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Sample records for soil-to-plant transfer factor

  1. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium in agricultural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, A.F.; Woodman, R.F.M.

    2000-03-01

    A database of soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium has been compiled for arable crops from published and unpublished sources. The database is more extensive than previous compilations of data published by the International Union of Radioecologists, containing new information for Scandinavia and Greece in particular. It also contains ancillary data on important soil characteristics. The database is sub-divided into 28 soil-crop combinations, covering four soil types and seven crop groups. Statistical analyses showed that transfer factors for radiocesium could not generally be predicted as a function of climatic region, type of experiment, age of contamination, or silt characteristics. However, significant relationships accounting for more than 30% of the variability in transfer factor were identified between transfer factors for radiostrontium and soil pH/organic matter status for a few soil-crop combinations. Best estimate transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium were calculated for 28 soil-crop combinations, based on their geometric means: only the edible parts were considered. To predict the likely value of future individual transfer factors, 95% confidence intervals were also derived. A comparison of best estimate transfer factors derived in this study with recommended values published by the International Union of Radioecologists in 1989 and 1992 was made for comparable soil-crop groupings. While there were no significant differences between the best estimate values derived in this study and the 1992 data, radiological assessments that still use 1989 data may be unnecessarily cautious.

  2. Proposal for new best estimates of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Olyslaegers, G; Sanzharova, N; Shubina, O; Reed, E; Shang, Z; Velasco, H

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing interest in radiological assessment of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides into the terrestrial environment. Such assessments require parameter values for the pathways considered in predictive models. An important pathway for human exposure is via ingestion of food crops and animal products. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is therefore the soil-to-plant transfer factor to food and fodder crops. The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, concerning soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. Transfer factor estimates were presented for major crop groups (Cereals, Leafy vegetables, Non-leafy vegetables, Root crops, Tubers, Fruits, Herbs, Pastures/grasses, Fodder), and also for some compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), and evaluation of transfer factors' dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with estimates currently in use.

  3. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred.

  4. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-08-01

    The present study addresses the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U for 13 types of vegetables and agricultural crops planted under semi-arid environment in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. Crop plants along with plant-growing soils were collected from selected farms, which are irrigated from the non-renewable Saq aquifer, and investigated for their radioactivity content by means of alpha spectrometry after applying a radiochemical separation procedure. Hence, TF data for plant roots, green parts (stem and leaves) and fruits were calculated and contrasted to those reported in the literature. Substantial differences were observed in the TFs of Ra and U radioisotopes among plant species. In crop fruits, eggplant exhibited the highest uptake of (226)Ra (TF value of 0.11), while beans (0.16) have the highest TF for (234)U and (238)U. The geometric mean TF values indicated that the crop roots tend to accumulate Ra and U about four to six-folds higher than fruits. The relation between TF values and soil concentrations showed a weak correlation. Activity ratios between radionuclides in crop plants indicated the preferential translocation of U in fruits than Ra even though Ra is more available for root uptake. The fruit/root (F/R) ratios obtained for the investigated plants shown that pepper had the smallest F/R ratios (0.07 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively), while the highest F/R ratios were observed in potatoes (0.71 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.10 and 0.40 ± 0.08 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively). The TF and F/R ratios data of natural radionuclides in the study region can hopefully improve the scientific knowledge for future studies. PMID:27108351

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.

    PubMed

    Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

    2014-10-01

    (45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer.

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.

    PubMed

    Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

    2014-10-01

    (45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer. PMID:24956582

  7. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique.

  8. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique. PMID:24346655

  9. Will global warming affect soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides?

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Standring, W; Shaw, G; Strand, P

    2008-11-01

    Recent assessments of global climate/environmental change are reaching a consensus that global climate change is occurring but there is significant uncertainty over the likely magnitude of this change and its impacts. There is little doubt that all aspects of the natural environment will be impacted to some degree. Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides has long been a significant topic in radioecology, both for the protection of humans and the environment from the effects of ionising radiation. Even after five decades of research considerable uncertainty exists as to the interplay of key environmental processes in controlling soil-plant transfer. As many of these processes are, to a lesser or greater extent, climate-dependent, it can be argued that climate/environmental change will impact soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and subsequent transfers in specific environments. This discussion attempts to highlight the possible role of climatic and climate-dependent variables in soil-to-plant transfer processes within the overall predictions of climate/environmental change. The work is speculative, and intended to stimulate debate on a theme that radioecology has either ignored or avoided in recent years.

  10. [Research advances in iron and zinc transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-yong; Xue, Yan-fang; Meng, Wei-wei; Yu, Li-min; Liu, Ling-yan; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping facilitates the efficient utilization of land, light, water and nutrients. It is, therefore, important to increase the biodiversity of farmland and to develop sustainable ecological agriculture in both theory and practice. Intercropping helps improve the mobilization and uptake of soil iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) and corresponding nutritional status in the plants, thus achieving grain micronutrient biofortification. In this review, phenomena of the improvement of Fe and Zn nutrition in dicotyledonous plants as affected by intercropping with gramineous plants (e.g. maize/peanut intercropping) were summarized. Moreover, the possible mechanisms in relation to interspecific rhizosphere molecular and physiological processes, as well as the changes in interspecific root morphology and distribution and microorganisms in the rhizosphere were elucidated. The accumulation, transfer and distribution of Fe and Zn in the plants in intercropping systems were also reviewed. The possible affecting factors on nutrients of Fe and Zn were analyzed. Based on the present advances in the mobilization and acquisition of soil Fe and Zn, and their accumulation and distribution in plants as well as the related management and environment influence factors, some new research questions were pointed out. Quantitative analysis, dynamic and systemic researches and field studies on Fe and Zn transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems should be strengthened in the future. PMID:26259472

  11. Soil to plant transfer of radionuclides: predicting the fate of multiple radioisotopes in plants.

    PubMed

    Willey, Neil J

    2014-07-01

    Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides is restricted by the range of species for which concentration ratios (CRs) have been measured. Here the radioecological utility of meta-analyses of phylogenetic effects on alkali earth metals will be explored for applications such as 'gap-filling' of CRs, the identification of sentinel biomonitor plants and the selection of taxa for phytoremediation of radionuclide contaminated soils. REML modelling of extensive CR/concentration datasets shows that the concentrations in plants of Ca, Mg and Sr are significantly influenced by phylogeny. Phylogenetic effects of these elements are shown here to be similar. Ratios of Ca/Mg and Ca/Sr are known to be quite stable in plants so, assuming that Sr/Ra ratios are stable, phylogenetic effects and estimated mean CRs are used to predict Ra CRs for groups of plants with few measured data. Overall, there are well quantified plant variables that could contribute significantly to improving predictions of the fate radioisotopes in the soil-plant system.

  12. Soil-to-plant halogens transfer studies 1. Root uptake of radioiodine by plants.

    PubMed

    Kashparov, V; Colle, C; Zvarich, S; Yoschenko, V; Levchuk, S; Lundin, S

    2005-01-01

    Long-term controlled experiments under natural conditions in the field have been carried out in the Chernobyl Exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radioiodine transfer to plants from four types of soils (podzoluvisol, greyzem and typical and meadow chernozem) homogeneously contaminated in the 20-cm upper layer with an addition of (125)I. An absence of (125)I depletion in arable soil layers due to volatilization was noted up to one year after contamination. During one year, depletion due to the vertical migration of radioiodine from the arable layer of each of the soils did not exceed 4% of the total (125)I content. Radioiodine concentration ratios (CR) were obtained in radish roots, lettuce leaves, bean pods, and wheat grain and straw. The highest CR values were observed in podzoluvisol: 0.01-0.03 for radish roots and lettuce leaves, 0.003-0.004 for bean pods and 0.001 for wheat grains. In the other three soils, these values were one order of magnitude lower. The parameters relating to changes in radioiodine bioavailability were determined, based on the contamination dynamics of plants in field conditions. PMID:15603907

  13. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  14. Inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Penrose, B; Johnson Née Payne, K A; Arkhipov, A; Maksimenko, A; Gaschak, S; Meacham, M C; Crout, N J M; White, P J; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R

    2016-05-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the human food chain primarily via soil-plant transfer. However, uptake of these radionuclides can differ significantly within species (between cultivars). The aim of this study was to assess inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in a leafy crop species, Brassica oleracea. This study comprised four independent experiments: two pot experiments in a controlled environment artificially contaminated with radiocaesium, and two field experiments in an area contaminated with radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Radiocaesium concentration ratios varied 35-fold among 27 cultivars grown in pots in a controlled environment. These 27 cultivars were then grown with a further 44 and 43 other cultivars in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the field-grown cultivars radiocaesium concentration ratios varied by up to 35-fold and radiostrontium concentration ratios varied by up to 23-fold. In three of these experiments (one pot experiment, two field experiments) one out of the 27 cultivars was found to have a consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratio than the other cultivars. The two field experiments showed that, five out of the 66 cultivars common to both experiments had consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratios, and two cultivars had consistently lower radiostrontium concentration ratios. One cultivar had consistently lower radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentration ratios. The identification of cultivars that have consistently lower radiocaesium and/or radiostrontium concentration ratios suggests that cultivar selection or substitution may be an effective remediation strategy in radiologically contaminated areas. Future research should focus on plant species that are known to be the largest contributors to human dose. PMID:26945429

  15. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert; Vidal, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K(d) best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K(d) was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use.

  16. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert; Vidal, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K(d) best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K(d) was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use. PMID:19223096

  17. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of organic matter and on the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd, Zn and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Denaix, L; Lacoste, J; Sappin-Didier, V; Nguyen, C; Schneider, A

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the soil-to-plant transfer of metals in the context of global warming has become a major issue for food safety. It requires a better understanding of how the temperature alters the bioavailability of metals in cultivated soils. This study focuses on one agricultural soil contaminated by Cd, Zn and Pb. DGT measurements were performed at 10, 20 and 30 °C to assess how the bioavailability of metals was affected by a rise in soil temperature. A lettuce crop was cultivated in the same conditions to determine if the soil-to-plant transfer of metals increased with a rise in soil temperature. A gradual decline in Cd and Zn bioavailability was observed from 10 to 30 °C, which was attributed to more intense complexation of metals in the pore water at higher temperatures. Together with its aromaticity, the affinity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for metals was indeed suspected to increase with soil temperature. One main output of the present work is a model which satisfactorily explains the thermal-induced changes in the characteristics of DOM reported in Cornu et al. (Geoderma 162:65-70, 2011) by assuming that the mineralization of initial aliphatic compounds followed a first-order reaction, increased with soil temperature according to the Arrhenius law, and due to a priming effect, led to the appearance of aromatic molecules. The soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn was promoted at higher soil temperatures despite a parallel decrease in Cd and Zn bioavailability. This suggests that plant processes affect the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn the most when the soil temperature rises.

  18. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of organic matter and on the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd, Zn and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Denaix, L; Lacoste, J; Sappin-Didier, V; Nguyen, C; Schneider, A

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the soil-to-plant transfer of metals in the context of global warming has become a major issue for food safety. It requires a better understanding of how the temperature alters the bioavailability of metals in cultivated soils. This study focuses on one agricultural soil contaminated by Cd, Zn and Pb. DGT measurements were performed at 10, 20 and 30 °C to assess how the bioavailability of metals was affected by a rise in soil temperature. A lettuce crop was cultivated in the same conditions to determine if the soil-to-plant transfer of metals increased with a rise in soil temperature. A gradual decline in Cd and Zn bioavailability was observed from 10 to 30 °C, which was attributed to more intense complexation of metals in the pore water at higher temperatures. Together with its aromaticity, the affinity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for metals was indeed suspected to increase with soil temperature. One main output of the present work is a model which satisfactorily explains the thermal-induced changes in the characteristics of DOM reported in Cornu et al. (Geoderma 162:65-70, 2011) by assuming that the mineralization of initial aliphatic compounds followed a first-order reaction, increased with soil temperature according to the Arrhenius law, and due to a priming effect, led to the appearance of aromatic molecules. The soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn was promoted at higher soil temperatures despite a parallel decrease in Cd and Zn bioavailability. This suggests that plant processes affect the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn the most when the soil temperature rises. PMID:26452657

  19. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  20. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland.

    PubMed

    Outola, Iisa; Pehrman, Reijo; Jaakkola, Timo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta in SW Finland. Annual emissions from the smelter in 1990 were 80 t of Cu, 31 t of Ni and 9000 t of SO(2), and in 1999 these were 5.9, 0.8 and 3400 t, respectively. At each site, soil profiles were sampled with a corer, and samples were separated into litter (L), organic soil layer (O) and mineral soil layers (B, E). Mushrooms, lichens (Cladina spp. and Cetraria islandica), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) plants were collected at each site, except at a distance of 0.5 km, where only mushrooms were available. In the organic soil layer, 137Cs activity decreased from 8000 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 8 km from the smelter to 1500 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 0.5 km; in litter, 137Cs concentration increased from 6300 Bq/m(2) at 8 km to 14000 Bq/m(2) at 0.5 km. 137Cs activity concentration decreased significantly in plants, mushrooms and lichens as the pollution load increased. In lichens, 137Cs activity decreased from 910 Bq/kg at 8 km to 170 Bq/kg at 2 km, while in lingonberry it decreased from 1470 to 20 Bq/kg and in crowberry from 310 to 20 Bq/kg. Aggregated transfer factors for 137Cs decreased in a similar way in lingonberry from 7.6x10(-2) m(2)/kg at 8 km to 7.7x10(-4) m(2)/kg at 2 km and in crowberry from 1.6x10(-2) to 7.9x10(-4) m(2)/kg. PMID:12606162

  1. The transfer of radiocesium from soil to plants: Mechanisms, data, and perspectives for potential countermeasures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Erik; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, have raised questions about radiocesium (137Cs) transfer from soil to agricultural plants. This transfer has been studied extensively in Europe following the Chernobyl accident, in Soviet Ukraine in 1986. This article briefly discusses whether that transfer may be different in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. PMID:21608115

  2. Modelling soil and soil to plant transfer processes of radionuclides and toxic chemicals at long time scales for performance assessment of Radwaste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Achim; Miquel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Performance assessments for surface nuclear waste disposal facilities require simulation of transfer processes from the waste canisters to a reference group living near-by. Such simulations need to be extended over several hundred to hundred thousand years, depending on waste type, restraining possibilities to represent short term system complexity and variability. Related modelling can be simplified as long as processes are represented conservatively with assessment endpoints estimated larger compared to more realistic modelling approaches. The indicators are doses for radionuclides (RN) and risk factors for toxic chemicals (TC, i.e. heavy metals, nitrate). We discuss a new simulation tool (SCM-Andra-multilayer-model, SAMM) that, among others, allows to model situations where RN/TC move through a soil profile characterised by temporal undersaturation and root growth (soil-plant subsystem of the biosphere model compared to the adjacent saturated geosphere). SAMM describes all relevant transfer and reaction processes (advection, diffusion, root transport, radioactive decay, chemical reactions incl. sorption - desorption) using well known differential equations solved numerically within MATLAB with scenario description and parameterisation defined in Excel sheets. With this conservative approach in mind, we apply global parameters for which the solid-solution (Kd) or soil-to-plant (TF) distribution coefficients are the most relevant. Empirical data are available for homogeneous situations, such as one compartment pot experiments, but rare for entire soil profiles. Similarly soil hydrology, in particular upward and downward advective fluxes are modelled using an empirical approach solely based on key soil hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, water table level) and the soil porosity. Variability of soil hydrology in space and time, likely to change drastically even on hourly bases (i.e. intense precipitation event) or within a single

  3. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  4. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  5. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, C.F.V.; Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  6. Transfer factors of polonium from soil to parsley and mint.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Eadan, Z; Amin, Y

    2010-12-01

    Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ((208)Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. (208)Po and (210)Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of (208)Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the (210)Po activity concentrations than the (208)Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 × 10⁻² and 50 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻³ and 67 × 10⁻³ in mint, while (208)Po transfer factors varied between 4 × 10⁻² and 12 × 10⁻² for parsley and 10 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻² in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system.

  7. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plants.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T; Heyn, J; Thiele, H; Hüther, J; Failing, K; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2009-08-01

    Within the scope of a joint project to study soil-to-plant carryover of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), five cultivated plants (spring wheat, oats, potatoes, maize, and perennial ryegrass) were sown or planted in Mitscherlich pots. Six variants per species were used, each with a different concentration level of PFOA and PFOS (from 0.25 to 50 mg/kg as aqueous solution) to detect possible concentration dependence in the transfer of these two PFCs from soil to plant. PFOA and PFOS were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after appropriate sample preparation (partial drying, mincing, homogenizing, extraction). Since PFOA and PFOS presently represent the most widely studied PFCs, they are classified as "leading compounds." The results show that concentrations of PFOA/PFOS in the plants vary greatly, depending on the concentrations applied to the soil. PFOA values were higher than PFOS values in all plants except potatoes, in which these differences could be quite substantial. From the results presented here it can be seen that uptake and storage are much more intensive in the vegetative portion of the plant than relocation in the storage organs. This is particularly evident from the the comparison of concentrations found in the grain and ear and those in the straw or rest of the plant in spring wheat, oats, and maize. Transfer from "soil to crops" provides a possible explanation for the presence of PFCs in foodstuffs and in human body fluids such as blood, plasma, serum, or breast milk. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a statistically significant, concentration-dependent carryover of PFOA and PFOS in crop plants can take place, which would provide a potential entrance point for these substances into the food chain. PMID:19112561

  8. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  9. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  10. Transfer factor therapy in ataxia--telangiectasia.

    PubMed Central

    Berkel, A I; Ersoy, F; Epstein, L B; Spitler, L E

    1977-01-01

    The effects of weekly doses of transfer factor in four patients with ataxia--telangiectasia were investigated following a total course of 2 months therapy. Transfer factor administration showed no influence on the absolute lymphocyte counts, T-cell rosettes or antibody titres to EBV, but it caused conversion of skin-test reactivity and production of MIF to various antigens. There was a dissociation in blastic transformation response, the skin-test responses and MIF production. Serum interferon levels were low before, and 2, 6 and 24 hr after, therapy. Clinically no improvement in infections was observed following transfer factor therapy. PMID:201409

  11. Soil-water distribution coefficients and plant transfer factors for (134)Cs, (85)Sr and (65)Zn under field conditions in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Twining, J R; Payne, T E; Itakura, T

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of soil-to-plant transfer of (134)Cs, (85)Sr and (65)Zn from two tropical red earth soils ('Blain' and 'Tippera') to sorghum and mung crops have been undertaken in the north of Australia. The aim of the study was to identify factors that control bioaccumulation of these radionuclides in tropical regions, for which few previous data are available. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of the selected radionuclides at pH values similar to natural pH values, which ranged from about 5.5 to 6.7. In addition, K(d) values were obtained at one pH unit above and below the soil-water equilibrium pH values to determine the effect of pH. The adsorption of Cs showed no pH dependence, but the K(d) values for the Tippera soils (2300-4100 ml/g) exceeded those for the Blain soils (800-1200 ml/g) at equilibrium pH. This was related to the greater clay content of the Tippera soil. Both Sr and Zn were more strongly adsorbed at higher pH values, but the K(d) values showed less dependence on the soil type. Strontium K(d)s were 30-60 ml/g whilst Zn ranged from 160 to 1630 ml/g for the two soils at equilibrium pH. With the possible exception of Sr, there was no evidence for downward movement of radionuclides through the soils during the course of the growing season. There was some evidence of surface movement of labelled soil particles. Soil-to-plant transfer factors varied slightly between the soils. The average results for sorghum were 0.1-0.3 g/g for Cs, 0.4-0.8 g/g for Sr and 18-26 g/g for Zn (dry weight) with the initial values relating to Blain and the following values to Tippera. Similar values were observed for the mung bean samples. The transfer factors for Cs and Sr were not substantially different from the typical values observed in temperate studies. However, Zn transfer factors for plants grown on both these tropical soils were greater than for soils in temperate climates (by more than an order of magnitude

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  13. From soil to plant, the journey of P through trophic relationships and ectomycorrhizal association

    PubMed Central

    Becquer, Adeline; Trap, Jean; Irshad, Usman; Ali, Muhammad A.; Claude, Plassard

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soil because it is mainly present as unavailable, bound P whereas plants can only use unbound, inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is found in very low concentrations in soil solution. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to release organic compounds (organic anions or phosphatases) to mobilize unavailable P. Recent studies suggest that bacteria play a major role in the mineralization of nutrients such as P through trophic relationships as they can produce specific phosphatases such as phytases to degrade phytate, the main form of soil organic P. Bacteria are also more effective than other microorganisms or plants at immobilizing free Pi. Therefore, bacterial grazing by grazers, such as nematodes, could release Pi locked in bacterial biomass. Free Pi may be taken up by ectomycorrhizal fungus by specific phosphate transporters and transferred to the plant by mechanisms that have not yet been identified. This mini-review aims to follow the phosphate pathway to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms responsible for transfer of phosphate from the soil to the plant, to improve plant P nutrition. PMID:25360140

  14. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

    2014-09-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y(-1)).

  15. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  16. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Linsalata, P.

    1986-02-01

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 228/Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs.

  17. An Exploration of Viral Transfer Efficiency Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, F. J.; Julian, T.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Viruses exist on common household surfaces and persist on them (Abad 1994, Rusin 2002). In addition to this, they are able to transfer from surface to surface, and when in contact with humans, can cause illness. In a previous study, we were able to test out the transfer efficiencies of three different phages. Transfer efficiency is defined as follows: Transfer Efficiency: Phage recovered from surface 2 / (Phage recovered from surface 2 + Phage recovered from surface 1) The phages tested have similar size and shape, but vary in isoelectric points and route of infection (Maier 2000). Preliminary studies have suggested that the transfer efficiencies for each phage may be different. Because of this, we are investigating what is the cause of this difference in phage transfer. Two possibilities for these differences are the phage's properties and the cotton tip swab elution from each surface. Using the statistical method known as the student t-test and the experimental methods for phage elution and a double agar overlay phage enumeration, we examined whether the cotton tip swab elution was responsible for phage transfer differences.

  18. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  19. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  20. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  1. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  2. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-20

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  3. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  4. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  5. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Beričič, J.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Huan, Y.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm-1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm-1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  6. University Technology Transfer Factors as Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2011-01-01

    University technology transfer is a collaborative effort between academia and industry involving knowledge sharing and learning. Working closely with their university partners affords biotechnology firms the opportunity to successfully develop licensed inventions and gain access to novel scientific and technological discoveries. These factors may…

  7. Axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the emerging possibilities to study threshold pion electroproduction at large momentum transfers at Jefferson Laboratory following the 12 GeV upgrade, we provide a short theory summary and an estimate of the nucleon axial form factor for large virtualities in the Q2=1 - 10 GeV2 range using next-to-leading-order light-cone sum rules.

  8. Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms.

  9. Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms. PMID:22800799

  10. [Transference factor in moderate and severe atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Navarro Cruz, D; Serrano Miranda, E; Orea, M; Estrada Parra, S; Terán Ortiz, L; Gómez Vera, J; Flores Sandoval, G

    1996-01-01

    We did a prospective, comparative, experimental study with 30 patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis from the allergy section from September 1994 to March, 1995. The test laboratory examination was performed in all patients: complete blood cell count, immunoglobulins A, G, M and E determination, lymphocyte subpopulations CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4-CD8 proportion, CD25, rosette formation for B and T lymphocytes, coproparasitoscopic examination, throat and nose cultures, nasal cytology, skin tests of cellular immunity to PPD, thrichophytin, candidine, varidasa; skin prick test to poliens, fungi, inhalants and foods. All patients underwent to a sign and symptom grading score system as follows: the parameters were erythema, pruritus, eczema, papule valorated on a scale from 0 a 4+( O = no symptoms, + = mild, ++ = moderate, + ++= severe, ++ ++ = very severe). Initially all patients received one placebo unit every 15 days orally 3 times, then one after 30 days. Laboratory examination was performed and then treatment with transfer factor was initiated, initially 1 unit every 15 days three times and the fourth 30 days after. 15 days after the last dose a new immunological valoration was done. Results demonstrate a CD4 cell decrement, blood eosinophil and lgE dissemination although they're not statistically significative. There was a statistically significative improvement in the 4 clinical parameters: erythema, eczema, pruritus and populous with the use of Transfer Factor.

  11. The Influence Theory: Factors That Influence the Transfer Advising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Alan L.; Dantzler, John A.; Hardy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer rate from community college to four-year institutions has been dropping for the past 70 years. In the most recent statistics, the national rate of transfer is 23% (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). In the state of Alabama the transfer rate is approximately 4%, and in the rural counties of Alabama the transfer rate hovers around 1%. Many…

  12. Measurements of deuteron magnetic form factor high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Bosted, P.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Katramatou, A.T.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; and others

    1987-04-27

    The deuteron magnetic form factor B(Q/sup 2/) has been measured at momentum transfers Q/sup 2/ = 1.21, 1.49, 1.61, 1.74, 1.98, 2.23, 2.48, 2.53, and 2.77 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center by detection of electrons backscattered at 180/sup 0/ in coincidence with recoiling deuterons at 0/sup 0/. The data for B(Q/sup 2/) are found to decrease rapidly from Q/sup 2/ = 1.2 to 2 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, then rise to a secondary maximum around Q/sup 2/ = 2.5 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, in qualitative agreement with impulse-approximation calculations.

  13. AIDS and transfer factor: myths, certainties and realities.

    PubMed

    Viza, D

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century, and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS, has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic. However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise and the pathogenesis of AIDS remains elusive. In the realm of inductive science, the dominant paradigm can seldom be challenged in a frontal attack, especially when it is apparently successful, and only what Kuhn calls "scientific revolutions" can overthrow it. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the concept of transfer factor is considered with contempt, and the existence of the moiety improbable: over forty years after the introduction of the concept, not only its molecular structure remains unknown, but also its putative mode of action contravenes dogmas of both immunology and molecular biology. And when facts challenge established dogmas, be in religion, philosophy or science, they must be suppressed. Thus, results of heterodox research become henceforth nisi-i.e., valid unless cause is shown for rescinding them, because they challenge the prevalent paradigm. However, when observations pertain to lethal disorders, their suppression in the name of dogmas may become criminal. Because of the failure of medical science to manage the AIDS pandemic, transfer factor, which has been successfully used for treating or preventing viral infections, may today overcome a priori prejudice and rejection more swiftly. In science, as in life, certainties always end up by dying, and Copernicus' vision by replacing that of Ptolemy.

