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Sample records for solar coatings designed

  1. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    PubMed

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  4. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-05-01

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  5. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  6. The design of broad band anti-reflection coatings for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Rama Krishna, Angirekula; Sabat, Samrat Lagnajeet; Ghanashyam Krishna, Mamidipudi

    2017-01-01

    The design of broadband anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) for solar cell applications using multiobjective differential evolutionary (MODE) algorithms is reported. The effect of thickness and refractive index contrast within the layers of the ARC on the bandwidth of reflectance is investigated in detail. In the case of the hybrid plasmonic ARC structures the effect of size, shape and filling fraction of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the reflectance is studied. Bandwidth is defined as the spectral region of wavelengths over which the reflectance is below 2%. Single, two and three layers ARCs (consisting of MgF2, Al2O3, Si3N4, TiO2 and ZnS or combinations of these materials) were simulated for performance evaluation on an a-Si photovoltaic cell. It is observed that the three layer ARC consisting of MgF2/Si3N4/TiO2(ZnTe) of 81/42/36 nm thicknesses, respectively, exhibited a weighted reflectance of 1.9% with a bandwidth of 450 nm over the wavelength range of 300-900 nm. The ARC bandwidth could be further improved by embedding randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles of size between 100 and 120 nm on a two layer ARC consisting of Al2O3/TiO2 with thickness of 42 nm and 56 nm respectively. This plasmon-dielectric hybrid ARC design exhibited a weighted reflectance of 0.6% with a bandwidth of 560 nm over the wavelength range of 300-900 nm.

  7. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  8. Solar Selective Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Shumway, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    Solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is to be used to power heat engines or to provide thermal energy for remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. These coatings are designed to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. The coatings must be durable at elevated temperatures. For thermal bus applications, the temperature during operation is likely to be near 100 C. For heat engine applications. the temperature is expected to be much greater. The objective of this work was to screen candidate solar selective coatings for their high temperature durability. Candidate solar selective coatings were composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric, including: nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. To identify high temperature durability, the solar absorptance and infrared emittance of the candidate coatings were evaluated initially, and after heating to temperatures in the range of 400 C to 700 C. The titanium and aluminum oxide molecular mixture was found to be the most durable.

  9. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  10. Design and demonstration of a system for the deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power system concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A system for the vacuum deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power systems (SDPS) concentrators was designed and demonstrated. The design issues pertinent to SDPS were developed by the Government Aerospace Systems Division of the Harris Corporation and are described in NASA-CR-179489. Both design and demonstration phases have been completed. At the time of this report the deposition system was ready for coating of facets for SDPS concentrators. The materials issue relevant to the coating work were not entirely resolved. These issues can only be resolved when substrates which are comparable to those which will be used in flight hardware are available. The substrates available during the contract period were deficient in the areas of surface roughness and contamination. These issues are discussed more thoroughly in the body of the report.

  11. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  12. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  13. Solar Control design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the evaluation of design of Solar Control's solar heating and cooling system controller and the Solarstat is given. Some of the information includes system performance specifications, design data brochures, and detailed design drawings.

  14. Solar Absorptance of Cermet Coatings Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of solar Stirling convertors. In this application, the key role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. To achieve this objective, the cermet coating has a high solar absorptance value. Cermet coatings are manufactured utilizing sputter deposition, and many different metal and ceramic combinations can be created. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition, and hence, the optical properties of these coatings. The NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and characterized a wide variety of cermet coatings utilizing different metals deposited in an aluminum oxide ceramic matrix. In addition, the atomic oxygen durability of these coatings has been evaluated.

  15. Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

  16. Design of a three-layer antireflection coating for high efficiency indium phosphide solar cells using a chemical oxide as first layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulot, Jacques; Faur, M.; Faur, M.; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Bailey, S.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the behavior of III-V compound based solar cells is largely controlled by their surface, since the majority of light generated carriers (63% for GaAs and 79% for InP) are created within 0.2 mu m of the surface of the illuminated cell. Consequently, the always observed high surface recombination velocity (SRV) on these cells is a serious limiting factor for their high efficiency performance, especially for those with p-n junction made by either thermal diffusion or ion implantation. A good surface passivation layer, ideally a grown oxide as opposed to a deposited one, will cause a significant reduction in the SRV without adding interface problems, thus improving the performance of III-V compound based solar cells. Another significant benefit to the overall performance of the solar cells can be achieved by a substantial reduction of their large surface optical reflection by the use of a well designed antireflection (AR) coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a chemically grown thermally and chemically stable oxide, not only for surface passivation but also as an integral part of a 3-layer AR coating for thermally diffused p+n InP solar cells. A phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide, In(PO3)3, is grown at the surface of the p+ emitter using an etchant based on HNO3, o-H3PO4 and H2O2. This oxide has the unique properties of passivating the surface as well as serving as an efficient antireflective layer yielding a measured record high AMO open-circuit voltage of 890.3 mV on a thermally diffused InP(Cd,S) solar cell. Unlike conventional single layer AR coatings such as ZnS, Sb2O3, SiO or double layer AR coatings such as ZnS/MgF2 deposited by e-beam or resistive evaporation, this oxide preserves the stoichiometry of the InP surface. We show that it is possible to design a three-layer AR coating for a thermally diffused InP solar cell using the In(PO3)3 grown oxide as the first layer and Al2O3 and MgF2 as the second and third

