2013-07-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions.

  19. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  20. Innovative silvicultural treatments to enhance soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Salerni, Elena; Mori, Paolo; Bruschini, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. This was a preparatory step to the reintroduction of broadleaf trees, such as oaks and beech trees, and thus the reestablishment of mixed forest. A series of thinning activities were planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. Many stands, however, remain unthinned, which over time, has weakened the trees in the plantations. Alternative forms of regeneration have been and are being tested to improve the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species. Thinning, however, remains the most common and one of the most successful regeneration methods used in pine forests. The project's main objective is to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance the level of biodiversity in the soil of black pine stands. In particular, the project aims to evaluate the effects of selective thinning on soil biodiversity on young black pine stands. These effects will be compared to traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) and to areas of forest where silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting) are not carried out.

  1. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  2. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  3. Methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin concentrations in bareroot forest nursery soils and above soil surface treatments following fumigation

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in air spaces of nursery soil and in air at the soil surface following fumigation were determined in field trials in a Wisconsin and a Georgia nursery. MITC was measured in plots receiving either dazomet or co-application of metam sodium and chloropicrin; CP was measured in the latter plots. Soil...

  4. Assessment of soil ecosystem in degraded areas of vineyards after organic treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Silvia; D'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Simoni, Sauro; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Valboa, Giuseppe; Castaldini, Maurizio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Fantappiè, Maria; Lorenzetti, Romina; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2017-04-01

    (2013), in order to gather data on decomposition rate and litter stabilisation by using commercially available tea bags as standardised test kits. The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods were performed by the Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. The biological soil quality was evaluated by the Maturity Index of nematodes (MI) and Biological Soil Quality index of microarthropods (QBSar). The results from soil sampling before restoring showed significantly lower values of SOC and TN in degraded areas, but no significant differences between degraded and non-degraded areas for enzymes, QBSar, nematode abundance and MI. Fontodi farm, under organic management since many years, showed significantly higher abundance of microarthropods, nematodes and enzymes than San Disdagio farm. The application of restoration techniques in 2016 showed a significant increase of TOC and TN only under compost addition treatment. As regards microarthropod communities, all the treatments showed a sensible increase in abundance and the conservation of high QBSar values. All the treatments increased the fungal feeder activity of nematodes and decreased the number of plant parasitic nematodes taxa. The major pest of grapes, the virus-vector Xiphinema index (Longidoridae), disappeared in the treated plots, whereas it remained in the control plots.

  5. Experience of a Reiki session.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2002-01-01

    Touch therapies, including Reiki, are increasingly popular complementary therapies. Previous studies of touch therapies have yielded equivocal findings. Exploring the experiences of Reiki recipients contributes to understanding the popularity of touch therapies and possibly elucidates variables for future studies. Descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative data. This report focuses on qualitative interview data. Thematic analysis was used to discern patterns in the experience. All Reiki treatments were given in a sound proof windowless room by one Reiki master. Audiotaped interviews were conducted immediately after the treatment in a quiet room adjoining the treatment room. Generally healthy volunteers (N=23) who were naive to Reiki. Standardized, 30-minute Reiki session. Interview data supported by quantitative data. Participants described a liminal state of awareness in which sensate and symbolic phenomena were experienced in a paradoxical way. Liminality was apparent in participants' orientation to time, place, environment, and self Paradox also was seen in participants' symbolic experiences of internal feelings, cognitive experience, and external experience of relationship to the Reiki master. Liminal states and paradoxical experiences that occur in ritual healing are related to the holistic nature and individual variation of the healing experience. These findings suggest that many linear models used in researching touch therapies are not complex enough to capture the experience of participants.

  6. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  7. Effectiveness of mass treatment with mebendazole in the control of soil transmitted helminths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, S; Edirisinghe, J S; Rajudeen, N M

    1990-03-01

    The efficacy of a single large dose of mebendazole was compared with the three-day multiple dose in mass treatment. The subjects were selected from among plantation workers of a tea estate in Kandy. The multiple dose regime showed consistently better egg reduction rates and cure rates when compared to the single large dose in subjects harbouring one or more soil-transmitted helminths.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements.

  9. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. I. Residual soil contamination and bioaccumulation by cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas; Payton, Mark; Wilson, James; Carlson, Ruth; Janz, David; Lochmiller, Robert

    2003-02-28

    Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent of soil contamination with fluoride (F), metals, and organic hydrocarbons, the bioaccumulation of F and metals in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), the relationship between contaminants in soil and in tissues of cotton rats, and the level of potentially toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil were determined on land treatment units. Over a 2-yr period, cotton rats and soils were collected and analyzed from 5 land treatment and matched reference units. The number of land treatment units with soil metal contamination (in parentheses) included: Cr, Cu, Pb (5). Al, As, Ni, Sr, Zn (4). Ba (3). and Cd, V (2). The number of land treatment units with soil PAH contamination (in parentheses) were naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene (3). acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (2). and acenaphthylene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene (1). Total PAH and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were elevated at all five land treatment units. Mean sums of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents (BaPequiv ) were not affected on

  10. Organics removal of combined wastewater through shallow soil infiltration treatment: a field and laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Xiaotian; Yin, Didi

    2007-11-19

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) was proved to be an effective and low-cost treatment technique for decentralized effluents in the areas without perfect sewage systems. Field-scale experiments were conducted under several conditions to assess organics removals through a shallow soil infiltration treatment (SSIT, with effective depth 0.3m) of combined wastewater (discharge from toilets, restaurants and a gas station), while bench-scale soil column experiments were performed in laboratory in parallel to investigate biological and abiological effects of this kind of system. From the start-up to the 10th month, the field SSIT trenches experienced the lowest and highest temperatures of the operation period in Shanghai and exhibited effective organics removals after maturation, with the highest removal rate 75.8% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), highest ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm (UV(254)) decrease by 67.2% and 35.2-100% removals of phenolic and phthalate pollutants. The laboratory results indicated that more organics could be removed in room-temperatured (25+/-2 degrees C) SSIT systems under different influent COD concentrations from 45 mg/l to 406 mg/l, and the highest total COD removal rate could reach 94.0%, in which biological effect accounted for 57.7-71.9%. The results showed that temperature and hydraulic loading rate were the most important factors influencing the removals of COD and organic pollutants in SSIT.

  11. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands one year after selective silvicultural treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Landi, Silvia; Bianchetto, Elisa; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wild fires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this silvicultural treatment was to re-establish the pine as a first cover and pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil and flora biodiversity and under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera) and flora. The microbial (bacteria and fungi) diversity was assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (microbiota) approaches whereas QBS (Soil Biological Quality) index and diversity indexes were determined for mesofauna and other organisms, respectively, including flora. The overall results highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning, and revealed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. Even though silvicultural treatments provided no significant differences at floristic level, microbial and mesofaunal parameters revealed to be differently affected by treatments. In particular, little but significant

  12. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS USING THE IT LABORATORY SCALE THERMAL DESORPTION FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study report on laboratory experiments on low temperature treatment of soils using thermal desorption. The purpose of the study was to determine if thermal desorption could remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from a synthetically prepared soil spiked with pre...

  13. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS USING THE IT LABORATORY SCALE THERMAL DESORPTION FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study report on laboratory experiments on low temperature treatment of soils using thermal desorption. The purpose of the study was to determine if thermal desorption could remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from a synthetically prepared soil spiked with pre...

  14. Effect of site treatments on soil temperature and moisture and oak and pine growth and nutrient concentrations

    Treesearch

    Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2003-01-01

    Five years after planting, measurements of soil moisture and temperature, leaf nutrient concentrations and growth, were compared for plots of northern red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine for treatment combinations that included two levels each of harvesting intensity (organic matter removal), site disturbance (soil compaction), and weed control (control of the...

  15. Water treatment residuals and biosolids co-applications affect phosphatases in a semi-arid rangeland soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTR) land co-application has not been extensively studied, but may be beneficial by sorbing excess biosolids-borne or soil P onto WTR, reducing the likelihood of off-site movement. Reduction of excess soil P may affect the role of specific P-cleaving enzymes...

  16. Solid phase treatment of an aged soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Negri, Marco; Manfredini, Andrea; Saponaro, Sabrina; Sorlini, Claudia; Bonomo, Luca; Valle, Anna; Zanardini, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory scale tests were carried out in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the different biological treatments of a Manufacturing Gas Plant site aged soil, heavily contaminated by high molecular weight compounds. Biodegradation studies were carried out at nearly 25 degrees C in solid phase reactors. Three tests were performed, over a period of 100 days for each test. In the first test (P1-bioaugmentated), soil was mixed with wood chips and urea at the start of the treatment and after six weeks from the beginning of the test was also periodically inoculated (at 42, 54, 69, 82, and 96 days) with selected consortia of autochthonous PAH-degrading bacteria. The second test (P2-biostimulated) was performed similarly to the previous one, but without any inoculations. In the third test (P3-control) only soil was introduced. All systems were aerated daily and humidified at the occurrence. PAH concentration, total cultivable heterotrophs, PAH-degrading bacteria, mycetes, pH, ATP concentration, and enzymatic activities were monitored every two weeks during the treatments. Tests showed that nearly 50% of light (three rings) PAHs, 35% of benzo-PAHs and 40% of the total PAHs could be removed in the reactor P2 following 100 days of treatment. Lower removal efficiency could be observed for light PAHs (28%) in the inoculated reactor (P1) at the end of the treatment: comparable abatements were obtained for benzo- and total PAHs. In the reactor P3 (control), the concentration of all polyaromatic hydrocarbons was nearly always constant, suggesting that the physical losses were negligible during the solid phase treatments. Therefore the C to N ratio balance resulted to be the key factor in promoting the biodegradation process of all PAHs.

  17. Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil.

  18. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  19. Application of CFG Piles to Soft Soil Treatment of Municipal Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingli; Song, Yan; Han, Xinzhan

    With rapid development of constructional engineering, methods used for soft soil foundation treatment become increasingly diversified. Because composite foundation has the peculiar advantage that that it makes full use of earth among piles and piles and is featured by short construction period, large treatment depth and relatively good effect, it has been applied more and more widely. The engineering applies CFG pipes, utilizes high bearing capacity of piles and gives full play to carrying capacity of earth among piles by establishing a mattress layer.

  20. Soil and phosphorus accretion rates in sub-tropical wetlands: Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas as a case example.