  14. AIDS and transfer factor: myths, certainties and realities.

    PubMed

    Viza, D

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century, and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS, has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic. However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise and the pathogenesis of AIDS remains elusive. In the realm of inductive science, the dominant paradigm can seldom be challenged in a frontal attack, especially when it is apparently successful, and only what Kuhn calls "scientific revolutions" can overthrow it. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the concept of transfer factor is considered with contempt, and the existence of the moiety improbable: over forty years after the introduction of the concept, not only its molecular structure remains unknown, but also its putative mode of action contravenes dogmas of both immunology and molecular biology. And when facts challenge established dogmas, be in religion, philosophy or science, they must be suppressed. Thus, results of heterodox research become henceforth nisi-i.e., valid unless cause is shown for rescinding them, because they challenge the prevalent paradigm. However, when observations pertain to lethal disorders, their suppression in the name of dogmas may become criminal. Because of the failure of medical science to manage the AIDS pandemic, transfer factor, which has been successfully used for treating or preventing viral infections, may today overcome a priori prejudice and rejection more swiftly. In science, as in life, certainties always end up by dying, and Copernicus' vision by replacing that of Ptolemy. PMID:8993753

  15. Escape factors in zero-dimensional radiation-transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G. J.; Wark, J. S.; Kerr, F. M.; Rose, S. J.; Lee, R. W.

    2008-04-01

    Several zero-dimensional non-LTE radiation-transfer codes are in common use within the laser-plasma community (for example, RATION, FLY, FLYCHK and GALAXY). These codes are capable of generating calculated emission spectra for a plasma of given density and temperature in the presence of a radiation field. Although dimensionless in nature, these codes can take into account the coupling of radiation and populations by use of the escape factor method, and in this sense the codes incorporate the finite size of the plasma of interest in two ways - firstly in the calculation of the effect of the radiation on the populations and secondly when using these populations to generate a spectrum. Different lengths can be used within these two distinct operations, though it has not been made clear what these lengths should be. We submit that the appropriate length to use for the calculation of populations in such zero-dimensional codes is the mean chord of the system, whilst when calculating the spectrum the appropriate length is the size of the plasma along the line of sight. Indeed, for specific plasma shapes using the appropriate escape factors it can be shown that this interpretation agrees with analytic results. However, this is only the case if the correct escape factor is employed: use of the Holstein escape factor (which is in widely distributed versions of the codes mentioned above) is found to be significantly in error under most conditions. We also note that for the case where a plasma is close to coronal equilibrium, some limited information concerning the shape of the plasma can be extracted merely from the ratio of optically thick to optically thin lines, without the need for any explicit spatial resolution.

  16. Transfer of metals in soil-grass ecosystems under long-term N, P, K fertilization in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this study focuses on the influence of long-term (14 years) fertilization on metal transition from soil to plants is presented. Accumulation of metals in plants due to long-term fertilization and predicting the bioavailability and transfer of metals in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regard to human health as plants represent the first compartment of the terrestrial food chain. Soil and plant (Lolio-Cynosuretum) samples were taken from a 14 years long-term fertilization field experiment which was carried out in Hesse, Germany. Correlation coefficients, transfer factors, and regression analysis was performed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to quantify the relative difference in bioavailability of metals to plants or to identify the capacity of plants to accumulate a given metal. Correlation coefficients between metals in soils and in plants show significant relationships (p<0.01) for selected metals. Metal bioavailability from soil to plant based on transfer factor (TF) was observed to decrease in the order Cd>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that Corg, CEC and bioavailable metal content are the most important predictors for plant metal uptake.

  17. Factors Differentiating Hospital Transfers from Long-term Care Facilities with High and Low Transfer Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined differences among nursing homes in rates at which they transfer patients to hospitals. Data from nursing staff and charts on 286 most recent transfers from 10 nursing homes revealed that, from relatively equivalent patient populations, high-rate facilities transferred more chronically ill, physically frail patients and patients with…

  18. A Developmental Study of Factors Influencing Discrimination Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Examines the importance of (1) dimensional characteristics of stimuli present in discrimination transfer tasks, (2) having contrasting stimuli presented simultaneously, and (3) subjects age. Subjects were rural Mexican youths, ages 4 to 10. Reversal and nonreversal type discrimination transfer problems were used in the study. (DP)

  19. Interrelationships of pollution load index, transfer factor, and concentration factor under the effect of sludge.

    PubMed

    Ntzala, Georgia; Koukoulakis, Prodromos H; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis H; Leotsinidis, Michalis; Sazakli, Eleni; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis K

    2013-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted during 2010-2011. A complete randomized blocks design was used including seven treatment levels of sludge(tons per hectare), i.e., 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and "30+ treated wastewater", in four replications. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L var longifolia) was chosen as a test plant. The purpose of the experiment was to study the relationships between soil Pollution Load Index, heavy metal transfer factor, and concentration factor and to determine optimum concentration factor values. The following were found: several mathematical relationships were established between the above parameters that could be used for the study of heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants under the effect of the applied sludge. They can be also used for the calculation of one of the above parameters as a function of the others. Based on the experimental data, the optimum concentration factor for several heavy metals were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, expressing the concentration factor as a function of the maximum dry lettuce matter yield, and of optimum/minimum heavy metal content of plant dry matter. The mean value of the calculated concentration factor obtained for each separate metal was: Zn, 2.93; Cd, 0.39; Co, 1.47; and Ni, 0.52.

  20. Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

  1. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  2. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Human transfer factor in vitro. I. Augmentation of lymphocyte transformation to tuberculin PPD

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Anne S.; Maini, R. N.; Dumonde, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    There is recent interest in whether dialysable transfer factor can specifically increase immune responses when added to lymphoid cells in vitro. This report demonstrates that transfer factor preparations (human leucocyte dialysates) `augment' rather than `transfer' lymphocyte transformation responses (DNA synthesis) to tuberculin PPD in vitro and that the magnitude of this augmentation is proportional to the level of DNA synthesis induced by PPD in the absence of added transfer factor. Experiments showed that transfer factor preparations from Mantoux-positive or Mantoux-negative `donors' were equally effective in augmenting `recipient' lymphocyte transformation responses to PPD. Thus the extent of augmentation was related, not to the tuberculin sensitivity of the transfer factor donors, but to that of the recipients. In the absence of tuberculin PPD, transfer factor preparations sometimes stimulated lymphocyte DNA synthesis, but the extent of this was small and inconstant. The results therefore provide evidence for an antigen-dependent, but not an antigen-specific effect of transfer factor in increasing lymphocyte DNA synthesis in vitro. It is suggested that leucocyte dialysates contain an augmenting factor which may facilitate the response of antigen-sensitive cells to PPD in vitro, or may facilitate the recruitment into DNA synthesis of cell populations responding to mitogenic lymphokine produced during lymphocyte transformation.

  4. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer--biological factors.

    PubMed

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-11-13

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other species, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle.

  5. Factors affecting the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

  6. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  7. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  8. Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were…

  9. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  10. Efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer - a retrospective study of factors related to embryo recipient and embryos transferred.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Yu, Hao; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Li, Zhanjun

    2013-01-01

    The successful generation of pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer depends on reducing risk factors in several aspects. To provide an overview of some influencing factors related to embryo transfer, the follow-up data related to cloned pig production collected in our laboratory was examined. (i) Spring showed a higher full-term pregnancy rate compared with winter (33.6% vs 18.6%, P = 0.006). Furthermore, a regression equation can be drawn between full-term pregnancy numbers and pregnancy numbers in different months (y = 0.692x-3.326). (ii) There were no significant differences detected in the number of transferred embryos between surrogate sows exhibiting full-term development compared to those that did not. (iii) Non-ovulating surrogate sows presented a higher percentage of full-term pregnancies compared with ovulating sows (32.0% vs 17.5%, P = 0.004; respectively). (iv) Abortion was most likely to take place between Day 27 to Day 34. (v) Based on Life Table Survival Analysis, delivery in normally fertilized and surrogate sows is expected to be completed before Day 117 or Day 125, respectively. Additionally, the length of pregnancy in surrogate sows was negatively correlated with the average litter size, which was not found for normally fertilized sows. In conclusion, performing embryo transfer in appropriate seasons, improving the quality of embryos transferred, optimizing the timing of embryo transfer, limiting the occurrence of abortion, combined with ameliorating the management of delivery, is expected to result in the harvest of a great number of surviving cloned piglets. PMID:24244859

  11. Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of lymphocyte transformation to phytohaemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Anne S.; Dumonde, D. C.; Maini, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in which human peripheral blood lymphocyte transformation by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is augmented by the addition of human dialysable transfer factor. Dextran-separated peripheral blood leucocytes were cultured for 4 days with a range of PHA concentrations so as to produce low, moderate, high or very high incorporation of [3H]thymidine. When transfer factor preparations were added to the cultures, in concentrations similar to those augmenting lymphocyte transformation to tuberculin PPD, augmentation of PHA responses was observed in two-thirds of the experiments (25/38). In these experiments the extent of augmentation was proportional to the level of DNA synthesis induced by PHA in the absence of added transfer factor. It appears that preparations of transfer factor are able to augment lymphocyte transformation responses to PHA in vitro, but that this effect occurs with less regularity than does augmentation of lymphocyte transformation to tuberculin PPD.

  12. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  13. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P < 0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P < 0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P < 0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16330092

  14. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-07-15

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P<0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P<0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P<0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16330092

  15. Robust and Non-Negative Collective Matrix Factorization for Text-to-Image Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jing, Liping; Ng, Michael K

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous transfer learning has recently gained much attention as a new machine learning paradigm in which the knowledge can be transferred from source domains to target domains in different feature spaces. Existing works usually assume that source domains can provide accurate and useful knowledge to be transferred to target domains for learning. In practice, there may be noise appearing in given source (text) and target (image) domains data, and thus, the performance of transfer learning can be seriously degraded. In this paper, we propose a robust and non-negative collective matrix factorization model to handle noise in text-to-image transfer learning, and make a reliable bridge to transfer accurate and useful knowledge from the text domain to the image domain. The proposed matrix factorization model can be solved by an efficient iterative method, and the convergence of the iterative method can be shown. Extensive experiments on real data sets suggest that the proposed model is able to effectively perform transfer learning in noisy text and image domains, and it is superior to the popular existing methods for text-to-image transfer learning.

  16. Time-fixed rendezvous by impulse factoring with an intermediate timing constraint. [for transfer orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Kibler, J. F.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.

  17. Transition Form Factors of the Proton at Higher Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Stoler

    1998-12-01

    Recently there hae been promising developments in bridging the high and low Q{sup 2} extremes with a QCD quark-parton description of exclusive reactions. In this approach the perturbative hard part of the reaction, which is calculable, is isolated from the non-perturbative soft, physics which is parameterized in terms of off-forward parton distributions (OFPD), generically illustrated in a figure. An attractive aspect of this is that the same OFPD's are common to different exclusive reactions which involve the same set of hadrons. In the limit of forward scattering it is shown that the OFPD become the usual inclusive parton distribution functions, as illustrated for the case of virtual Compton scattering in a figure. A figure illustrates how they are related specifically to baryon elastic and transition form factors, which is the subject of this article.

  18. [Production of a dialysable transfer factor of cell mediated immunity by lymphoblastoid cells in continuous proliferation].

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Viza, D; Moulias, R; Trejdosiewicz, L; Lesourd, B; Marescot, M R; Prévot, A

    1975-01-20

    Four lymphoblastoid cell lines tested in this work contain normally a dialysable moiety having by ultraviolet spectroscopy, column chromatography (Biogel P 10) and chemically the same properties than human dialysable Transfer Factor (TFd), but unable to transfer cell mediated immune response against common antigens. Two of them are able to do so after incubation with minimal amounts of TFd. Production of a molecule identical to human TFd is possible in some lymphoblastoid cell lines after induction with TFd. PMID:808340

  19. Factors affecting transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from made tea to tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daohui; Zhu, Lizhong; Luo, Lan

    2006-06-14

    Factors affecting transfer percentages of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated, including tea variety, tea/water ratio (TWR, g/mL), brewing times, washed tea or unwashed tea, and covered cup or uncovered cup. It was observed that %PAH transfer varied with tea variety and increased with the decrease of TWR. The mean %PAH transfer with TWR = 1/150 was 1.12 and 1.65 times higher than that with TWR = 1/100 and 1/50, respectively. %PAH transfer reduced greatly as the brewing times increased. The mean %PAH transfer in the first brewing time occupied 51.6% of the total three mean %PAH transfers in the three brewing times. The mean %PAH transfer decreased by 30.4% after the tea had been washed immediately before brewing. Brewing the tea within uncovered cup diminished %PAH transfer by a degree of 4.31-31.7% compared to brewing the tea within a covered cup. PMID:16756366

  20. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  1. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  2. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  3. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  4. [Factors affecting activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus and related analysis technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Liang, Xin-qiang; Fu, Chao-dong; Zhu, Si-rui; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Ji, Yuan-jing

    2015-04-01

    Colloids play a key role in the transference process of phosphorus (P) in soil. Activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus have great effect on soil P pool and the surrounding water quality. This paper summarized the current studies on soil colloidal P, discussing the effects of the various factors (e. g., soil physical and chemical properties, fertilization, rainfall and soil amendments) on the transference of soil colloidal P. Some advanced analysis technologies (e.g., flow field-flow fractionation, transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and nuclear magnetic resonance) and methods of reducing soil colloidal P were also involved. This review would provide important information on the mechanism of soil colloidal P transference. PMID:26259473

  5. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    PubMed

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with a high

  6. Estimation of animal transfer factors for radioactive isotopes of iodine, technetium, selenium and uranium.

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2003-01-01

    In post-closure radiological safety assessments of repositories for solid radioactive wastes, transfers of radionuclides to animal products are typically characterised using Transfer Factors (TFs), defined as the ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide in the animal product of interest to the rate of intake in diet. Such transfer factors can be measured directly in experimental studies, but they can also be estimated by use of biokinetic models for uptake and retention of radionuclides in animals. Based on a review of the literature, biokinetic models have been developed for the uptake and retention of iodine, technetium, selenium and uranium. These biokinetic models allow TF values to be estimated for different types of animals and for different animal lifetimes. For each radionuclide considered, reference values and ranges of TF values are estimated. These are summarised in Table 1.

  7. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  8. Factors that Predict Teachers Staying In, Leaving, or Transferring from the Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M. David; Brownell, Mary T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,576 Florida special-education teachers examined factors that contribute to their propensity to leave or stay in the special education classroom or transfer to a new school. Teachers left special education teaching primarily due to insufficient certification, perceptions of high stress, and perceptions of poor school climate.…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  10. The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

  11. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  12. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating the psychological perspective, this study examines factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, the study tests a logistic regression model to predict…

  13. Factors Influencing Pronunciation Accuracy: L1 Negative Transfer, Task Variables and Individual Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of three factors on pronunciation accuracy of Chinese adult foreign language learners. Ten target sounds including phonemes and syllables are included in the pre-test, an analysis of which shows that the mispronunciation of the randomly chosen target sounds mainly results from L1 negative transfer. It is…

  14. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  15. Toxicity in lead salt spiked soils to plants, invertebrates and microbial processes: Unraveling effects of acidification, salt stress and ageing reactions.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Erik; Oorts, Koen; Peeters, Sofie; Lanno, Roman; Cheyns, Karlien

    2015-12-01

    The fate and effects of toxic trace metals in soil freshly spiked soluble metal salts do not mimic those of metals in the field. This study was set up to test the magnitude of effects of salinity, acidification, and ageing on toxicity of lead (Pb) to plants, invertebrates and soil microbial processes. Three soils were spiked with Pb2+ salts up to a concentration of 8000 mg Pb/kg and were tested either after spiking, after soil leaching followed by pH correction, or after a 5-year outdoor ageing period with free drainage followed by pH correction. Soil solution ionic strength exceeded 150 mmol/L in soils tested directly after spiking and this decreased partially after leaching and returned back to background values after 5-year outdoor equilibration. Chronic toxicity to two plants, two invertebrates, and three microbial endpoints was consistently found in all spiked soils that were not leached. This toxicity significantly decreased or became absent after 5 years of ageing in 19 of the 20 toxicity tests by a factor 8 (median factor; range: 1.4->50), measured by the factor increase of total soil Pb dose required to induce 10% inhibition. The toxicity of Pb in leached soils was intermediate between the other two treatments. The lowest detectable chronic thresholds (EC10) in aged soils ranged 350-5300 mg Pb/kg. Correlation analysis, including data of Pb2+ speciation in soil solution, suggests that reduced ionic strength rather than acidification or true ageing is the main factor explaining the soil treatment effects after spiking. It is suggested that future toxicity studies should test fine PbO powder as a relevant source for Pb in soils to exclude the confounding salt effects.

  16. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  17. Experimental methodologies and preliminary transfer factor data for estimation of dermal exposures to particles.

    PubMed

    Rodes, C E; Newsome, J R; Vanderpool, R W; Antley, J T; Lewis, R G

    2001-01-01

    Developmental efforts and experimental data that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin are described. Methods that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate for housedust and a uniform surface dust deposition chamber to permit estimation of particle mass transfer for selected dust size fractions were developed. Particle transfers to both wet and dry skin were quantified for contact events with stainless steel, vinyl, and carpeted surfaces that had been pre-loaded with the tagged test dust. To better understand the representativeness of the test dust, a large housedust sample was collected and analyzed for particle size distribution by mass and several metals (Pb, Mn, Cd, Cr, and Ni). The real housedust sample was found to have multimodal size distributions (mg/g) for particle-phase metals. The fluorescein tagging provided surface coatings of 0.11-0.36 ng fluorescein per gram of dust. The predominant surface location of the fluorescein tag would best represent simulated mass transfers for contaminant species coating the surfaces of the particles. The computer-controlled surface deposition chamber provided acceptably uniform surface coatings with known particle loadings on the contact test panels. Significant findings for the dermal transfer factor data were: (a) only about 1/3 of the projected hand surface typically came in contact with the smooth test surfaces during a press; (b) the fraction of particles transferred to the skin decreased as the surface roughness increased, with carpeting transfer coefficients averaging only 1/10 those of stainless steel; (c) hand dampness significantly increased the particle mass transfer; (d) consecutive presses decreased the particle transfer by a factor of 3 as the skin surface became loaded, requiring approximately 100 presses to reach an equilibrium transfer rate; and (e) an increase in metals concentration with decreasing

  18. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  19. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  20. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon that describe the effect of its internal quark structure on the cross section and spin observables in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Double-polarization experiments have become the preferred technique to measure the proton and neutron electric form factors at high momentum transfers. The recently completed GEp-III experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility used the recoil polarization method to extend the knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM to Q2 = 8.5 GeV2. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the experiment.

  1. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

  2. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  3. Transfer Students in STEM Majors: Gender Differences in the Socialization Factors that Influence Academic and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dimitra Lynette

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the socialization factors of community college transfer students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); (b) to examine the socialization factors that impact the academic and social adjustment of community college transfer students in STEM majors; and (c) to understand how female…

  4. Analysis of spectral radiative heat transfer using discrete exchange factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinqiu; Naraghi, M. H. N.

    1993-09-01

    A solution technique is developed for spectral radiative heat-transfer problems. The formulation is based on the discrete exchange factor (DEF) method and uses Edward's (1976) wide band model to obtain spectral data. The results of the analyses of three cases were found to be in excellent agreement with those of the zonal method and differ by less than 5 percent from those of the discrete-ordinates method.

  5. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of “EFL-containing” lineages within “EF-1α-containing” lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1α and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1α gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donor–recipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1α. PMID:18458344

  6. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  7. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03). PMID:21905714

  8. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  9. 100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

  10. Transfer of R factors to and between genetically marked sublines of Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, L D

    1979-05-01

    Plasmids R1822 and pRD1 of the P-1 incompatibility group, for which Rhizobium japonicum had not previously been shown to serve as host, were introduced into a strain of R. japonicum. Acquisition of R68 and R68.45 plasmids by this Rhizobium was equivocal. Transfer of R1822 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and of pRD1 from Escherichia coli to R. japonicum was unambiguous, because the exconjugants subsequently cotransferred the three R-factor resistance determinants (kanamycin, tetracycline, and penicillin) between genetically marked sublines of strain I-110. Under optimal conditions the transfer of R1822 and pRD1 occurred at frequencies of approximately 10(-3) in plate matings of strains bearing as many as five dissimilar genetic markers. In matings with R1822 on membrane filters, recombinants were formed at incidences as high as 4%. PMID:114109

  11. Extracellular Vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei Mediate Virulence Factor Transfer and Cause Host Anemia.

    PubMed

    Szempruch, Anthony J; Sykes, Steven E; Kieft, Rudo; Dennison, Lauren; Becker, Allison C; Gartrell, Anzio; Martin, William J; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Hajduk, Stephen L; Harrington, John M

    2016-01-14

    Intercellular communication between parasites and with host cells provides mechanisms for parasite development, immune evasion, and disease pathology. Bloodstream African trypanosomes produce membranous nanotubes that originate from the flagellar membrane and disassociate into free extracellular vesicles (EVs). Trypanosome EVs contain several flagellar proteins that contribute to virulence, and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense EVs contain the serum resistance-associated protein (SRA) necessary for human infectivity. T. b. rhodesiense EVs transfer SRA to non-human infectious trypanosomes, allowing evasion of human innate immunity. Trypanosome EVs can also fuse with mammalian erythrocytes, resulting in rapid erythrocyte clearance and anemia. These data indicate that trypanosome EVs are organelles mediating non-hereditary virulence factor transfer and causing host erythrocyte remodeling, inducing anemia. PMID:26771494

  12. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  13. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic plane-parallel flows: Behavior of the Eddington factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a relativistic plane-parallel flow which is accelerated from its base, like an accretion disk wind, is numerically examined under a fully special-relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions. We then iteratively solve the relativistic transfer equation for several cases such as radiative equilibrium or local thermodynamic equilibrium, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities and the Eddington factor. Moment quantities are rather different in each case, but the behavior of the Eddington factor for the plane-parallel case is quite similar in all cases. The Eddington factor generally depends on the flow velocity v as well as the optical depth τ. In the case of relativistic plane-parallel flows, in an optically thin regime of τ ≲ 1, it is slightly larger than 1/3 at very slow speed, it becomes smaller than 1/3 at mildly relativistic speed, and it again increases up to unity in the highly relativistic case. At highly relativistic speed, on the other hand, it becomes larger than 1/3 even in an optically thick regime. We find the Eddington approximation is fairly good, except for τ ≲ 1 or v/c ≳ 0.9, although the moment formalism under the Eddington approximation has some defects at v/c=1/√{3}.

  14. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb

    1994-01-21

    Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore » a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  15. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  17. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  18. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  19. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  20. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1)) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1)). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1)). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b)), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  1. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  2. Statistical iterative reconstruction using fast optimization transfer algorithm with successively increasing factor in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction exhibits particularly promising since it provides the flexibility of accurate physical noise modeling and geometric system description in transmission tomography system. However, to solve the objective function is computationally intensive compared to analytical reconstruction methods due to multiple iterations needed for convergence and each iteration involving forward/back-projections by using a complex geometric system model. Optimization transfer (OT) is a general algorithm converting a high dimensional optimization to a parallel 1-D update. OT-based algorithm provides a monotonic convergence and a parallel computing framework but slower convergence rate especially around the global optimal. Based on an indirect estimation on the spectrum of the OT convergence rate matrix, we proposed a successively increasing factor- scaled optimization transfer (OT) algorithm to seek an optimal step size for a faster rate. Compared to a representative OT based method such as separable parabolic surrogate with pre-computed curvature (PC-SPS), our algorithm provides comparable image quality (IQ) with fewer iterations. Each iteration retains a similar computational cost to PC-SPS. The initial experiment with a simulated Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system shows that a total 40% computing time is saved by the proposed algorithm. In general, the successively increasing factor-scaled OT exhibits a tremendous potential to be a iterative method with a parallel computation, a monotonic and global convergence with fast rate.

  3. The impact of non-electrical factors on electrical gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiemiao; Cutrera, Jeffry; Li, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Electrical pulses directly and effectively boost both in vitro and in vivo gene transfer, but this process is greatly affected by non-electrical factors that exist during electroporation. These factors include, but are not limited to, the types of cells or tissues used, the property of DNA, DNA formulation, and the expressed protein. In this mini-review, we only describe and discuss a summary of DNA properties and selected DNA formulations on gene transfer via electroporation. The properties of DNA were selected for review because a substantial amount of remarkable work has been performed during the past few years but has received less notice than other work, although DNA properties appear to be critical for boosting electroporation delivery. The selected formulations will be covered in this mini-review because we are only interested in the simple formulations that could be used for cell or gene therapy via electroporation. Plus, there was an extensive review of DNA formulations in the first edition of this book. The formulations discussed in this mini-review represent novel developments in recent years and may impact electroporation significantly. These advancements in DNA formulations could prove to be important for gene delivery and disease treatment. PMID:24510810

  4. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow.

  5. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  6. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  7. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Z. E.; Torres, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of 106Cd to study excited states of 110Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  8. Biota-sediment accumulation and trophic transfer factors for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Lee, R.F.

    1998-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, invertebrates, and sediment from a contaminated tidal creek system in coastal Georgia (USA) were traced to Aroclor 1268, a mixture of hepta through decachlorinated homologs used at a former chlor/alkali plant adjacent to the study site. The base 10 logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) for the 15 most abundant Aroclor 1268 components in these samples ranged from 6.7 to >9. The composite mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for these congeners was 3.1, 0.81, and 0.28 for yearling striped mullet, spotted sea trout, and grass shrimp, respectively, species representing three trophic levels of the local food web. Individual congener BSAFs were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow} for all three species. The composite mean trophic transfer factor (TTF{sub lip}), defined as the ratio of lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in fish to grass shrimp, was higher for mullet (12) than for sea trout (2.9). Individual TTF{sub lip} values were two to three times higher for Cl{sub 7} and Cl{sub 8} homologs that were substituted at all four ortho positions, suggesting a difference in PCB retention based on chlorine substitution patterns. The relative magnitude of BSAFs and TTF{sub lip} values indicated that sediment-ingesting forage species like mullet efficiently accumulate PCBs and are an important link in the food web transfer of sediment-ingesting forage in this system. The negative linear relationships between BSAF and log K{sub ow} established in this study are among the first to be reported in the field for extremely hydrophobic PCBs.