  17. Design of a Three-Layer Antireflection Coating for High Efficiency Indium Phosphide Solar Cells Using a Chemical Oxide as First Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulot, Jacques; Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Goradia, Chandra; Goradia, Manju; Bailey, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the behavior of III-V compound based solar cells is largely controlled by their surface, since the majority of light generated carriers (63% for GaAs and 79% for InP) are created within 0.2 microns of the illuminated surface of the cell. Consequently, the always observed high surface recombination velocity (SRV) on these cells is a serious limiting factor for their high efficiency performance, especially for those with the p-n junction made by either thermal diffusion or ion implantation. A good surface passivation layer, ideally, a grown oxide as opposed to a deposited one, will cause a significant reduction in the SRV without adding interface problems, thus improving the performance of III-V compound based solar cells. Another significant benefit to the overall performance of the solar cells can be achieved by a substantial reduction of their large surface optical reflection by the use of a well designed antireflection (AR) coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a chemically grown, thermally and chemically stable oxide, not only for surface passivation but also as an integral part of a 3- layer AR coating for thermally diffused p(+)n InP solar cells. A phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide, In(PO3)3, is grown at the surface of the p(+) emitter using an etchant based on HNO3, o-H3PO4 and H2O2. This oxide has the unique properties of passivating the surface as well as serving as a fairly efficient antireflective layer yielding a measured record high AM0, 25 C, open-circuit voltage of 890.3 mV on a thermally diffused InP(Cd,S) solar cell. Unlike conventional single layer AR coatings such as ZnS, Sb2O3, SiO or double layer AR coatings such as ZnS/MgF2 deposited by e-beam or resistive evaporation, this oxide preserves the stoichiometry of the InP surface. We show that it is possible to design a three-layer AR coating for a thermally diffused InP solar cell using the In(PO3)3 grown oxide as the first layer and Al2O3, MgF2 or

  18. Accelerated life testing of solar absorber coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Moeller, K.; Frei, Ulrich; Koehl, Michael

    1994-09-01

    Results from a comprehensive case study on accelerated life testing of some selective solar collector absorber coatings for DHW systems are reviewed. The study was conducted within Task X `Solar Materials Research and Development' of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program from 1987 to 1992 and is unique due to its quantitative and systematic approach for durability assessment. The work of case study involved the development of both experimental and theoretical tools to aid the assessment of service life or absorber coatings. This entailed performance analysis, failure analysis, microclimate characterization, environmental resistance testing and life date analysis. Predicted in-service degradation of coatings from accelerated life testing was found to be in fairly good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with what was actually observed on coatings installed and tested for three years in solar collectors working under typical DHW conditions.

  19. Survey of coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    Optimum solar selective properties of black chrome require some tailoring of current and time for plating solution being used. Black zinc is produced from high zinc electroplate by subsequent conversion with chromate dip. Measurements have also been made of reflectance of previously known solar selective coatings of black copper and electroplated black nickel.

  20. Inexpensive Antireflection Coating for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracy, C. E.; Kern, W.; Vibronek, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous method for applying antireflection coating to solar cells increases efficiency of devices by preventing energy from being reflected away, but adds little to manufacturing cost. Method consists of spraying solution on cells or glass collector plates, drying sprayed layer, and curing it. Solution is formulated to spread evenly over surfaces.

  1. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  2. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  3. Reflective coatings for solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.

    1993-05-01

    Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

  4. Reflective coatings for solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.

    1993-05-01

    Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R&D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

  5. Progress to Develop an Advanced Solar-Selective Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2008-03-01

    The progress to develop a durable advanced solar-selective coating will be described. Experimental work has focused on modeling high-temperature, solar-selective coatings; depositing the individual layers and modeled coatings; measuring the optical, thermal, morphology, and compositional properties and using the data to validate the modeled and deposited properties; re-optimizing the coating; and testing the coating performance and durability.

  6. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  7. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  8. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  9. High durability solar absorptive coating and methods for making same

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Aaron C.; Adams, David P.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention relates to solar absorptive coatings including a ceramic material. In particular, the coatings of the invention are laser-treated to further enhance the solar absorptivity of the material. Methods of making and using such materials are also described.

  10. Engineering coatings: Design and application. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, S.; Blunt, J.

    1999-07-01

    This is a guidebook for coating selection and the means of application for specific circumstances. Mechanisms of wear and corrosion are discussed in detail to assist in the analysis of component failures and newly designed parts. Coverage includes coating finishing, quality assurance, health and safety issues and other useful reference information for designers and surface engineers who use or select coatings.

  11. Advances in Concentrating Solar Power Collectors: Mirrors and Solar Selective Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kenendy, C. E.

    2007-10-10

    The intention is to explore the feasibility of depositing the coating by lower-cost methods and to perform a rigorous cost analysis after a viable high-temperature solar-selective coating is demonstrated by e-beam.