    PubMed

    Bhomia, R K; Inglett, P W; Reddy, K R

    2015-11-15

    Wetlands are known to serve as sinks for particulate matter and associated nutrients and contaminants. Consequently rate of soil accretion is critical for continued performance of wetlands to provide ecosystem services including water quality improvement and reduce excess contaminant loads into downstream waters. Here we demonstrate a new technique to determine rate of soil accretion in selected subtropical treatment wetlands located in southern USA. We also report changes in soil accretion rates and subsequent phosphorus (P) removal efficiency with increasing operational history of these treatment wetlands. Utilizing discernible signatures preserved within the soil depth profiles, 'change points' (CP) that corresponded to specific events in the life history of a wetland were determined. The CP was observed as an abrupt transition in the physico-chemical properties of soil as a manifestation of prevailing historical conditions (e.g. startup of treatment wetlands in this case). Vertical depth of CP from the soil surface was equivalent to the depth of recently accreted soil (RAS) and used for soil accretion rate calculations. Annual soil and P accretion rates determined using CP technique (CPT) in studied wetlands ranged from 1.0±0.3 to 1.7±0.8 cm yr(-1) and 1.3±0.6 to 3.3±2 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. There was no difference in RAS depth between emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation communities found at the study location. Our results showed that soil and P accretion rates leveled off after 10 yr of treatment wetlands' operation. On comparison, soil accretion rates and RAS depth determined by CPT were commensurate with that measured by other techniques. CPT can be easily used where a reliable record of wetland establishment date or some significant alteration/perturbation is available. This technique offers a relatively simple alternative to determine vertical accretion rates in free-water surface wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. 96th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 19 November 2008 at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast. Followed by CLOSED Session , 6th floor Conference room and continued on Thursday, 20 November 2008 9h00-13h00

  2. An alum-based water treatment residual can reduce extractable phosphorus concentrations in three phosphorus-enriched coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Novak, J M; Watts, D W

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of excess soil phosphorus (P) in watersheds under intensive animal production has been linked to increases in dissolved P concentrations in rivers and streams draining these watersheds. Reductions in water dissolved P concentrations through very strong P sorption reactions may be obtainable after land application of alum-based drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). Our objectives were to (i) evaluate the ability of an alum-based WTR to reduce Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3P) and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) concentrations in three P-enriched Coastal Plain soils, (ii) estimate WTR application rates necessary to lower soil M3P levels to a target 150 mg kg(-1) soil M3P concentration threshold level, and (iii) determine the effects on soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Three soils containing elevated M3P (145-371 mg kg(-1)) and WSP (12.3-23.5 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were laboratory incubated with between 0 and 6% WTR (w w(-1)) for 84 d. Incorporation of WTR into the three soils caused a near linear and significant reduction in soil M3P and WSP concentrations. In two soils, 6% WTR application caused a soil M3P concentration decrease to below the soil P threshold level. An additional incubation on the third soil using higher WTR to soil treatments (10-15%) was required to reduce the mean soil M3P concentration to 178 mg kg(-1). After incubation, most treatments had less than a half pH unit decline and a slight increase in soil EC values suggesting a minimal impact on soil quality properties. The results showed that WTR incorporation into soils with high P concentrations caused larger relative reductions in extractable WSP than M3P concentrations. The larger relative reductions in the extractable WSP fraction suggest that WTR can be more effective at reducing potential runoff P losses than usage as an amendment to lower M3P concentrations.

  3. Characterization of drinking water treatment residuals for use as a soil substitute.

    PubMed

    Dayton, E A; Basta, N T

    2001-01-01

    The beneficial use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as a potential source of topsoil for land reclamation was evaluated. Seventeen WTRs were characterized for use as soil substitutes by comparing chemical and physical properties and plant nutrients of the WTRs with soil. A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) bioassay was performed to determine the ability of soil chemical tests to measure WTR phosphorus (P) adequacy. The WTR chemical and physical properties were typically adequate for crop growth. None of the WTRs were considered unsuitable as soil substitutes based on plant nutrients, with the exception of P. Tomato vegetative yield and tissue P were poor either because of phytotoxic nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N) (> 10 mg/kg) generated during the bioassay or because of WTR P deficiency. Limited data suggest that WTRs with NO2-N less than 10 mg/kg and Olsen P greater than 50 mg/kg, water soluble P greater than 580 micrograms/L, or Mehlich III P greater than 54 mg/kg support growth but still produce inadequate tissue P in tomatoes.

  4. A thermodynamic treatment of partially saturated soils revealing the structure of effective stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yimin; Einav, Itai; Liu, Mario

    2017-03-01

    A rigorous thermodynamic treatment of partially saturated soils is developed using a minimal number of assumptions. The derivation is carried out in a way that does not require to explicitly track the complex shapes of interfaces between the solid, fluid and gas domains. Instead, suction is the property being recovered explicitly through the minimisation of energy around an ideal 'suctionless limit', while considering the different compressibilities of the three domains. In interpreting experimental data the derivation ensures the thermodynamic equilibrium between the chemical potentials of the soil and measurement cells, while carefully distinguishing intrinsic from measured pressures and suctions. A most general expression for the effective stress of partially saturated soils is then derived that is strictly linked to the soil-water retention curve (SWRC). The structure of the effective stress broadly depends on the three thermodynamic densities characterising the solid, liquid and gas domains. Special cases of SWRC are explored, which reveals conditions for which the structure of the effective stress may agree with previously proposed empirical relationships.

  5. Screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Ballou, S.W.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to investigate potential remedial alternatives for the cleanup of agent-contaminated soils. The chemical agents of concern include levinstein mustard, lewisite, sarin, and VX. This investigation has been initially divided into three phases: (1) a literature search to determine what, if any, previous studies have been conducted; (2) a technologies-screening critique of remedial technologies as alternatives to incineration; and (3) an investigation of promising alternatives on RMA soil at the laboratory and bench-scale levels. This paper summarizes the document produced as a result of the technologies screening. The purpose of the document was to determine the applicability of 25 technologies to remediation of agent-contaminated soil for a general site. Technologies were critiqued on the basis of applicability to soil type, applicability to the agents of concern at RMA, applicability to other types of contaminants, cost of the treatment, current status of the technology, and residuals produced.

  6. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  9. Mild electrokinetic treatment of cadmium-polluted manure for improved applicability in greenhouse soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Chi, Guangyu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-09-07

    Applications of cadmium (Cd) and salinity-containing manures contribute to Cd pollution and salinization in greenhouse soils. In this study, chicken manure polluted with Cd (5.6 mg/kg) was mildly electrokinetically treated (0.25 V/cm) for 48 h with intermittent replacement of catholyte with 20 mM acetic acid solution to remove Cd and salinity for application without need of post-treatment in greenhouse soil. The electrokinetic treatment created pH conditions mainly ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 within the manure for minimizing re-precipitation of desorbed Cd and evaporative loss of ammonium. However, without manure pre-acidification, electrokinetic treatment resulted in negligible removal of total Cd but 61.7% of increase in the small fraction of exchangeable Cd, due to poor desorption but enhanced formation of exchangeable Cd. In contrast, manure pre-acidification with 20 mM acetic acid favored Cd desorption, leading to electrokinetic removal of exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and total Cd by 32.2%, 34.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. Mild electrokinetic treatment of manure with and without pre-acidification resulted in similar removal of salinity (72.3% and 68.0%), similar pH condition (7.2 and 7.4), and basically same evaporative loss of ammonium (14.6% and 14.2%). Overall, the mild electrokinetic treatment considerably lowered the risk of Cd and the salinity from the pre-acidified manure for improved applicability in greenhouse soil, and more studies are needed to enhance the performance of electrokinetic Cd removal from manure.

  10. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Neurovestibular Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles; Cohen, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    . Three examples were presented at this meeting: 1) Transgenic animal experiments suggest that in addition to the light illumination cycle, vestibular inputs may also serve as an important input to the circadian system. 2) Radiation can cause important CNS effects in animals, including loss of spatial memory. 3) As described in our session, otolith inputs may contribute to cardiovascular regulation of orthostatic tolerance. Over the past three days, we've all enjoyed catching up with old friends, and making many new ones. On behalf of my colleagues, I want to thank Al Coats and the USRA DSLS staff for the great job they did in running this meeting. And keeping the emphasis on fun. And also my Co- Chair, Mal Cohen, who had more stamina than many of us, despite major surgery only three weeks ago. Mal and I have written a few lines describing each of the seventeen papers in our session, to give you a quick over-view, and as a guide to the full abstracts, We have grouped them under five themes: preflight and inflight countermeasurements, postlanding posture and locomotion deficits: assessment and prediction, adaptive processes, relationships among physical simuli, perceptions, and eye movements, vestibular contribution to human autonomic responses, and implications and recommendations.

  12. Neurovestibular Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles; Cohen, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    . Three examples were presented at this meeting: 1) Transgenic animal experiments suggest that in addition to the light illumination cycle, vestibular inputs may also serve as an important input to the circadian system. 2) Radiation can cause important CNS effects in animals, including loss of spatial memory. 3) As described in our session, otolith inputs may contribute to cardiovascular regulation of orthostatic tolerance. Over the past three days, we've all enjoyed catching up with old friends, and making many new ones. On behalf of my colleagues, I want to thank Al Coats and the USRA DSLS staff for the great job they did in running this meeting. And keeping the emphasis on fun. And also my Co- Chair, Mal Cohen, who had more stamina than many of us, despite major surgery only three weeks ago. Mal and I have written a few lines describing each of the seventeen papers in our session, to give you a quick over-view, and as a guide to the full abstracts, We have grouped them under five themes: preflight and inflight countermeasurements, postlanding posture and locomotion deficits: assessment and prediction, adaptive processes, relationships among physical simuli, perceptions, and eye movements, vestibular contribution to human autonomic responses, and implications and recommendations.

  13. Evaluation of bioremediation methods for the treatment of soil contaminated with explosives in Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Minden, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brandon; Boopathy, Raj

    2007-05-17

    Two bioremediation methods, namely, soil slurry reactor and land farming technique were evaluated for the treatment of soil contaminated with explosives in Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Minden, Louisiana. The soil had a high concentration of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) of 10,000 mg/kg of soil and medium level contamination of RDX 1900 mg/kg and HMX 900 mg/kg of soil. The results indicated that soil slurry reactor under co-metabolic condition with molasses as co-substrate removed TNT more efficiently than land farming method. TNT removal efficiency was 99% in soil slurry reactor compared to 82% in land farming after 182 days. HMX and RDX were also removed from the soil in both methods, but the removal efficiency was low. The radiolabeled study showed that soil microbes mineralize TNT. The mass-balance of TNT indicated 23.5% of TNT was mineralized to CO(2), 22.6% was converted to biomass, and 52.3% was converted to various TNT intermediates in the soil slurry reactor. Both methods maintained high bacterial population fairly well. The results of this bench-scale study are promising with regard to transferring the technology to full-scale application at this site.

  14. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Soil Aquifer Treatment for Artificial Recharge for Sustainable Wastewater Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, H.; Schwartz, F.

    2002-12-01

    Growing populations, increasing water demands, and worsening environmental conditions have led to the need for new water supplies in addition to existing surface and groundwater. Recycled water is being considered as one of new water supplies, and a wide variety of options to reuse water has been developed. Where soil and groundwater conditions are favorable, artificial recharge of water through infiltration basins results in a significant improvement in water quality. The unsaturated (vadose) zone acts as a natural filter where physico-chemical and biological processes operate to remove pollutants of concern such as suspended solids, organic and inorganic materials, bacteria, and viruses. The saturated subsurface provide seasonal and longer storage, as well as additional treatment. We developed a 3-dimensional numerical model to simulate the physico-chemical and biological behavior of key constituents, including nitrate, organic carbon, oxygen, ammonia, in recycled water as a consequence of transport in soil/groundwater systems. The model developed in this study was found to effectively describe the dynamics of the key constituents and microorganisms in both unsaturated and saturated subsurface environments. Then, the model was employed to estimate optimum operational conditions of the soil aquifer treatment process. Operation conditions relating to dissolved oxygen levels were found to be a key to obtaining desired water quality improvements. Our ultimate goal is to estimate long-term sustainability of systems and evaluate the efficacy of this approach.

  16. Reduction of genotoxicity of a creosote-contaminated soil after fungal treatment determined by the tradescantia-micronucleus test

    SciTech Connect

    Baud-Grasset, S.; Baud-Grasset, F.; Bifulco, J.M.; Meier, J.R.; Ma, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The fungal degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a contaminated soil from a hazardous waste site was evaluated in a pilot-scale study. As some PAH are known to be mutagens, the Tradescantia-micronucleus test (TRAD-MCN) was selected to evaluate the genotoxicity of the soil before and after fungal treatment. The genotoxicity test was conducted with Tradescantia clone 4430. Cuttings were exposed for 30 hours to different dilutions of soil extracts from the PAH-contaminated soil before and after fungal treatment. The results indicate that the Trad-MCN test has a potential utility for evaluating the efficiency of bioremediation of genotoxic soil contaminants. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  17. Soil amendment using poplar woodchips to enhance the treatment of wastewater-originated nutrients.