  9. Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

  10. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A. R.; Zarrinabadi, S.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Salimi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re < 1800. Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

  11. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content.

  12. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content. PMID:27155835

  13. Gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for enhanced expression and perfusion in the ischemic swine heart.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Barbara; Strange, Robert; Navare, Sagar; Stratton, Michael; Burcus, Nina; Murray, Len; Lundberg, Cathryn; Bulysheva, Anna; Li, Fanying; Heller, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (p<0.03), 40 Volts (p<0.05), and 90 Volts (p<0.05), but not with 60 Volts (p<0.09) while maintaining a pulse width of 20 milliseconds. The group with gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy.

  14. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    PubMed

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  15. Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M. ); Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A. ); Gearhart, R.A. ); Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J. ); Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K. )

    1990-07-01

    Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function {ital B}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20{le}{ital Q}{sup 2}{le}2.77 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) at 11 {ital Q}{sup 2} values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180{degree} were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0{degree} in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for {ital B}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are found to decrease rapidly from {ital Q}{sup 2}=1.2 to 2 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}, and then rise to a secondary maximum around {ital Q}{sup 2}=2.5 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit.

  16. Imaging Erg and Jun transcription factor interaction in living cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Camuzeaux, Barbara; Heliot, Laurent; Coll, Jean . E-mail: martine.duterque@ibl.fr

    2005-07-15

    Physical interactions between transcription factors play important roles in modulating gene expression. Previous in vitro studies have shown a transcriptional synergy between Erg protein, an Ets family member, and Jun/Fos heterodimer, members of the bZip family, which requires direct Erg-Jun protein interactions. Visualization of protein interactions in living cells is a new challenge in biology. For this purpose, we generated fusion proteins of Erg, Fos, and Jun with yellow and cyan fluorescent proteins, YFP and CFP, respectively. After transient expression in HeLa cells, interactions of the resulting fusion proteins were explored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy (FRET) in fixed and living cells. FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun was monitored by using photobleaching FRET and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Both techniques revealed the occurrence of intermolecular FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun. This is stressed by loss of FRET with an YFP-Erg version carrying a point mutation in its ETS domain. These results provide evidence for the interaction of Erg and Jun proteins in living cells as a critical prerequisite of their transcriptional synergy, but also for the essential role of the Y371 residue, conserved in most Ets proteins, in this interaction.

  17. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values.

  18. Free functional muscle transfer failure and thrombophilic gene mutations as a potential risk factor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vekris, Marios D; Ovrenovits, Maria; Dova, Lefkothea; Beris, Alexandros E; Soucacos, Panayiotis N; Kolaitis, Nikolaos; Vartholomatos, George

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of microsurgery popularized the free functioning muscle transfers as secondary procedures to reanimate paralyzed extremities after severance of the brachial plexus, especially when the surgeon deals with late cases. Studies considering transplantation, describe thrombophilic factors as a cause of severe complications after transplantation, such as acute or early rejection episodes, delayed graft function, or chronic graft dysfunction. It is the first time that thrombophilia associated with free muscle-graft rejection is reported. A young man who had two free functional muscle transfers for brachial plexus reconstruction in the same forearm within an interval of 6 months. The free functional muscle transfer was failed in both cases because of vein thrombosis and subsequent arterial clot. The possibility of thrombophilia was investigated and during the genetic investigation it was discovered that he was heterozygous for the mutations of factor V, G1691A-Leiden, A4070G and homozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation. PMID:17295258

  19. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  20. An Examination of Work-Environment Support Factors Affecting Transfer of Supervisory Skills Training to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Susan E.; Kolb, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Organizations invest a significant amount of time and money on management and supervisory training programs. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between four specific work-environment factors (organization support, supervisor support, peer support, and participation in a peer support network) and transfer of training at…

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM 2- TO 4-YEAR COLLEGES--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR COORDINATION AND ARTICULATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOELL, DOROTHY M.; MEDSKER, LELAND L.

    AN INTENSIVE STUDY WAS MADE OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACCOMPLISHMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRING FROM 2-YEAR (JUNIOR COLLEGE) TO 4-YEAR COLLEGES. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO OBTAIN NORMATIVE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE STUDENTS. THE MAJOR STUDY GROUP WAS COMPOSED OF APPROXIMATELY 9,000 JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS WHO…

  2. Analysis of the sequence and gene products of the transfer region of the F sex factor.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, L S; Ippen-Ihler, K; Skurray, R A

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation results in the transfer of DNA of either plasmid or chromosomal origin between microorganisms. Transfer begins at a defined point in the DNA sequence, usually called the origin of transfer (oriT). The capacity of conjugative DNA transfer is a property of self-transmissible plasmids and conjugative transposons, which will mobilize other plasmids and DNA sequences that include a compatible oriT locus. This review will concentrate on the genes required for bacterial conjugation that are encoded within the transfer region (or regions) of conjugative plasmids. One of the best-defined conjugation systems is that of the F plasmid, which has been the paradigm for conjugation systems since it was discovered nearly 50 years ago. The F transfer region (over 33 kb) contains about 40 genes, arranged contiguously. These are involved in the synthesis of pili, extracellular filaments which establish contact between donor and recipient cells; mating-pair stabilization; prevention of mating between similar donor cells in a process termed surface exclusions; DNA nicking and transfer during conjugation; and the regulation of expression of these functions. This review is a compendium of the products and other features found in the F transfer region as well as a discussion of their role in conjugation. While the genetics of F transfer have been described extensively, the mechanism of conjugation has proved elusive, in large part because of the low levels of expression of the pilus and the numerous envelope components essential for F plasmid transfer. The advent of molecular genetic techniques has, however, resulted in considerable recent progress. This summary of the known properties of the F transfer region is provided in the hope that it will form a useful basis for future comparison with other conjugation systems. PMID:7915817

  3. Aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids: the important factors impacting convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianguo; Ding, Yulong; Ma, Caiyun

    2014-12-01

    A high accuracy, counter flow double pipe heat exchanger system is designed for the measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients with different nanofluids. Both positive and negative enhancement of convective heat transfer of alumina nanofluids are found in the experiments. A modified equation was proposed to explain above phenomena through the physic properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, special heat capacity and viscosity.

  4. Predisposition Factors of Career and Technical Education Transfer Students: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hioki, Warren; Lester, Derek; Martinez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Six college students, who were career and technical education (CTE) transfer students in the state of Nevada, were interviewed Spring Semester of 2009. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenology framework as the method to identify those predisposition variables that heavily influenced the students in their decision to transfer to a senior…

  5. "A Hand Hold for a Little Bit": Factors Facilitating the Success of Community College Transfer Students to a Large Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Wilson, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    To understand factors affecting the academic and social integration of community college transfer students, we interviewed 19 students who transferred to one state's large Research-Extensive university. We inquired about the transfer process, efforts of the university to orient and assist them, and perceptions of the university versus the…

  6. Assessing Dynamic Spectral Causality by Lagged Adaptive Directed Transfer Function and Instantaneous Effect Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan

    2014-01-01

    It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The non-zero covariance of the model’s residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the “causal ordering” is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In the present study, we firstly investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in

  7. [Application of risk-based approach for determination of critical factors in technology transfer of production of medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Beregovykh, V V; Spitskiy, O R

    2014-01-01

    Risk-based approach is used for examination of impact of different factors on quality of medicinal products in technology transfer. A general diagram is offered for risk analysis execution in technology transfer from pharmaceutical development to production. When transferring technology to full- scale commercial production it is necessary to investigate and simulate production process application beforehand in new real conditions. The manufacturing process is the core factorfor risk analysis having the most impact on quality attributes of a medicinal product. Further importantfactors are linked to materials and products to be handled and manufacturing environmental conditions such as premises, equipment and personnel. Usage of risk-based approach in designing of multipurpose production facility of medicinal products is shown where quantitative risk analysis tool RAMM (Risk Analysis and Mitigation Matrix) was applied.

  8. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  9. The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ˇ Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-11-01

    High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  11. Factors Affecting Persistence of Undergraduate Students in a Fisheries and Wildlife Program: Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Schneider, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer students are of recognized importance to postsecondary education and every year feed thousands of students into natural resources programs across America. This influx of students can have a sustaining effect on many academic programs, including fisheries and wildlife programs, which are suffering from a nation-wide decrease in interest…

  12. Transfer Rates of Texas Hispanic Community College Students to 4-Year Institutions: Selected Institutional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Emily Conrady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to determine how well selected institutional characteristics explain the variance in Hispanic community college students' transfer rates to 4-year institutions. Due to the rapidly growing Texas Hispanic population, understanding challenges to their educational attainment has become…

  13. Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

  14. Characteristics of heavy metal transfer and their influencing factors in different soil-crop systems of the industrialization region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Tianyuan; Hu, Sun; Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Soil heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in agricultural products have attracted widespread concerns, yet the transfer and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in different soil-crop systems was rarely investigated. Soil and crop samples were collected from the typical agricultural areas in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg in the soils, roots and grains of rice (Oryza Sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) were determined in this study. Transfer ability of heavy metals in soil-rice system was stronger than those in soil-wheat and soil-canola systems. The wheat showed a strong capacity to transfer Zn, Cu and Cd from root to the grain while canola presented a restricting effect to the intake of Cu and Cd. Soil pH and total organic matter were major factors influencing metal transfer from soil to rice, whereas soil Al2O3 contents presented a negative effect on heavy metal mobility in wheat and canola cultivation systems. The concentration of Zn and Cd in crop grains could well predicted according to the stepwise multiple linear regression models, which could help to quantitatively evaluate the ecologic risk of heavy metal accumulation in crops in the study area.

  15. Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-02-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral.

  16. CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu

    2013-12-01

    Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

  17. Overlapping binding sites of the frataxin homologue assembly factor and the heat shock protein 70 transfer factor on the Isu iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein.

    PubMed

    Manicki, Mateusz; Majewska, Julia; Ciesielski, Szymon; Schilke, Brenda; Blenska, Anna; Kominek, Jacek; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A; Dutkiewicz, Rafal

    2014-10-31

    In mitochondria FeS clusters, prosthetic groups critical for the activity of many proteins, are first assembled on Isu, a 14-kDa scaffold protein, and then transferred to recipient apoproteins. The assembly process involves interaction of Isu with both Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase serving as a sulfur donor, and the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) serving as a regulator of desulfurase activity and/or iron donor. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments with purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that interaction of Yfh1 with both Nfs1 and Isu are required for formation of a stable tripartite assembly complex. Disruption of either Yfh1-Isu or Nfs1-Isu interactions destabilizes the complex. Cluster transfer to recipient apoprotein is known to require the interaction of Isu with the J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone pair, Jac1 and Ssq1. Here we show that the Yfh1 interaction with Isu involves the PVK sequence motif, which is also the site key for the interaction of Isu with Hsp70 Ssq1. Coupled with our previous observation that Nfs1 and Jac1 binding to Isu is mutually exclusive due to partially overlapping binding sites, we propose that such mutual exclusivity of cluster assembly factor (Nfs1/Yfh1) and cluster transfer factor (Jac1/Ssq1) binding to Isu has functional consequences for the transition from the assembly process to the transfer process, and thus regulation of the biogenesis of FeS cluster proteins.

  18. Summarizing lecture: factors influencing enzymatic H-transfers, analysis of nuclear tunnelling isotope effects and thermodynamic versus specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R.A

    2006-01-01

    In the articles in this Discussion, a wide variety of topics are treated, including reorganization energy, initially introduced for electron transfers (‘environmentally assisted tunnelling’), nuclear tunnelling, H/D and C12/C13 kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), the effect of changes of distal and nearby amino acid residues using site-directed mutagenesis, and dynamics versus statistical effects. A coordinate-free form of semi-classical theory is used to examine topics on data such as tunnelling versus ‘over-the-barrier’ paths and temperature and pressure effects on KIEs. The multidimensional semi-classical theory includes classically allowed and classically forbidden transitions. More generally, we address the question of relating kinetic to thermodynamic factors, as in the electron transfer field, so learning about specific versus thermodynamic effects in enzyme catalysis and KIEs. PMID:16873131

  19. Human impact on late-Holocene sediment transfers: typology, controlling factors and scaling issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, G.; Notebaert, B.; Dusar, B.; Poesen, J.; Govers, G.; Paulissen, E.; de Laet, V.; Waelkens, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of the Holocene, humans have impacted the sediment dynamics of hillslopes, river channels and even global river systems, mostly with ever-increasing intensity. However, there is no clear one on one relation between the intensity of human presence (population density) and the magnitude of impact on sediment transfers. Several thresholds have to be crossed for coupling between the various landscape elements in a river catchment to occur, ensuring that anthropogenic landscape disturbances impact larger spatial systems; moreover, these thresholds vary between regions. Furthermore, the nature of human interaction is important as well. Land use change can be considered the most important human impact controlling sediment transfers in the landscape in the past. Nowadays, and depending on the spatial scale, technical interventions are more important not only for sediment flux but also for channel behaviour and morphology. These artificial structures may either couple or decouple the various subsystems of a river catchment. Apart from land use change and engineering practices, humans have also impacted sediment delivery and fluvial morphology indirectly through interventions (or non-interventions) in the complex ecosystem of rivers and floodplains. Overall, the complexity of human impact on fluvial systems has clearly increased through time, making unravelling this impact from current-day sediment archives and predicting the impact of future human disturbances on river and sediment behaviour a major challenge. The construction of multi-temporal sediment budgets and the application of distributed geomorphic models are two tools that can provide a solution to these challenges. Several of these aspects of the human impact on sediment dynamics will be illustrated by case studies from a variety of environments in Belgium, Turkey and the USA, along with some global considerations of sediment transfers.

  20. Factors impacting on nurses' transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Saras

    2002-12-01

    Since nurse education moved to universities, a reoccurring concern of health consumers, health administrators, and some practising nurses is that nurses are not able to transfer the theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. Much has been written about this concern usually under the heading of the theory-practice gap. A common reason that has been highlighted as the cause of this gap is that the theoretical knowledge that nurses learn in academia is predicated on concepts such as humanism and holistic caring. In contrast, the bureaucratic organisation where nurses provide care tends to be based on management concepts where cost containment and outcome measures are more acceptable. Hence nurses' learned values of holistic caring are pitted against the reality of the practice setting. So what is this practice reality? This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the theoretical knowledge of holistic care may be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. In-depth taped interviews with nurses and participant observation were conducted in acute care hospitals in Western Australia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings indicated that utilitarian nursing and role models had impacted on the transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. The paper outlines some measures that nurses themselves can undertake to ensure the narrowing of the theory-practice gap in this area.

  1. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d).

  2. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the

  3. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  4. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  5. A Semi-Empirical Method to Estimate the Response Factors for VOCs in Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Leithead, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Veres, P. R.; Murphy, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds are essential in sustaining atmospheric chemical processes which lie at the heart of most atmospheric environmental issues. Recent advances in VOC measurement technologies have allowed rapid detection of the primary VOCs and their oxidation products. Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) has been widely used to determine air concentrations of many hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons rapidly. The recent advance in PTRMS with time-of-flight mass (TOF) detection, allows hundreds of VOC compounds to be detected simultaneously and rapidly. Converting these detected signals into air concentrations is a challenge. This is usually accomplished with calibrations using a limited number of target compounds at known concentrations. However, for the hundreds of masses in the PTR mass spectrum particularly from TOF detectors, conversion to air concentration is not always practical nor possible if their compound identities are not known. Here, we have developed a new method to estimate the response factors for VOCs to convert the measured ion signals into air concentrations. This method is based on semi-empirical calculations of the rate constants for the proton transfer reactions between the hydronium ion and target hydrocarbons using polarizabilities and permanent dipole moments, and extrapolation to unknown hydrocarbons. The method is further validated with calibration results for selected hydrocarbons. Using these response factors, conversion to air concentrations for many signals in a PTR MS of unknown chemical structures can be accomplished.

  6. JLab measurement of the 4He charge form factor at large momentum transfers.

    PubMed

    Camsonne, A; Katramatou, A T; Olson, M; Sparveris, N; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J-P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W-M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29  fm(-2) ≤ Q2 ≤ 77  fm(-2) from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the high resolution spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The measurements have uncovered a second diffraction minimum for the form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the few-body problem. PMID:24745410

  7. Satisfaction Levels and Factors Influencing Satisfaction With Use of a Social App for Neonatal and Pediatric Patient Transfer Information Systems: A Questionnaire Study Among Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Iee; Kim, Sun Jun; Cho, Soo Chul; Kim, Il Nyeo

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of neonatal and pediatric patients is limited to certain medical institutions depending on treatment difficulty. Effective patient transfers are necessary in situations where there are limited medical resources. In South Korea, the government has made a considerable effort to establish patient transfer systems using various means, such as websites, telephone, and so forth. However, in reality, the effort has not yet been effective. Objective In this study, we ran a patient transfer information system using a social app for effective patient transfer. We analyzed the results, satisfaction levels, and the factors influencing satisfaction. Methods Naver Band is a social app and mobile community application which in Korea is more popular than Facebook. It facilitates group communication. Using Naver Band, two systems were created: one by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the other by the Department of Pediatrics at Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, South Korea. The information necessary for patient transfers was provided to participating obstetricians (n=51) and pediatricians (n=90). We conducted a survey to evaluate the systems and reviewed the results retrospectively. Results The number of patients transferred was reported to increase by 65% (26/40) obstetricians and 40% (23/57) pediatricians. The time taken for transfers was reported to decrease by 72% (29/40) obstetricians and 59% (34/57) pediatricians. Satisfaction was indicated by 83% (33/40) obstetricians and 89% (51/57) pediatricians. Regarding factors influencing satisfaction, the obstetricians reported communication with doctors in charge (P=.03) and time reduction during transfers (P=.02), whereas the pediatricians indicated review of the diagnosis and treatment of transferred patients (P=.01) and the time reduction during transfers (P=.007). Conclusions The users were highly satisfied and different users indicated different factors of satisfaction. This finding

  8. Characterization of human dialyzable transfer factor from normal and chronic lymphoid leukemia sources.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Marescot, M R; Lesourd, B; Doumercq, S; Moulias, R

    1976-01-01

    Dialysates of lymphomonocytes can be roughly quantified through the use of optical density and measurements of RNA and protein contents. Dialysates of normal lymphocytes (N-TFd) contain about 224 +/- 67 mug of RNA-like material per 10(8) cells, 75 to 90% of which is eluted in fractions II and III on Biogel P10 chromatography. In contrast, dialysates of lymphocytes from patients suffering chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL-TFd) contain approximately 12 times less RNA-like material (about 27 +/- 11 mug per 10(8) lymphocytes) and have a different characteristic chromatographic pattern. Bioassays with crude dialysates confirm (a) that N-TFd increases 3H-thymidine incorporation by nonsenstitized lymphocytes "in vitro" in the presence of PPD, and (b) that inbred Lewis rats develop positive skin tests (systemic transfer) after receiving injections of N-TFd or of fractions II and III from Biogel fractionation of N-TFd. Neither test gives positive results when CLL-TFd is used. PMID:817750

  9. Emotional factors and the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer process.

    PubMed

    Mahlstedt, P P; Macduff, S; Bernstein, J

    1987-08-01

    In vitro fertilization is nearly always a treatment of a last resort. This fact, along with the treatment's multiplicity of procedures and intensity, place unique emotional demands on patients. The goal of this research was to describe both the acknowledged emotional state of patients at the time they began the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) process and the emotional experience of the actual procedures themselves. The findings can be used to develop strategies for providing emotional support. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires returned by 94 IVF-ET patients in three Houston programs during a 6-month period. At the time of the IVF procedure, 77% of the population reported that infertility was still a painful concern, not something with which they had learned to live. The loss of control, seen by most patients as infertility's most stressful dimension, left them vulnerable to the intense stresses of in vitro fertilization, less able to handle its multiple demands. Thus for many, the IVF-ET procedures were like an emotional roller coaster on which they experienced a wide range of feelings during a brief period of time. Not surprisingly, emotional strain was a major consideration influencing the decision whether or not to repeat IVF. Patients indicated specific services which the staff could provide to reduce the stress of the procedures.

  10. Role of chemical and ecological factors in trophic transfer of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gobas, F.A.P.C. . School of Resource and Environmental Management); Haffner, G.D. )

    1999-06-01

    Trophic transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants was investigated in an aquatic community composed of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Biomagnification, measured as the increase in lipid-based chemical concentrations in predator over that in prey, was observed for high-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] > 6.3). Low-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] < 5.5) did not biomagnify in the food web, and chemicals with log K[sub OW] between 5.5 and 6.3 showed some evidence of biomagnification. Trophic level differences in chemical accumulation in the food web could not be attributed to bioconcentration into increasing trophic levels with increasing lipid levels, as no relationship was observed between trophic position and lipid content of organisms. Plots of contaminant-ordinated principal component scores in component space predicted the detailed diets of the species examined. It is concluded that (1) trophic interactions play a crucial role in the distribution of high-K[sub OW] chemicals but not for low-K[sub OW] chemicals and that (2) contaminant distributions provide a means to determine structure in aquatic communities.

  11. Factors affecting stepladder stability during a lateral weight transfer: a study in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Shiang; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-09-01

    A fall from a stepladder is often initiated by a loss of lateral stability. An inverted pendulum model of the human, validated by experiment, was used to determine the feasible range of whole-body center of mass (COM) states for which weight can be transferred laterally on a ladder tread without a ladder rail losing contact with the ground ("no lift-off" stability region). The results show that the size of the feasible no lift-off region was inversely proportional to the height of the tread above the ground, the distance of the stance foot from the ipsilateral rail, and lateral ground inclination angle. For given initial COM kinematics on a tread height equal to 40% human body height, a stance-foot location equal to one-eighth tread width and a 3.5 degrees ground inclination had approximately equivalent effects on the no lift-off region size. Ladder stability was three times more sensitive to tread height than to foot location. Laterally-exerted impulsive hand-tool forces should generally be limited to 8% body weight. These findings can lead to improved ladder designs and safety instructions for stepladder users.

  12. A transferable, beta-naphthoflavone-inducible, hyperpolarizing factor is synthesized by native and cultured porcine coronary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, R; Bauersachs, J; Hecker, M; Fleming, I; Busse, R

    1996-01-01

    1. The vascular endothelium releases a hyperpolarizing factor (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, EDHF) tentatively identified as a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid metabolite. However, there is still controversy concerning its transferability and identity. We designed a bioassay system for assessing EDHF release in which the membrane potential was recorded in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells located downstream from donor endothelial cells. 2. Under combined nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclo-oxygenase blockade with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 mumol l-1) and diclofenac (10 mumol l-1), the superfusate from bradykinin (30 mumol l-1)-stimulated, cultured porcine coronary endothelial cells induced a distinct hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. Direct application of bradykinin to the smooth muscle cells resulted solely in membrane depolarization. Similar results were obtained using bradykinin-stimulated porcine coronary arteries as donor. 3. Single-channel current measurements suggest that this EDHF-induced hyperpolarization was elicited by the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. 4. Increasing the transmural pressure within the donor segment significantly enhanced the duration, but not the amplitude of the hyperpolarization induced by the effluate from bradykinin-stimulated donor segments. 5. Inhibition of P450 oxygenase activity with clotrimazole (3 mumol l-1) or 17-octadecynoic acid (3 mumol l-1) abolished EDHF release from the coronary endothelium, while the P450-derived arachidonic acid metabolite, 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, induced a hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells almost identical to that induced by EDHF. Moreover, induction of P450 activity by beta-naphthoflavone (3 mumol l-1, 48 h), significantly increased the bradykinin-induced release of EDHF. 6. These findings suggest that the vascular endothelium releases a transferable hyperpolarizing factor, chemically distinct from NO and prostacyclin, in

  13. Transference and "the Rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of Lubavitch Chassidim.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

    2013-12-01

    The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors. PMID:23824957

  14. Transference and "the Rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of Lubavitch Chassidim.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

    2013-12-01

    The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors.

  15. Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss of imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Gore, Athurva; Paull, Daniel; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Li, Zhe; LeDuc, Charles; Shen, Yufeng; Stern, Samantha; Xu, Nanfang; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Sauer, Mark V; Zhang, Kun; Benvenisty, Nissim; Egli, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    The recent finding that reprogrammed human pluripotent stem cells can be derived by nuclear transfer into human oocytes as well as by induced expression of defined factors has revitalized the debate on whether one approach might be advantageous over the other. Here we compare the genetic and epigenetic integrity of human nuclear-transfer embryonic stem cell (NT-ESC) lines and isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, derived from the same somatic cell cultures of fetal, neonatal, and adult origin. The two cell types showed similar genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiles. Importantly, NT-ESCs and iPSCs had comparable numbers of de novo coding mutations, but significantly more than parthenogenetic ESCs. As iPSCs, NT-ESCs displayed clone- and gene-specific aberrations in DNA methylation and allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. The occurrence of these genetic and epigenetic defects in both NT-ESCs and iPSCs suggests that they are inherent to reprogramming, regardless of derivation approach.

  16. Trichostatin A specifically improves the aberrant expression of transcription factor genes in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Oikawa, Mami; Kamimura, Satoshi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Although mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established in various species, the low developmental efficiency has hampered its practical applications. Treatment of SCNT-derived embryos with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can improve their development, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this question, we analysed gene expression profiles of SCNT-derived 2-cell mouse embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor that is best used for mouse cloning. Unexpectedly, TSA had no effect on the numbers of aberrantly expressed genes or the overall gene expression pattern in the embryos. However, in-depth investigation by gene ontology and functional analyses revealed that TSA treatment specifically improved the expression of a small subset of genes encoding transcription factors and their regulatory factors, suggesting their positive involvement in de novo RNA synthesis. Indeed, introduction of one of such transcription factors, Spi-C, into the embryos at least partially mimicked the TSA-induced improvement in embryonic development by activating gene networks associated with transcriptional regulation. Thus, the effects of TSA treatment on embryonic gene expression did not seem to be stochastic, but more specific than expected, targeting genes that direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the 2-cell stage. PMID:25974394

  17. Transferring disease management and health promotion programs to other countries: critical success factors.

    PubMed

    Azarmina, Pejman; Prestwich, Graham; Rosenquist, Joel; Singh, Debbie

    2008-12-01

    Governments and health service providers around the world are under pressure to improve health outcomes while containing rising healthcare costs. In response to such challenges, many regions have implemented services that have been successful in other countries-but 'importing' initiatives has many challenges. This article summarizes factors found to be critical to the success of adapting a US disease management and health promotion programme for use in Italy and the UK. Using three illustrative case studies, it describes how in each region the programme needed to adapt (i) the form and content of the disease management service, (ii) the involvement and integration with local clinicians and services and (iii) the evaluation of programme outcomes. We argue that it is important to implement evidence-based practice by learning lessons from other countries and service initiatives, but that it is equally important to take into consideration the '3Ps' that are critical for successful service implementation: payers, practitioners and patients.