  12. Suppressing lossy-film-induced angular mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema: optimum optical designs of interlayers and AR coating for maximum transmittance into active layers of CIGS solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    2014-01-13

    The investigation of optimum optical designs of interlayers and antireflection (AR) coating for achieving maximum average transmittance (T(ave)) into the CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 (CIGS) absorber of a typical CIGS solar cell through the suppression of lossy-film-induced angular mismatches is described. Simulated-annealing algorithm incorporated with rigorous electromagnetic transmission-line network approach is applied with criteria of minimum average reflectance (R(ave)) from the cell surface or maximum T(ave) into the CIGS absorber. In the presence of one MgF2 coating, difference in R(ave) associated with optimum designs based upon the two distinct criteria is only 0.3% under broadband and nearly omnidirectional incidence; however, their corresponding T(ave) values could be up to 14.34% apart. Significant T(ave) improvements associated with the maximum-T(ave)-based design are found mainly in the mid to longer wavelengths and are attributed to the largest suppression of lossy-film-induced angular mismatches over the entire CIGS absorption spectrum. Maximum-T(ave)-based designs with a MgF2 coating optimized under extreme deficiency of angular information is shown, as opposed to their minimum-R(ave)-based counterparts, to be highly robust to omnidirectional incidence.

  13. New solar selective coating based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth, Thomas; Leupolt, Beate; Mäder, Gerrit; Härtel, Paul; Grählert, Wulf; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be applied to assemble a new type of solar selective coating system for solar thermal applications. In this work the predominant absorption processes occurring by interaction with π-plasmon and Van Hove singularities (VHS) were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Not only optical properties for as deposited SWCNT thin films itself, but also the potential for systematic tailoring will be presented. Besides low cost technologies required, the adjustability of optical properties, as well as their thermal stability render CNT based solar selective coatings as promising alternative to commercially available coating systems.

  14. Sol-gel-derived AR coatings for solar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, C. S.; Reed, S. T.

    1984-09-01

    A process for applying sol-gel antireflection (AR) coatings to solar receiver envelopes is investigated. The process consists of applying a porous film which is subsequently etched to achieve the optimum AR effect. The result is a single-layer interference film with a reflectance minimum at 550 nm. The solar transmittance of coated tubes is typically increased to 0.05 to 0.97, as compared with 0.91 for uncoated tubes. Coated tubes showed no significant decrease in solar transmittance after 16 weeks of operation in a parabolic trough collector system. Recommendations are included for process improvement before industrial scale-up.

  15. Particulate and solar radiation stable coating for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A laminate thermal control coating for spacecraft comprising a layer of solar radiation stable film, a layer of particulate radiation stable film applied to the upper surface of the solar radiation stable film, and a layer of reflecting material applied to the lower surface of the solar radiation stable film was described. The coating experiences no increase in solar radiation absorptance (the proportion of radiant energy absorbed) upon exposure to particulate or solar radiation as the particulate radiation is substantially absorbed in the particulate radiation stable layer and the solar radiation partially absorbed by the particulate radiation stable layer is transmitted by the solar radiation stable film to the reflecting material which reflects it back through the laminate and into space.

  16. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  17. Solar Selective Coatings Developed for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is envisioned for space power applications on minisatellites. A high solar absorptance is needed to collect as much of the incident solar radiation as possible and a low infrared emittance is needed to minimize radiant energy losses. A lightweight material having a high thermal conductivity is needed to transport the absorbed energy to where it is needed. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature-differential heat engine to provide electric power to the minisatellite components or as a source of thermal energy for a thermal bus that would heat remote regions of the spacecraft. The key to such a collector is the use of cermet coatings. Cermet coatings are composed of molecular islands of metal embedded in a three-dimensional matrix of dielectric. Recent research on molecular mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide at the NASA Glenn Research Center has yielded cermet coatings with a solar absorptance a of 0.797 and an infrared emittance epsilon of 0.131, yielding an alpha/epsilon ratio of 6. Although additional work is needed to further increase the alpha/epsilon ratio, these coatings are attractive owing to their potential durability in the space environment. The aluminum oxide surface should provide substantial protection from the atomic oxygen found in low Earth orbit. To help minimize emittance, these coatings are deposited on a smooth surface. The selected surface is aluminum that has been diamond turned to a mirror finish. Cermet coatings are manufactured by sputter deposition. To achieve the desired variable composition, Glenn's researchers implemented a novel approach using a cylindrical target composed of aluminum and aluminum oxide. Rotating the cylinder during the deposition process yields a coating of variable composition. A photograph of the custom-made aluminum and aluminum oxide cylindrical target installed

  18. Wet-chemistry based selective coatings for concentrating solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimon, Eran; Kribus, Abraham; Flitsanov, Yuri; Shkolnik, Oleg; Feuermann, Daniel; Zwicker, Camille; Larush, Liraz; Mandler, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2013-09-01

    Spectrally selective coatings are common in low and medium temperature solar applications from solar water heating collectors to parabolic trough absorber tubes. They are also an essential element for high efficiency in higher temperature Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems. Selective coatings for CSP are usually prepared using advanced expensive methods such as sputtering and vapor deposition. In this work, coatings were prepared using low-cost wet-chemistry methods. Solutions based on Alumina and Silica sol gel were prepared and then dispersed with black spinel pigments. The black dispersions were applied by spray/roll coating methods on stainless steel plates. The spectral emissivity of sample coatings was measured in the temperature range between 200 and 500°C, while the spectral absorptivity was measured at room temperature and 500°C. Emissivity at wavelengths of 0.4-1.7 μm was evaluated indirectly using multiple measurements of directional reflectivity. Emissivity at wavelengths 2-14 μm was measured directly using a broadband IR camera that acquires the radiation emitted from the sample, and a range of spectral filters. Emissivity measurement results for a range of coated samples will be presented, and the impact of coating thickness, pigment loading, and surface preparation will be discussed.