    PubMed

    Meffe, Raffaella; de Miguel, Ángel; Martínez Hernández, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; de Bustamante, Irene

    2016-09-15

    Vegetation filters, a nature based wastewater regeneration technology, have been reported as a feasible solution for small municipalities and scattered populations with limited access to sewage networks. However even when such a treatment is properly planned, the leaching of contaminants through the unsaturated zone may occur. The amendment of soil with a readily-labile source of carbon is supposed to ameliorate the removal of contaminants by stimulating microbial activity and enhancing sorption processes. In this study, lab-scale leaching column experiments were carried out to explore if the addition of woodchips to the soil could be a feasible strategy to be integrated in a vegetation filter. Two different types of arrangement of soil and woodchips layers were tested. The soil was collected from an operating vegetation filter treating wastewater of an office building characterised by a high nutrient load. Daily pulse of synthetic wastewater were applied into the columns and effluent samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, total nitrogen (NT), total phosphorous (PT) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). By the end of the experiment, NT, NO3-N and PT soil contents were also measured. Results indicate that amendments with woodchips enhance the elimination of wastewater-originated contaminants. NT removal in the columns with woodchips reaches a value of 99.4%. The main processes responsible for this elimination are NH4-N sorption and nitrification/denitrification. This latter fostered by the reduced redox conditions due to the enhanced microbial activity. High removal of PT (99%) is achieved independently of the woodchips presence due to retention and/or precipitation phenomena. The COD removal efficiency is not affected by the presence of the woodchips. The leaching of organic carbon occurs only during the experimental start-up period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mater, L; Sperb, R M; Madureira, L A S; Rosin, A P; Correa, A X R; Radetski, C M

    2006-08-25

    In this study sequential steps were used to treat and immobilize oil constituents of an oil sludge-contaminated soil. Initially, the contaminated soil was oxidized by a Fenton type reaction (13 wt% for H(2)O(2); 10mM for Fe(2+)). The oxidative treatment period of 80 h was carried out under three different pH conditions: 20 h at pH 6.5, 20 h at pH 4.5, and 40 h at pH 3.0. The oxidized contaminated sample (3 kg) was stabilized and solidified for 2h with clay (1 kg) and lime (2 kg). Finally, this mixture was solidified by sand (2 kg) and Portland cement (4 kg). In order to evaluate the efficiency of different processes to treat and immobilize oil contaminants of the oil sludge-contaminated soil, leachability and solubility tests were performed and extracts were analyzed according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed that the Fenton oxidative process was partially efficient in degrading the oil contaminants in the soil, since residual concentrations were found for the PAH and BTEX compounds. Leachability tests showed that clay-lime stabilization/solidification followed by Portland cement stabilization/solidification was efficient in immobilizing the recalcitrant and hazardous constituents of the contaminated soil. These two steps stabilization/solidification processes are necessary to enhance environmental protection (minimal leachability) and to render final product economically profitable. The treated waste is safe enough to be used on environmental applications, like roadbeds blocks.

  19. Electrochemical treatment of spent solution after EDTA-based soil washing.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-04-15

    The use of EDTA in soil washing technologies to remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals is prohibitive because of the large volumes of waste washing solution generated, which must be treated before disposal. Degradation of EDTA in the waste solution and the removal of Pb, Zn and Cd were investigated using electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP) with a boron-doped diamond anode (BDDA), graphite and iron anodes and a stainless-steel cathode. In addition to EAOP, the efficiency of electro-Fenton reactions, induced by the addition of H(2)O(2) and the regulation of electrochemical systems to pH 3, was also investigated. Soil extraction with 15 mmol kg(-1) of soil EDTA yielded waste washing solution with 566 ± 1, 152 ± 1 and 5.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Treatments of the waste solution in pH unregulated electrochemical systems with a BDDA and graphite anode (current density 67 mA cm(-2)) were the most efficient and removed up to 98 ± 1, 96 ± 1, 99 ± 1% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, by electrodeposition on the cathode and oxidatively degraded up to 99 ± 1% of chelant. In the electrochemical system with an Fe anode operated at pH 3, the chelant remained preserved in the treated solution, while metals were removed by electrodeposition. This separation opens up the possibility of a new EDTA recycling method from waste soil washing solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Tong, Shuang; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Chen, Kun

    2014-05-01

    To enhance the denitrification performance of soil infiltration, a soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment was developed, and the SISSAD performance was evaluated using synthetic domestic wastewater in this study. The aerobic respiration and nitrification were mainly taken place in the upper aerobic stage (AES), removed 88.44% COD and 89.99% NH4(+)-N. Moreover, autotrophic denitrification occurred in the bottom anaerobic stage (ANS), using the CO2 produced from AES as inorganic carbon source. Results demonstrated that the SISSAD showed a remarkable performance on COD removal efficiency of 95.09%, 84.86% for NO3(-)-N, 95.25% for NH4(+)-N and 93.15% for TP. This research revealed the developed system exhibits a promising application prospect for domestic wastewater in the future.

  1. Modified clay sorbents for wastewater treatment and immobilization of heavy metals in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Klavins, Maris; Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Stapkevica, Mara

    2014-05-01

    Soil and groundwater pollution with heavy metals is the result of both, anthropogenic and natural processes in the environment. Anthropogenic influence in great extent appears from industry, mining, treatment of metal ores and waste incineration. Contamination of soil and water can be induced by diffuse sources such as applications of agrochemicals and fertilizers in agriculture, air pollution from industry and transport, and by point sources, e.g., wastewater streams, runoff from dump sites and factories. Treatment processes used for metal removal from polluted soil and water include methodologies based on chemical precipitation, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, membrane filtration, adsorption and co-precipitation. Optimal removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous medium can be achieved by adsorption process which is considered as one of the most effective methods due to its cost-effectiveness and high efficiency. Immobilization of metals in contaminated soil also can be done with different adsorbents as the in situ technology. Use of natural and modified clay can be developed as one of the solutions in immobilization of lead, zinc, copper and other elements in polluted sites. Within the present study clay samples of different geological genesis were modified with sodium and calcium chlorides, iron oxyhydroxides and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate in variable proportions of Ca/P equimolar ratio to test and compare immobilization efficiency of metals by sorption and batch leaching tests. Sorption capacity for raw clay samples was considered as relatively lower referring to the modified species of the same clay type. In addition, clay samples were tested for powder X-ray difractometry, cation exchange, surface area properties, elemental composition, as well as scanning electron microscopy pictures of clay sample surface structures were obtained. Modified clay sorbents were tested for sorption of lead as monocontaminant and for complex contamination of heavy metals. The

  2. Competitive sorption and desorption behavior for three fluoroquinolone antibiotics in a wastewater treatment wetland soil.

    PubMed

    Conkle, Jeremy L; Lattao, Charisma; White, John R; Cook, Robert L

    2010-09-01

    Significant amounts of pharmaceuticals are discharged into the environment through wastewater effluent. Sorption has been shown to be a significant aqueous removal pathway for many of these compounds. Competition between ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) and their sorption to, and desorption from, a surrogate Louisiana wastewater treatment wetland soil were investigated to gain insight into the fate and transport of the pollutants within wastewater treatment wetlands. This study was undertaken in the context of a treatment wetland that continuously receives pharmaceuticals. Therefore it is important to understand the total capacity of this soil to sorb these compounds. Sorption to this treatment wetland soil was found to provide a major and potentially long-term removal pathway for these antibiotics from wastewater. LogK(F) values for all three compounds were between 4.09 and 3.90 for sorption and 4.24 and 4.05 microg(1-1/)(n)(cm(3))(1/)(n)g(-1) for desorption. The compounds were sorbed in amounts ranging from 60% to 90% for high and low loading, respectively. The majority of the compounds were sorbed to the soil within the first 20h, indicating that treatment wetland may not need long retention times (weeks to months) in order to remove these compounds. Sorption K(D) values for competition (20 ppm of each compound for 60 ppm of total fluoroquinolones) ranged from 2300 to 3800 cm(3)g(-1) which is between both the 20 (4300-5800 cm(3)g(-1)) and 60 (1300-3000 cm(3)g(-1)) ppm single compound K(D) values, indicating that there is competition between these three compound for sorption sites. Sorption and desorption data (single component and mixture) collectively provide the following evidence: (1) NOR and, to a lesser extent, CIP outcompete OFL for sorption sites, (2) OFL sorbes to its share of "quality" sorption sites, and (3) competition only occurs for lesser "quality" binding sites. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of prolonged whole-body cryostimulation treatment with different amounts of sessions on chosen pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Chlubek, Dariusz; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Cryotherapy is used in the early treatment of acute injuries (sprains, strains, fractures) yet only a few papers discuss the possible influence of whole-body cryostimulation on inflammation mechanisms or immunology. It is postulated that cold exposure can have an immunostimulating effect related to enhanced noradrenaline response and can be connected with paracrine effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different sequences of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals. The research involved 45 healthy men divided into three groups. The groups were subjected to 5, 10 or 20, 3-minute long whole-body cryostimulations each day at -130°C. Blood was collected for analysis before the stimulations, after completion of the whole series, and 2 weeks after completion of the series, for the examination of any long-term effect. The analysis of results showed that in response to cryostimulation, the level of ani-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 increased while Il-1α cytokine level decreased. It seems that the most advantageous sequence was the series of 20 cryostimulations due to the longest lasting effects of stimulation after the completion of the whole series of treatments.

  4. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  5. Oxidation by Fenton's reagent combined with biological treatment applied to a creosote-comtaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, C; Alessandri, R; Aunola, T; Cortina, J L; Gamisans, X; Tuhkanen, T

    2009-07-30

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Fenton oxidation to remove sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples with creosote oil from a wood preserving site. The optimal dosage of reagents was determined by a statistical method, the central composite rotatable experimental design. The maximum PAH removal was 80% with a molar ratio of oxidant/catalyst equal to 90:1. In general low molecular weight PAHs (3 rings) were degraded more efficiently than higher molecular weight PAHs (4 and 5 rings). The hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetic was studied in the presence of KH(2)PO(4) as stabilizer. The kinetic data were fitted to a simple model, the pseudo-first-order which describes the hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The PAH kinetic degradation was also studied, and demonstrated that non-stabilized hydrogen peroxide was consumed in less than 30 min, whilst PAH removal continued for up to 24h. In a second part of the work, a combined chemical and biological treatment of the soil was carried out and shown to be dependent on the pre-oxidation step. Different reagent doses (H(2)O(2):Fe) were used (10, 20, 40, 60:1) in the pre-treatment step. An excess of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a poor biological removal, thus the optimal molar ratio of H(2)O(2):Fe for the combined process was 20:1. The combined treatment resulted in a maximum total PAH removal of 75% with a 30% increase in removal due to the biodegradation step. The sample with highest PAH removal in the pre-oxidation step led to no further increase in removal by biological treatment. This suggests that the more aggressive chemical pre-oxidation does not favour biological treatment. The physico-chemical properties of the pollutants were an important factor in the PAH removal as they influenced chemical, biological and combined treatments.

  6. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system: evaluation of a monitoring study and soil column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, G.; Dror, I.; Berkowitz, B.

    2009-12-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, is found to be highly persistent in wastewater treatment plants and when subsequently released to the environment. Because of its physicochemical properties, CBZ is only weakly sorbed to mineral soils and is resistant to biodegradation. As a consequence, CBZ has been suggested as an appropriate anthropogenic marker to track the fate of wastewater in aquatic systems. We study the fate and transport of CBZ in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan) in Israel, where about one quarter of the country’s wastewater undergoes purification. The secondary treatment of raw wastewater consists of mechanical and biological treatment by activated sludge, with an additional step of nitrification-denitrification, and subsequent recharge of treated effluent to groundwater via infiltration basins, as a complementary tertiary treatment known as soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Water produced from the SAT system is pumped from a depth of 100-200 m by means of approximately 100 recovery wells, located 300-1,500 m from the recharge basins. This water is then delivered through a single 87 km long pipeline to the southern part of the country, where it is used for irrigation. We examine the fate of CBZ before and after treatment with the SAT system. To date, our monitoring has detected up to 1300 ng/L of CBZ in the recharged effluent before SAT, and up to 700 ng/L after treatment, prior to use for irrigation. The latter may considered as an aggregate value from all recovery wells. Additional information on CBZ transport characteristics has been gained from a series of soil column experiments using soil samples taken from the SAT infiltration basin to a depth of 170 cm. For each soil layer examined, the soil column was first leached of CBZ and subsequently loaded with secondary treated wastewater containing CBZ. The CBZ breakthrough curves resemble transport of a conservative tracer in most of the soil samples. We

  7. Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Lucy Mar; Gutiérrez, Mélida; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Villalba, Maria de Lourdes; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-04-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water.