  18. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  19. Development of a general equation to determine the transfer factor feed-to-meat for radiocesium on the basis of the body mass of domestic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Nalezinski, S.; Ruehm, W.; Wirth, E.

    1996-05-01

    Transfer factors from feed to meat (5{sub {integral}}), taken from literature for monogastric animals and ruminants have been correlated to their corresponding animal body mass (m{sub b}). Taking all data into account, a close relationship between both transfer factor and body mass becomes evident, yielding a regression function of (T{sub {integral}} = 8.0 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.91}) (r = -0.97). For monogastric animals (including poultry), the corresponding relationships are T{sub {integral}} = 1.9 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.72} (r = 0.78). The equations offer the opportunity to estimate the transfer factor for individual animals more precisely taking individual body masses into account. They are of interest for animals, on which no or only poor data concerning radiocesium transfer factors are available. The determination of radiocesium transfer factors are reduced to a simple weighing process. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hugo G; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  1. An Integrated Model of Transcription Factor Diffusion Shows the Importance of Intersegmental Transfer and Quaternary Protein Structure for Target Site Finding

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hugo G.; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S.; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a ‘hopping’ motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure. PMID:25333780

  2. Intramyocardial transfer of hepatocyte growth factor as an adjunct to CABG: phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Hwang, H Y; Cho, K R; Park, E-A; Lee, W; Paeng, J C; Lee, D S; Kim, H-K; Sohn, D-W; Kim, K-B

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this phase I clinical trial was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential efficacy of VM202, naked DNA expressing two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor, as an adjunct therapy to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Nine patients were assigned to receive increasing doses (0.5 to 2.0 mg) of VM202 injected into the right coronary artery (RCA) territory following completion of CABG for the left coronary artery territory. Patients were evaluated for safety and tolerability, and changes in myocardial functions were monitored via echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography throughout 6-month follow-up period. No serious complication related to VM202 was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Global myocardial functions (wall motion score index, P=0.0084; stress perfusion, P=0.0002) improved during the follow-up period. In the RCA region, there was an increase in the stress perfusion (baseline vs 3-month, P=0.024; baseline vs 6-month, P=0.024) and also in the wall thickness of the diastolic and systolic phases. Intramyocardial injection of VM202 can be safely used in IHD patients with the tolerable dose of 2.0 mg. In addition, VM202 might appear to have improved regional myocardial perfusion and wall thickness in the injected region. PMID:23151518

  3. Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of the secretion of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) by leucocyte dialysate and by its components L-serine and glycine.

    PubMed Central

    Ashorn, R G; Räsänen, L; Marnela, K M; Krohn, K J

    1979-01-01

    The effect of human transfer factor (TF) or its components L-serine and/or glycine in tuberculin (PPD), or leucoagglutinin (LA) induced leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) secretion was studied. Augmentation of LIF secretion was seen with low concentration ( = 0.078 g/l) of TF when lymphocytes were cultured in minimum essential medium for suspension cultures (MEM-S), a culture medium lacking L-serine and glycine. High concentrations (0.3125-5.0 g/l dry weight) of TF were inhibitory in MEM-S. In RPMI 1640, a culture medium containing L-serine and glycine, TF was either inhibitory or had no effect. The combination of L-serine and glycine, at concentrations equivalent or lower than the optimum of TF, had an augmenting effect on LIF secretion identical to that of TF, but no inhibition at higher concentrations was seen. The results indicate that human TF contains components which have suppressive or augmenting effects on LIF secretion in vitro. The augmenting effect may be mainly due to L-serine and glycine and thus not related to TF's activity in vivo. PMID:385187

  4. A Member of the Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor Family Is Required for Maturation of Chloroplast Transfer RNAIle(GAU)

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Isidora; Manavski, Nikolay; Morosetti, Arianna; Tadini, Luca; Maier, Swetlana; Kühn, Kristina; Ruwe, Hannes; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Plastid gene expression is crucial for organelle function, but the factors that control it are still largely unclear. Members of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family are found in metazoans and plants and regulate organellar gene expression at different levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene (trnI.2) located in the rRNA operon. In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. At present, it is unclear whether disturbed rRNA maturation is a primary or secondary defect. However, it is clear that mTERF6 is required for the maturation of trnI.2. This points to an additional function of mTERFs. PMID:26152711

  5. Blocking single-stranded transferred DNA conversion to double-stranded intermediates by overexpression of yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A.

    PubMed

    Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1-RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the β-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. PMID:25424309

  6. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or α myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  7. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

  8. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    PubMed

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P < 0.05) level in SCNT oocytes that were treated post-fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos.

  9. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans.

  10. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-I cDNA gene transfer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tao, Z; Herndon, D; Hawkins, H; Wood, T; Perez-Polo, R

    2000-02-01

    Our hypothesis is that gene transfer of an IGF-I CMV-cDNA with cholesterol containing cationic liposomes is an efficient tool for transient transfection of growth factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, we transiently cotransfected IGF-I cDNA with a CMV construct and a Lac Z beta-galactosidase cDNA/CMV construct using cholesterol containing cationic liposomes and measured beta-galactosidase and IGF-I mRNA and protein. In vivo, we subcutaneously injected 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with IGF-I cDNA and beta-galactosidase cDNA into rat skin. After IGF-I and beta-galactosidase were cotransfected into PC12 cells, Northern blot analysis showed that the peak time of IGF-I expression was 2 days for mRNA and 5 days for protein. In vivo, a cDNA/liposome ratio of 1:2 was most effective. IGF-I protein expression in IGF-I-transfected skin resulted in significant transfection from day 5 to day 7. In situ determination of beta-galactosidase activity confirmed that transfections resulted in a restricted expression area. PMID:10862358

  12. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  13. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans. PMID:23947070

  14. Adenovector-mediated gene transfer of active transforming growth factor-beta1 induces prolonged severe fibrosis in rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Sime, P J; Xing, Z; Graham, F L; Csaky, K G; Gauldie, J

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis based upon its matrix-inducing effects on stromal cells in vitro, and studies demonstrating increased expression of total TGF-beta1 in fibrotic tissues from a variety of organs. The precise role in vivo of this cytokine in both its latent and active forms, however, remains unclear. Using replication-deficient adenovirus vectors to transfer the cDNA of porcine TGF-beta1 to rat lung, we have been able to study the effect of TGF-beta1 protein in the respiratory tract directly. We have demonstrated that transient overexpression of active, but not latent, TGF-beta1 resulted in prolonged and severe interstitial and pleural fibrosis characterized by extensive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen, fibronectin, and elastin, and by emergence of cells with the myofibroblast phenotype. These results illustrate the role of TGF-beta1 and the importance of its activation in the pulmonary fibrotic process, and suggest that targeting active TGF-beta1 and steps involved in TGF-beta1 activation are likely to be valuable antifibrogenic therapeutic strategies. This new and versatile model of pulmonary fibrosis can be used to study such therapies. PMID:9259574

  15. Robotic technology evolution and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1992-01-01

    A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

  16. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts.

    PubMed

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.

  17. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  18. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  19. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA ); Darlington, G. ); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  20. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Armentano, D; Thompson, A R; Darlington, G; Woo, S L

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently gamma-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  1. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid.

  2. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

  3. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  4. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  5. Quantification of the vascular endothelial growth factor with a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based single molecule biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, T; Lorenz, B; Stieger, K

    2016-12-15

    Neovascular pathologies in the eye like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the diabetic retinopathie (DR), retinopathie of prematurity (ROP) or the retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are caused through a hypoxia induced upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). So far a correlation of intraocular VEGF concentrations to the impact of the pathologies is limited because of invasive sampling. Therefore, a minimally invasive, repeatable quantification of VEGF levels in the eye is needed to correlate the stage of VEGF induced pathologies as well as the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Here we describe the development of three variants of enhanced BRET2 (eBRET2) based, single molecule biosensors by fusing a Renilla luciferase mutant with enhanced light output (RLuc8) to the N-terminus and a suitable eBRET2 acceptor fluorophore (GFP2) to the C-terminus of a VEGF binding domain, directly fused or separated with two different peptide linkers for the quantification of VEGF in vitro. The VEGF binding domain consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) based on ranibizumab in which the light- and the heavy- F(ab) chains were connected with a peptide linker to generate one open reading frame (orf). All three variants generate measureable eBRET2 ratios by transferring energy from the luciferase donor to the GFP2 acceptor, whereas only the directly fused and the proline variant permit VEGF quantification. The directly fused biosensor variant allows the quantification of VEGF with higher sensitivity, compared to the widely used ELISA systems and a wide dynamic quantification range in vitro. Our system demonstrates not only an additional in vitro application on VEGF quantification but also a promising step towards an applicable biosensor in an implantable device able to quantify VEGF reliably after implantation in vivo. PMID:27459244

  6. Quantification of the vascular endothelial growth factor with a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based single molecule biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, T; Lorenz, B; Stieger, K

    2016-12-15

    Neovascular pathologies in the eye like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the diabetic retinopathie (DR), retinopathie of prematurity (ROP) or the retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are caused through a hypoxia induced upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). So far a correlation of intraocular VEGF concentrations to the impact of the pathologies is limited because of invasive sampling. Therefore, a minimally invasive, repeatable quantification of VEGF levels in the eye is needed to correlate the stage of VEGF induced pathologies as well as the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Here we describe the development of three variants of enhanced BRET2 (eBRET2) based, single molecule biosensors by fusing a Renilla luciferase mutant with enhanced light output (RLuc8) to the N-terminus and a suitable eBRET2 acceptor fluorophore (GFP2) to the C-terminus of a VEGF binding domain, directly fused or separated with two different peptide linkers for the quantification of VEGF in vitro. The VEGF binding domain consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) based on ranibizumab in which the light- and the heavy- F(ab) chains were connected with a peptide linker to generate one open reading frame (orf). All three variants generate measureable eBRET2 ratios by transferring energy from the luciferase donor to the GFP2 acceptor, whereas only the directly fused and the proline variant permit VEGF quantification. The directly fused biosensor variant allows the quantification of VEGF with higher sensitivity, compared to the widely used ELISA systems and a wide dynamic quantification range in vitro. Our system demonstrates not only an additional in vitro application on VEGF quantification but also a promising step towards an applicable biosensor in an implantable device able to quantify VEGF reliably after implantation in vivo.

  7. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application.

  8. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  9. Soil arsenic availability and the transfer of soil arsenic to crops in suburban areas in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui-Qing; Gao, Shu-Fang; Wang, Wei-Ling; Staunton, S; Wang, Guo

    2006-09-15

    The bioavailability, soil-to-plant transfer and associated health risks of arsenic in soils collected from paddy rice fields and vegetable fields in suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province were investigated. The total soil concentrations of arsenic ranged from 1.29 to 25.28 mg kg(-)(1) with a mean of 6.09 mg kg(-)(1). Available (NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable) arsenic content accounted for 0.7-38.2% of total soil arsenic and was significantly correlated with total soil arsenic content. For the vegetable soils, the available fraction (ratio of available As to total As) of arsenic decreased with decreasing silt (particle size 0.02-0.002 mm) and free iron (DCB extractable) contents and with increasing soil pH and organic matter content. The available fraction of arsenic in the paddy rice soils increased with increasing free iron and organic matter contents and decreasing soil pH and silt content. The correlation of NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable arsenic with the arsenic concentration of the vegetables was much better than that of total As. The transfer factor based on the soil available arsenic (TF(avail)) was chosen to compare the accumulation ability of the various crops. The TF(avail) values of rice grains (air-dried weight basis) ranged between 0.068 and 0.44 and were higher than those of the vegetables, ranging from 0.001 to 0.12. The accumulation ability of the crops decreased in the order of rice>radish>water spinach>celery>onion>taro>leaf mustard>fragrant-flowered garlic>pakchoi>Chinese cabbage>lettuce>garlic>cowpea>cauliflower>bottle gourd>towel gourd>eggplant. Daily consumption of rice and other As-rich vegetables could result in an excessive intake of arsenic, based on the provisional tolerable intake for adults for arsenic recommended by WHO. PMID:16624379

  10. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  11. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  12. Soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, In-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse to investigate the soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc in two different upland soils labeled with (99)TcO4(-) in two contrasting ways. One was to mix the soil with a (99)TcO4(-) solution 26 d before sowing (pre-sowing deposition: PSD), and the other was to apply the solution onto the soil surface 44 d after sowing (growing-period deposition: GPD). The soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with the transfer factor (TF, ratio of the plant concentration to the average of at-planting and at-harvest soil concentrations) or the aggregated transfer factor (TFag, ratio of the plant concentration to the deposition density). For both the depositions, the transfer of (99)Tc to aerial parts decreased in the order of leaf > stem > pod > seed. TF values (dimensionless) from the PSD were 0.22 and 0.27 (no statistically significant difference) for mature dry seeds in the respective soils, whereas a 600-fold higher value occurred for dry leaves. The post-harvest concentrations of the PSD (99)Tc in the top 20 cm soils as a whole were about half the initial concentrations. Around 25% of the total applied activity remained in the GPD soils after the harvest. The post-harvest depth profiles of the GPD (99)Tc in the two soils showed similar patterns of logarithmic activity decrease with increasing soil depths. Only 1.5-4.3% of the total applied activity was removed through the harvested biomass (seeds, pods and stems), and it was estimated that a great part of the total pant uptake returned to the soil through the fallen leaves. TFag values (m(2) kg(-1)) were about 2-4 times higher for the GPD than for the PSD. This finding and generally high root uptake of Tc may indicate that the use of empirical deposition time-dependent TFag data is particularly important for predicting the plant concentrations of Tc after its growing-period deposition.

  13. Soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, In-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse to investigate the soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc in two different upland soils labeled with (99)TcO4(-) in two contrasting ways. One was to mix the soil with a (99)TcO4(-) solution 26 d before sowing (pre-sowing deposition: PSD), and the other was to apply the solution onto the soil surface 44 d after sowing (growing-period deposition: GPD). The soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with the transfer factor (TF, ratio of the plant concentration to the average of at-planting and at-harvest soil concentrations) or the aggregated transfer factor (TFag, ratio of the plant concentration to the deposition density). For both the depositions, the transfer of (99)Tc to aerial parts decreased in the order of leaf > stem > pod > seed. TF values (dimensionless) from the PSD were 0.22 and 0.27 (no statistically significant difference) for mature dry seeds in the respective soils, whereas a 600-fold higher value occurred for dry leaves. The post-harvest concentrations of the PSD (99)Tc in the top 20 cm soils as a whole were about half the initial concentrations. Around 25% of the total applied activity remained in the GPD soils after the harvest. The post-harvest depth profiles of the GPD (99)Tc in the two soils showed similar patterns of logarithmic activity decrease with increasing soil depths. Only 1.5-4.3% of the total applied activity was removed through the harvested biomass (seeds, pods and stems), and it was estimated that a great part of the total pant uptake returned to the soil through the fallen leaves. TFag values (m(2) kg(-1)) were about 2-4 times higher for the GPD than for the PSD. This finding and generally high root uptake of Tc may indicate that the use of empirical deposition time-dependent TFag data is particularly important for predicting the plant concentrations of Tc after its growing-period deposition. PMID:24556176

  14. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  15. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  16. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems. II. Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandralekha; Singh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written…

  17. Factors in the Effective Transfer of Knowledge from Multinational Enterprises to Their Foreign Subsidiaries: A Mozambican Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte Moleiro Martins, José

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand the role of internal stakeholders in subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) in order to offer potential insights into the cross-border transfer of knowledge from those companies' headquarters to their subsidiaries. The focus is upon subsidiaries in developing countries, here Mozambique.…

  18. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  19. Chorioretinitis with a combined defect in T and B lymphocytes and granulocytes. A new syndrome successfully treated with dialyzable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor).

    PubMed

    Kyong, C U; Wilson, G B; Fudenberg, H H; Goust, J M; Richardson, P; Echerd, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient with immune deficiency, recurrent pyogenic infections and active chorioretinitis is described; in addition to agammaglobulinemia, both quantitative and qualitative T-cell deficiencies were documented. Furthermore, the patient's granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes), although normal in their bactericidal capacity for Staphylococcus, responded poorly to both leukocyte migration inhibition factor and neutrophil immobilizing factor obtained from normal cells. The immunologic features of this patient appear to comprise a new syndrome. Remarkable diminution of the ocular lesions and increased visual acuity occurred within two months after the initiation of therapy with dialyzable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor). Concurrent testing of the patient's cell-mediated immunity showed increased numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and improved T-cell function following dialyzable leukocyte extract [DLE] therapy. The dramatic clinical results indicate that similar therapy may prove to be beneficial in other patients with chorioretinitis and T-cell deficiency. PMID:6992573

  20. Exploring the Contextual Factors Related to Transfer of Learning in a High School Implementation of the eMINTS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Truly impacting teacher practices is a challenge for educational professional development (PD) providers. Typically, little attention is paid to the factors within the environment to which the educators return and how those factors will impact participants' ability to integrate what they have learned into their teaching practices. Even for…

  1. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics.

  2. DYW-type PPR proteins in a heterolobosean protist: plant RNA editing factors involved in an ancient horizontal gene transfer?

    PubMed

    Knoop, Volker; Rüdinger, Mareike

    2010-10-22

    A particular type of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with variable length of the 35 aa PPR motifs and conserved carboxyterminal extensions, named the PLS proteins, was so far exclusively identified in land plants. Several PLS proteins with such domain extensions (E, E+, DYW) were shown to be involved in plant organellar RNA editing but their evolutionary origin had remained enigmatic. We here report the first case of DYW-type PLS proteins outside of the plant kingdom in the protist Naegleria gruberi and hypothesize on horizontal gene transfer in very early land plant evolution.

  3. Factors Determining the Efficiency of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Data Analysis with Over 200,000 Reconstructed Embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbin; Dou, Hongwei; Xiang, Xi; Li, Lin; Li, Yong; Lin, Lin; Pang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Yijie; Chen, Yu; Luan, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenxian; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gabor; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research is usually limited to several hundreds or thousands of reconstructed embryos. Here, we report mass results obtained with an established and consistent porcine SCNT system (handmade cloning [HMC]). During the experimental period, 228,230 reconstructed embryos and 82,969 blastocysts were produced. After being transferred into 656 recipients, 1070 piglets were obtained. First, the effects of different types of donor cells, including fetal fibroblasts (FFs), adult fibroblasts (AFs), adult preadipocytes (APs), and adult blood mesenchymal (BM) cells, were investigated on the further in vitro and in vivo development. Compared to adult donor cells (AFs, APs, BM cells, respectively), FF cells resulted in a lower blastocyst/reconstructed embryo rate (30.38% vs. 37.94%, 34.65%, and 34.87%, respectively), but a higher overall efficiency on the number of piglets born alive per total blastocysts transferred (1.50% vs. 0.86%, 1.03%, and 0.91%, respectively) and a lower rate of developmental abnormalities (10.87% vs. 56.57%, 24.39%, and 51.85%, respectively). Second, recloning was performed with cloned adult fibroblasts (CAFs) and cloned fetal fibroblasts (CFFs). When CAFs were used as the nuclear donor, fewer developmental abnormalities and higher overall efficiency were observed compared to AFs (56.57% vs. 28.13% and 0.86% vs. 1.59%, respectively). However, CFFs had an opposite effect on these parameters when compared with CAFs (94.12% vs. 10.87% and 0.31% vs. 1.50%, respectively). Third, effects of genetic modification on the efficiency of SCNT were investigated with transgenic fetal fibroblasts (TFFs) and gene knockout fetal fibroblasts (KOFFs). Genetic modification of FFs increased developmental abnormalities (38.96% and 25.24% vs. 10.87% for KOFFs, TFFs, and FFs, respectively). KOFFs resulted in lower overall efficiency compared to TFFs and FFs (0.68% vs. 1.62% and 1.50%, respectively). In conclusion, this is the

  4. Evolution of a Sigma Factor: An All-In-One of Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Purifying Selection, and Promoter Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    López-Leal, Gamaliel; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are an essential part of bacterial gene regulation and have been extensively studied as far as their molecular mechanisms and protein structure are concerned. However, their molecular evolution, especially for the alternative sigma factors, is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolutionary forces that have shaped the rpoH sigma factors within the alphaproteobacteria. We found that an ancient duplication gave rise to two major groups of rpoH sigma factors and that after this event horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurred in rpoH1 group. We also noted that purifying selection has differentially affected distinct parts of the gene; singularly, the gene segment that encodes the region 4.2, which interacts with the −35 motif of the RpoH-dependent genes, has been under relaxed purifying selection. Furthermore, these two major groups are clearly differentiated from one another regarding their promoter selectivity, as rpoH1 is under the transcriptional control of σ70 and σ32, whereas rpoH2 is under the transcriptional control of σ24. Our results suggest a scenario in which HGT, gene loss, variable purifying selection and clear promoter specialization occurred after the ancestral duplication event. More generally, our study offers insights into the molecular evolution of alternative sigma factors and highlights the importance of analyzing not only the coding regions but also the promoter regions. PMID:27199915

  5. Factors affecting the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to roe deer in forest ecosystems of southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, P; Pröhl, G; Müller, H; Lindner, G; Drissner, J; Zibold, G

    1996-11-29

    Since 1987, in Southern Germany, as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has been intensively monitored. A large data set is now available with approximately 5000 samples, with information about the location of the animal, the time of slaughtering, soil characteristics and distance to intensively managed agricultural land. Both the roe deer 137Cs activity concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficients soil-roe deer (T(ag,r)) show a considerable variability with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation in meat of 270.3.5 +/- 1 Bq.kg-1 and 0.01.3.5 +/- 1 m2.kg-1, respectively. From 1987 to 1991, T(ag,r) values exhibited a decline with an ecological half-life of about 3 years. Since 1991, no further decrease of the roe deer contamination level was observed. This general trend is superimposed by an increase in T(ag,r) in autumn that has occurred in almost every year, which is probably due to consumption of mushrooms. This hypothesis is supported by a significant positive correlation between the precipitation during July and August, stimulating the fungi's growth and the height of the maximum in T(ag,r) in autumn. Animals are less contaminated when living in parts of the forest from where they have access to intensively managed agricultural land. A small, but significant correlation is observed between the T(ag,r) and soil parameters; the total potassium content of the soil and the pH of the organic soil layer. The highest transfer coefficients soil-roe deer were found on a peat bog, where most values ranged from 0.01-0.1 m2.kg-1, and neither a pronounced seasonal variation, nor a long-term decrease was observed. On sites with coniferous forests, most T(ag,r) values range from 0.005 to 0.05 m2.kg-1, on sites with a mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees, the transfer coefficients range mostly from 0.002 to 0.02 m2.kg-1. This is a further indication of the importance of the uppermost

  6. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Luc Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  7. Rapid detection of the factor V Leiden (1691 G > A) and haemochromatosis (845 G > A) mutation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and real time PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Neoh, S H; Brisco, M J; Firgaira, F A; Trainor, K J; Turner, D R; Morley, A A

    1999-01-01

    A rapid method based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the haemochromatosis genotype in 112 individuals and the factor V genotype in 134 individuals. The results were compared with conventional methods based on restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products. The two methods agreed in 244 of the 246 individuals; for the other two individuals, sequencing showed that they had been incorrectly genotyped by the standard method but correctly genotyped by FRET. The simplicity, speed, and accuracy of real time PCR analysis using FRET probes make it the method of choice in the clinical laboratory for genotyping the haemochromatosis and factor V genes. PMID:10674036

  8. Health status and risk factors associated with failure of passive transfer of immunity in newborn beef calves in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Virginie; Bouchard, Émile; Fecteau, Gilles; Dutil, Lucie; DuTremblay, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Risk factors associated with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT) were evaluated among newborn beef calves in Québec. Physical examination was performed on calves born of a normal calving and blood samples were collected for determination of health status and measurement of serum concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1. Of 225 calves, from 45 herds, 19 % showed FPT (serum IgG1 concentration < 10.0 g/L). Calves born in a stanchion-stall were more likely to show FPT (OR: 10.2). Calves bottle-fed colostrum were less at risk for FPT (OR: 0.06). Calf gender, month of birth, dam parity, and dam body condition score were not associated with FPT. No association was detected between FPT and health status. Special care should be given to calves born from cows in a stanchion-stall to ensure adequate colostrum intake. Failure of passive transfer of immunity should be considered with other risk factors when investigating morbidity. PMID:14664353

  9. Gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor by the use of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2006-05-01

    We successfully delivered a therapeutic vector construct, which carries hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene, to rat skin in vivo. After HGF expression vector had been intradermally injected to rat skin, LISWs were generated by irradiating the laser target put on the rat skin with nanosecond pulses from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Concentration of HGF protein increased by a factor of four by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application. We also investigated the effects of LISWs on the integrity of plasmid DNA.

  10. Soil-plant transfer of plutonium and americium in contaminated regions of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Ivanova, T G; Leinova, S L

    2004-09-01

    Experimental data are presented for the soil to plant transfer of plutonium and americium into the main species of grass vegetation of Belarusian grasslands contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe of 1986. The content of radionuclides in pore soil solutions and the total reserve of biologically available forms of plutonium and americium in rooting layers of different soil varieties have been established. The distribution coefficients of (239,240)Pu and 241Am between the solid phase and pore waters of soils have been evaluated. The migration ability and biological availability of radionuclides in soils with different structures of the absorbing complex have been analyzed for various landscape conditions. The dependence of soil to plant transfer of plutonium and americium on the content and composition of organic matter, and other characteristics of the soil complex has been studied. On the basis of these data, predictions of the contamination levels of the main grass species of natural and agricultural ecosystems by 241Am are presented.