  19. Novel Passivating/Antireflective Coatings for Space Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Bailey, S. G.; Flood, D. J.; Faur, H. M.; Mateescu, C. G.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Scheiman, D.; Jenkins, P. P.; Brinker, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a novel process to grow passivating/antireflective (AR) coatings for terrestrial and space solar cells. Our approach involves a Room Temperature Wet Chemical Growth (RTWCG) process, which was pioneered, and is under development at SPECMAT, Inc., under a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement with NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTWCG passivating/AR coatings with graded index of refraction are applied in one easy step on finished (bare) cells. The RTWCG coatings grown on planar, textured and porous Si, as well as on poly-Si, CuInSe2, and III-V substrates, show excellent uniformity irrespective of surface topography, crystal orientation, size and shape. In this paper we present some preliminary results of the RTWCG coatings on Si and III-V substrates that show very good potential for use as a passivation/AR coating for space solar cell applications. Compared to coatings grown using conventional techniques, the RTWCG coatings have the potential to reduce reflection losses and improve current collection near the illuminated surface of space solar cells, while reducing the fabrication costs.

  20. New Challenges in Optical Coating Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Olaf

    Modern mathematical algorithms allow to theoretically generate thin film designs that fit nearly any reasonable specification. Nevertheless, as practice has shown, the gap between calculated and technologically achievable characteristics may be significant, so that the search for qualitatively new design and production tools is still in progress and represents one of the most complex challenges in thin optical coating theory and technology today. Such new design challenges include the incorporation of gradient index layers into classical designs, the design of rugate filters, or novel filter concepts that are based on resonant grating waveguide structures. Moreover, the development of novel composite coating materials is expected to facilitate the optimisation of future designs.

  1. Enhanced photocurrent in crystalline silicon solar cells by hybrid plasmonic antireflection coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim, Narges F.; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Zhang, Yinan; Shi, Zhengrong; Gu, Min

    2012-12-01

    Photocurrent enhancement induced by plasmonic light trapping is of great interest for photovoltaics. We design and demonstrate hybrid plasmonic antireflection coatings as an efficient light trapping strategy for broadband absorption and photocurrent enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells. Gold nanoparticles of size ranging from 15 to 150 nm are embedded in standard SiNx antireflection coatings with a thickness of 90 nm. Through optimizing the location of tailored nanoparticles within the SiNx layer, both light scattering enhancement and near-field light concentration can be harnessed. A maximum increase of 6.3% in photocurrent is achieved for textured multi-crystalline Si solar cells with the optimum configuration.

  2. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  3. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  4. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  5. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  6. Advanced Antireflection Coatings for High-Performance Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop and refine antireflection coatings incorporating lanthanum titanate as an intermediate refractive index material; Investigate wet/dry thermal oxidation of aluminum containing semiconductor compounds as a means of forming a more transparent window layer with equal or better optical properties than its unoxidized form; Develop a fabrication process that allows integration of the oxidized window layer and maintains the necessary electrical properties for contacting the solar cell; Conduct an experimental demonstration of the best candidates for improved antireflection coatings.

  7. Transparent, Conductive Coatings Developed for Arc-Proof Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Transparent, conductive thin-film coatings have many potential applications where a surface must be able to dissipate electrical charges without sacrificing its optical properties. Such applications include automotive and aircraft windows, heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and solar cell array surfaces for space applications. Many spacecraft missions require that solar cell array surfaces dissipate charges in order to avoid damage such as electronic upsets, formation of pinholes in the protective coatings on solar array blankets, and contamination due to deposition of sputtered products. In tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center, mixed thin-films of sputter-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) that could be tailored to the desired sheet resistivity, showed transmittance values of greater than 90 percent. The samples evaluated were composed of mixed, thin-film ITO/MgF2 coatings, with a nominal thickness of 650 angstroms, deposited onto glass substrates. Preliminary results indicated that these coatings were durable to vacuum ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. These coatings show promise for use on solar array surfaces in polar low-Earth-orbit environments, where a sheet resistivity of less than 10(exp 8)/square is required, and in geosynchronous orbit environments, where a resistivity of less than 10(exp 9)/square is required.

  8. Evaluation of glass resin coatings for solar cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    Using a variety of non-vacuum deposition techniques coatings were implemented on silicon solar cells and arrays of cells interconnected on Kapton substrates. The coatings provide both antireflection optical matching and environmental protection. Reflectance minima near 2% was achieved at a single wavelength in the visible. Reflectance averaging below 5% across the useful collection range was demonstrated. The coatings and methods of deposition were: (1) Ta2O5 spun, dipped or sprayed; (2) Ta2O5.SiO2 spun, dipped or sprayed; (3) GR908 (SiO2) spun, dipped, or sprayed. Total coating thickness were in the range of 18 microns to 25 microns. The coatings and processes are compatible with single cells or cells mounted on Kapton substrates.