  8. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  9. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-10-30

    In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic microbial dechlorination: an approach to on-site treatment of toxaphene-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsatari, S.G.; McChesney, M.M.; Craigmill, A.C.; Winterlin, W.L.; Seiber, J.N.

    1987-12-01

    Enhanced microbial degradation of toxaphene by natural microorganisms occurred in soil and sediment amended with organic matter kept under anaerobic (flooded) conditions. Laboratory experiments yielded a dissipation half-life of approximately 3 and 1 week for soil and sediment, respectively, containing 10 ppm of technical toxaphene and a 1% alfalfa meal amendment. Dissipation was accompanied by an increase in early eluting gas chromatographic peaks and a decrease in later eluting peaks, indicating that dechlorination had occurred. Enhanced anaerobic dissipation also took place in soil containing 500 ppm of toxaphene, although at a lesser rate than at 10 ppm, and when cotton gin waste was used as amendment in place of alfalfa meal. Sediment in a toxaphene-contaminated pesticide waste disposal ditch was amended with 10% steer manure and flooded to ascertain field utility of the technique for on-site decontamination. Toxaphene residues were reduced from 63 to 23 ppm in 120 days, and some degradation activity still occurred up to 8 months after this single treatment.

  11. What Is the Most Effective Drug Delivery System for Cisplatin during the Treatment of Hepatic Tumors with Single-Session Transcatheter Chemotherapy? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Kenji; Fukushima, Taito; Seko, Yuya; Hara, Tasuku; Sezaki, Hitomi; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacodynamics of cisplatin following three different treatment procedures for intrahepatic arterial infusion therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods We divided 13 HCC patients into the following three groups: group A, lone injection of cisplatin (n=3); group B, combined injection of cisplatin and lipiodol, with embolization using small gelatin cubes (GCs) (n=5); and group C, injection of suspended lipiodol with cisplatin powder, with embolization using small GCs (n=5). In each group, the free cisplatin concentration in the hepatic vein was measured at 0, 5, 10, and 30 minutes. Results The mean free cisplatin concentrations were as follows. For group A, the mean was 48.58 µg/mL at 0 minute, 7.31 µg/mL at 5 minutes, 5.70 µg/mL at 10 minutes, and 7.15 µg/mL at 30 minutes. For the same time points, for group B, the concentrations were 8.66, 4.23, 3.22, and 1.65 µg/mL, respectively, and for group C, the concentrations were 4.81, 2.61, 2.52, and 1.75 µg/mL, respectively. The mean area under the curve (AUC)0-infinity for the free cisplatin concentration was 7.80 in group A, 2.48 in group B, and 2.27 in group C. The AUC0-infinity for the free cisplatin concentration gradually decreased, from group A to group C. Conclusions These results indicate that the combination of lipiodol and small GCs may be useful for delaying cisplatin drainage from the liver. PMID:24073316

  12. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107050 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Leland Melvin (left), Robert Satcher and Randy Bresnik, all STS-129 mission specialists, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  13. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107056 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Leland Melvin (left) and Robert Satcher, both STS-129 mission specialists, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  14. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107054 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Charlie Hobaugh (left), STS-129 commander; Leland Melvin and Robert Satcher, both mission specialists, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  15. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107048 (4 May 2009) --- Astronaut Randy Bresnik, STS-129 mission specialist, participates in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  16. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107051 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Barry Wilmore (left), STS-129 pilot; and Mike Foreman, mission specialist, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  17. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107047 (4 May 2009) --- Astronaut Leland Melvin, STS-129 mission specialist, participates in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  18. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107052 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Leland Melvin (left), Robert Satcher and Randy Bresnik, all STS-129 mission specialists, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  19. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107059 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Robert Satcher (left) and Randy Bresnik, both STS-129 mission specialists, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  20. A session-to-session examination of homework engagement in cognitive therapy for depression: Do patients experience immediate benefits?

    PubMed

    Conklin, Laren R; Strunk, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Homework is a key component of Cognitive Therapy (CT) for depression. Although previous research has found evidence for a positive relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome, the methods used in previous studies have often not been optimal. In this study, we examine the relation of specific aspects of homework engagement and symptom change over successive session-to-session intervals. In a sample of 53 depressed adults participating in CT, we examined the relation of observer-rated homework engagement and session-to-session symptom change across the first five sessions. Within patient (and not between patient) variability in homework engagement was significantly related to greater session-to-session symptom improvements. These findings were similar when homework engagement was assessed through a measure of general engagement with homework assignments and a measure assessing engagement in specific assignments often used in CT. Secondary analyses suggested that observer ratings of the effort patients made on homework and the completion of cognitive homework were the numerically strongest predictors of depressive symptom improvements. Patient engagement with homework assignments appears to be an important predictor of early session-to-session symptom improvements. Future research is needed to identify what therapist behaviors promote homework engagement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Session-to-Session Examination of Homework Engagement in Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Do patients experience immediate benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Laren R.; Strunk, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Homework is a key component of Cognitive Therapy (CT) for depression. Although previous research has found evidence for a positive relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome, the methods used in previous studies have often not been optimal. In this study, we examine the relation of specific aspects of homework engagement and symptom change over successive session-to-session intervals. In a sample of 53 depressed adults participating in CT, we examined the relation of observer-rated homework engagement and session-to-session symptom change across the first five sessions. Within patient (and not between patient) variability in homework engagement was significantly related to session-to-session symptom improvements. These findings were similar when homework engagement was assessed through a measure of general engagement with homework assignments and a measure assessing engagement in specific assignments often used in CT. Secondary analyses suggested that observer ratings of the effort patients made on homework and the completion of cognitive homework were the numerically strongest predictors of depressive symptom improvements. Patient engagement with homework assignments appears to be an important predictor of early session-to-session symptom improvements. Future research is needed to identify what therapist behaviors promote homework engagement. PMID:26183022

  2. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water‐extractable (i.e., plant‐bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:311–321. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26467536

  3. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  4. Session 3 in ACAT05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, J.

    2006-04-01

    Activities in Session 3 of AIHENP/ACAT series are reviewed. In the perturbative approaches in high energy physics, this session keeps a special position among several similar other workshops because it deals with the massive usage of computers and/or artificial intelligence, not only physics consequences. In this edition of the series there appear in addition two new topics on the lattice QCD and the quantum computation.

  5. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  6. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Athanasiou, Georgios; Schimdt, Felix; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Dietrich, Peter; Schuth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  7. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  8. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  9. An in-situ land treatment demonstration employing alternative bioremediation supplements on historically impacted soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Two methods for bioassay of toxic metals were used to analyze landfarm soil bioremediation treatments for petroleum hydrocarbons. The MetPLATE{sup TM} is based on enzyme inhibition in a mutant strain of E. coli by bioavailable metals. The Microtox{sup TM} assay measures the light output of the bioluminescent marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum before and after exposure to a water soluble sample. The effective concentration for 50% was determined for fractions extracted by methylene chloride after 5 and 15 minutes exposure time. In both cases, the toxicity appeared to increase because the decreasing effective concentration means less sample causes the same response. MetPLATE showed an increase in toxicity of the samples before the toxicity decreased on day 187. A treatment with nutrients and Permeox appeared to have the least metals toxicity.

  10. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. Technology evaluation report: Biotrol Soil Washing System for treatment of a wood-preserving site. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.; Evans, J.; Kitaplioglu, O.; McPherson, J.

    1991-12-01

    The report presents and evaluates the extensive database from the SITE Program demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. Soil washing and segregation, biotreatment of contaminated process water, and biodegradation of a slurry of the contaminated fines from the soil washing were evaluated over several weeks of operation. The contaminants of concern were pentachlorophenol (penta) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that the soil washer effectively segregates contaminated soil into coarse, relatively uncontaminated sand constituting the largest output fraction and a much smaller fraction of fine clay/silt particles retaining about 30% of the original contamination. Penta removal efficiency from the feed soil is 87%-89% (vendor's claim: 90%). Contaminated woody material is also segregated. Operational variations and their impact on output qualities and quantities are described. Biotreatment of process water from the soil washing successfully degraded 91-94% of the penta. The results for the slurry biological treatment of the contaminated fines indicated that >90% removal of penta and PAHs probably can be achieved with a fully acclimated system operating at steady state. Combined operating and capital equipment cost for an integrated system are estimated to be $168/ton of soil treated. Incineration of the woody debris is a major cost factor. Costs are also presented by process since specific applications may require different configurations of the three units.

  12. Screening Nonionic Surfactants for Enhanced Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Remaining in Soil After Conventional Biological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Adrion, Alden C; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-04-05

    A total of five nonionic surfactants (Brij 30, Span 20, Ecosurf EH-3, polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate, and R-95 rhamnolipid) were evaluated for their ability to enhance PAH desorption and biodegradation in contaminated soil after treatment in an aerobic bioreactor. Surfactant doses corresponded to aqueous-phase concentrations below the critical micelle concentration in the soil-slurry system. The effect of surfactant amendment on soil (geno)toxicity was also evaluated for Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH using the DT40 B-lymphocyte cell line and two of its DNA-repair-deficient mutants. Compared to the results from no-surfactant controls, incubation of the bioreactor-treated soil with all surfactants increased PAH desorption, and all except R-95 substantially increased PAH biodegradation. POESH had the greatest effect, removing 50% of total measured PAHs. Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH were particularly effective at enhancing biodegradation of four- and five-ring PAHs, including five of the seven carcinogenic PAHs, with removals up to 80%. Surfactant amendment also significantly enhanced the removal of alkyl-PAHs. Most treatments significantly increased soil toxicity. Only the no-surfactant control and Brij 30 at the optimum dose significantly decreased soil genotoxicity, as evaluated with either mutant cell line. Overall, these findings have implications for the feasibility of bioremediation to achieve cleanup levels for PAHs in soil.

  13. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  15. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  16. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of in situ vitrification and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, T.L. )

    1991-09-01

    In the hazardous waste community, the term thermal destruction' is a catchall phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. Included in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized bed incineration, infrared thermal treatment, wet air oxidation, pyrolytic incineration, and vitrification. Among them, conventional rotary kiln incineration, a disposal method for many years, is the most well established, and often serves as a barometer to gauge the relative success of similar technologies. Public sentiment on an environmental issues and increasingly stringent environmental regulations has, over time, spurred design and development of innovative thermal treatment processes directed toward reducing harmful emissions and residuals that may require further treatment or disposal. In situ vitrification (ISV), a technology that combines heat and immobilization, is one such innovative and relatively new technology. This paper presents a comparison of ISV and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment in the areas of process performance, process residuals, process limitations, applicable or relevant and appropriate (ARARs) regulations, criteria and limitations, and costs.

  18. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals.