  11. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  12. Factors Determining the Risk of Inadvertent Retroviral Transduction of Male Germ Cells After In Utero Gene Transfer in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul J.; Colletti, Evan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Wood, Josh A.; Tellez, Joe; Almeida-Porada, Graça

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The possibility of permanent genetic changes to the germline is central to the bioethics of in utero gene therapy (IUGT) because of the concern of inadvertent potentially deleterious alterations to the gene pool. Despite presumed protection of the male germline due to early germ cell (GC) compartmentalization, we reported that GCs within the developing ovine testes are transduced at low levels after retrovirus-mediated IUGT, thus underscoring the need for a thorough understanding of GC development in clinically predictive models to determine the optimal time to perform IUGT and avoid germline modification. In the present studies, we used the fetal sheep model to analyze GCs for phenotype, location, proliferation, and incidence of transduction after IUGT at various fetal ages to learn when during development the nascent germline is likely to be at greatest risk of retrovirus-mediated alteration. Our studies show that although GCs were transduced at all injection ages, the levels of transduction varied by nearly 700-fold as a function of the age at transfer. After remaining largely quiescent as they migrated to/settled within nascent sex cords, GCs began active cycling before cord closure was complete, suggesting this is likely the point at which they would be most susceptible to retroviral transduction. Furthermore, we observed that compartmentalization of GCs continued into early postnatal life, suggesting the male germline may be vulnerable to low-level inadvertent retroviral vector modification throughout fetal life, but that this risk can be minimized by performing IUGT later in gestation. PMID:19301473

  13. Metals in benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical factors affecting their trophic transfer to wild fish around fish farm cages.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, I; Papageorgiou, N; Sevastou, K; Black, K D; Pergantis, S A; Karakassis, I

    2014-02-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates and wild fish aggregating in the vicinity of four Mediterranean fish farms were sampled. Concentrations of metals and other elements were measured in macrofaunal taxa and in fish tissues (muscle, liver, gills, bone, gonad, stomach, intestine, and stomach content). Biological and geochemical characteristics play an important role in metal accumulation in benthic invertebrates, and consequently in metal transfer to higher trophic levels. Macroinvertebrates accumulated lower concentrations of most metals and elements than their respective sediment, except As, P, Na, Zn and Cd. Elemental concentrations of benthic organisms increased with increasing sediment metal content, except Cd, and with % silt, refractory organic matter and chlorophyll-a of sediment due to the influence of sediment geochemistry on metal bioavailability. Tolerant species were found to accumulate higher concentrations of most metals and elements, except for Cd, than equilibrium species. The ecological and morphological characteristics of the benthic invertebrates can affect the bioaccumulation of metals and elements in macrobenthos. Hg and P were found to increase their concentrations from zoobenthos to wild fish aggregating around fish cages feeding on macrofauna.

  14. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-11-01

    Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins.

  15. Human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55) and interleukin 10 gene transfer in the mouse reduces mortality to lethal endotoxemia and also attenuates local inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Anticytokine therapies have been promulgated in gram-negative sepsis as a means of preventing or neutralizing excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, systemic administration of cytokine inhibitors is an inefficient means of targeting excessive production in individual tissue compartments. In the present study, human gene transfer was used to deliver to organs of the reticuloendothelial system antagonists that either inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) synthesis or block its interactions with cellular receptors. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with cationic liposomes containing 200 micrograms of either a pCMV (cytomegalovirus)/p55 expression plasmid that contains the extracellular domain and transmembrane region of the human p55 TNF receptor, or a pcD-SR-alpha/hIL-10 expression plasmid containing the DNA for human interleukin 10. 48 h later, mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine. Pretreatment of mice with p55 or IL-10 cDNA-liposome complexes improved survival (p < 0.01) to LPS-D-galactosamine. In additional studies, intratracheal administration of IL-10 DNA-liposome complexes 48 h before an intratracheal LPS challenge reduced pulmonary TNF-alpha levels by 62% and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the lung by 55% as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (both p < 0.05). Gene transfer with cytokine inhibitors is a promising option for the treatment of both the systemic and local sequelae of septic shock. PMID:7760015

  16. Intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography for guiding direct myocardial gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with refractory angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Esakof, D D; Maysky, M; Losordo, D W; Vale, P R; Lathi, K; Pastore, J O; Symes, J F; Isner, J M

    1999-09-20

    Gene transfer for therapeutic angiogenesis represents a novel treatment for patients with chronic angina refractory to standard medical therapy and not amenable to conventional revascularization. We sought to assess the role of intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (MPTEE) in guiding injection of naked DNA encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of patients with refractory angina. After exposing the LV myocardium via a limited lateral thoracotomy, each of 17 patients in this series received 4 separate injections of VEGF DNA into different myocardial sites. Initial injections in the first patient produced intracavitary microbubbles, indicating injection of DNA into the LV chamber. Subsequently, each injection was preceded by a test injection of agitated saline. The absence of microbubbles while visualizing the LV cavity during the test injection verified that the ensuing injection of DNA would not be inadvertently squandered in the LV chamber itself. Intracavitary LV microbubbles were observed by MPTEE in 13 of 64 (20.3%) saline test injections and in 8 of 16 (50.0%) patients in which saline test injection was used, leading to adjustments in needle position. MPTEE imaging detected a previously unknown large, apical left ventricular thrombus in one patient, thereby preventing inadvertent injection of VEGF DNA through the myocardium into the thrombus. Imaging during and after injection verified no deleterious impact on LV function. We conclude that MPTEE is a useful tool for ensuring that myocardial gene therapy performed by direct needle injection results in gene transfer to the LV myocardium.

  17. The Time-Dependent Transfer Factor of Radiocesium from Soil to Game Animals in Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Howard, Brenda J; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures. Our initially compiled data showed that the maximum reported (137)Cs activity concentration in wild boar after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident were lower than those reported after the Chernobyl accident. The geometric mean Tag values (m(2)kg(-1) fw) of (137)Cs in 2015 for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer and copper pheasant were similar (1.9-5.1) × 10(-3) while those for green pheasant and wild duck were about 1 order of magnitude lower at (1.0-2.2) × 10(-4). Effective half-lives were 1.2-6.9 y except for sika deer and copper pheasant where no decreases were found. In contrast to the Chernobyl accident, no seasonal change occurred in the meat (137)Cs activity concentrations of the wild animals during the study period.

  18. The Time-Dependent Transfer Factor of Radiocesium from Soil to Game Animals in Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Howard, Brenda J; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures. Our initially compiled data showed that the maximum reported (137)Cs activity concentration in wild boar after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident were lower than those reported after the Chernobyl accident. The geometric mean Tag values (m(2)kg(-1) fw) of (137)Cs in 2015 for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer and copper pheasant were similar (1.9-5.1) × 10(-3) while those for green pheasant and wild duck were about 1 order of magnitude lower at (1.0-2.2) × 10(-4). Effective half-lives were 1.2-6.9 y except for sika deer and copper pheasant where no decreases were found. In contrast to the Chernobyl accident, no seasonal change occurred in the meat (137)Cs activity concentrations of the wild animals during the study period. PMID:27513196

  19. Improved measurement of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (kws) with experimental factor-compensated and T1-normalized quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Renhua; Liu, Charng-Ming; Liu, Philip K; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI enables measurement of dilute CEST agents and microenvironment properties such as pH and temperature, holding great promise for in vivo applications. However, because of confounding concomitant RF irradiation and relaxation effects, the CEST-weighted MRI contrast may not fully characterize the underlying CEST phenomenon. We postulated that the accuracy of quantitative CEST MRI could be improved if the experimental factors (labeling efficiency and RF spillover effect) were estimated and taken into account. Specifically, the experimental factor was evaluated as a function of exchange rate and CEST agent concentration ratio, which remained relatively constant for intermediate RF irradiation power levels. Hence, the experimental factors can be calculated based on the reasonably estimated exchange rate and labile proton concentration ratio, which significantly improved quantification. The simulation was confirmed with Creatine phantoms of serially varied concentration titrated to the same pH, whose reverse exchange rate (kws) was found to be linearly correlated with the concentration. In summary, the proposed solution provides simplified yet reasonably accurate quantification of the underlying CEST system, which may help guide the ongoing development of quantitative CEST MRI. PMID:22649044

  20. Restrained refinement of the monoclinic form of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. Temperature factors and dynamics, coordinated waters, and base-pair propeller twist angles.

    PubMed

    Westhof, E; Sundaralingam, M

    1986-08-26

    The structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA in the monoclinic form has been further refined by using the restrained least-squares method of Hendrickson and Konnert. For the 4019 reflections between 10 and 3 A, with magnitudes at least 3 times their standard deviations, the R factor is 16.8%. The variation of the atomic temperature factors along the sequence indicates that the major flexibility regions are the amino acid and anticodon stems. The two strands of the amino acid helix exhibit large differential temperature factors, suggesting partial uncoiling or melting of the helix. In this work, the occupancy of all atoms was also varied. Residues D16 and D17 of the dihydrouridine loop as well as U33 and G37 of the anticodon loop have occupancies around 70%, indicating some local disorder or large-scale mobility at these positions. One hundred fifteen solvent molecules, including five magnesium ions, were found in difference maps. The role of several water molecules is clearly related to the stabilization of the secondary and tertiary interactions. The gold sites, which were not previously discussed, are described and show an energetically favored binding mode similar to that of cobalt and nickel complexes with nucleotides. PMID:3533142

  1. Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Protein Replacement Therapy and Gene Transfer in Canine Models of Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, von Willebrand Disease, and Factor VII Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Timothy C.; Dillow, Aaron M.; Franck, Helen W.G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Arruda, Valder R.; High, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. PMID:19293459

  3. Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Emerich, D F; Thanos, C; Torp, M; Bintz, B; Tornøe, J; Johnsen, A H; Wahlberg, L U

    2012-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. However, results also show that the NGF dose could advantageously be increased. We have used the sleeping beauty transposon expression technology to establish a new clinical grade cell line, NGC0211, with at least 10 times higher NGF production than that of NGC-0295. To test whether encapsulation of this cell line provides a relevant dose escalation step in delivering NGF for treatment of the cognitive decline in AD patients, we have validated the bioactivity of devices with NGC0211 and NGC-0295 cells in normal rat striatum as well as in the quinolinic acid striatal lesion model. These preclinical animal studies show that implantation of devices with NGC0211 cells lead to significantly higher NGF output, which in both cases correlate with highly improved potency.

  4. Non-viral liposome-mediated transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ying; Wen, Chun-yan; Li, Song-tao; Xia, Zong-xin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair of central nervous system injury, but cannot directly traverse the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes are a new type of non-viral vector, able to carry macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Here, we investigate whether BDNF could be transported across the blood-brain barrier by tail-vein injection of liposomes conjugated to transferrin (Tf) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carrying BDNF modified with cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) or glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (pGFAP) (Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG and Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, respectively). Both liposomes were able to traverse the blood-brain barrier, and BDNF was mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex. BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex was higher in the Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG group than in the Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG group. This study demonstrates the successful construction of a non-virus targeted liposome, Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is distributed in the cerebral cortex. Our work provides an experimental basis for BDNF-related targeted drug delivery in the brain. PMID:27212923

  5. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion and reepithelialization in the grafted skins were examined. As a graft, dorsal skin of a rat was exsected and its subcutaneous fat was removed. Plasmid DNA expression vector for hHGF was injected into the graft; on its back surface a laser target with a transparent sheet for plasma confinement was placed, and irradiated with three nanosecond laser pulses at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2 (532 nm; spot diameter, 3 mm) to generate LISWs. After the application of LISWs, the graft was transplanted onto its donor site. We evaluated blood flow by laser Doppler imaging and analyzed reepithelialization based on immunohistochemistry as a function of postgrafting time. It was found that both reperfusion and reepithelialization were significantly enhanced for the grafts with gene transfection than for normal grafts; reepithelialization was completed within 7 days after transplantation with the transfected grafts. These findings demonstrate that adhesion of grafted skins can be accelerated by delivering HGF gene to the grafts based on LISWs.

  6. Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Emerich, D F; Thanos, C; Torp, M; Bintz, B; Tornøe, J; Johnsen, A H; Wahlberg, L U

    2012-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. However, results also show that the NGF dose could advantageously be increased. We have used the sleeping beauty transposon expression technology to establish a new clinical grade cell line, NGC0211, with at least 10 times higher NGF production than that of NGC-0295. To test whether encapsulation of this cell line provides a relevant dose escalation step in delivering NGF for treatment of the cognitive decline in AD patients, we have validated the bioactivity of devices with NGC0211 and NGC-0295 cells in normal rat striatum as well as in the quinolinic acid striatal lesion model. These preclinical animal studies show that implantation of devices with NGC0211 cells lead to significantly higher NGF output, which in both cases correlate with highly improved potency. PMID:22113314

  7. Thallium at the interface of soil and green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.): soil-plant transfer and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanlong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zhou, Guangzhu; Ning, Zengping

    2013-04-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic trace metal found in many plants, but it can accumulate at particularly high concentration in green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). The aim of this study is to explore the transfer and accumulation of Tl at the interface of rhizospheric soil and green cabbage from a long-term Tl contaminated site in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Influencing factors such as Tl distribution in various soil fractions and physical-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soil were also investigated. Our results demonstrated that green cabbage had high accumulation of Tl, with most bioconcentration factor (BF) values exceeding 1, and up to a maximum level of 11. The enrichment of Tl in the green cabbage tissues followed a descending order, i.e. old leaves>fresh leaves>stems≈roots. The stems functioned as a channel for Tl transportation to the leaves, where most of the Tl (greater than 80%) was found to accumulate. In the rhizospheric soils, 62-95% of Tl existed in the residual fraction, while lower concentrations of Tl (on average, 1.7% of total T1 in rhizospheric soil) were found in the water and acid soluble fractions. The major fraction of labile Tl was located in the reducible fraction (9%). Our results also suggested that the uptake and enrichment of Tl in green cabbage were affected by Tl concentrations, soil water content, soil pH, soil organic material (SOM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in rhizospheric soil.

  8. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg.

  9. Blocking Single-Stranded Transferred DNA Conversion to Double-Stranded Intermediates by Overexpression of Yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A1

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1–RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the β-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. PMID

  10. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  11. MR Assessment of Myocardial Perfusion, Viability, and Function after Intramyocardial Transfer of VM202, a New Plasmid Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Ischemic Swine Myocardium1

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Maythem; Martin, Alastair; Ursell, Phillip; Do, Loi; Bucknor, Matt; Higgins, Charles B.; Saloner, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: VM202, a newly constructed plasmid human hepatocyte growth factor, was transferred intramyocardially after infarction for the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for protection from left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Materials and Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Pigs underwent coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion and served as either control (n = 8) or VM202-treated (n = 8) animals. VM202 was transferred intramyocardially into four infarcted and four periinfarcted sites. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (cine, perfusion, delayed enhancement) was performed in acute (3 days) and chronic (50 days ± 3 [standard error of the mean]) infarction. Histopathologic findings were used to characterize and quantify neovascularization. The t test was utilized to compare treated and control groups and to assess changes over time. Results: In acute infarction, MR imaging estimates of function, perfusion, and viability showed no difference between the groups. In chronic infarction, however, VM202 increased maximum signal intensity and upslope at first-pass perfusion imaging and reduced infarct size at perfusion and delayed-enhancement imaging. These changes were associated with a decrease in end-diastolic (2.15 mL/kg ± 0.12 to 1.73 mL/kg ± 0.10, P < .01) and end-systolic (1.33 mL/kg ± 0.07 to 0.92 mL/kg ± 0.08, P < .001) volumes and an increase in ejection fraction (38.2% ± 1.3 to 47.0% ± 1.8, P < .001). In contrast, LV function deteriorated further in control animals. Compared with control animals, VM202-treated animals revealed peninsulas and/or islands of viable myocardium in infarcted and periinfarcted regions and greater number of capillaries (218 per square millimeter ± 19 vs 119 per square millimeter ± 17, P < .05) and arterioles (21 per square millimeter ± 4 vs 3 per square millimeter ± 1, P < .001). Conclusion: Intramyocardial transfer of VM202 improved myocardial

  12. Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (Ff). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CRm-soil values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

  13. Circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by apolipoprotein AIV involves forkhead transcription factors A2 and O1 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2013-07-12

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV(-/-) mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV(+/+) mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV(-/-) mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV(-/-) mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between -204/-775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV(-/-) mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids.

  14. Interferon-alpha and transfer factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. AUSTIMS Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and transfer factor (TF) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis was investigated in a prospective, multi-centric, three year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighty two patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were randomised into three treatment groups whose compositions were found to be similar for demographic and prognostic variables including HLA status. Subcutaneous injections of IFN-alpha (3 x 10(6) units), TF (0.5 units) manufactured from leucocytes of cohabiting donors, or placebo were given twice weekly for two months, once weekly for 10 months then fortnightly for 24 months. One hundred and fifty three patients completed the injection regimen. There was no significant difference in the progression of disability for multiple sclerosis patients in either the IFN-alpha or TF-treated groups compared with the placebo group. Similarly, change in visual evoked responses (VER), and in number of oligoclonal bands (OCB) and the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over the trial period did not differ significantly between the three groups. However, the IFN-alpha-treated group had significantly more reported adverse drug reactions and patient withdrawals than either of the other two groups. PMID:2659737

  15. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2} = 3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    V. Punjabi; C.F. Perdrisat; et al

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been re-analyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

  16. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K.; Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G.

    2005-05-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

  17. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  18. TRANSFER STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREIVE, DONALD E.

    THIS 1967 STUDY AT LORAIN COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE (LCCC) WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DISCOVER (1) THE PERCENTAGE OF CREDIT HOURS IN A UNIVERSITY PARALLEL PROGRAM ACCEPTED BY TRANSFER INSTITUTIONS, (2) THE STUDENT'S GPA BEFORE AND AFTER TRANSFER, AND (3) HOW MANY COLLEGES ACCEPTED LCCC'S TRANSFERS. INSTITUTIONS TO WHICH LCCC STUDENTS HAD HAD THEIR…

  19. Membrane transfer of. cap alpha. -tocopherol: influence of soluble. cap alpha. -tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart and brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-10-25

    The pH of liver supernatant was lowered from 7.4 to 5.1, which removed 23% of the soluble protein and 97% of the lipid-soluble phosphate, increased the total ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity 1.3-fold and the specific activity of the transfer rate 1.6-fold. This transfer activity was proportional to time up to 4 min and to protein concentrations up to 0.1 mg/ml. Fractionation of the pH 5.1-treated liver supernatant by gel filtration produced a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding activity which was coincident with the transfer activity. The transfer rate of this peak of activity was 316 pmol/min/mg of protein, a 9-fold purification over the original untreated supernatant. This ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer rate was reduced by 83 and 96% following pronase digestion or heat treatment (80/sup 0/C) of the soluble fraction, respectively, while trypsin digestion reduced the transfer rate only 18% and phospholipase C digestion had no effect. Untreated liver supernatant possessed the peak of binding activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a high molecular weight binding fraction that eluted at the void volume. Heart and brain supernatants also possessed an ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding fraction that eluted at the void volume, while lung supernatant lacked binding activity.

  20. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  1. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  2. Transfer Students from California Community Colleges: A Narrative Approach to Understanding the Social Capital and Institutional Factors That Lead to a Timely Transfer to a Public, Four-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermoso, Katrina Virata

    2013-01-01

    The unique experiences of community college transfer students have not been explored at public, four-year universities. Most of the research on the experiences of community college students is based on quantitative research methods, which fail to provide a comprehensive understanding of the nature of students' lived experiences. This qualitative…

  3. Establishment of cereal endosperm expression domains: identification and properties of a maize transfer cell-specific transcription factor, ZmMRP-1.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elisa; Royo, Joaquín; Guo, Yan; Thompson, Richard; Hueros, Gregorio

    2002-03-01

    In maize, cells at the base of the endosperm are transformed into transfer cells that facilitate nutrient uptake by the developing seed. ZmMRP-1 is the first transfer cell-specific transcriptional activator to be identified. The protein it encodes contains nuclear localization signals and a MYB-related DNA binding domain. A single gene copy is present in maize, mapping to a locus on chromosome 8. ZmMRP-1 is first expressed soon after fertilization, when the endosperm is still a multinuclear coenocyte. The transcript accumulates in the basal nucleocytoplasmic domain that gives rise to transfer cells after cellularization. The transcript can be detected throughout transfer cell development, but it is not found in mature cells. ZmMRP-1 strongly transactivates the promoters of two unrelated transfer cell-specific genes. The properties of ZmMRP-1 are consistent with it being a determinant of transfer cell-specific expression. Possible roles for ZmMRP-1 in the regulation of endosperm and transfer cell differentiation are discussed.

  4. Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

  5. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L.

    2005-11-22

    The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

  6. Alpha-tocopherol transfer factor (aTTF) from rat liver mediates the transfer of d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol from liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts and exhibits saturation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Verdon, C.P.; Blumberg, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    aTTF was observed to transfer d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol (/sup 3/HaT) from egg lecithin liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts (EG). aTTF may be associated with the 32,000-35,000 MW alpha-Tocopherol Binding Protein previously described to transfer /sup 3/HaT from liposomes to rat liver microsomes and mitochondria prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rat liver cytosol followed by dialysis against 50 mM TRIS-HCl/1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 7.4. Assay for aTTF activity consisted of incubating liposomal /sup 3/HaT and EG in the presence of aTTF or buffer blank for various time periods at 37/sup 0/C, then counting the resulting radioactivity in washed EG after pelleting by centrifugation. Liposomes were prelabeled-with non-exchangable glycerol-(/sup 14/C)-trioleate to correct for liposomes adhering to pelleted EG. Greater than 50% of the tritium found with the EG pellet was recovered by HPLC as /sup 3/HaT. aTTF activity increased with increasing liposomal /sup 3/HaT concentration before reaching a plateau. aTTF activity was similarly saturated by increasing EG concentrations. The same assay conditions with buffer blank along resulted in negligible transfer activity.

  7. Factors affecting the success of a large embryo transfer program in Holstein cattle in a commercial herd in the southeast region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, P A; Burnley, C; Karanja, J; Viera-Neto, A; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C; Galvão, K N

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors affecting in vivo embryo production and pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in Holstein cattle in the southeast region of the United States. Data from a total of 516 embryo collections and 10,297 ETs performed from 2011 to 2014 were available. For embryo production, the effects of donor parity (nulliparous [N], primiparous [P], multiparous [M]), average temperature-humidity index (THI) at embryo collection, days in milk at embryo collection, occurrence of calving problems, and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. For P/ET, the effects of donor parity (N or parous), recipient parity (N, P, and M), embryo type (fresh, frozen, IVF, and IVF-frozen), embryo developmental stage (4-7), embryo quality (1-3), recipient estrous cycle day at ET (6-9), average THI at ET, days in milk at ET, milk yield at ET, occurrence of calving problems (abortion, dystocia, twins, fetal death, or retained placenta), and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 41 ± 3 days of gestation. Continuous and binary data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS, respectively. Parity affected embryo production; M had greater number and percentage of unfertilized embryos and lesser percentage of viable embryos than P and N. Recipient parity, embryo type, embryo stage, embryo quality, estrous cycle day at ET, and THI at ET affected P/ET. There was an interaction between recipient parity and THI at ET. P/ET was greater for N than P and greater for P than M, greater for fresh embryos than others, greater for stage 7 than others, greater for quality 1 than 2 and greater for quality 2 than 3, and greater for ET on estrous cycle Day 7 and 8 than 6. P/ET was decreased for THI ≥80 in N and THI ≥72 in P and M. Calving problems and metritis also affected P/ET in P and M and was lesser for cows that had calving problems and metritis. In conclusion, embryo production was affected by

  8. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable).

  9. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  10. Applicability of moisture transfer parameters estimated by correlation between Biot number and lag factor (Bi-G correlation) for convective drying of eggplant slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianxi; Hou, Hongying; Chen, Junruo

    2013-11-01

    Accurate values of the moisture transfer parameters are necessary to study heat and mass transfer, particularly for the efficient design of both process and equipment. However, these parameters obtained from empirical equations or analytical solutions of Fick’s second diffusion law are generally different from each other. In order to make simulation more accurate and closer to the fact, it is necessary to perform theoretical analysis and test of available empirical equations in literatures. In this work, such efforts were made: firstly, moisture transfer parameters were evaluated by Bi-G correlation; then, the obtained parameters were substituted to Fick’s second law of diffusion model, and the model was numerically calculated with convective boundary condition. The results show that although the exponential equation fits the experimental data well, the data predicted from Fick’s second law deviate far from the experimental data. This implicates that Bi-G correlation need be further improved to obtain better accurate moisture transfer parameters.

  11. SOLID-LIQUID PHASE TRANSFER CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF CINNAMYL ACETATE-KINETICS AND ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis has an advantage of carrying out reaction between two immiscible substrates, one in solid phase and the other in liquid phase, with high selectivity and at relatively low temperatures. In this study we investigated the synthesis ci...