  9. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  10. Testing of a new solar coating for solar water heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    AlShamaileh, Ehab

    2010-09-15

    A novel and affordable solar selective coating exhibiting higher solar absorption efficiency compared to the commercial black paint coating used in most ordinary solar water heating systems (SWHSs) has been developed. The coating is fabricated by embedding a metallic particle composed of a nickel-aluminium (NiAl) alloy into the black paint. The optical behaviour of several percentages of the NiAl alloy in the coating is studied using UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies. The chemical composition of the coating was characterized using XRD and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) for both the black and alloy-containing paint. The results allowed deducing that the optimum composition to consider for further testing was 6% NiAl alloy by mass. The applicability of the coating in a real thermosyphonic SWHS was evaluated throughout the year, spanning both hot and cold seasons. It is found that the new coating shows better performance compared to the untreated black paint by an average of 5 C over a period of 1 year. The corrosion resistance of the coating was investigated using electrochemical polarization and weight-loss measurements in the corrosive medium of 3% NaCl in 0.50 M HCl. Higher inhibition efficiency of corrosion was found for the alloy-containing paint compared to the untreated paint by more than 12%. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphology of the modified coating surface, and compared to the untreated surface. (author)

  11. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzański, Leszek; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  12. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  13. Durability testing of antireflection coatings for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Brunold, Stefan; Koehl, Michael; Nostell, Per; Oversloot, Henk; Roos, Arne

    1999-10-01

    Antireflection (AR) coatings can be incorporated into highly transmitting glazings that, depending upon their cost, performance, and durability of optical properties, can be economically viable in solar collectors, agricultural greenhouses, and PV systems. A number of AR-coated glazings have been prepared under the auspices of the International Energy Agency Working Group on Durability of Materials for Solar Thermal Collectors. The AR coatings are of two types, including (1) various sol-gels applied to glass and (2) an embossed treatment of sheet acrylic. Typically, for unweathered glazings, a 4 - 5% increase in solar-weighted transmittance has been achieved. For AR-coated glass, reflectance values as low as 0.5% - 0.7% at selected wavelengths (680 - 720 nm) were obtained. To determine the durability of the hemispherical transmittance, several collaborating countries are testing these materials both outdoors and in accelerated weathering chambers. All materials exposed outdoors are affixed to mini-collector boxes to simulate flat-plate collector conditions. Results for candidate AR coatings weathered at geographically disperse outdoor test sites exhibit changes in spectral transmittance primarily in the high visible range (600 - 700 nm). Accelerated testing at measured levels of simulated solar irradiance, and at different constant levels of temperature and relative humidity have been performed in different countries. Parallel testing with different levels of laboratory-controlled relevant stress factors permits the time-dependent performance of these materials to be compared with measured results from in-service outdoor exposure conditions. Coating adhesion and performance loss resulting from dirt and dust retention are also discussed.

  14. Passivating Window/First Layer AR Coating for Space Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Bailey, S. G.; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Wheeler, D. R.; Matesscu, G.; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemically grown oxides, if well designed, offer excellent surface passivation of the emitter surface of space solar cells and can be used as effective passivating window/first layer AR coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a simple room temperature wet chemical technique to grow cost effective passivating layers on solar cell front surfaces after the front grid metallization step. These passivating layers can be grown both on planar and porous surfaces. Our results show that these oxide layers: (i) can effectively passivate the from the surface, (ii) can serve as an effective optical window/first layer AR coating, (iii) are chemically, thermally and UV stable, and (iv) have the potential of improving the BOL and especially the EOL efficiency of space solar cells. The potential of using this concept to simplify the III-V based space cell heterostructures while increasing their BOL and EOL efficiency is also discussed.

  15. Nanowire-based multifunctional antireflection coatings for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hiralal, Pritesh; Chien, Chihtao; Lal, Niraj N; Abeygunasekara, Waranatha; Kumar, Abhishek; Butt, Haider; Zhou, Hang; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2014-11-06

    Organic (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells are coated with ZnO nanowires as antireflection coatings and show up to 36% enhancement in efficiency. The improvement is ascribed to an effective refractive index which results in Fabry-Perot absorption bands which match the polymer band-gap. The effect is particularly pronounced at high light incidence angles. Simultaneously, the coating is used as a UV-barrier, demonstrating a 50% reduction in the rate of degradation of the polymers under accelerated lifetime testing. The coating also allows the surface of the solar cell to self-clean via two distinct routes. On one hand, photocatalytic degradation of organic material on ZnO is enhanced by the high surface area of the nanowires and quantified by dye degradation measurements. On the other, the surface of the nanowires can be functionalized to tune the water contact angle from superhydrophilic (16°) to superhydrophobic (152°), resulting in self-cleaning via the Lotus effect. The multifunctional ZnO nanowires are grown by a low cost, low temperature hydrothermal method, compatible with process limitations of organic solar cells.