  19. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    PubMed Central

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  20. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  1. Effect of humic substance on thermal treatment of chromium(VI)-containing latosol soil.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Hsieh, Hui-Fang

    2006-03-01

    Latosol soils contaminated with chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)], which is hazardous, can be recycled as raw materials for porcelain and construction sectors if a proper thermal stabilization process is implemented. This study investigates how thermal treatment affects Cr behavior during the sintering of latosol and deorganic latosol samples; both samples are artificially contaminated with CrO3. Approaches including X-ray absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2-based Brunauer Emmett Teller surface analyzer, thermogravimetric analyzer/differential scanning calorimeter, and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure promulgated by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration are used in this study. After drying the Cr(VI)-contaminated latosol (i.e., containing 37,120 mg of Cr/kg sample) at 105 degrees C, approximately 80% of the doped CrO3 is chemically reduced to Cr(OH)3 by a humic substance naturally existing in the soil. In contrast, in the organics-free CrO3-contaminated latosol dried at 105 degrees C, only 9% of the doped CrO3 is reduced to Cr(OH)3. Heating the samples at 500 and 1100 degrees C transforms hazardous Cr(VI) into Cr(III) that is negligibly toxic; Cr2O3, which is insoluble, is detected as the most abundant Cr species. Moreover, formation of Cr2SiOs, which is suggested to relate to low Cr leaching, is only detected in the sample heated at 1100 degrees C. Surface morphology, surface area, and thermogravimetric analyzer/differential scanning calorimeter results demonstrate that thermal treatment at 1100 degrees C can incur considerable soil sintering/ melting if the humic substance in the soil has been heated off previously. Finally, Cr concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure leachates collected from the samples thermally treated at 1100 degrees C for 4 hr are < or =0.21 mg of Cr L(-1) that are much less than the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration regulatory limit (<5 mg of Cr L(-1)); consequently

  2. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with digestate derived from anaerobic treatment of food waste.

    PubMed

    Pezzolla, Daniela; Bol, Roland; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Sawamoto, Takuji; López, Aranzazu Louro; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David

    2012-10-30

    The application of organic materials to agricultural lands is considered good practice to improve soil organic matter content and recycle nutrients for crop growth. The anaerobic treatment of food waste may have environmental benefits, particularly with regard to greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation and enhancement of carbon sequestration. This work presents the results from a field experiment to evaluate CO(2) , CH(4) and N(2) O emissions from grassland amended with digestate produced by anaerobic fermentation of food waste. Experimental plots, located close to Rothamsted Research-North Wyke, were established using a randomized block design with three replicates and two treatments, added digestate (DG) and the unamended control (CNT). The digestate was applied on three occasions at an equivalent rate of 80 kg N ha(-1) . The application of digestate led to an increase in CO(2) emissions, especially after the 2(nd) application (74.1 kg CO(2) -C ha(-1)  day(-1) ) compared with the CNT soil (36.4 kg CO(2) -C ha(-1)  day(-1) ), whereas DG treatment did not affect the overall CH(4) and N(2) O emissions. The total grass yield harvested on a dry matter basis was greater in the DG treated plots (0.565 kg m(-2) ) than in the CNT plots (0.282 kg m(-2) ), as was the (15)  N content in the harvest collected from the DG plots. The results suggest that the digestate can be applied to agricultural land as a fertilizer to grow crops. Our study was conducted in an exceptionally dry growing season, so conclusions about the effect of digestate on GHG emissions should take this into account, and further field trials conducted under more typical growing seasons are needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of post-fire salvage logging treatments on micobiological properties of two different soils in the Povince of Alicante.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcenegui, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the natural wildfire regime in Mediterranean forests is greatly disturbed by human activities. Fire can induce temporal or permanent changes in the soil (see Certini, 2005) and can retard or compromise the recovery of the ecosystem afterwards. Changes in soil properties and the impact on soil functions depend mainly on the severity of the fires (Neary et al., 1999) and type of soil and weather during and after burning (Robichaud & Hungerford, 2000). Post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Post-fire salvage logging treatments are very frequently but its ecological impact is uncertain. Mainly because there are so many variables at play. A research has been done in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi (M) and ''Cabo de San Antonio'' in Javea (J), both in the Province of Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012 and in September 2014 respectively. After fire, salvage logging (SL) treatment were done. In the first area (M), with a soil classified as Typic Xerorthent, extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery was applied. In contrast, in the second area (J), a Rhodoxeralf soil, not heavy machinery was used. Plots for monitoring this effect were installed in both areas and in a similar nearby area where no treatment was done, and then used as control (C) for comparison. Soil samplings were done immediately after treatment and 4 years and two years in M site and J site respectively. We examined the effect of salvage logging on basal soil respiration (BSR), and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic). Our results showed that in site M four years after the treatment, the plots without treatment showed a much better improvement for the properties monitored. And not differences were found in site J after two years of monitoring. The impact of salvage logging was different depending on the soil type and the way to do the treatment.

  4. Soil, vegetation, and seed bank of a Sonoran Desert ecosystem along an exotic plant (Pennisetum ciliare) treatment gradient.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1% median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70%) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93% relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93%) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  5. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  6. Isolation and use of indigenous bacteria for bioremediation of soil from a former wood treatment site in southwestern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, D.A.; Tumeo, M.A.; Braddock, J.F.

    1996-11-01

    A temporary wood treatment site located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Palmer Research Farm, Point MacKenzie Agricultural Project was operated during the summer months of 1988--1989. An undefined mixture of diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used in the process. Approximately 75 m{sup 3} (98 yd{sup 3}) of soil were contaminated with up to 13.5 ppm PCP, creosote, and 13,000 ppm diesel range hydrocarbons. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) established clean-up levels of 0.5 ppm for PCP, and 1,000 ppm for diesel range hydrocarbons. The contaminated soil was excavated and stored on site in lined cells pending selection and implementation of a remediation method. Physical and chemical treatment options for soil contaminated with xenobiotic compounds in the Lower 48 United States are often not available or economical in Alaska. The expense of shipping contaminated soil outside the state for treatment, difficulties in supporting complex remediation technologies in remote locations, and concerns over long-term liability associated with landfilling make biological treatment, when feasible, a compelling option in Alaska. Therefore, it was determined that studies should be conducted to address the feasibility of bioremediating the Pt. MacKenzie soil.

  7. Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step.

  8. Solubility and changes of mercury binding forms in contaminated soils after immobilization treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Biester, H.; Zimmer, H.

    1998-09-15

    Mobility at different pH and binding forms of mercury (Hg) have been investigated in three Hg-contaminated soils after immobilization treatment with alkali-polysulfide (APS) and trimercapto-s-triazine trisodium salt solution (TMT). Changes of solid-phase Hg binding forms after immobilization were determined by Hg pyrolysis. Hg concentrations in the water extracts of all samples increased after treatments due to the formation of soluble mercury sulfides (APS treatment), and the mobilization of humic acid bound Hg at the high pH of the reagents. In contrast, Hg concentrations decreased sharply at low pH due to decomposition of soluble mercury sulfides and precipitation of humic acid-bound Hg. Inorganic Hg compounds such as Hg{sup 0} or HgCl{sub 2} are effectively transformed to mercury sulfides by APS treatment, whereas TMT could transform HgCl{sub 2} but not Hg{sup 0}. Both reagents were found to affect humic acid bound Hg by way of increasing Hg desorption temperatures, although APS was found not to desorb Hg completely from humic acids and TMT-Hg complexes are actually incorporated into humic acids.

  9. Poster Session A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    , Joshua Baughman, Lilian Phu, Taner Dogan, William F. Forrest, Klaus P. Hoeflich, Donald S. Kirkpatrick Genentech, So. San Francisco, CA, USA Small molecule inhibitors of MEK (GDC-0973) and PI3K (GDC-0941) have been developed for the treatment of cancer and effective at triggering tumor cell death in preclinical models. We previously demonstrated that the combination of these inhibitors in A2058 melanoma cells induced a DNA damage like response involving amplification of protein phosphorylation coincident with apoptosis (Kirkpatrick et al. PNAS 2013). These results were obtained using motif-specific immunoaffinity enrichment and label free quantitative mass spectrometry of phosphopeptides at various time points following treatment with GDC-0973 and GDC-0941. In parallel with these studies, ubiquitin substrate profiling was performed by K-GG immunoaffinity enrichment. K-GG peptides were captured using an antibody targeting the diglycine remnant (-GG) from ubiquitin, which remains covalently attached to substrate lysine (K) residues after tryptic digestion. Linear mixed effect modeling (LiME) was employed to assemble K-GG peptide data at the protein level and select top candidates for follow up analysis. Noted in these timecourse results were early responding substrates within the inhibitor targeted pathway, the DNA damage response and the cell death regulatory network, such as MEK1, PRKDC and PGAM5. Ubiquitination of MEK1 was maximally induced within the first hour following treatment, while extensive ubiquitination of PRKDC and PGAM5 occurred at later time points consistent with their posited roles in the downstream response. Concurrent with these, a marked increase in ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates such as cytochrome C, MIRO2, IMMT, and CHCH3 upon commitment to the apoptotic state. Cells treated over 8h with a 4xEC50 combination of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 demonstrated significantly increased ubiquitination for over 25 mitochondrial substrates including

  10. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  11. Summary report of session VI

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2002-08-19

    This report gives a brief review of the presentations in Session VI of the Ecloud'02 Workshop and summarizes the major points during the discussions. Some points (e.g., the critical mass phenomenon) are not conclusive and even controversial. But it has been agreed that further investigations are warranted. The topic of Session VI in the Ecloud'02 workshop is ''Discussions of future studies, collaborations and possible solutions.'' Half of the session is devoted to presentations, another half to discussions. This report will focus on the latter. There are six presentations: (1) R. Macek, Possible cures to the e-cloud problem; (2) G. Rumolo, Driving the electron-cloud instability by an electron cooler; (3) U. Iriso Ariz, RF test benches for electron-cloud studies; (4) F. Caspers, Stealth clearing electrodes; (5) F. Ruggiero, Future electron-cloud studies at CERN; and (6) E. Perevedentsev, Beam-beam and transverse impedance model.

  12. [Studies of on-site night soil and kitchen garbage treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu-Lei; Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Juan; Xiong, Shang-Ling; Huang, Liang; Sun, Wei-Min; Lu, Zhi-Zhong; Liao, Bo

    2005-09-01

    The biological treatment technique of collection at source and disposition on-site of night soil and kitchen garbage were presented. By design project of overall technics, the lab-scale experiments were performed. It was revealed that water consumption of vacuum closestool was about 1 L/time. It consumed 0.4- 0.6L water to shred 1 kg kitchen garbage. Night soil covered 40%, kitchen garbage covered 60% in the influent. Water was controlled at about 93%, the C:N ratio was about 25:1, pH was between 6.2 and 7.3, the optical blend frequency was 6h/d and the overall solid retention time was 28 days in anaerobic digestion reactor. The COD removal rate of mixed supernatant was 91% in anaerobic baffled reactor. It was identified that these phosphorus strains and potassium strains were Bacillus. sp, and biological activated fertilizer was obtained by mixed these strains with digestion sludge which had been dehydrated and deodorized. These strains ability of forming phosphorus and potassium were determined, and the concentration of phosphorus increased 67.5%, potassium increased 33.4%.

  13. Soil and ecosystem respiration responses to grazing, watering and experimental warming chamber treatments across topographical gradients in northern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Plante, Alain F; Enkhmandal, Orsoo; Gonneau, Cédric; Casper, Brenda B; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S

    2016-05-01

    Globally, soil respiration is one of the largest fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere and is known to be sensitive to climate change, representing a potential positive feedback. We conducted a number of field experiments to study independent and combined impacts of topography, watering, grazing and climate manipulations on bare soil and vegetated soil (i.e., ecosystem) respiration in northern Mongolia, an area known to be highly vulnerable to climate change and overgrazing. Our results indicated that soil moisture is the most important driving factor for carbon fluxes in this semi-arid ecosystem, based on smaller carbon fluxes under drier conditions. Warmer conditions did not result in increased respiration. Although the system has local topographical gradients in terms of nutrient, moisture availability and plant species, soil respiration responses to OTC treatments were similar on the upper and lower slopes, implying that local heterogeneity may not be important for scaling up the results. In contrast, ecosystem respiration responses to OTCs differed between the upper and the lower slopes, implying that the response of vegetation to climate change may override microbial responses. Our results also showed that light grazing may actually enhance soil respiration while decreasing ecosystem respiration, and grazing impact may not depend on climate change. Overall, our results indicate that soil and ecosystem respiration in this semi-arid steppe are more sensitive to precipitation fluctuation and grazing pressure than to temperature change.