  12. Factors That Control the Reactivity of Cobalt(III)-Nitrosyl Complexes in Nitric Oxide Transfer and Dioxygenation Reactions: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Lee, Yong-Min; Hu, Lianrui; Chen, Jianwei; Park, Young Jun; Yao, Jiannian; Chen, Hui; Karlin, Kenneth D; Nam, Wonwoo

    2016-06-22

    Metal-nitrosyl complexes are key intermediates involved in many biological and physiological processes of nitric oxide (NO) activation by metalloproteins. In this study, we report the reactivities of mononuclear cobalt(III)-nitrosyl complexes bearing N-tetramethylated cyclam (TMC) ligands, [(14-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) and [(12-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+), in NO-transfer and dioxygenation reactions. The Co(III)-nitrosyl complex bearing 14-TMC ligand, [(14-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+), transfers the bound nitrosyl ligand to [(12-TMC)Co(II)](2+) via a dissociative pathway, {[(14-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) → {(14-TMC)Co···NO}(2+)}, thus affording [(12-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) and [(14-TMC)Co(II)](2+) as products. The dissociation of NO from the [(14-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) complex prior to NO-transfer is supported experimentally and theoretically. In contrast, the reverse reaction, which is the NO-transfer from [(12-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) to [(14-TMC)Co(II)](2+), does not occur. In addition to the NO-transfer reaction, dioxygenation of [(14-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) by O2 produces [(14-TMC)Co(II)(NO3)](+), which possesses an O,O-chelated nitrato ligand and where, based on an experiment using (18)O-labeled O2, two of the three O-atoms in the [(14-TMC)Co(II)(NO3)](+) product derive from O2. The dioxygenation reaction is proposed to occur via a dissociative pathway, as proposed in the NO-transfer reaction, and via the formation of a Co(II)-peroxynitrite intermediate, based on the observation of phenol ring nitration. In contrast, [(12-TMC)Co(III)(NO)](2+) does not react with O2. Thus, the present results demonstrate unambiguously that the NO-transfer/dioxygenation reactivity of the cobalt(III)-nitrosyl complexes bearing TMC ligands is significantly influenced by the ring size of the TMC ligands and/or the spin state of the cobalt ion. PMID:27221953

  13. Desensitization in vitro: the role of T-suppressor cells, T-suppressor factor and T-acceptor cells in the inhibition of the passive transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by exposure to antigen in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Asherson, G. L.; Colizzi, V.; Watkins, Madeleine C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper investigates desensitization in vitro, e.g. the inhibition of the transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by incubation of the passive transfer population with picrylated spleen cells. It asks whether desensitization is based on the same T-suppressor circuit which is responsible for the inhibition of passive transfer by antigen-specific T-suppressor factor (TsF). In this circuit, the T-suppressor cell which acts at the efferent stage (Ts-eff) makes TsF. This TsF depresses contact sensitivity indirectly by arming a T-acceptor cell (Tacc). The armed Tacc, when exposed to antigen (picrylated spleen cells), liberates a non-specific inhibitor which blocks the transfer of contact sensitivity. The three elements of this T-suppressor circuit occur in nylon wool-purified T cells prepared from the lymph nodes and spleens of mice four days after immunization with picryl chloride. This population transfers contact sensitivity and can be desensitized in vitro. It contains Ts-eff which can be isolated by panning (adherence) on picrylated albumin and detected by their ability to inhibit passive transfer. The 24 hr supernatant of cultures of these cells contains TsF. Finally the population contains Tacc which appear in the spleen 2 days after immunization and virtually disappear by 10 days. Further experiments demonstrated that the Ts-eff and the Tacc were not merely present but actually required for desensitization in vitro. Immune cells depleted of both Ts-eff (by panning on picrylated albumin) and Tacc (by arming with anti-oxazolone TsF and panning on oxazolonated albumin) cannot be desensitized. To restore desensitization both Ts-eff and Tacc must be added back. The Ts-eff were characterized as cyclophosphamide resistant, adult thymectomy sensitive cells (Cyr, ATxs), which adhered to antigen and were produced only by specific immunization. The Tacc were characterized as Cys, ATxs cells which adhered to antigen only after arming with antigen-specific T

  14. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  15. Factors Affecting The Experimental Line Spread Function (Lsf) Measurement And Modulation Transfer Function (Mtf) Calculation Including Deviation In Characteristic Curve Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, Marcia E.; Haus, Arthur G.

    1980-08-01

    The major potential errors in the slit method measurement of the line spread function (LSF) and the modu-lation transfer function (MTF) of radiographic screen-film systems are reviewed. These errors are compared with the potential error introduced in the LSF due to an erroneous representation of the characteristic curve (sensitometric data). If a deviation in the sensitometric data results in a lower average gradient of the characteristic curve, the MTF will show higher resolution capabilities.

  16. Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum. PMID:19436479

  17. [Transference in psychoses].

    PubMed

    Ricón, L

    1984-06-01

    It is essential to have a concept of psychosis, based on a psychoanalitic pattern of the functioning of mental life. A dynamic differential diagnosis of the different types of psychosis should be done. Speaking about "the" transference in "the" psychosis leads to confusions that render inoperative the theories and techniques used in the treatment of the psychotic structures. Considering the transferences as an unattainable part of reality that keeps on passing from one structure to another, it has different features in the different types of psychosis. In a broad sense it is also present in all the forms of relationships of human beings. It is the essential factor of a communicational style.

  18. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  19. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries...

  20. [Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latker, Norman J.

    Some authorities on technolgoy transfer feel that industry is not fully capitalizing on the inventive output of universities and nonprofit organizations. From the point of view of the government, the stakes are high. The magnitude of federal support of research and development in these organizations demands evidence of useful results if it is to…

  1. Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil.

  2. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  3. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  4. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  5. HRD Effectiveness and Transfer of Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) effectiveness and transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand" (Siriporn Yamnill, Gary N. McLean) discusses how the Learning Transfer System Inventory was validated in Thailand by administering it to 1,029 employers and analyzing…

  6. The importance of interhemispheric transfer for foveal vision: a factor that has been overlooked in theories of visual word recognition and object perception.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-03-01

    In this special issue of Brain and Language, we examine what implications the division between the left and the right brain half has for the recognition of words presented in the center of the visual field. The different articles are a first indication that taking into account the split between the left and the right cerebral hemisphere need not be an inescapable nuisance in models of visual word recognition but may in fact form the clue to the solution of a longstanding problem within this literature. Also, the fact that interhemispheric transfer has implications for foveal word recognition should interest laterality researchers, as it makes their findings more central to normal reading. In this introductory article, I first present a rough picture of the current (lack of) evidence for a bilateral representation of the fovea and the absence of a callosal delay. I then briefly discuss the suggestions made by the different authors on how to integrate the foveal split within current models of visual word recognition. PMID:14967210

  7. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  8. Transfer of three transcription factors via a lentiviral vector ameliorates spatial learning and memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin; Yan, Qing; Wang, Songtao; Wang, Cunzu; Zhao, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with observable memory impairment. The present study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of a combination of three transcription regulators, ABN (Ascl1, Brn2 and Ngn2), on learning and memory loss in a mouse model of AD. The AD model was established by injecting Aβ1-42 bilaterally into the mouse hippocampus. Lentiviral ABN was delivered bilaterally into the hippocampus of mice. Animals injected with LV-ABN showed significantly improved spatial learning and memory in the water maze test. Additionally, antibody array analysis indicated that intrahippocampal LV-ABN delivery significantly altered the expression levels of some proteins that were identified as inflammatory factors or neuroprotective and growth factors. In conclusion, our data suggest that LV-ABN delivery can ameliorate spatial learning and memory impairment in an AD mouse model, and the beneficial effect of ABN gene treatment could be linked to inhibition of the neuroinflammatory response and enhancement of neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Thus, these findings indicate that lentiviral ABN gene delivery has potential therapeutic applications for AD.

  9. Disconnecting the Yin and Yang Relation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Mediated Delivery: A Fully Synthetic, EGFR-Targeted Gene Transfer System Avoiding Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, A.; Pahnke, A.; Schaffert, D.; van Weerden, W.M.; de Ridder, C.M.A.; Rödl, W.; Vetter, A.; Spitzweg, C.; Kraaij, R.; Wagner, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated within a high percentage of solid tumors and hence is an attractive target for tumor-targeted therapies including gene therapy. The natural EGFR ligand epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been used for this purpose, despite the risk of mitogenic effects due to EGFR activation. We have developed a fully synthetic, EGFR-targeted gene delivery system based on PEGylated linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), allowing evaluation of different EGFR-binding peptides in terms of transfection efficiency and EGFR activation. Peptide sequences directly derived from the human EGF molecule enhanced transfection efficiency with concomitant EGFR activation. Only the EGFR-binding peptide GE11, which has been identified by phage display technique, showed specific enhancement of transfection on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells including glioblastoma and hepatoma, but without EGFR activation. EGFR targeting led to high levels of cell association of fluorescently labeled polyplexes after only 30 min of incubation. EGF pretreatment of cells induced enhanced cellular internalization of all polyplex types tested, pointing at generally enhanced macropinocytosis. EGF polyplexes diminished cell surface expression of EGFR for up to 4 hr, whereas GE11 polyplexes did not. In a clinically relevant orthotopic prostate cancer model, intratumorally injected GE11 polyplexes were superior in inducing transgene expression when compared with untargeted polyplexes. PMID:21644815

  10. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  11. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P. P.

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  12. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in critical limb ischemia: safety results from a phase I trial.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Olin, Jeffrey W; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey D; Rasmussen, Henrik; Pak, Raphael; Crystal, Ronald G

    2003-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is typified by rest pain and/or tissue necrosis secondary to advanced peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by diminution in limb perfusion at rest. We tested the safety of an angiogenic strategy with CI-1023 (Ad(GV)VEGF121.10), a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 121 in patients with CLI as part of a phase I trial. Fifteen subjects >35 years of age with CLI and angiographic disease involving the infra-inguinal vessels underwent intramuscular injection of CI-1023 (4 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(10) particle units, n = 13) or placebo (n = 2). All of the patients tolerated the injection well and there were no serious complications related to the procedure. Transient edema was noted in one patient. A total of 79 adverse events were reported over the course of one year. One death (day 136) and one malignancy (day 332) occurred in the CI-1023 group. CI-1023 appears to be well tolerated and safe for single-dose administration in patients with critical limb ischemia due to PAD. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this form of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:12866606

  13. Intra- and interspecific embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, D C

    1983-11-01

    The procedures that are collectively referred to as embryo transfer (ET) have many uses. They were first used as research tools to study fetal-maternal physiology. Since the first successful mammalian embryo transfer in 1890, ET has been utilized for enhancement of genetic selection; diagnosis and treatment of infertility; control of infectious disease transmission; screening for genetic defects; propagation of rare and endangered species; and the study of developmental biology. Most of the embryo transfers have been intraspecific. A listing of the species includes rabbit, rat, sheep, mouse, goat, cattle, pig, hamster, ferret, mink, horse, baboon, cat, dog, water buffalo. In two species, rhesus monkey and humans, the successful embryo transfers have been limited to within-animal, homologous replacement of the embryos. There have been a few successful interspecific embryo transfers. The most common were between Bos taurus and B. indicus cattle. Other interspecific transfers involved Bos gaurus and B. taurus, cattle; Ovis musimon and O. aries, sheep; Equus asinus and E. caballus, horses. There are several examples of intergeneric embryo transfers in which embryos implanted but did not develop to term: sheep and goat, mouse and rat. The factors that determine the degree of compatibility between embryos and uteri of various species and genera are not clearly understood. The ability to hybridize successfully is probably a dependable indication of compatibility for embryo transfer. The limits of tolerance for differences between the donor and recipient in such factors as placental structure and gestation length have not been defined, but the recently developed technique of inner cell mass transfer will be very useful in such studies.

  14. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  15. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  16. Trends in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnick, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    Various forms of technology transfer in Europe and North America are discussed including research contracts, cooperative research centers, and personnel transfer. Examples of approaches to technology transfer are given and the establishment of personnel transfer is discussed. Preconditions for successful technology transfer in the future are…

  17. Teaching for Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Ruth

    This paper describes the transfer of skills and knowledge from the classroom to outside the classroom. The action research focused on transfer, how to facilitate transfer, and why to concentrate on transfer, and it included a definition for the different levels and rates of transfer. Seventh and eighth grade students were not using existing…

  18. Technology transfer within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.cyr, William

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer within NASA are provided. Assessment of technology transfer process, technology being transfered, issues and barriers, and observations and suggestions are addressed. Topics covered include: technology transfer within an organization (and across organization lines/codes) and space science/instrument technology and the role of universities in the technology development/transfer process.

  19. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-02-01

    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.

  20. Transferability of tubifex limiting factor models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrell, James W.; Milhous, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Dense populations of T. tubifex are generally associated with habitats dominated by fine sediments and enriched organic material (e.g. Krueger, 2002). Management of whirling disease positive systems is entering a new phase where channel modifications are being implemented to reduce or isolate this type of habitat. These management actions have the potential to cause new areas of sediment deposition. Descriptions of sediment characteristics associated with high numbers of T. tubifex can help engineers design channel modifications that minimize situations where altered velocity distributions inadvertently create optimum worm habitat. Ongoing studies in two Colorado Rivers with very different flow regimes and watershed characteristics provide preliminary evidence that a median sediment particle diameter greater than 1.4mm in conjunction with at least 30% (dry weight) of sediment with a diameter less than 0.3mm limits T. tubifex densities to approximately less than 10% of maximum densities.

  1. AAV-Dominant Negative Tumor Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) Gene Transfer to the Striatum Does Not Rescue Medium Spiny Neurons in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A.; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G.

    2014-01-01

    CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30–50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice. PMID:24824433

  2. Direct adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor α soluble receptors to rabbit knees with experimental arthritis has local and distal anti-arthritic effects

    PubMed Central

    Ghivizzani, Steven C.; Lechman, Eric R.; Kang, Richard; Tio, Caroline; Kolls, Jay; Evans, Christopher H.; Robbins, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors were used to deliver genes encoding a soluble interleukin 1 (IL-1)-type I receptor-IgG fusion protein and/or a soluble type I tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor-IgG fusion protein directly to the knees of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. When tested individually, knees receiving the soluble IL-1 receptor had significantly reduced cartilage matrix degradation and white blood cell infiltration into the joint space. Delivery of the soluble TNFα receptor was less effective, having only a moderate effect on white blood cell infiltration and no effect on cartilage breakdown. When both soluble receptors were used together, there was a greater inhibition of white blood cell infiltration and cartilage breakdown with a considerable reduction of synovitis. Interestingly, anti-arthritic effects were also seen in contralateral control knees receiving only a marker gene, suggesting that sustained local inhibition of disease activity in one joint may confer an anti-arthritic effect on other joints. These results suggest that local intra-articular gene transfer could be used to treat systemic polyarticular arthritides. PMID:9539786

  3. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  4. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  5. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

  6. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic.

  7. Modeling ozone mass transfer in reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pan; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Babcock, Roger W; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2009-01-01

    Ozone mass transfer in reclaimed water was evaluated at pilot scale to determine mass-transfer characteristics and reaction kinetics and to assess the use of oxygen as a surrogate to measure this process. Tests were conducted in a 40-L/min pilot plant over a 3-year period. Nonsteady-state mass-transfer analyses for both oxygen and ozone were performed for superficial gas flow rates ranging from 0.13m/min to 0.40m/min. The psi factor, which is the ratio of volumetric mass-transfer coefficients of ozone to oxygen, was determined. The decrease in oxygen transfer rate caused by contaminants in reclaimed water was only 10 to 15% compared to tap water. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe transfer rate and steady state ozone concentration. Ozone decay was modeled accurately as a pseudo first-order reaction between ozone and ozone-demanding materials.

  8. Manifestations of sequential electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Tang, J.

    1996-05-01

    An essential feature of efficient photo-initiated charge separation is sequential electron transfer. Charge separation is initiated by photoexcitation of an electron donor followed by rapid electron transfer steps from the excited donor through a series of electron acceptors, so that, after one or two successive steps, charge separation is stabilized by the physical separation between the oxidized donor and reduced acceptor. The prime example of this process is the sequential electron transfer that takes place in the purple photosynthetic bacterial reaction center, resulting in the charge separation between P{sup +} and Q{sub A}{sup -} across a biological membrane. We have developed magnetic resonance tools to monitor sequential electron transfer. We are applying these techniques to study charge separation in natural photo-synthetic systems in order to gain insights into the features of the reaction center proteins that promote efficient charge separation. As we establish what some of these factors are, we are beginning to design artificial photosynthetic systems that undergo photoinduced sequential electron transfer steps.

  9. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  11. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  12. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes' Experiences of Talent Transfer.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives.

  13. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes’ Experiences of Talent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives. PMID:26600303

  14. Transfer of Learning Transformed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Instruction is motivated by the assumption that students can transfer their learning, or apply what they have learned in school to another setting. A common problem arises when the expected transfer does not take place, what has been referred to as the inert knowledge problem. More than an academic inconvenience, the failure to transfer is a major…

  15. Transfer of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on transfer of learning. In "Learning Transfer in a Social Service Agency: Test of an Expectancy Model of Motivation" (Reid A. Bates) structural equation modeling is used to test the validity of a valence-instrumentality-expectancy approach to motivation to transfer learning. "The Relationship between…

  16. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  17. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology. PMID:19406034

  18. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.

  19. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  20. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  1. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  2. Proton transfer in organic scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Dipankar

    This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

  3. [The importance of transference in Junguian psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Scotillo, Irene Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Transference is an absolutely natural and spontaneous process which cannot be developed in an artificial and voluntary manner by the therapist. Transference is carried out in a subjective interpersonal relation consisting of a patient and an analyst. Jung will say he feels happy when transference takes place calmly or runs virtually unnoticed and the therapist can then focus on other therapeutic factors that play an important role. One could argue that Jungian psychotherapy consists of two people who get together to try to understand what is happening in the subconscious of one of them. The Jungian therapist is an active therapist who encourages and helps the patient to develop its individuation.

  4. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  5. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  6. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  7. PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF AIR-BORNE CHLORDANE AND COMPARISON WITH THE SOIL-TO-PLANT ROUTE. (R828174)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Biomechanics of Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Andrew; Tueting, Jonathan L

    2016-08-01

    The transfer of tendons in the upper extremity is a powerful technique to restore function to a partially paralyzed hand. The biomechanical principles of muscle tension and tendon excursion dictate motor function both in the native as well as transferred states. Appropriately tensioning transferred tendons to maximize the function of the associated muscle remains an area of focused research. Newer methods of tendon coaptation have proven similar in strength to the standard Pulvertaft weave, affording more options to the surgeon. PMID:27387073

  9. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-22

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the

  10. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the

  11. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Jennifer L; Protzman, Nicole M; Brigido, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Tendon transfer procedures are used commonly for the correction of soft tissue imbalances and instabilities. The complete transfer and the split transfer of the tibialis anterior tendon are well-accepted methods for the treatment of idiopathic equinovarus deformity in children and adults. Throughout the literature, complete and split transfer have been shown to yield significant improvements in ankle and foot range of motion and muscle function. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend one procedure over the other, although the split procedure has been advocated for consistently achieving inversion to eversion muscle balance without overcorrection.

  12. Bacterial transfer RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transfer RNA is an essential adapter molecule that is found across all three domains of life. The primary role of transfer RNA resides in its critical involvement in the accurate translation of messenger RNA codons during protein synthesis and, therefore, ultimately in the determination of cellular gene expression. This review aims to bring together the results of intensive investigations into the synthesis, maturation, modification, aminoacylation, editing and recycling of bacterial transfer RNAs. Codon recognition at the ribosome as well as the ever-increasing number of alternative roles for transfer RNA outside of translation will be discussed in the specific context of bacterial cells. PMID:25796611

  13. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  14. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  15. Exploring the transferability of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Wang, Jung-Han

    2016-09-01

    Safety performance functions (SPFs), by predicting the number of crashes on roadway facilities, have been a vital tool in the highway safety area. The SPFs are typically applied for identifying hot spots in network screening and evaluating the effectiveness of road safety countermeasures. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides a series of SPFs for several crash types by various roadway facilities. The SPFs, provided in the HSM, were developed using data from multiple states. In regions without local jurisdiction based SPFs it is common practice to adopt national SPFs for crash prediction. There has been little research to examine the viability of such national level models for local jurisdictions. Towards understanding the influence of SPF transferability, we examine the rural divided multilane highway models from Florida, Ohio, and California. Traffic, roadway geometry and crash data from the three states are employed to estimate single-state SPFs, two-state SPFs and three-state SPFs. The SPFs are estimated using the negative binomial model formulation for several crash types and severities. To evaluate transferability of models, we estimate a transfer index that allows us to understand which models transfer adequately to other regions. The results indicate that models from Florida and California seem to be more transferable compared to models from Ohio. More importantly, we observe that the transfer index increases when we used pooled data (from two or three states). Finally, to assist in model transferability, we propose a Modified Empirical Bayes (MEB) measure that provides segment specific calibration factors for transferring SPFs to local jurisdictions. The proposed measure is shown to outperform the HSM calibration factor for transferring SPFs. PMID:27322637

  16. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  17. Automatic microbial transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Device can transfer metabolites or inhibitory agents to broth cultures of bacteria, in various stages of growth, for study. It also has application in transfer of other micro-organisms, such as yeasts, and could be useful in clinical and research laboratories. Device has been used for wide variety of purposes in experimental situations.

  18. Transferring Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

  19. Transfer and Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    The four reports in this agenda item from an Illinois Board of Higher Education meeting provide updates on transfer outcomes, programs, and policies in Illinois. The first report presents data on fall 1996 transfer activity among community colleges, public and private universities, and private colleges in the state; traditional community…

  20. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Tendon Transfers for Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that 65% to 75% of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries could benefit from upper extremity tendon transfer surgery. The goals of surgery are to restore elbow extension, as well as hand pinch, grasp, and release. Patients who have defined goals, actively participate in therapy, and understand expected outcomes, appear to have the highest satisfaction following tendon transfer procedures. PMID:27387082

  2. Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on transfer of training moderated by Gene Roth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument" (Reid A. Bates et al.) reports a study that attempted to validate Rouiller and Goldstein's (1993) eight-factor…

  3. Facilitating Transfer and Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukey, John; And Others

    In 1984, the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges established the transfer function as a priority for emphasis, and a plan was developed to address this priority. This report reviews the initial 1984 plan on transfer in light of subsequent developments. First, background material discusses the decline in community college…

  4. Evaluating knowledge transfer practices among construction organization in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.

  5. Following the Ontario Transfer Student: From College to University Inception. Professional File. Number 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Christine Helen

    2011-01-01

    What sources and resources do college students utilize to assist them in the transfer process? What factors influence students' transfer decisions? What information do students possess about transfer and of what quality is the transfer information students receive? This investigation interviews students of two-year College of Applied Arts and…

  6. Constant attitude orbit transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cress, Peter; Evans, Michael

    A two-impulse orbital transfer technique is described in which the spacecraft attitude remains constant for both burns, eliminating the need for attitude maneuvers between the burns. This can lead to significant savings in vehicle weight, cost and complexity. Analysis is provided for a restricted class of applications of this transfer between circular orbits. For those transfers with a plane change less than 30 deg, the total velocity cost of the maneuver is less than twelve percent greater than that of an optimum plane split Hohmann transfer. While this maneuver does not minimize velocity requirement, it does provide a means of achieving necessary transfer while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the spacecraft.

  7. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  8. Examining Mental Health Differences between Transfer and Nontransfer University Students Seeking Counseling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehr, Kristin E.; Daltry, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article sought to examine the differences between transfer and nontransfer students on mental health factors, social involvement, and academic success. It was found that transfer students had significantly higher scores on several mental health factors as compared to nontransfer students. It was also found that transfer students were less…

  9. Technology transfer 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  10. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  11. Numerical Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

  12. Heat transfer equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R. K.; Subbarao, Eleswarapu Chinna; Mashelkar, R. A.

    A comprehensive presentation is made of state-of-the-art configurations and design methodologies for heat transfer devices applicable to industrial processes, automotive systems, air conditioning/refrigeration, cryogenics, and petrochemicals refining. Attention is given to topics in heat exchanger mechanical design, single-phase convection processes, thermal design, two-phase exchanger thermal design, heat-transfer augmentation, and rheological effects. Computerized analysis and design methodologies are presented for the range of heat transfer systems, as well as advanced methods for optimization and performance projection.

  13. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  14. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-11-15

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

  15. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the cytokine genes interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha into human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for cell line behavior and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Coze, C; Leimig, T; Jimeno, M T; Mannoni, P

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the value of a gene therapy approach for neuroblastoma (NB), based on retroviral transduction of the IL-1beta or TNF-alpha cytokine genes into human NB lines. Secretion of the corresponding cytokine, was demonstrated in all lines, although with considerable quantitative variations. Cytokine gene expression significantly reduced the proliferation index (p = 0.0001); this effect was associated with either terminal neuronal (one TNF-alpha line) or fibroblast-like differentiation (two IL-1beta lines), leading to growth arrest after a few weeks. Cell surface levels of CD54 and HLA class II remained unaffected, but HLA class I (p < 0.001) and CD58 expression (p = 0.01) increased on SKNSH after TNF-alpha gene transfer. Mononuclear cells from normal allogeneic donors cocultured with both IL-1beta (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha lines (p < 0.01), showed a significant increase in the proportion of activated T cells (CD3+DR+); however, their cytotoxicity and proliferation rate remained unchanged. Immunotherapy of neuroblastoma will require identification of transduced lines in which cytokine secretion induces phenotypic changes in such a way as to augment their likely immunomodulatory properties without impeding cell growth. Because of the limited efficacy of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha gene transfer alone, further studies should focus on combination with other immunomodulatory agents, to improve their potential efficacy in neuroblastoma.

  16. Transferring learning from faculty development to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Z

    2014-12-01

    This study’s purpose was to better understand the transfer of learning by uncovering how various factors supported the integration of health information technology knowledge and skills gleaned from the Health Resources and Services Administration–funded faculty development programs into nursing education curricula. Through interviews with 20 participants from four programs, this study confirmed the importance of findings related to faculty, program, and work environment characteristics for supporting successful transfer of learning and substantiates a variety of other transfer-of-learning research. New or seldom discussed supportive individual characteristics were found, including leadership abilities, lifelong learning, ability to recognize limitations, persistence, creativity, and risk taking. The importance of networking, diversity of perspectives, postconference support, and teams in program designs were found to positively influence transfer. The variety of supportive factors and barriers in the participants’ work environments strengthens the assertions that transfer may be context dependent. Findings provided insight for recommendations to improve learning transfer.

  17. Maximizing profits in international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, W.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum profit can be introduced into international technology transfer by observing the following: (1) ethical and open dealing between the parties; (2) maximum knowledge of all facts concerning the technology, the use of the technology, the market, competition, prices, and alternatives; (3) ability to coordinate exports, service, support activities, licensing and cross licensing; and (4) knowledgeable people which put these factors together.

  18. Effects of the simultaneous application of potassium and calcium on the soil-to-Chinese cabbage transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2008-12-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to investigate how effectively the transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium from soil to Chinese cabbage could be reduced by applying K and Ca simultaneously to the soil. The sources of these elements were KCl and Ca(OH)(2) at agrochemical grades. Varying dosages of K and Ca were tested for an acid loamy soil treated with a mixed solution of (137)Cs and (85)Sr at two different times - 3 d before sowing and 32 d after sowing. For the pre-sowing deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs decreased sharply with increasing dosages of K and Ca (K/Ca, g m(-2)) from 4.8/46 up to 22.4/215 but the (85)Sr transfer had the greatest reduction at a dosage of 12.8/123. At this dosage, an about 60% reduction occurred for each radionuclide. Plant growth was inhibited from the dosage of 22.4/215, above which all the plants died young. Both dosages of 4.8/46 and 12.8/123 tested following the growing-time deposition produced around 95% reductions for (137)Cs and 50% reductions for (85)Sr. In the second year after the 12.8/123 applications, the effects for (85)Sr were almost the same as in the first year, whereas those for (137)Cs were diminished slightly for the pre-sowing deposition and markedly for the growing-time deposition. Considerably (K) or slightly (Ca) higher doses than 12.8/123 would be allowable for the maximum TF reductions achievable without a growth inhibition.