  16. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  17. Development and Testing of High-Temperature Solar Selective Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Energy Technologies Program is working to reduce the cost of parabolic trough solar power technology. System studies show that increasing the operating temperature of the solar field from 390 to >450 C will result in improved performance and cost reductions. This requires the development of new more-efficient selective coatings that have both high solar absorptance (>0.96) and low thermal emittance (<0.07) and are thermally stable above 450 C, ideally in air. Potential selective coatings were modeled, identified for laboratory prototyping, and manufactured at NREL. Optimization of the samples and high-temperature durability testing will be performed. Development of spectrally selective materials depends on reliable characterization of their optical properties. Protocols for testing the thermal/optical properties of selective coatings were developed and a round-robin experiment was conducted to verify and document the reflectance and high-temperature emittance measurements. The development, performance, and durability of these materials and future work will be described.

  18. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  19. Performance of antireflecting coating-AlGaAs window layer coupling for terrestrial concentrator GaAs solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, C.A. del; Alcaraz, M.F.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, the authors present the performance of optical coating systems coupled with AlGaAs window layers over GaAs solar cells. Single, double, and triple antireflecting coatings and window layers with constant and graded aluminum content are considered. Comparison between constant and graded window layers is established. To better represent reality, practical factors such as absorption of materials even for antireflecting coatings and the oxidation at window layer surface due to its high aluminum content are also included in the calculations. The design criteria to determine the optimum thickness of each layer is the achievement of maximum photogenerated current density. For this purpose and to account for terrestrial concentrators GaAs solar cells, the inclusion of direct terrestrial solar spectrum together with the internal spectral response of the device are taken into account. Finally, the best antireflecting coating/AlGaAs window layer couplings for different cases are presented.

  20. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  1. Solar dynamic power module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, Richard R.; Labus, Thomas L.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have shown that use of solar dynamic (SD) power for the growth eras of the Space Station Freedom program will result in life cycle cost savings when compared to power supplied by photovoltaic sources. In the SD power module, a concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver which has integral thermal energy storage. A power conversion unit (PCU) based on the closed Brayton thermodynamic cycle removes thermal energy from the receiver and converts that energy to electrical energy. Since the closed Brayton cycle is a single phase gas cycle, the conversion hardware (heat exchangers, turbine, compressor, etc.) can be designed for operation in low earth orbit, and tested with confidence in test facilities on earth before launch into space. The concentrator subassemblies will be aligned and the receiver/PCU/radiator combination completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling liquid on earth before launch to, and assembly on orbit.

  2. Chemical vapor deposited silica coatings for solar mirror protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Dever, Therese M.; Banholzer, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of techniques is available to apply protective coatings to oxidation susceptible spacecraft components, and each has associated advantages and disadvantages. Film applications by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has the advantage of being able to be applied conformally to objects of irregular shape. For this reason, a study was made of the oxygen plasma durability of thin film (less than 5000 A) silicon dioxide coatings applied by CVD. In these experiments, such coatings were applied to silver mirrors, which are strongly subject to oxidation, and which are proposed for use on the space station solar dynamic power system. Results indicate that such coatings can provide adequate protection without affecting the reflectance of the mirror. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that oxidation of the silver layer did occur at stress crack locations, but this did not affect the measured solar reflectances. Oxidation of the silver did not proceed beyond the immediate location of the crack. Such stress cracks did not occur in thinner silica flims, and hence such films would be desirable for this application.

  3. Chemical vapor deposited silica coatings for solar mirror protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Dever, Therese M.; Banholzer, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of techniques is available to apply protective coatings to oxidation susceptible spacecraft components, and each has associated advantages and disadvantages. Film applications by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has the advantage of being able to be applied conformally to objects of irregular shape. For this reason, a study was made of the oxygen plasma durability of thin film (less than 5000 A) silicon dioxide coatings applied by CVD. In these experiments, such coatings were applied to silver mirrors, which are strongly subject to oxidation, and which are proposed for use on the space station solar dynamic power system. Results indicate that such coatings can provide adequate protection without affecting the reflectance of the mirror. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that oxidation of the silver layer did occur at stress crack locations, but this did not affect the measured solar reflectances. Oxidation of the silver did not proceed beyond the immediate location of the crack. Such stress cracks did not occur in thinner silica films, and hence such films would be desirable for this application.

  4. The Design of a Portable and Deployable Solar Energy System for Deployed Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    The Design of a Portable and Deployable Solar Energy System for Deployed Military Applications Justin Tyner, Matt Coates, Dave Holloway, Kyle...energy systems and to specifically design a portable solar energy system for use tailored for a deployed military/combat unit. We considered ease...where diesel generators are superior and areas where the solar energy systems are superior. The remainder of this paper outlines our process and

  5. Selective coatings for solar-to-thermal energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukhman, G. A.; Koltun, M. M.

    1984-02-01

    A selective coating proposed for flat plate solar collectors consists of a thick Al2O3 layer with embedded metal particles and on it an infrared reflecting layer of electrically conducting vitreous ceramic material (PbO or In2O3). Both layers are deposited electromatically on collectors made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. A double layer of 2 to 3 micron thick chromium on 9 to 10 micron thick nickel is effective in preventing oxidation on copper surfaces. Specimens of such coatings were tested in a laboratory humidity chamber and are now tested under the climatic conditions in the Crimea, 750,000 Wh/sq m of solar radiation at a mean-weekly intensity of 700 W/sq m having been accumulated in nine months. The ratio of heat absorbint to total surface area is or = 0.9 and emissivity is or = 0.2 were not degraded by holding in a furnace at 500 C for 50 h. The feasibility of producing multilayer coatings of this type was established on the basis of computer calculations for various combinations of collector material and protective interlayers.