  14. Soil and ecosystem respiration responses to grazing, watering and experimental warming chamber treatments across topographical gradients in northern Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Plante, Alain F.; Enkhmandal, Orsoo; Gonneau, Cédric; Casper, Brenda B.; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, soil respiration is one of the largest fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere and is known to be sensitive to climate change, representing a potential positive feedback. We conducted a number of field experiments to study independent and combined impacts of topography, watering, grazing and climate manipulations on bare soil and vegetated soil (i.e., ecosystem) respiration in northern Mongolia, an area known to be highly vulnerable to climate change and overgrazing. Our results indicated that soil moisture is the most important driving factor for carbon fluxes in this semi-arid ecosystem, based on smaller carbon fluxes under drier conditions. Warmer conditions did not result in increased respiration. Although the system has local topographical gradients in terms of nutrient, moisture availability and plant species, soil respiration responses to OTC treatments were similar on the upper and lower slopes, implying that local heterogeneity may not be important for scaling up the results. In contrast, ecosystem respiration responses to OTCs differed between the upper and the lower slopes, implying that the response of vegetation to climate change may override microbial responses. Our results also showed that light grazing may actually enhance soil respiration while decreasing ecosystem respiration, and grazing impact may not depend on climate change. Overall, our results indicate that soil and ecosystem respiration in this semi-arid steppe are more sensitive to precipitation fluctuation and grazing pressure than to temperature change. PMID:28239190

  15. Chlorpyrifos pollution: its effect on brain acetylcholinesterase activity in rat and treatment of polluted soil by indigenous Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shelly; Singh, Partap Bir; Chadha, Pooja; Saini, Harvinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) pollution in agricultural soil of Punjab, India, its detrimental effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat brain and bioremediation of soils polluted with CPF using indigenous and adapted bacterial lab isolate. The analysis revealed that soil samples of Bathinda and Amritsar regions are highly contaminated with chlorpyrifos showing 19 to 175 mg/kg concentrations of CPF. The non-targeted animals may get poisoned with CPF by its indirect dermal absorption, inhalation of toxic fumes and regular consumption of soiled food grains. The study indicated that even the lowermost concentrations of CPF, 19 and 76 mg/kg of soil found in the Amritsar and Bathinda regions respectively can significantly inhibit the AChE activity in rat brain within 24 h of its treatment. This represents the antagonistic effect of CPF on AChE which is a prime neurotransmitter present in all living beings including humans. In light of this, an attempt was made to remediate the polluted soil, a major reservoir of CPF, using Pseudomonas sp. (ChlD), an indigenous bacterial isolate. The culture efficiently degraded 10 to 100 mg/kg chlorpyrifos supplemented in the soil and utilized it as sole source of carbon and energy for its growth. Thus, this study provides a detailed insight regarding the level of CPF pollution in Punjab, its detrimental effects on mammals and bio-based solution to remediate the sites polluted with CPF.

  16. Poster Sessions. [Concurrent Poster Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains presentations from four poster sessions at a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Human Resource and Organization Development Program Brochures: What Prospective Students Want" (Rose Opengart, Mary Wilson Callahan) reports on a study of promotional materials of graduate programs in the field of human…

  17. Bacterial and fungal growth for monitoring the impact of wildfire combined or not with different soil stabilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Baath, Erland; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Soil stabilization techniques are rapidly gaining acceptance as efficient tool for reducing post-fire erosion. However, despite its interest, information concerning their impact on soil biota is scarce. We examined, under field conditions, the bacterial and fungal medium-term responses in a hillslope area located in Laza (NW Spain) affected by a high severity wildfire with the following treatments established by triplicate (4 x 20 m plots): unburnt control soil, burnt control soil, burnt soil with rye seeding and burnt soil with straw mulch. The bacterial and fungal growth, as well as respiration, were measured 4 years after fire and application of treatments using leucine incorporation for bacterial growth and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation for fungal growth. The results showed that soil respiration and fungal biomass were negatively affected by fire, in the top layer (0-5 cm), while bacterial and fungal growth was stimulated. These microbial changes induced by fire were associated with modifications in organic matter (50% reduction in C content) and soil pH (increase of 0.5-0.9 units). Thus, the results suggested that under acid environment (pH in water 3.5) post-fire conditions might have favoured both microbial groups, which is supported by the fact that estimated bacterial and fungal growth were positive and significant correlated with soil pH (range of 3.5-4.5). This contrast with the well-known reported investigations showing that bacteria rather than fungi proliferation occurred after prescribed fire or wildfire; it should be noticed, however, that soils with a higher pH than that in the present study were used. Our data also indicated that bacterial and fungal communities were not significantly affected by seeding and mulching treatments. The results highlighted the importance of pre-fire soil pH as key factor in determining the microbial response after fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro is recipient of FPU grant from Spanish Ministry of Education

  18. IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions.

    PubMed

    Norvell, Lorelei L; Hawksworth, David L; Petersen, Ronald H; Redhead, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The proceedings of the 3-5 August 2010, IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions are briefly summarized. The final resolution approved by the General Assembly endorses the recommendations by the Nomenclature Sessions regarding transfer of the governance of fungal nomenclature from botanical to mycological congresses, mandatory pre-publication deposit of nomenclatural information for valid publication of new fungal names, and the acceptability of English as an alternative to Latin in the valid publication of fungal names. Complete results from the IMC9 nomenclature questionnaire are also provided.

  19. Interactive TV on parliament session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J.; Nguyen, H.; Martinot, O.; Preda, M.; Preteux, F.; Zaharia, T.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces a new interactive mobile TV application related to parliament session. This application aims to provide additional information to mobile TV users by inserting automatically and in real-time interactive contents (complementary information, subject of the current session...) into original TV program, using MPEG-4 streaming video and extra real time information (news, events, databases... from RSS streams, Internet links...). Here, we propose an architecture based on plug-in multimedia analyzers to generate the contextual description of the media and on an interactive scene generator to dynamically create related interactive scenes. Description is implemented according to the MPEG-7 standard.

  20. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  1. Variations in bioactive substance contents and crop yields of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated in soils with different fertilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Coria-Cayupán, Yanina Soledad; Sánchez de Pinto, María Ines; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena

    2009-11-11

    Changes in crop yields and bioactive substance contents were studied in lettuce crop concerning the influence of soil nutritional status as a result of compost and vermicompost additions obtained from different organic substrates. Plant productions and main pigment contents in lettuce were higher in all the fertilized soils than in the untreated soil, with the exception of the one treated with urban solid waste compost. These positive effects correlate with nitrogen level increase in soil. However, the high saline input of this compost prepared from food home wastes interferes in lettuce growth and prevents it from being higher than the control. Marked decreases in lettuce phenolic contents and antiradical activity were found in most of the treatments. Composts and vermicomposts produced through the processing of cattle manures, agro-industrial organic wastes significantly increased lettuce crop yield enriching its pigment contents, although, in some cases, antioxidant value and phenolic levels were reduced.

  2. Monitoring technologies for the evaluation of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment system in coastal aquifer environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Tsertou, Athanasia; Foglia, Laura; Bumberger, Jan; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Schüth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse. Treated sewage effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for recharge of aquifers. As the effluent water moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. Recharge systems for SAT can be designed as infiltration-recovery systems, where all effluent water is recovered as such from the aquifer, or after blending with native groundwater. SAT typically removes essentially all suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthic eggs). Concentrations of synthetic organic carbon, phosphorous, and heavy metals are greatly reduced. The pilot site of LTCP will involve the employment of infiltration basins, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. T he LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved through the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensors, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors will be developed, in order to achieve

  3. Poster Session A

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    carboxyl-groups. Support for this work was provided by the Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource at UCSF (A. L. Burlingame, Director) through the Biomedical Research Technology Program of the NIH National Center for Research Resources, NIH NCRR P41RR001614. References 1. Good, D. M., Wirtala, M., McAlister, G. C., and Coon, J. J. (2007) Performance characteristics of electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 6, 1942–1951. A.6 Enrichment and Characterization of Secreted Glycopeptides Bearing SA1-0Galβ1-3GalNAcα Structures Z. Darula1, and K. F. Medzihradszky1,2 1Proteomics Research Group, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary; 2Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA The lack of consensus sequence, common core structure, and universal endoglycosidase for the release of O-linked oligosaccharides makes O-glycosylation more difficult to tackle than N-glycosylation. Structural elucidation by mass spectrometry is usually inconclusive as the CID spectra of most glycopeptides are dominated by carbohydrate-related fragments. In addition, O-linked structures also undergo a gas-phase rearrangement reaction that eliminates the sugar without leaving a telltale sign at its former attachment site. In the present study we used electron-transfer dissociation for the characterization of intact glycopeptides affinity-enriched from bovine serum. Some glycopeptide-containing fractions were analyzed also after exoglycosidase treatment. Reducing the size of the carbohydrate chain aided the identification of multiply modified species. We report the unambiguous identification of 21 novel glycosylation sites. We also detail the limitations of the current methods. This work was supported by Hungarian Science Foundation grants OTKA T60283 (to KFM) and by NIH grant NCRR P41RR001614 to the UCSF MS Facility (Director, A. L. Burlingame). A.7

  4. Remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil after composting by sequential treatment with Fenton-like oxidation and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Qiao, Wei; Wei, Xiaofang; Guan, Yueming; Ma, Qingxia; Guan, Yingchun

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to enhance removal of residual contaminants after composting in a highly petroleum-contaminated soil by combining Fenton-like pretreatment with biodegradation. The contaminants were characterized by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) during soil treatment. The optimum molar ratio of H(2)O(2) and Fe(3+) was 300/1 determined in batch experiments. At the end of Fenton-like treatment, total dichloromethane-extractable organics (TEO) decreased from 32,400 to 21,800 mg kg(-1) soil, and the toxicity of soil was reduced greatly in the preoxidation process. A significant loss of the number of soil microorganisms was observed in the Fenton-like reaction. During the microbial treatment period, 50.6% of TEO was destroyed. Numerous varieties of polar compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen were identified by FT-ICR MS. The number of compounds containing two oxygen atoms dropped from 604 to 163 during Fenton-like oxidation, and increased again to 577 after biodegradation.

  5. A comparison of pre-dropout and temporary rupture sessions in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gülüm, I Volkan; Soygüt, Gonca; Safran, Jeremy D

    2016-11-15

    Although numerous studies have investigated the relationship between the therapeutic alliance and dropout, most have focused on the relationship between alliance quality and psychotherapy outcomes. To compare sessions with therapeutic alliance ruptures and two sessions prior to treatment dropout (pre-dropout) in terms of rupture subtypes, psychotherapists' behavior, attitudes, and session content. We implemented quantitative methods to select the sessions and qualitative methods to analyze them. We analyzed 16 temporary rupture sessions from 12 therapist-patient dyads and 16 pre-dropout sessions from 8 different therapist-patient dyads. The sessions originate from clinical psychology Master's or Doctoral students under supervision in either cognitive behavioral or schema therapy. Pre-dropout sessions were considered unrepaired rupture sessions while rupture sessions were subsequently repaired. Results revealed apparent differences and similarities between the session types in positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, content intensity, and the type and frequency of ruptures. We explored three new rupture subtypes: attributing positive developments to other sources, indirect speech, and sarcastic hostility. A striking implication is that the frequency of positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, ruptures, and session content is more likely to decrease in the pre-dropout sessions than in the temporary rupture sessions.