  19. Condensation heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  20. Turbine heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Objectives and approaches to research in turbine heat transfer are discussed. Generally, improvements in the method of determining the hot gas flow through the turbine passage is one area of concern, as is the cooling air flow inside the airfoil, and the methods of predicting the heat transfer rates on the hot gas side and on the coolant side of the airfoil. More specific areas of research are: (1) local hot gas recovery temperatures along the airfoil surfaces; (2) local airfoil wall temperature; (3) local hot gas side heat transfer coefficients on the airfoil surfaces; (4) local coolant side heat transfer coefficients inside the airfoils; (5) local hot gas flow velocities and secondary flows at real engine conditions; and (6) local delta strain range of the airfoil walls.

  1. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  2. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  3. International Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert G.

    The flow of technology out of the United States is discussed. Methods of technology flow, such as licensing and investing, are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer are discussed, especially in relation to the government's role. (MLH)

  4. Principles of Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Danielle; Hammert, Warren C

    2016-08-01

    Tendon transfers provide a substitute, either temporary or permanent, when function is lost due to neurologic injury in stroke, cerebral palsy or central nervous system lesions, peripheral nerve injuries, or injuries to the musculotendinous unit itself. This article reviews the basic principles of tendon transfer, which are important when planning surgery and essential for an optimal outcome. In addition, concepts for coapting the tendons during surgery and general principles to be followed during the rehabilitation process are discussed. PMID:27387072

  5. Principles of tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  6. [Quality of transfer. Biologist and clinician's point of view].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, D; Isnard, V; Fallet, C

    2010-04-01

    Embryonic transfer is one of the briefest procedures in the long-lasting chain of events occurring during an infertility treatment. Embryo transfer is, however, one of the most crucial steps in assisted reproductive technologies. The realization of this ultimate gesture involves the control of numerous parameters that exert an impact on its success. These various influential factors engage the multidisciplinary team: biologist, clinician... to permanently search for ways to optimize embryo transfer outcome. PMID:20728805

  7. The Improvement on the Xinjiekou Subway Transfer Channel of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. D.; Zheng, C. J.

    The subway, which is an effective way to alleviate the traffic congestion, has gradually been constructed in many cities. With the completion of the construction, the transfer station will become the factor that affects the efficiency of the whole transport network. Based on investigation and analysis of the present situation of the passenger flow, the essay will make a prediction with the multiple linear regression and put forward two kinds of transfer channel improvement schemes for xinjiekou transfer station.

  8. Experimental research on heat transfer of pulsating heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Yan, Li

    2008-06-01

    Experimental research was conducted to understand heat transfer characteristic of pulsating heat pipe in this paper, and the PHP is made of high quality glass capillary tube. Under different fill ratio, heat transfer rate and many other influence factors, the flow patterns were observed in the start-up, transition and stable stage. The effects of heating position on heat transfer were discussed. The experimental results indicate that no annular flow appears in top heating condition. Under different fill ratios and heat transfer rate, the flow pattern in PHP is transferred from bulk flow to semi-annular flow and annular flow, and the performance of heat transfer is improved for down heating case. The experimental results indicate that the total heat resistant of PHP is increased with fill ratio, and heat transfer rate achieves optimum at filling rate 50%. But for pulsating heat pipe with changing diameters the thermal resistance is higher than that with uniform diameters.

  9. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    Covey, Debra

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  10. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  11. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  12. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  13. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins across polyacrylamide membranes.

    PubMed

    Rylatt, D B; Napoli, M; Ogle, D; Gilbert, A; Lim, S; Nair, C H

    1999-12-31

    The electrophoretic transfer of purified proteins has been examined in a Gradiflow "Babyflow BF100" unit. A number of factors affect protein separation within this preparative electrophoresis system. We established that the rate of protein transfer was proportional to the applied voltage. The transfer is slowest at the isoelectric point (pI) and increased the further away the pH was from the pI of the protein. Protein transfer was found to be independent of the ionic strength of the buffer, for buffers that excluded the addition of strong acids or strong bases or sodium chloride. Transfer decreased as the pore size of the membrane decreased. Finally, transfer was inhibited at high salt concentrations in the protein solution, but remained unaffected when urea and non-ionic detergents were added to the solution. To increase the speed of protein separations, buffers with low conductivity should be used. A pH for the optimal separation should be selected on the basis of the relative pI and size of the target proteins and that of the major contaminants. PMID:10674937

  14. Irreversible heavy chain transfer to chondroitin.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L; Calabro, Anthony

    2014-10-17

    We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-α-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture.

  15. Luminescence resonance energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, P.R.; Rana, T.M.; Hearst, J.E. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-06-29

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), in which a fluorescent donor molecule transfers energy via a nonradiative dipole-dipole interaction to an acceptor molecule (which is usually a fluorescent molecule), is a standard spectroscopic technique for measuring distances in the 10-70 Angstrom range. We have used a luminescent europium chelate as donor and an organic dye, CY-5, as acceptor. This luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) has several advantages over the more conventional FRET. The distance at which 50% of the energy is transferred (R[sub 0]) is large, 70 [angstrom]; the donor lifetime is single exponential and long (0.63 ms in H[sub 2]O; 2.5 ms in D[sub 2]O), making lifetime measurements facile and highly accurate; the orientation dependence (k[sup 2]) of energy transfer is minimized by the donor's multiple electronic transitions and long lifetime, limiting uncertainty in the measured distance due to orientation effects to [+-]12% in the worst case; the sensitized emission of the acceptor can be measured with little or no interfering background, yielding a >50-fold improvement in signal to background over standard donor-acceptor pairs and enabling distances several times R[sub 0] to be measured. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Unnecessary Transfers for Acute Surgical Care: Who and Why?

    PubMed

    Broman, Kristy Kummerow; Poulose, Benjamin K; Phillips, Sharon E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Sharp, Kenneth W; Pierce, Richard A; Holzman, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Interhospital transfers for acute surgical care occur commonly, but without clear guidelines or protocols. Transfers may subject patients and delivery systems to significant burdens without clear clinical benefit. The incidence and factors associated with unnecessary transfers are not well described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient transfers within a regional referral network to a tertiary center for nontrauma acute surgical care from 2009 to 2013. Clinically unnecessary transfers were defined as transfers that resulted in no intervention (operation, endoscopy, or interventional radiology procedure) and discharge to home within 72 hours. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The study population included 2177 patient transfers, 19 per cent of which were determined to be clinically unnecessary. After adjustment, clinically unnecessary transfers were more commonly performed for patient request (odds ratio = 2.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.60-3.99), continuity of care (1.87, 1.44-2.42), and care by urologic (1.50, 1.06-2.13) and vascular services (1.44, 1.03-2.01). Patients with higher comorbidity and severity of illness scores were less likely to have unnecessary transfers. The burden of unnecessary transfers could be mitigated by identifying appropriate transfer candidates through mutually developed guidelines, interfacility collaboration, and increased use of remote care to provide surgical subspecialty consultation and maintain continuity. PMID:27657580

  17. Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics for [Ru(bpy)2((4,4'-PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ Sensitized TiO2 in a Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrosynthesis Cell: Factors Influencing Efficiency and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wenjing; Brennaman, Kyle M; Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W.; Hoertz, Paul G; Luo, Hanlin; Chen, Chuncheng; Hanson, Kenneth G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-04-14

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis and photocurrent measurements have been used to investigate use of [Ru(bpy)2((4,4'-PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ attached to TiO2 nanoparticle films, TiO2-RuII, in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) configuration for H2 production. In these experiments, laser flash excitation of TiO2-RuII and rapid injection lead to TiO2(e-)-RuIII with subsequent TiO2(e-)-RuIII → TiO2-RuII back electron transfer monitored on the nsec time scale with and without added triethanolamine (TEOA) and deprotonated ethylenediaminetetraacetic tetra-anion (EDTA4-) as irreversible electron transfer donors. With added TEOA or EDTA4-, a competition exists between back electron transfer and scavenger oxidation with the latter leading to H2 production in the photoelectrosynthesis cell. Reduction of TiO2(e-)-RuIII by both TEOA and EDTA4- occurs with kD ~ 106 M-1 s-1. EDTA4- is a more efficient scavenger by a factor of ~3 because of a more favorable partition equilibrium between the film and the external solution. Its increased scavenger efficiency appears in incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements, in electron collection efficiencies (ηcoll), and in photocurrent measurements with H2 production. Evaluation of electron collection efficiencies by transient current measurements gave ηcoll ~ 24% for TEOA and ~ 70% for EDTA4-. The dynamics of back electron transfer are minimized, and collection efficiencies, photocurrents, and hydrogen production are maximized by application of a positive applied bias consistent with the results of I-V measurements. A p

  18. Transferences of deception.

    PubMed

    LaFarge, L

    1995-01-01

    Three characteristic transference configurations are identified that frequently emerge in the analyses of patients for whom deception and inauthenticity are central themes. These configurations are labeled (1) imposturous, (2) psychopathic-paranoid, and (3) psychopathic-unreal. Patients who develop these transferences have actively split the object world along two distinct axes. The first split has occurred along the lines of pleasure and unpleasure. The second divides objects along the lines of the experience of reality, with some objects felt to be charged with exaggerated, painful meaning, and others felt to be devoid of meaning and affect. This split, which arises as a way of managing painful object relations, is then woven into fantasy and defense at many developmental levels. Material from the analyses of two patients is presented to demonstrate the interplay of the three transference configurations, the fantasies that underlie them, and the clinical importance of analyzing the second split.

  19. Tech transfer outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, S.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  20. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  1. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  2. Maternal antibody-mediated dyslexia? Evidence for a pathogenic serum factor in a mother of two dyslexic children shown by transfer to mice using behavioural studies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Angela; Deacon, Robert; Dalton, Paola; Salmond, Claire; Blamire, Andrew M; Pendlebury, Sarah; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Rajogopalan, Bheeshma; Styles, Peter; Stein, John

    2002-09-01

    The causes of dyslexia are unknown, but previous studies have suggested an immunological basis in some cases. We hypothesised that maternal antibodies, which cross the placenta and bind to fetal antigens, could be responsible, particularly when the dyslexia recurs in consecutive pregnancies. We injected serum samples from five mothers of two or more children with dyslexia into pregnant mice, and tested the offspring for behavioural abnormalities and cerebellar metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Mice exposed in utero to serum factors from one woman with two dyslexic children, who had also had three spontaneous fetal losses, showed deficits in motor tests which correlated with cerebellar choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) levels. These preliminary results are consistent with a role for maternal serum factors, probably antibodies, in causing some of the features of dyslexia, and possibly in other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  4. Departmental technology transfer update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the following: to provide the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE); emphasize new and emerging initiatives; and address unresolved issues that might impact successful program implementation. The approach is the following: to provide a brief overview of DOE, its R&D, and its technology transfer assets; to briefly describe the evolution of DOE's enhanced technology transfer program; to report on specific progress and achievements over the past year--as the spring board for our current and future plans; to present our near and longer term plans; and to survey the remaining issues and the resolution process.

  5. Transferring Technology to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

  6. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  7. Erotic transference in the male adolescent-female analyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    Erotic transference involving female analysts and adult male patients has received increased attention in the past ten years. Absent from the literature, however, are any clinical reports concerning erotic transferences of adolescent male patients with female therapists. This paper presents a fragment of a treatment involving an adolescent male patient who developed an erotic transference. The vicissitudes of the transference, as well as his relationship to his mother and father, are discussed from the perspective of developmental conflicts and tasks of adolescence. The countertransference dimensions of this particular gender constellation are also examined from the standpoint of intrapsychic and cultural factors. PMID:7480402

  8. Heat transfer coefficients for drying in pulsating flows

    SciTech Connect

    Fraenkel, S.L.

    1998-05-01

    Pulsating flows generated by a Rijke type combustor are studied for drying of grains and food particles. It is assumed that the velocity fluctuations are the main factor in the enhancement of the drying process. The heat transfer coefficients for drying in vibrating beds are utilized to estimate the heat transfer coefficients of fixed beds in pulsating and permeating flows and are compared to the steady flow heat transfer coefficients obtained for solid porous bodies, after perturbing the main flow. The cases considered are compared to the convective heat transfer coefficients employed in non-pulsating drying.

  9. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot was constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors were found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  10. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  11. Transfer to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, Phyllis G.

    The developmental college reading course at Seton Hall University has a traditional emphasis on literal, evaluative, and critical reading instruction. The course also has the objective to enable students to carry from the course the skills to be successful and confident in other reading intensive courses. "Transfer days" are thus begun; students…

  12. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  13. Decal transfer microfabrication

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William Robert

    2004-10-19

    A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.

  14. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  15. Glycolipid transfer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes. PMID:17320476

  16. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  17. Beyond "Technology Transfer"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, P. G. H.

    1997-01-01

    When agricultural innovations are not adopted, there is often a gap between what people know they ought to do and what they do. Extension practice needs to expand from technology transfer. The knowledge systems approach is useful in dealing with the introduction of innovation in increasingly complex and uncertain situations. (SK)

  18. [Transference and group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247

  19. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  20. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Toews, M.; Langs, G.; Wells, W.; Golland, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for the inference of keypoint labels and for image segmentation, where keypoint matches are treated as a latent random variable and are marginalized out as part of the algorithm. We report segmentation results for abdominal organs in whole-body CT and in contrast-enhanced CT images. The accuracy of our method compares favorably to common multi-atlas segmentation while offering a speed-up of about three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, keypoint transfer requires no training phase or registration to an atlas. The algorithm’s robustness enables the segmentation of scans with highly variable field-of-view. PMID:26221677

  1. Transfer in Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Joseph F.

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical perspective outlined here offers an alternative to explanations of knowledge transfer that posit its source in the construction and application of abstract, context-independent knowledge structures. A case study analysis of an undergraduate student's attempt to solve a series of problems related to an elementary statistical…

  2. How ANUTECH transfers technology.

    PubMed

    Beardsell, L

    1990-01-01

    In summary, we would draw your attention to the things that are important, when transferring technology from a higher education institution. 1. The institute should have a separate department to deal with these matters. 2. We see advantages in this being a private company. 3. The type of agreements should be flexible so that most projects can be accommodated and having specialized staff helps.

  3. Metal ion modulated electron transfer in photosynthetic proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Utschig, L. M.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetic purple bacterial reaction center (RC) proteins are ideal native systems for addressing basic questions regarding the nature of biological electron transfer because both the protein structure and the electron-transfer reactions are well-characterized. Metal ion binding to the RC can affect primary photochemistry and provides a probe for understanding the involvement of local protein environments in electron transfer. The RC has two distinct transition metal ion binding sites, the well-known non-heme Fe{sup 2+} site buried in the protein interior and a recently discovered Zn{sup 2+} site located on the surface of the protein. Fe{sup 2+} removal and Zn{sup 2+} binding systematically affect different electron-transfer steps in the RC. Factors involved in the metal ion alteration of RC electron transfer may provide a paradigm for other biological systems involved in electron transfer.

  4. gammac gene transfer in the presence of stem cell factor, FLT-3L, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-1, and IL-15 cytokines restores T-cell differentiation from gammac(-) X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine fetal thymic organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Hacein-Bey, S; Basile, G D; Lemerle, J; Fischer, A; Cavazzana-Calvo, M

    1998-12-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-Xl) is a rare human inherited disorder in which early T and natural killer (NK) lymphocyte development is blocked. The genetic disorder results from mutations in the common gammac chain that participates in several cytokine receptors including the interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 receptors. We have shown in a previous report that gammac gene transfer into SCID-Xl bone marrow (BM) cells restores efficient NK cell differentiation. In this study, we have focused on the introduction of the gammac gene into SCID-Xl hematopoietic stem cells with the goal of obtaining differentiation into mature T cells. For this purpose, we used the in vitro hybrid fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) system in which a combination of cytokines consisting of stem cell factor (SCF), Flt-3L, IL-7, IL-1, and IL-15 is added concomitantly. In this culture system, CD34(+) marrow cells from two SCID-Xl patients were able to mature into double positive CD4(+) CD8(+) cells and to a lesser degree into CD4(+) TCRbeta+ single positive cells after retroviral-mediated gammac gene transfer. In addition, examination of the output cell population at the TCR DJbeta1 locus exhibited multiple rearrangements. These results indicate that restoration of the gammac/JAK/STAT signaling pathway during the early developmental stages of thymocytes can correct the T-cell differentiation block in SCID-Xl hematopoietic progenitor cells and therefore establishes a basis for further clinical gammac gene transfer studies.

  5. Transference in the rat man case: the transference in transition.

    PubMed

    Muslin, H L

    1979-01-01

    This study has concentrated on the use of the transference concept in the Rat Man case as a method for revealing repressed memories and to gain conviction about these repressed memories. In this treatment-transference model, transference interpretations focusing on the analyst are not germane, since the transferences are merely the vehicle by which memories are uncovered. Thus, Freud's transference work in 1907 revealed a transitional phase of his clinical activity soon to be supplanted by later insights into the curative aspects of transference analysis.

  6. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  7. The For-Profit Transfer Path: A Comparison of California Community College Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ommeren, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The results of this study determined that community college students who transfer to for-profit institutions are indeed different from students who follow traditional routes defined as public and non-profit institutions. This study compares the demographic characteristics, academic experiences, and socioeconomic factors of California community…

  8. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  9. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiz G P; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T

    2013-10-29

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate's hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene.

  10. Regulation of technology transfer by multinational corporations

    SciTech Connect

    Clarry, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the changing terms and organizational forms of technology transfer by MNCs within the pharmaceutical industry in Latin American countries. Host government regulation was able to attract entries by MNCs and reduce their level of direct contractual costs for transfers, but also encouraged more unregulated internal transmission within MNC organizations. The internalization of imperfect markets for intangible marketing and technological advantages avoided stricter host regulations, but simultaneously increased policy conflicts with governments. The process of technology transfer by MNCs became more politicized and negotiable in the industry during the 1970s. The costs of transfers were determined more by organizational and bargaining power factors than by economic processes. Government regulation reduced royalty payments and restrictive business practices in technology licensing agreements, but host nations were still dependent on imports and new products from MNCs. The bargaining position of host governments improved as competition among oligopolistic MNCs increased and pharmaceutical technology matured. More investments in local raw material manufacturing were stimulated, and internal transfer pricing manipulation was reduced by government regulations.

  11. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, Luiz Gustavo; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo

    2014-03-01

    We explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate's hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate present processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications of CVD graphene can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene.

  12. Turbulent transfer in a deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Baldocchi, D D

    1989-09-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapor and other passive scalars are physically transferred between a plant canopy and the atmosphere by turbulence. Intense and intermittent sweep and ejection events transfer most of the mass. Although the capacity for turbulence to transfer material is high, mass transfer is coupled to the diffusive source or sink strength of the foliage and soil and is ultimately limited to a minimum level set by the supply of material, or the demand for it. The diffusive source/sink strength of material leaving or entering leaves and the soil is a function of many physical, biological and chemical attributes and processes. These attributes and processes include the amount and distribution of foliage, the leaf boundary layer and surface resistances, the turbulence and radiative regimes in the canopy, biochemical and photochemical reactions and the scalar concentration field within and above the canopy and inside leaves and the soil. Here we discuss how these factors contribute to turbulent transfer in a deciduous forest.

  13. Heat transfer behavior of molten nitrate salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Apurba K.; Clark, Michael M.; Teigen, Bard C.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Anderson, Mark H.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of molten nitrate salt as heat transfer fluid and thermal storage medium decouples the generation of electricity from the variable nature of the solar resource, allowing CSP plants to avoid curtailment and match production with demand. This however brings some unique challenges for the design of the molten salt central receiver (MSCR). An aspect critical to the use of molten nitrate (60wt%/40wt% - NaNO3/KNO3) salt as heat transfer fluid in the MSCR is to understand its heat transfer behavior. Alstom collaborated with the University of Wisconsin to conduct a series of experiments and experimentally determined the heat transfer coefficients of molten nitrate salt up to high Reynolds number (Re > 2.0E5) and heat flux (q″ > 1000 kW/m2), conditions heretofore not reported in the literature. A cartridge heater instrumented with thermocouples was installed inside a stainless steel pipe to form an annular test section. The test section was installed in the molten salt flow loop at the University of Wisconsin facility, and operated over a range of test conditions to determine heat transfer data that covered the expected operating regime of a practical molten salt receiver. Heat transfer data were compared to widely accepted correlations found in heat transfer literature, including that of Gnielinski. At lower Reynolds number conditions, the results from this work concurred with the molten salt heat transfer data reported in literature and followed the aforementioned correlations. However, in the region of interest for practical receiver design, the correlations did not accurately model the experimentally determined heat transfer data. Two major effects were observed: (i) all other factors remaining constant, the Nusselt numbers gradually plateaued at higher Reynolds number; and (ii) at higher Reynolds number a positive interaction of heat flux on Nusselt number was noted. These effects are definitely not modeled by the existing correlations. In this paper a new

  14. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  15. Nuclear transfer in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hee; Maalouf, Walid E

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants were the first mammalian species to be cloned successfully by nuclear transplantation. Those experiments were designed to multiply high merit animals (Willadsen, Nature 320(6057):63-65, 1986; Prather et al., Biol Reprod 37(4):859-866, 1987; Wilmut et al., Nature 385(6619):810-813, 1997). Since then, cloning has provided us with a vast amount of knowledge and information on the reprogramming ability of somatic cells to different cell types which became an important basis for stem cell research and human medicine. Nowadays, the goals of most nuclear transfer work vary widely but in most cases the micromanipulation procedures remain the same. However, differences between species require different technical considerations. In this chapter, we describe in detail somatic cell nuclear transfer which is the foremost method for cloning ruminants with specific reference to sheep and cattle.

  16. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  17. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer.

    PubMed

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  18. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  19. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  20. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  1. Proton transfer at carbon.

    PubMed

    Richard, J P; Amyes, T L

    2001-12-01

    The viability of living systems requires that C--H bonds of biological molecules be stable in water, but that there also be a mechanism for shortening the timescale for their heterolytic cleavage through enzymatic catalysis of a variety of catabolic and metabolic reactions. An understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic catalysis of proton transfer at carbon requires the integration of results of studies to determine the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex with model studies on the mechanism for the non-enzymatic reaction in water, and the effect of the local protein environment on the stability of the transition state for this reaction. A common theme is the importance of electrostatic interactions in providing stabilization of bound carbanion intermediates of enzyme-catalyzed proton-transfer reactions.

  2. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  4. Phospholipid transfer proteins revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, K W

    1997-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP) and the non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsL-TP) (identical with sterol carrier protein 2) belong to the large and diverse family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. Although these two proteins may express a comparable phospholipid transfer activity in vitro, recent studies in yeast and mammalian cells have indicated that they serve completely different functions. PI-TP (identical with yeast SEC14p) plays an important role in vesicle flow both in the budding reaction from the trans-Golgi network and in the fusion reaction with the plasma membrane. In yeast, vesicle budding is linked to PI-TP regulating Golgi phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis with the apparent purpose of maintaining an optimal PI/PC ratio of the Golgi complex. In mammalian cells, vesicle flow appears to be dependent on PI-TP stimulating phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) synthesis. This latter process may also be linked to the ability of PI-TP to reconstitute the receptor-controlled PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity. The nsL-TP is a peroxisomal protein which, by its ability to bind fatty acyl-CoAs, is most likely involved in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in this organelle. This protein constitutes the N-terminus of the 58 kDa protein which is one of the peroxisomal 3-oxo-acyl-CoA thiolases. Further studies on these and other known phospholipid transfer proteins are bound to reveal new insights in their important role as mediators between lipid metabolism and cell functions. PMID:9182690

  5. "Terminal" Students Do Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    This report discusses the transfer rate of community college students with A.S. or A.A.S. degrees from vocational or "terminal" programs in Missouri. The study shows that during the 1995-1996 academic year, 6,171 students received an associate degree from a Missouri public two-year college. Of these, 3,169 (51%) earned the A.A. degree and 3,002…

  6. Technology Transfer Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  7. A Monster Transfer Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Alan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a transfer project that involves the use of "monsters" to provide year 6 with a series of post-SATs activities which could then be built on in year 7. The project evolves from a science-based activity into a cross-curricular one. "Monsters" was used as a fun revision tool for year 6 pupils covering the area of…

  8. Satellite system considerations for computer data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. L.; Kaul, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Communications satellites will play a key role in the transmission of computer generated data through nationwide networks. This paper examines critical aspects of satellite system design as they relate to the computer data transfer task. In addition, it discusses the factors influencing the choice of error control technique, modulation scheme, multiple-access mode, and satellite beam configuration based on an evaluation of system requirements for a broad range of application areas including telemetry, terminal dialog, and bulk data transmission.

  9. Goals, Family, and Community: What Drives Tribal College Transfer Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article examines success factors for American Indian tribal college students who transfer to 4-year predominantly White institutions. The study examined the experiences of 8 tribal college transfer students to Midwest universities. Using an indigenous methodology, 3 themes were found to help American Indian tribal college transfer students…

  10. Academic Performance of Howard Community College Students in Transfer Institutions: Preliminary Findings. Research Report Number 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Susan K.