  6. Optical Design of Segmented Hexagon Array Solar Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegele, Vince

    2000-01-01

    A segmented array of mirrors was designed for a solar concentrator test stand at MSFC for firing solar thermal propulsion engines. The 144 mirrors each have a spherical surface to approximate a parabolic concentrator when combined into the entire 18-foot diameter array. The mirror segments are aluminum hexagons that had the surface diamond turned and quartz coated. The array focuses sunlight reflected from a heliostat to a 4 inch diameter spot containing 10 kw of power at the 15-foot focal point. The derivation of the surface figure for the respective mirror elements is shown. The alignment process of the array is discussed and test results of the system's performance is given.

  7. Optical design of SHASM: segmented hexagon array solar mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huegele, Vinson B.

    2000-10-01

    A segmented array of mirrors was designed for a solar concentrator test stand at MSFC for firing solar thermal propulsion engines. The 144 mirrors each have s spherical surface to approximate a parabolic concentrator when combined into the entire 17-foot diameter array. The mirror segments are aluminum hexagons that had the surface diamond turned and quartz coated. The array focuses sunlight reflected from a heliostat to a 4 inch diameter spot containing 8 kilowatts of power at the 15 foot focal point. The derivation of the surface figure for the respective mirror elements is shown. The alignment process of the array is discussed and test results of the system's performance are given.

  8. Coating and surface finishing definition for the Solar Orbiter/METIS inverted external occulter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Federico; Romoli, Marco; Vives, Sebastien; Baccani, Cristian; Escolle, Clement; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Focardi, Mauro; Da Deppo, Vania; Moses, John D.; Fineschi, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    The METIS coronagraph aboard the Solar Orbiter mission will undergo extreme environmental conditions (e.g., a thermal excursion of about 350 degrees throughout the various mission phases), due to the peculiar spacecraft trajectory that will reach a perihelion of 0.28 AUs. METIS is characterized by an innovative design for the occultation system that allows to halve the thermal load inside the instrument while guaranteeing the stray light reduction that is required for a solar coronagraph. The Inverted External Occulter (IEO) concept revolutionizes the classical scheme, by exchanging the usual positions of the entrance aperture (that is now the outermost element of the instrument facing the Sun) with the actual occulter (that is a spherical mirror inside the coronagraph boom). The chosen material for the IEO manufacturing is Titanium, as a trade o_ between light weight, strength and low thermal expansion coefficient. A 2 years long test campaign has been run to define the IEO geometry, and its results are addressed in previous dedicated papers. This work describes the results of a further campaign aimed at defining the IEO surface and edge finishing, the support flange geometry and the Titanium coating. Various edge finishing were installed on a prototype of the instrument occulting system and their performance in stray light reduction were compared. The support flange geometry was designed in order to reduce the overall weight, to control the thermal load and to accentuate its stray light suppression performance. The coating is a particularly delicate issue. A black coating is necessary in order to assess the stray light issues, typically critical for visible coronagraphs. Black coating of Titanium is not a standard process, thus several space qualified black coatings were experimented on Titanium and characterized. The impact of the IEO coatings was evaluated, the reflectivity and the BRDFs were measured and are addressed in the paper.

  9. An integrated approach for designing reliable coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, E.O. II

    1996-12-31

    In its simplest form, adhesive failure is predicted when some applied energy exceeds a critical property of the joint. The challenge in designing reliability is to establish the details of both the applied energies and the critical performance properties. Complications arise in determining performance properties, which include both adhesive and cohesive strengths, since they are strong functions of processing and environmental conditions. Thus, any test used to measure these must be able to mimic the correct conditions. Another complication that arises is the dependence of the applied debond energies on the mechanical properties of the coating and substrate. The available debond energy is also a function of the geometry and any external loads applied. In this presentation, the author shows how computational mechanics can be used to determine the role of mechanical properties on the applied energy. In doing so, key properties are identified that allow the coating manufacturer to optimize their material for specific applications. Examples are given for several microelectronic applications.

  10. Laser processing of solar cells with anti-reflective coating

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2016-02-16

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accommodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thicknesses.

  11. Design of antireflective nanostructures and optical coatings for next-generation multijunction photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Perl, Emmett E; McMahon, William E; Bowers, John E; Friedman, Daniel J

    2014-08-25

    The successful development of multijunction photovoltaic devices with four or more subcells has placed additional importance on the design of high-quality broadband antireflection coatings. Antireflective nanostructures have shown promise for reducing reflection loss compared to the best thin-film interference coatings. However, material constraints make nanostructures difficult to integrate without introducing additional absorption or electrical losses. In this work, we compare the performance of various nanostructure configurations with that of an optimized multilayer antireflection coating. Transmission into a four-junction solar cell is computed for each antireflective design, and the corresponding cell efficiency is calculated. We find that the best performance is achieved with a hybrid configuration that combines nanostructures with a multilayer thin-film optical coating. This approach increases transmitted power into the top subcell by 1.3% over an optimal thin-film coating, corresponding to an increase of approximately 0.8% in the modeled cell efficiency.