  6. Wildfires effects on soils: water repellency, NIR models and post-fire treatments. My personal view (SSS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcenegui, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    I first was intrigued by fire, because all summers we had some of them in our location, and then I was involve in fire effects on soils. We had, and also have, a lot of question to answer. I am absolutely sure that soil science was my best choice. Soils are amazing, a lot of things are happening in soils. Soils and fire, are my main research topics. I studied the immediately effect of fire on soils, focus on the effect of fire in soil water repellency and aggregate stability. Two physical properties that are crucial to post-fire soil response. I also construct NIR models to know the maximum temperature reached in soils. It is well known that temperature is a key factor affecting soils properties. Then, it is a really important tool to predict the temperature reached in a soil after a wildfire. Currently, I am involve in a project to investigate what are the best post-fire treatments in our soils and how this treatments affects soil properties.

  7. Comparing the Efficiency of an Eight-Session Versus Four-Session Memory Intervention for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Heather; McDougall, Graham J.; Douglas, Nora E.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that a reduced treatment achieves similar outcomes is beneficial because shorter interventions may be more cost-effective and more acceptable to participants. We examined the effects of shortening a memory intervention for elders from 8 sessions to 4 sessions. Shortening the intervention had little impact on either self-reported or performance measures of memory and daily living activities. Small to moderate effects were associated with positive change in both groups. When examining the cost-effectiveness, the 8-session intervention produced slightly greater gains in memory performance, but at a higher cost. Future studies should systematically vary key intervention components in more diverse samples. PMID:18346565

  8. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107053 (4 May 2009) --- STS-129 crewmembers participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Pictured from the left are astronauts Barry Wilmore, pilot; Mike Foreman, mission specialist; Charlie Hobaugh, commander; Leland Melvin, Robert Satcher and Randy Bresnik, all mission specialists.

  9. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107057 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Charlie Hobaugh (right), STS-129 commander; Barry Wilmore (left), pilot; and Mike Foreman, mission specialist, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  10. STS-129 food tasting session.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-04

    JSC2009-E-107049 (4 May 2009) --- Astronauts Charlie Hobaugh (right), STS-129 commander; Mike Foreman (center), mission specialist; and Barry Wilmore, pilot, participate in a food tasting session in the Habitability and Environmental Factors Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  11. Summary of Educational Poster Session

    Treesearch

    1992-01-01

    The educational poster session provided a way of increasing the ordinarily limited time available for discussion of papers, while simultaneously making it easier to communicate visual materials not well suited to oral presentations. Poster presenters were available for 3 hours to discuss their displays. Poster presentations were divided into two categories: minority...

  12. Introduction to Session 1A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmel, Michael E.

    Understanding and overcoming the natural resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic hydrolysis remains one of the most active research areas in biofuels production (as indicated by the number of abstracts and papers submitted to this session). A number of the oral presentations given during the Enzyme Catalysis and Engineering session highlighted the use of new and innovative tools for advancing our understanding of plant cell wall deconstruction. The oral presentations and posters given for this session included applications of imaging tools and computational models to advance our understanding of biomass recalcitrance relative to enzymatic deconstruction. This session was opened with a presentation by Dr. Danny Akin, who outlined the structural and chemical barriers for the bioconversion of grasses to sugars. Lignocelluloses from grasses, such as switch grass, are resistant to bioconversion by various aromatic constituuents, which include both lignins and phenolic acid esters. However, Akin and coworkers demonstrated the use of selected white rot fungal enzymes, which lack cellulases that could be used to produce delignified lignocellulosic materials, resulting in improved bioconversion.

  13. Online Training Sessions: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabonell, Martha; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These planning and evaluative guidelines for online trainers utilize a sliding scale--from minimal to suggested to optimal--for five types of training sessions: (1) Search Service--Beginning; (2) Search Service--Advanced; (3) Search Service--Subject; (4) Database Producer; and (5) Independent Introductory Workshop. (RAA)

  14. Chlorpyrifos degradation in soils with different treatment regimes within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Gershom Kyalo; Ngigi, Anastasiah Njoki; Getenga, Zachary Moranga

    2015-03-01

    Two organic amendments, filter mud compost and Tithonia diversifolia leaves generated within a sugarcane growing area were used to enhance the degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil. Filter mud compost and T. diversifolia leaves significantly enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in soils (p < 0.05) with DT50 values of 21 and 24 days, respectively. Furthermore, field degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil with prior exposure to chlorpyrifos was significantly enhanced (p = 0.034) with DT50 of 21 days compared to 30 days in soil with no previous exposure. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in sterile and non-sterile soils were significantly different (p = 0.023) with DT50 values of 161 and 27 days, respectively. Results show enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in organically amended soils and soils with prior exposure to the pesticide. These amendments show promise in a continuing effort to reduce chlorpyrifos concentrations in soils.

  15. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Zijian

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. However, effluents after biological treatment still contain heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants. The persistent organic contaminants accumulated in soil may transfer through the food chains and cause adverse health effects on human or biological effects on soil fauna and flora after long-term application. In present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo[a]pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo[g,h,i]perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09+/-0.03 ng/g) [Dickhut RM, Canuel EA, Gustafson KE, Liu K, Arzayus KM, Walkers E, et al. Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  16. [Effects of different fertilization treatments on soil humic acid structure characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lü, Yi-Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The present article used soil humic acid as research object to study effects on the structure characteristics of soil humic acid under the condition of applying cake fertilizer, green manure, straw fertilizer with the same contents of nitrogen and phosphorus. It used element analysis, micro infrared, and solid 13C-NMR for structure analysis, the results indicated that: The chemical composition and structure characteristics of humic acids were similar, but they also had many obvious differences. (1) The atomic ratios of H/C, O/C, and C/N were all different for the humic acids, the soil humic acid of cake fertilizer processing had the highest contents of H and N, green manure processing of soil humic acid contained the highest content of O, while straw fertilizer processing of soil humic acid contained highest content of C. (2) Infrared analysis displayed that the three soil humic acids contained protein Cake fertilizer processing of soil humic acid contained the most amino compounds, green manure processing of soil humic acid contained the maximum contents of hydroxyl and aliphatic hydrocarbon, while straw fertilizer processing of soil humic acid contained the highest contents of alcohol and phenol. (3) Solid 13C-NMR data indicated that cake fertilizer processing of soil humic acid contained the most carboxyl carbon, green manure processing of soil humic acid contained the highest contents of alkyl carbon and carbonyl carbon, while straw fertilizer processing of soil humic acids had the most alkoxy carbon and aromatic carbon

  17. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  18. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: EXTRACTIVE METHODS FOR SOIL DECONTAMINATION, A GENERAL SURVEY AND REVIEW OPERATIONAL TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatability study report provides a general overview of soil decontamination by extraction and reports on the field application of three specific different soil washing/solvent extraction systems. Each system is similar in design and removed contaminants from soil includ...

  19. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  20. Foliar nutrient responses of oak saplings to nitrogen treatments on alkaline soils within the Missouri River Floodplain

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Bottomland afforestation is frequently unsuccessful, partly because of low-quality planting stock and low soil fertility following row cropping. In autumn 1999, two 16.2-ha fields at two conservation areas in central Missouri were seeded to redtop grass or allowed to revegetate from the seedbank. In spring 2004, one of five nitrogen (N) treatments was applied to one...

  1. Biological treatment of TNT-contaminated soil. 2: Biologically induced immobilization of the contaminants and full-scale application

    SciTech Connect

    Lenke, H.; Daun, G.; Sieglen, U.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Warrelmann, J.; Walter, U.; Hund, K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of originally contaminated soil from a former ammunition plant was carried out in a laboratory slurry reactor. While fermenting glucose to ethanol, acetate, and propionate, the anaerobic bacteria completely reduced the nitro groups of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and aminodinitrotoluenes, which led to a complete and irreversible binding of the reduced products to the soil. 2,4-dinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine were also reduced in the soil slurry and were no longer detectable after the anaerobic treatment. To mineralize the fermentation products, a subsequent aerobic treatment was necessary to complete the bioremediation process. This bioremediation process was tested in a technical scale at Hessisch Lichtenau-Hirschhagen, Germany. A sludge reactor (Terranox system) was filled with 18 m{sup 3} of contaminated soil (main contaminants were TNT, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and 10 m{sup 3} of water. The anaerobic stage was carried out by periodical feeding of sucrose. The sludge was subsequently dewatered and treated aerobically. Chemical analysis revealed an overall reduction of more than 99% of the contaminants. Ecotoxicological tests performed with various aquatic systems (luminescent bacteria, daphnids, algae) and terrestrial systems (respiring bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, cress plants, earth worms) showed that residual toxicity could not be detected after the anaerobic/aerobic treatment.

  2. Effect of fertilizer treatments on an alkaline soil and on early performance of two bottomland oak species

    Treesearch

    Felix Jr. Ponder; Matthew John Kramer; Freida Eivazi

    2008-01-01

    Many acres of once productive Missouri farmland along the Missouri River are being planted to bottomland hardwoods. Once trees become established on many of these sites, however, most show symptoms of chlorotis due to high pH levels (>7.5) in soil. Six treatments containing combinations of iron (Fe), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) were tested for their effectiveness...

  3. Mercury in Eisenia fetida and soil in the vicinity of a natural gas treatment plant in northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnić, Andreja Prevendar; Zgorelec, Željka; Šuran, Jelena; Jurasović, Jasna; Špirić, Zdravko; Levak, Stefani; Bašić, Ferdo; Kisić, Ivica; Srebočan, Emil

    2016-01-28

    In the last two decades (1990-2012), as part of a mercury monitoring programme, earthworms and soils have been collected from four locations in the vicinity of a natural gas production and treatment plant near the village of Molve, Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of mercury in the collected samples, monitor its changes over a longer period of time and determine the bioaccumulation of total mercury in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the soil. Total mercury concentrations in earthworms from the surroundings of four boreholes (Molve 9-12) ranged within 0.195-1.050, 0.129-1.0, 0.229-1.236 and 0.223-0.799 μg g(-1) dry weight, while total mercury concentrations in different soil types at the same locations within 0.055-0.350, 0.035-0.250, 0.031-0.240 and 0.071-0.475 μg Hg g(-1) of soil. The calculated mercury bioaccumulation factor ranged between 0.9 and 17.5. Mercury levels in soil and earthworms, as a tool for soil pollution assessment, suggested low mercury exposure and risks for human health in the monitored area.

  4. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  5. What Happens in Session Doesn't Stay in Session: Changes within Exposures Predict Subsequent Improvement and Dropout

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Peter J.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Klenck, Suzanne C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous exposure therapy research has suggested potential differences in emotional processing at different points in treatment (Hayes, Hope, & Heimberg, 2008). For example, indicators of emotional processing may be more related to outcome during the later exposure sessions than during the initial session. This is consistent with a growing body of psychotherapy research highlighting the importance of timing and change processes across therapy. The current study examined whether the learning-but-not-benefiting hypothesis is observed in a group based intervention for clients with a range of anxiety disorders. It was hypothesized that activation and within session habituation during later, but not the initial exposure session, would be related to outcome, whereas activation and within session habituation during the first session would be related to dropout status. Results revealed that lower activation and less habituation during the first exposure was associated with increased treatment discontinuation. Second, lower peak and, to a lesser extent greater activation and habituation, during exposures were generally associated with better treatment outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining the complexities and timing of the exposure process. PMID:21419597

  6. What happens in session does not stay in session: changes within exposures predict subsequent improvement and dropout.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Klenck, Suzanne C

    2011-06-01

    Previous exposure therapy research has suggested potential differences in emotional processing at different points in treatment (Hayes, Hope, & Heimberg, 2008). For example, indicators of emotional processing may be more related to outcome during the later exposure sessions than during the initial session. This is consistent with a growing body of psychotherapy research highlighting the importance of timing and change processes across therapy. The current study examined whether the learning-but-not-benefiting hypothesis is observed in a group based intervention for clients with a range of anxiety disorders. It was hypothesized that activation and within session habituation during later, but not the initial exposure session, would be related to outcome, whereas activation and within session habituation during the first session would be related to dropout status. Results revealed that lower activation and less habituation during the first exposure was associated with increased treatment discontinuation. Second, lower peak and, to a lesser extent greater activation and habituation, during exposures were generally associated with better treatment outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining the complexities and timing of the exposure process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2000-08-29

    At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future. In an effort to achieve remediation goals and reduce future costs, the SRS DNAPL program is evaluating technologies that will recycle or destroy DNAPL. In situ oxidation is one class of DNAPL destruction technologies. A demonstration of this class of technologies was conducted at SRS in the winter of 1999 and spring of 2000 employing ozone as the oxidant. Lynntech Inc. through a Small Business Innovative Research grant partnered with the Savannah River Site to demonstrate their soil ozone treatment technology. The Savannah River Site provided the demonstration location and field support of the test. This demonstration involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29 day period. Approximately 2000 pounds of DNAPL (perchloroethylene [PCE] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were removed through the soil vapor extraction unit (SVEU). Soil core data indicate that approximately 300 pounds of DNAPL were removed from the test site. This report documents the data collected by SRS personnel during the demonstration of Lynntech's Soil Ozone Treatment Technology.