    A study was conducted at Howard Community College (HCC) to determine the performance of HCC students at transfer institutions. Four factors related to transfer success were examined: earning an associate degree at HCC; enrolling in a community college transfer program; length of time spent at HCC; and academic preparation and achievement at the…

  11. Do Institutional Characteristics Matter in Two- to Four-Year Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    This paper aims to estimate the effects of individual and institutional factors on college transfer. The author used logistic transgression to estimate the probability of transfer. The author assumes the probability of transfer from a two-year institution to a four-year institution is a function of student characteristics, type of institution in…

  12. Training Transfer between CD-ROM Based Instruction and Traditional Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Lim, Doo H.; Zulauf, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Many research studies on the effect of organizational factors on training transfer have been conducted, but few studies have considered the effect that different training delivery methods have on training transfer. This study sought to identify if there is any difference in the perceived transfer of training between traditional classroom…

  13. The Role of Teams, Culture, and Capacity in the Transfer of Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Leyland M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Transferring organizational practices requires an understanding not only of what is being transferred but also of what is needed to ensure that the transfer is successful. In line with this thinking, the purpose of this study is to examine three factors that are crucial parts of this mechanism: use of teams, culture, and capacity.…

  14. Three pro-nuclei (3PN) incidence factors and clinical outcomes: a retrospective study from the fresh embryo transfer of in vitro fertilization with donor sperm (IVF-D)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhao; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xue, Xia; Zhang, Silin; Shi, Wenhao; Shi, Juanzi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the main factors of 3PN incidence and determine whether the presence of 3PN could lead to a worse pregnancy outcome. Methods: This study included 508 IVF-D (in vitro fertilization with donor sperm) cycles from January 2013 to September 2014. The patients were divided into three groups as follows: group 1 included patients with no 3PN zygotes, group 2 included patients with 1%-25% 3PN zygotes and group 3 included patients with > 25% 3PN zygotes. Results: We observed that more retrieved oocytes and higher HCG day peak E2 value could result in 3PN incidence more easily. When the 3PN zygotes rate was > 25%, the percentages of normal fertilization (68.4% and 66.3% and 46.4%, P < 0.001), day 3 grade I+II embryos (41.2% and 38.6% and 25.8%, P < 0.001), day 3 grade I+II+III embryos (68.7% and 65.2% and 61.4%, P = 0.032) and implantation rates (52.1% and 50.8% and 45.4%, P = 0.026) were significantly lower than that in the other two groups respectively. The pregnancy rate was lower in 3PN > 25% group than that in the other two groups but there was no significant difference (65.2% and 66.7% and 55.6%, P = 0.266). The cleavage (98.3% and 97.2% and 98.2%, P = 0.063) and early abortion (7.1% and 8.0% and 8.6%, P = 0.930) rate were identical among three groups. Conclusions: More retrieved oocytes and higher HCG day peak E2 value could result in 3PN incidence more easily. Interestingly, normal fertilization rate, day-3 grade I+II embryos rate, day-3 grade I+II+III embryos rate and implantation rate were significantly lower in IVF-D cycles with a 3PN incidence of > 25%. The number of day-3 grade I+II embryos might be a key factor for pregnancy in IVF-D cycles with a 3PN incidence of > 25%. PMID:26550358

  15. Technology transfer initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

  16. The argument from transfer.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma.

  17. Imino Transfer Hydrogenation Reductions.

    PubMed

    Wills, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This review contains a summary of recent developments in the transfer hydrogenation of C=N bonds, with a particularly focus on reports from within the last 10 years and asymmetric transformations. However, earlier work in the area is also discussed in order to provide context for the more recent results described. I focus strongly on the Ru/TsDPEN class of asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reactions originally reported by Noyori et al., together with examples of their applications, particularly to medically valuable target molecules. The recent developments in the area of highly active imine-reduction catalysts, notably those based on iridium, are also described in some detail. I discuss diastereoselective reduction methods as a route to the synthesis of chiral amines using transfer hydrogenation. The recent development of a methodology for positioning reduction complexes within chiral proteins, permitting the generation of asymmetric reduction products through a directed modification of the protein environment in a controlled manner, is also discussed. PMID:27573139

  18. One-way radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.

  19. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  20. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  1. Model wall and recovery temperature effects on experimental heat transfer data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Stone, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical procedures are used to illustrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the relative impact upon heat transfer data analysis of certain factors which may affect the accuracy of experimental heat transfer data. Inaccurate knowledge of adiabatic wall conditions results in a corresponding inaccuracy in the measured heat transfer coefficient. The magnitude of the resulting error is extreme for data obtained at wall temperatures approaching the adiabatic condition. High model wall temperatures and wall temperature gradients affect the level and distribution of heat transfer to an experimental model. The significance of each of these factors is examined and its impact upon heat transfer data analysis is assessed.

  2. Technology Transfer Network and Affiliations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technology Transfer Partnership program sponsors a number of organizations around the country that are designed to assist U.S. businesses in accessing, utilizing, and commercializing NASA-funded research and technology. These organizations work closely with the Technology Transfer Offices, located at each of the 10 NASA field centers, providing a full range of technology transfer and commercialization services and assistance.

  3. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  4. Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SOTS) is a mechanism for the transfer of spatial data between dissimilar computer systems. The SOTS specifies exchange constructs, addressing formats, structure, and content for spatially referenced vector and raster (including gridded) data. SOTS components are a conceptual model, specifications for a quality report, transfer module specifications, data dictionary specifications, and definitions of spatial features and attributes.

  5. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The Student Transfer Matrix provides data on the numbers of students transferring from Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to other Oklahoma institutions, using data from receiving institutions. Among the highlights are: the number of students who transferred to four-year and two-year institutions remained steady at 57.8…

  6. Effects of nonlocality on transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Luke

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the study of nuclei away from stability. Single-nucleon transfer reactions involving deuterons provide an exceptional tool to study the single-particle structure of nuclei. Theoretically, these reactions are attractive as they can be cast into a three-body problem composed of a neutron, proton, and the target nucleus. Optical potentials are a common ingredient in reactions studies. Traditionally, nucleon-nucleus optical potentials are made local for convenience. The effects of nonlocal potentials have historically been included approximately by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. In this thesis, we have systematically investigated the effects of nonlocality on (p,d) and (d,p) transfer reactions, and the validity of the Perey correction factor. We implemented a method to solve the single channel nonlocal equation for both bound and scattering states. We also developed an improved formalism for nonlocal interactions that includes deuteron breakup in transfer reactions. This new formalism, the nonlocal adiabatic distorted wave approximation, was used to study the effects of including nonlocality consistently in ( d,p) transfer reactions. For the (p,d) transfer reactions, we solved the nonlocal scattering and bound state equations using the Perey-Buck type interaction, and compared to local equivalent calculations. Using the distorted wave Born approximation we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) transfer on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127 Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Additionally we studied (p,d) reactions on 40Ca using the the nonlocal dispersive optical model. We have also included nonlocality consistently into the adiabatic distorted wave approximation and have investigated the effects of nonlocality on on (d,p) transfer reactions for deuterons impinged on 16O, 40Ca, 48Ca, 126Sn, 132Sn, 208Pb at 10

  7. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the

  8. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  9. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2001-03-12

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

  10. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. |

    1993-06-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  11. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. Portland State Univ., OR . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  12. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  13. Lipid-transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiujuan

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic proteins found in abundance in higher plants. LTPs play lots of roles in plants such as participation in cutin formation, embryogenesis, defense reactions against phytopathogens, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions. In addition, LTPs from field mustard and Chinese daffodil exhibit antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. LTPs from chili pepper and coffee manifest inhibitory activity against fungi pathogenic to humans such as Candida species. The intent of this article is to review LTPs in the plant kingdom. PMID:23193591

  14. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  15. Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Shane, Amber M; Reeves, Christopher L; Cameron, Jordan D; Vazales, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    When performed correctly with the right patient population, a tibialis posterior muscle/tendon transfer is an effective procedure. Many different methods have been established for fixating the tendon, each of which has its' own indications. Passing through the interosseous membrane is the preferred and recommended method and should be used unless this is not possible. Good surgical planning based on patient needs and expectations, along with excellent postoperative care including early range of motion and physical therapy minimizes risk of complications and allows for the optimal outcome to be achieved. PMID:26590722

  16. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  17. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  18. Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application.

    PubMed

    Issurin, Vladimir B

    2013-08-01

    Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross

  19. Auto-disable syringes for immunization: issues in technology transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J. S.; Milstien, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself. PMID:10680248

  20. Inferring horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Ravenhall, Matt; Škunca, Nives; Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  1. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  2. Polarization transfer NMR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; van Hulsteyn, David B.

    1990-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.

  3. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  4. A Probe into the Negative Writing Transfer of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xiaojun; Niao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese college students have studied English for many years, they still have much difficulty in writing a good paper. There are many factors resulting in their inability to write well, such as students' lack of vocabulary, having a poor knowledge of grammar, language transfer, and so on. But, of these factors, the negative transfer of…

  5. Job transfers: a neglected aspect of migration in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Menon, R

    1987-01-01

    "This article examines the incidence of [job-related] transfers in Malaysia. The retrospective migration data from the Malaysia Family Life Survey [conducted in 1976-1977] are used to demonstrate that transfers comprise 18 percent of all migration in the country and that there has been a rise in the incidence of transfers over a 35 year period. Factors underlying this trend are outlined. Furthermore, significant differences in age, educational attainment and other characteristics between transferees and other types of migrants are identified and their implications discussed."

  6. Job transfers: a neglected aspect of migration in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Menon, R

    1987-01-01

    "This article examines the incidence of [job-related] transfers in Malaysia. The retrospective migration data from the Malaysia Family Life Survey [conducted in 1976-1977] are used to demonstrate that transfers comprise 18 percent of all migration in the country and that there has been a rise in the incidence of transfers over a 35 year period. Factors underlying this trend are outlined. Furthermore, significant differences in age, educational attainment and other characteristics between transferees and other types of migrants are identified and their implications discussed." PMID:12314668

  7. Free Functional Muscle Transfers to Restore Upper Extremity Function.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Emily M; Tung, Thomas H; Moore, Amy M

    2016-05-01

    Free functional muscle transfer provides an option for functional restoration when nerve reconstruction and tendon transfers are not feasible. To ensure a successful outcome, many factors need to be optimized, including proper patient selection, timing of intervention, donor muscle and motor nerve selection, optimal microneurovascular technique and tension setting, proper postoperative management, and appropriate rehabilitation. Functional outcomes of various applications to the upper extremity and the authors' algorithm for the use of free functional muscle transfer are also included in this article. PMID:27094895

  8. Transfer function concept for ultrasonic characterization of material microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Kautz, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    The approach given depends on treating material microstructures as elastomechanical filters that have analytically definable transfer functions. These transfer functions can be defined in terms of the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient. The transfer function concept provides a basis for synthesizing expressions that characterize polycrystalline materials relative to microstructural factors such as mean grain size, grain-size distribution functions, and grain boundary energy transmission. Although the approach is nonrigorous, it leads to a rational basis for combining the previously mentioned diverse and fragmented equations for ultrasonic attenuation coefficients.

  9. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  10. Organocatalyzed Group Transfer Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougen; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the conventional group transfer polymerization (GTP) using a catalyst of either an anionic nucleophile or a transition-metal compound, the organocatalyzed GTP has to a great extent improved the living characteristics of the polymerization from the viewpoints of synthesizing structurally well-defined acrylic polymers and constructing defect-free polymer architectures. In this article, we describe the organocatalyzed GTP from a relatively personal perspective to provide our colleagues with a perspicuous and systematic overview on its recent progress as well as a reply to the curiosity of how excellently the organocatalysts have performed in this field. The stated perspectives of this review mainly cover five aspects, in terms of the assessment of the livingness of the polymerization, limit and scope of applicable monomers, mechanistic studies, control of the polymer structure, and a new GTP methodology involving the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and hydrosilane. PMID:27427399

  11. Olympic torch transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) transfers the Olympic flame to KSC runner Joanne Maceo's torch at the top of Launch Pad 39A after he carried the Olympic torch to the top of the pad as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (center) witnesses the exchange. Maceo then carried her lit torch down the concrete hard stand of the pad to pass the flame to another of the 20-member KSC runner team that participated in the KSC relay effort. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind the trio, poised for the STS-79 mission, with will feature the fourth docking of the shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  12. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  13. Technology transfer 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  14. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  15. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  16. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  17. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  18. Geochemical Speciation Mass Transfer

    1985-12-01

    PHREEQC is designed to model geochemical reactions. Based on an ion association aqueous model, PHREEQC can calculate pH, redox potential, and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress. It can be used to describe geochemical processes for both far-field and near-field performance assessment and to evaluate data acquisition needs and test data. It can also calculate the composition of solutions in equilibrium with multiple phases. The data base, including elements, aqueous species, and mineralmore » phases, is independent of the program and is completely user-definable. PHREEQC requires thermodynamic data for each solid, gaseous, or dissolved chemical species being modeled. The two data bases, PREPHR and DEQPAK7, supplied with PHREEQC are for testing purposes only and should not be applied to real problems without first being carefully examined. The conceptual model embodied in PHREEQC is the ion-association model of Pearson and Noronha. In this model a set of mass action equations are established for each ion pair (and controlling solid phases when making mass transfer calculations) along with a set of mass balance equations for each element considered. These sets of equations are coupled using activity coefficient values for each aqueous species and solved using a continued fraction approach for the mass balances combined with a modified Newton-Raphson technique for all other equations. The activity coefficient expressions in PHREEQC include the extended Debye-Huckel, WATEQ Debye-Huckel, and Davies equations from the original United States Geological Survey version of the program. The auxiliary preprocessor program PHTL, which is derived from EQTL, converts EQ3/6 thermodynamic data to PHREEQC format so that the two programs can be compared. PHREEQC can be used to determine solubility limits on the radionuclides present in the waste form. These solubility constraints may be input to the WAPPA leach model.« less

  19. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  20. Respiratory electron transfer pathways in plant mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Schertl, Peter; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer from organic substrates onto molecular oxygen with proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex for ATP formation. In plants, the ETC is especially intricate. Besides the “classical” oxidoreductase complexes (complex I–IV) and the mobile electron transporters cytochrome c and ubiquinone, it comprises numerous “alternative oxidoreductases.” Furthermore, several dehydrogenases localized in the mitochondrial matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space directly or indirectly provide electrons for the ETC. Entry of electrons into the system occurs via numerous pathways which are dynamically regulated in response to the metabolic state of a plant cell as well as environmental factors. This mini review aims to summarize recent findings on respiratory electron transfer pathways in plants and on the involved components and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:24808901

  1. Gene transfer between streptomycetes in soil.

    PubMed

    Wellington, E M; Cresswell, N; Herron, P R

    1992-06-15

    The growth and activity of Streptomyces violaceolatus and Streptomyces lividans was studied in soil under controlled conditions. The life cycle was followed under differing nutrient regimes and the fate of plasmid- and phage-borne genes determined by direct and indirect techniques. Methods were developed for the direct monitoring of plasmid DNA extracted from soil which allowed differentiation of the cellular location of plasmid DNA between mycelium and spores. In a dynamic, nutrient-fed soil microcosm, inoculants survived poorly, but a specific stage was defined by direct and indirect methods when the inoculants were most active and this correlated with the detection of gene transfer events. Plasmid transfer, phage infection and lysogeny only occurred to a significant extent within this stage at days 15-17 during a 60-day incubation. Estimates based on plasmid DNA recovery indicated that viable counts underestimated spore and mycelial propagules by a factor of greater than 100.

  2. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  3. Investigation of heat transfer efficiency in coplanar channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelevin, F. V.; Yaroslavtsev, N. L.; Vikulin, A. V.; Orlin, S. A.; Ponomarev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Achieving more efficient heat transfer in heat-transfer devices is a topical problem. Heat transfer and pressure drop in paths containing coplanar channels of different shapes are experimentally studied in this work. It is found that the mutual crossing angles of coplanar channels, finning ratio, and the dimensions of coplanar channels are the main parameters influencing heat transfer enhancement. The best effect from using coplanar channels is achieved at the values of Reynolds number Re = 103-104. The coefficient of heat transfer in coplanar channels can be increased by a factor of 3-10 as compared with that for a smooth channel. The pressure drop coefficient ξ increases with increasing the total mutual channel crossing angle. It is found that heat transfer in flat paths with coplanar channels becomes less efficient with decreasing the coplanar channel's equivalent hydraulic diameter to 0.5-1.0 mm, whereas more efficient heat transfer is obtained by fitting these channels with flow microturbulizers. It is shown that increasing the finning height in cylindrical paths with coplanar channels has no effect on vortex formation in them; however, it results in a higher finning ratio, due to which more efficient heat transfer is obtained

  4. Exciton Transfer in Carbon Nanotube Aggregates for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoody, Amirhossein; Karimi, Farhad; Knezevic, Irena

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising building blocks for organic photovoltaic devices, owing to their tunable band gap, mechanical and chemical stability. We study intertube excitonic energy transfer between pairs of CNTs with different orientations and band gaps. The optically bright and dark excitonic states in CNTs are calculated by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We calculate the exciton transfer rates due to the direct and exchange Coulomb interactions, as well as the second-order phonon-assisted processes. We show the importance of phonons in calculating the transfer rates that match the measurements. In addition, we discuss the contribution of optically inactive excited states in the exciton transfer process, which is difficult to determine experimentally. Furthermore, we study the effects of sample inhomogeneity, impurities, and temperature on the exciton transfer rate. The inhomogeneity in the CNT sample dielectric function can increase the transfer rate by about a factor of two. We show that the exciton confinement by impurities has a detrimental effect on the transfer rate between pairs of similar CNTs. The exciton transfer rate increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0008712.

  5. Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute?s (ANSI) Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) is a mechanism for archiving and transferring of spatial data (including metadata) between dissimilar computer systems. The SDTS specifies exchange constructs, such as format, structure, and content, for spatially referenced vector and raster (including gridded) data. The SDTS includes a flexible conceptual model, specifications for a quality report, transfer module specifications, data dictionary specifications, and definitions of spatial features and attributes.

  6. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The presentation is made in vugraph form. The assigned subtopic for this panel are as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA US government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other US government space mission programs. A specific area of inquiry was Technology Maturation Milestones. Three areas were investigated: technology development; advanced development; and flight hardware development.

  7. The Institutional Costs and Resource Profile of Transfer Patients Into an Arthroplasty Service.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Peter; Qaderi, Ali; Jung, James; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-11-01

    The decision point with inter-hospital arthroplasty patient transfers and its financial implications have not been well studied. Factors outside of complexity of medical and surgical care are believed to drive the transfer of orthopaedic patients to tertiary care centers. We compared our institutional cost and resource utilization between transfer and elective patients in need of arthroplasty care. We hypothesized that transfer patients will incur a higher direct cost and resource utilization compared to elective patients, and that socioeconomic factors will play a role in the decision of transfer. After analysis of key metrics, transfer patients at our institution did not have any significant differences in insurance types. However, they did incur a longer length of stay (p<0.0001) and incurred greater direct costs (p<0.0001) to the hospital. After analysis of key parameters, transfer patients were more complex and costly to care for compared to our in-system patients. PMID:26680407

  8. Improving NASA's technology transfer process through increased screening and evaluation in the information dissemination program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laepple, H.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NASA's technology transfer system can be improved if the technology transfer process is better understood. This understanding will only be gained if a detailed knowledge about factors generally influencing technology transfer is developed, and particularly those factors affecting technology transfer from government R and D agencies to industry. Secondary utilization of aerospace technology is made more difficult because it depends on a transfer process which crosses established organizational lines of authority and which is outside well understood patterns of technical applications. In the absence of a sound theory about technology transfer and because of the limited capability of government agencies to explore industry's needs, a team approach to screening and evaluation of NASA generated technologies is proposed which calls for NASA, and other organizations of the private and public sectors which influence the transfer of NASA generated technology, to participate in a screening and evaluation process to determine the commercial feasibility of a wide range of technical applications.

  9. Free Flap Functional Muscle Transfers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ryan M; Ruch, David S

    2016-08-01

    Free functional muscle transfers remain a powerful reconstructive tool to restore upper extremity function when other options such as tendon or nerve transfers are not available. This reconstructive technique is commonly used for patients following trauma, ischemic contractures, and brachial plexopathies. Variable outcomes have been reported following free functional muscle transfers that are related to motor nerve availability and reinnervation. This article highlights considerations around donor motor nerve selection, dissection, and use of the gracilis muscle, and the surgical approach to performing a free functional muscle transfer to restore elbow flexion and/or digit flexion. PMID:27387083

  10. Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Tanenbaum, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines whether the relationship between making familial wealth transfers and becoming a Medicaid recipient sheds light on the current debate about Medicaid estate planning, whereby some elders transfer their assets to their families to qualify for Medicaid. Design and Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, we tracked a national sample of community-based elders who did not receive Medicaid at the 1993 baseline interview but became Medicaid recipients during a 10-year time period and examined wealth transfers for these new Medicaid beneficiaries. Results: Among elders aged 70 or older who did not receive Medicaid in 1993, 16.4% became Medicaid recipients over 10 years. Among these new Medicaid recipients, 17.9% transferred their wealth to family members before receiving Medicaid benefits, with an average transfer amount of $8,507 during the 2 years prior to receiving Medicaid benefits. In addition, 15.2% of community-residing elders entered a nursing home during the 10-year period, and 26.3% of these were covered by Medicaid. Of these new Medicaid recipients living in nursing homes, 12.6% transferred wealth to their families in the mean amount of $4,112. Implications: Familial wealth transfers do occur before changes in Medicaid eligibility in a small, but nontrivial, number of cases, but the amount transferred is modest, especially among nursing home residents. This finding implies that policies to reduce Medicaid long-term-care expenditures by limiting such transfers may not be very effective. PMID:16452279

  11. Energy Transfer Involving Diatomic Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, John Paul

    A three-dimensional, Monte Carlo model for the calculation of vibrational energy relaxation and transfer rates for both diatomic-monatomic and diatomic-diatomic systems was developed, analyzed and implemented. Mediation by internal angular momentum was demonstrated to be important in these energy transfer processes. This was named the TLV mechanism for translation to vibration flow through changes in angular momentum. The equations for the component of vibrational energy change due to the TLV mechanism for the two extreme cases of very hard or very soft collisions were derived. Results of using these equations were compared with those obtained by direct integration of the differential equations of motion and in many cases were found to agree. This mechanism was incorporated into the model in order to achieve statistically significant results within reasonable computer running times. When this was done the variance of a result was frequently reduced by a factor of thirty to fifty or more with little or no increase in the computer times required. This made possible a meaningful study of the full three-dimensional diatomic-diatomic collisional processes and also permitted extension of the mono-diatomic model calculations to much lower temperatures than had been previously investigated. After this calculational procedure was developed for Ar - O(,2) collisions, it was also applied to He - O(,2) and to the near resonant vibration energy exchange process:. CO ((nu)=0)+N(,2)((nu)=1)(--->)CO((nu)=1)+N(,2)((nu)=0). These three processes were investigated at several temperatures between room temperature and 4000K. Exponential repulsive intermolecular potentials were used. The values for the coefficients and characteristic lengths for these potentials were obtained from independent sources both experimental and theoretical. In general, the results, when compared to experiment, are very consistent relative to their dependence on the potential parameters. In every case for all

  12. Oocyte transfer and gamete intrafallopian transfer in the mare.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, E M

    2004-07-01

    Methods for the collection and transfer of equine oocytes have been developed, and uses of these techniques have resulted in new clinical and research possibilities. Because oocyte transfer avoids reproductive problems associated with the oviduct, uterus, and cervix, pregnancies can be produced from many mares that cannot carry a pregnancy or produce embryos. Oocytes for clinical transfers are usually collected from preovulatory follicles and cultured for a short interval or transferred directly into a recipient's oviduct. For oocyte transfer, the recipient is inseminated within the uterus. A large number (1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9)) of motile sperms are preferred for inseminations. In contrast, sperm and oocyte are transferred into the oviduct during gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Therefore, a lower number (1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5)) of sperm can be used. Potentially, GIFT could be used in situations where sperm numbers are limited. Use of oocyte transfer and GIFT in clinical and research settings will aid us in understanding the interactions between oocyte, sperm, and oviduct in the equine. PMID:15271484

  13. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  14. Transference, Counter-Transference, and Reflexivity in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the contributions psychoanalytic theory, particularly its concepts of "transference and counter-transference," can make to our understanding of reflexivity in intercultural education (IE). After the introduction, the article is organized into three parts. The first part is a psychoanalytic discussion that focuses on…

  15. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  16. Electron transfer in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. J. P.

    Electron transfer is one of the key reactions of biology not just in catalysis of oxidation/reduction reactions but in the conversion of sources of energy such as light to usable form for chemical transformations. There are then two intriguing problems. What is the nature of the matrix in which electrons flow in a biological cell after the initial charge separation due for example to the absorption of light. Here we are examining biological structures similar to man's electronic wires and the construction must be of low resistance in what are apparently insulators - organic polymers. It has been found that the electronic conduction system is largely made from metallo-proteins associated with lipid membranes. We understand much about these biological wires today. The second problem concerns the conversion of the energy captured from the light into usable chemical form. The major synthetic step in the production of biological polymers, including proteins, DNA, RNA, polysaccharides and fats, is condensation, i.e. the removal of water in the formation of amides, esters and so on. Now these condensation reactions are driven in biology by using a drying agent in water, namely the anhydride, pyrophosphate, in a special compound ATP, adenosine triphosphate. The central problem is to discover exactly how the flow of electrons can be related to the synthesis of (bound) pyrophosphate. (In a thermodynamic sense pyrophosphate is a water soluble kinetically stable drying agent comparable with solid P2O5.) In the biological systems the connection between these different classes of reaction, electron transfer and condensation, is known to be via the production of an energized gradient of protons across the biological membrane which arises from the flow of electrons across the same membrane in the electron transport wires of biology. However we do not understand thoroughly the steps which lead from electron flow in a membrane to proton gradients in that membrane, i.e. electron

  17. Transfer of Training: Does It Truly Happen?: An Examination of Support, Instrumentality, Retention and Learner Readiness on the Transfer Motivation and Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed; Sundram, Veera Pandiyan Kaliani; Othman, Akmal Aini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of selected environmental, situational and individual factors in the training transfer process. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes and tests a framework via structural equation modelling by including supervisor and peer support, instrumentality and learner readiness on…

  18. Geothermal Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Basmajian, V.V.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a heat transfer apparatus which consists of: heat exchanging means for orientation in the earth below ground substantially vertically, having a hollow conduit of length from top to bottom much greater than the span across the hollow conduit orthogonal to its length with a top, bottom and an intermediate portion contiguous and communicating with the top and bottom portions for allowing thermally conductive fluid to flow freely between the top, intermediate and bottom portions for immersion in thermally conductive fluid in the region around the heat exchanging means for increasing the heat flow between the latter and earth when inserted into a substantially vertical borehole in the earth with the top portion above the bottom portion. The heat exchanger consists of heat exchanging conduit means in the intermediate portion for carrying refrigerant. The heat exchanging conduit consisting of tubes of thermally conductive material for carrying the refrigerant and extending along the length of the hollow conduit for a tube length that is less than the length of the hollow conduit. The hollow conduit is formed with port means between the top and the plurality of tubes for allowing the thermally conductive fluid to pass in a flow path embracing the tubes, the bottom portion, an outer channel around the hollow conduit and the port means.

  19. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  20. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.