  8. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  9. Kinetic modeling of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation in soil slurry by anodic fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingjun; Lemley, Ann T

    2006-05-31

    Anodic Fenton treatment (AFT) has been shown to be a promising technology in pesticide wastewater treatment. However, no research has been conducted on the AFT application to contaminated soils. In this study, the 2,4-D degradation kinetics of AFT in a silt loam soil slurry were investigated for the first time, and the effects of various experimental conditions including initial 2,4-D concentration, Fenton reagent delivery rate, amount of humic acid (HA) addition, and pH were examined. The 2,4-D degradation in soil slurry by AFT was found to follow a two-stage kinetic model. During the early stage of AFT (the first 4-5 min), the 2,4-D concentration profile followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. In the later stage (typically after 5 or 6 min), the AFT kinetic model provided a better fit. This result is most likely due to the existence of (*)OH scavengers and 2,4-D sorption on soil. The Fe(2+) delivery rate was shown to be a more significant factor in degradation rate than the H(2)O(2) delivery rate when the Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) ratios were in the range of 1:2 to 1:10. The presence of HA in soil lowered the AFT rate, most probably due to the competition with 2,4-D for consumption of (*)OH and increased sorption of 2,4-D on soil. The optimal pH for 2,4-D degradation in soil slurry by AFT was observed to be in the range of pH 2-3.

  10. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass {approximately} 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project.

  11. Methane emission from fields with three various rice straw treatments in Taiwan paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chin-Wei; Chen, Shin-Hsiung

    2003-07-01

    Flooded rice fields are one of the major biogenic methane sources. In this study, the effects of straw residual treatments on methane emission from paddy fields were discussed. The experimental field was located at Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station in Chia-Yi county (23 degrees 25'08''N, 120degrees16'26''E) of southern Taiwan throughout the first and the second crop seasons in 2000. The seasonal methane fluxes in the first crop season with rice stubble removed, rice straw burned and rice straw incorporated were 4.41, 3.78 and 5.27 g CH4 m(-2), and the values were 32.8, 38.9 and 75.1 g CH4 m(-2) in the second crop season, respectively. In comparison of three management methods of rice straw residue, the incorporation of rice straw residue should show a significant tendency for enhancing methane emission in the second crop season. Moreover, stubble removed and straw burned treatments significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 28 approximately 56% emissions compared to straw incorporated plot. Concerning for air quality had led to legislation restricting rice straw burning, removing of rice stubble might be an appropriate methane mitigation strategy in Taiwan paddy soils.

  12. A soil biotechnology system for wastewater treatment: technical, hygiene, environmental LCA and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Singh, Anju; Chubilleau, Caroline; Starkl, Markus; Bawa, Itee

    2017-05-01

    Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a green engineering approach for wastewater treatment and recycling. Five SBT units located in the Mumbai region were under consideration of which holistic assessment of two SBT plants was carried out considering its technical, environmental and economic aspects and was compared with published research of other three. LCA has been done to evaluate the environmental impacts of construction and operation phase of SBT. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal of more than 90% can be achieved using this technology. Also, the nutrient removal proficiency (nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, TKN, total nitrogen and phosphates) of this technique is good. On the other hand, SBT has low annual operation and maintenance cost, comparable to land-based systems and lower than conventional or advanced technologies. From the life cycle impact assessment, the main contributors for overall impact from the plant were identified as electricity consumption, discharges of COD, P-PO4(3-) and N-NH4(+) and disposal of sludge. The construction phase was found to have significantly more impact than the operation phase of the plant. This study suggests plant I is not relatively as efficient enough regarding sanitation. SBT provides several benefits over other conventional technologies for wastewater treatment. It is based on a bio-conversion process and is practically maintenance free. It does not produce any odorous bio-sludge and consumes the least energy.

  13. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there.

  14. Development of soil cleanup standards for the biological treatment of wood preserving wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jerger, D.E.; LaGoy, P.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of hazardous waste site remediation is to achieve a set of conditions that are environmentally safe for organismal receptors, and will prevent any further action on site. Establishing these conditions raises the issue of ``how clean is clean`` or ``what concentration of a contaminant in soil is environmentally acceptable`` for contaminated sites. This debate is occurring on a national scale as part of the Superfund reauthorization. Historically, cleanup goals have not explicitly addressed whether the remedial action results in a safe site. The use of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT), or limits of detection (LOD) as a cleanup criteria may also be inappropriate if the remediating goal is to protect human health and the environment. OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) has recently completed the successful treatment of 14,000 tons of creosote-contaminated material at the Southeastern Wood Superfund Site in Canton, MS. Slurry phase biological treatment was the technology chosen to remediate the contaminated material classified as RCRA K001 criteria for CERCLA (Superfund) actions: protection of public health, welfare, and the environment.

  15. Modeling the transport behavior of 16 emerging organic contaminants during soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nham, Hang Thuy Thi; Greskowiak, Janek; Nödler, Karsten; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Spachos, Thomas; Rusteberg, Bernd; Massmann, Gudrun; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    In this study, four one-dimensional flow and transport models based on the data of a field scale experiment in Greece were constructed to investigate the transport behavior of sixteen organic trace pollutants during soil aquifer treatment. At the site, tap water and treated wastewater were intermittently infiltrated into a porous aquifer via a small pilot pond. Electrical conductivity data was used to calibrate the non-reactive transport models. Transport and attenuation of the organic trace pollutants were simulated assuming 1st order degradation and linear adsorption. Sorption was found to be largely insignificant at this site for the compounds under investigation. In contrast, flow path averaged first order degradation rate constants were mostly higher compared to the literature and lay between 0.036 d(-1) for clofibric acid and 0.9 d(-1) for ibuprofen, presumably owing to the high temperatures and a well adapted microbial community originating from the wastewater treatment process. The study highlights the necessity to obtain intrinsic attenuation parameters at each site, as findings cannot easily be transferred from one site to another.

  16. On-farm treatment of dairy soiled water using aerobic woodchip filters.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Eimear M; Murphy, Paul N C; Healy, Mark G; French, Padraig; Rodgers, Michael

    2011-12-15

    Dairy soiled water (DSW) is produced on dairy farms through the washing-down of milking parlours and holding areas, and is generally applied to land. However, there is a risk of nutrient loss to surface and ground waters from land application. The aim of this study was to use aerobic woodchip filters to remove organic matter, suspended solids (SS) and nutrients from DSW. This novel treatment method would allow the re-use of the final effluent from the woodchip filters to wash down yards, thereby reducing water usage and environmental risks associated with land spreading. Three replicate 100 m(2) farm-scale woodchip filters, each 1 m deep, were constructed and operated to treat DSW from 300 cows over an 11-month study duration. The filters were loaded at a hydraulic loading rate of 30 L m(-2) d(-1), applied in four doses through a network of pipes on the filter surface. Average influent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), SS and total nitrogen (TN) of 5750 ± 1441 mg L(-1), 602 ± 303 mg L(-1) and 357 ± 100 mg L(-1), respectively, were reduced by 66, 86 and 57% in the filters. Effluent nutrient concentrations remained relatively stable over the study period, indicating the effectiveness of the filter despite increasing and/or fluctuating influent concentrations. Woodchip filters are a low cost, minimal maintenance treatment system, using a renewable resource that can be easily integrated into existing farm infrastructure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the fate and transport of organic and nitrogen species in soil aquifer treatment process.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J; Choi, H; Schwartz, F W

    2004-01-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a promising technique for wastewater reclamation and reuse. This treatment strategy takes advantage of physicochemical and biological processes in the subsurface. The model employed in this study is based on MODFLOW-SURFACT (HydroGeoLogic, Inc.), a three-dimensional model for variably saturated flow and reactive mass transport. The model accounts for reactions including the nitrification of ammonium, the denitrification of nitrate, and the oxidation of organic carbon. Concentration of dissolved oxygen and biomasses involved in aerobic and anaerobic biological reactions forms the basis for estimates of nonlinear reaction rates formulated using a multiple-Monod expression. Illustrative simulations were conducted in a two-dimensional cross-sectional domain, with unsaturated and saturated zones. They examine the effects that site and operational conditions have on the performance of a SAT system. The parameters and conditions of concern included length of the wet/dry cycle, ground surface condition, and infiltration rate. From the simulations, we found that organic carbon was effectively removed in all cases. The availability of oxygen was a key factor in predicting the production and removal of nitrate. Overall, the model successfully described the fate and transport of the key constituents during the wet/dry operational periods in both unsaturated and saturated subsurface.

  18. Arsenic bioaccessibility in a soil amended with drinking-water treatment residuals in the presence of phosphorus fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; Quazi, S; Makris, K C; Datta, R; Khairom, A

    2007-10-01

    A laboratory incubation study was conducted to determine the effect of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) on arsenic (As) bioaccessibility and phytoavailability in a poorly As-sorbing soil contaminated with arsenical pesticides and fertilized with triple super phosphate (TSP). The Immokalee soil (a sandy spodosol with minimal As-retention capacity) was amended with 2 WTRs (Al and Fe) at 5 application rates ranging between 0% and 5% wt/wt. Sodium arsenate and TSP were used to spike the soil with 90 mg As kg(-1) and 115 mg P kg(-1), respectively. Bioaccessible As was determined at time 0 (immediately after spiking), and at 6 and 12 months of equilibration using an in vitro gastrointestinal test, and As phytoavailability was measured with a 1-M KC1 extraction test. Arsenic phytoavailability decreased immediately after spiking (20% availability at 5% rate), but only after 6 months for the Al-WTR- and the Fe-WTR-amended soil, respectively. Arsenic bioaccessibility simulated for the stomach and intestine phases showed that the Fe-WTR was more effective than the Al-WTR in resisting the harsh acidic conditions of the human stomach, thus preventing As release. Both the phytoavailable As and the bioaccessible As were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) for soil spiked with either Al- or Fe-WTR. Both WTRs were able to decrease soil As bioaccessibility irrespective of the presence or absence of P, which was added as TSP. Results indicate the potential of WTRs in immobilizing As in contaminated soils fertilized with P, thereby minimizing soil As bioaccessibility and phytoavailability.

  19. Introduction to Session 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Topics presented in the "Plant Biotechnology and Genomics" session focused on technologies that highlight the important role of plant biotechnology and genomics in the development of future energy crops. Several excellent presentations demonstrated the latest advances in energy crop development through the use of plant cell wall regulation and by engineering new energy crops such as brown midrib sweet sorghum. Approaches included the control of cellulose production by increased expression of cellulase synthase genes and the selection of high-yield varieties of shrub willows. The potential of producing hydrolytic enzymes using transgenic plants as a cost-effective means for the large-scale production of these enzymes was also explored in the session, as was the role of posttranslational modifications on the activities of heterologous expressed cellulases in hosts such as Pichia pastoris.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10.