  12. DESIGN DATA STUDY FOR COATED COLUMBIUM ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIOXIDANTS, * COATINGS , * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, *REFRACTORY COATINGS , *SILICON COATINGS , ALLOYS, ALUMINUM, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, HIGH...TEMPERATURE, OXIDATION, PLASTIC PROPERTIES, REENTRY VEHICLES, REFRACTORY MATERIALS, SHEETS, SILICIDES , VACUUM APPARATUS, VAPOR PLATING, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

  13. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  14. Reflectivity, polarization properties, and durability of metallic mirror coatings for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, A.; Krishnappa, N.; Pleier, O.; Hirzberger, J.; Jobst, P. J.; Schürmann, M.

    2012-09-01

    In the context of the conceptual design study for the European Solar Telescope (EST) we have investigated different metallic mirror coatings in terms of reflectivity, polarization properties and durability. Samples of the following coating types have been studied: bare aluminum, silver with different dielectric layers for protection and UV enhancement, and an aluminum-silver combination. From 2009 to 2011 we have carried out a long-term durability test under realistic observing conditions at the VTT solar telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Spain), accompanied by repeated reflectivity measurements in the EST spectral working range (0.3 - 20 μm), and by polarization measurements in the visible range. The test results allow us to find the optimum coatings for the different mirrors in the EST beampath and to eventually assess aging effects and re-coating cycles. The results of the polarization measurements are a valuable input for an EST telescope polarization model, helping to meet the stringent requirements on polarimetric accuracy.

  15. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  16. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  17. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  18. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  19. Design of a Traditional Solar Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Vasant, Pandian

    2010-06-01

    Solar energy is rapidly advancing as an important means of renewable energy resource. More energy is produced by tracking the solar panel to remain aligned to the sun at a right angle to the rays of light. This paper describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom, which detects the sunlight using photocells. The control circuit for the solar tracker is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller (MCU). This is programmed to detect the sunlight through the photocells and then actuate the motor to position the solar panel where it can receive maximum sunlight.

  20. Sun-believable solar paint. A transformative one-step approach for designing nanocrystalline solar cells.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Matthew P; Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2012-01-24

    A transformative approach is required to meet the demand of economically viable solar cell technology. By making use of recent advances in semiconductor nanocrystal research, we have now developed a one-coat solar paint for designing quantum dot solar cells. A binder-free paste consisting of CdS, CdSe, and TiO(2) semiconductor nanoparticles was prepared and applied to conducting glass surface and annealed at 473 K. The photoconversion behavior of these semiconductor film electrodes was evaluated in a photoelectrochemical cell consisting of graphene-Cu(2)S counter electrode and sulfide/polysulfide redox couple. Open-circuit voltage as high as 600 mV and short circuit current of 3.1 mA/cm(2) were obtained with CdS/TiO(2)-CdSe/TiO(2) electrodes. A power conversion efficiency exceeding 1% has been obtained for solar cells constructed using the simple conventional paint brush approach under ambient conditions. Whereas further improvements are necessary to develop strategies for large area, all solid state devices, this initial effort to prepare solar paint offers the advantages of simple design and economically viable next generation solar cells.

  1. Optical interference coating design contest 2016: a dispersive mirror and coating uniformity challenge.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D T; Pervak, Vladimir; Keck, Jason; Bolshakov, Ilya; Gerig, Zachary; Lemarchand, Fabien; Sato, Kageyuki; Southwell, William; Sugiura, Muneo; Trubetskov, Michael; Yuan, Wenjia

    2017-02-01

    A dispersive mirror and a coating uniformity challenge were the topics of the design contest held in conjunction with the 2016 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of The Optical Society (OSA). A total of 18 designers from China, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States submitted 38 total designs for problems A and B. Michael Trubetskov submitted the winning designs for all four design challenges. The design problems and the submitted solutions are described and evaluated.

  2. Damage Threshold Dependence of Multilayer Laser Mirrors on Coating Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    AD-A239 234 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION DAMAGE THRESHOLD DEPENDENCE OF M4ULTILAYER LASER MIRRORS ON COATING DESIGN by ’du...MICROFICHE NR: FTD-91-C-000401 DAMAGE THRESHOLD DEPENDENCE OF MULTILAYER LASER MIRRORS ON COATING DESIGN By: Wu Zhouling, Fan Zhengxin English pages: 10...For NTIS~P& DTI-- T,,BI I By t ; DAMAGE THRESHOLD DEPENDENCE OF MULTILAYER LASER MIRRORS ON COATING DESIGN Wu Zhouling and Fan Zhengxin, Shanghai

  3. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  4. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  5. Double-layer anti-reflection coating containing a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianshu; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wen; Shi, Yanpeng; Yang, Fuhua

    2013-07-29

    Multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coatings can be used to improve the efficiency of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. We propose an alternate method to obtain optical thin films with specified refractive indices, which is using a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as an optical thin film whose effective refractive index can be tuned by pore-widening. Different kinds of double-layer AR coatings each containing an AAO layer were designed and investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We demonstrate that a λ /4n - λ /4n AR coating consisting of a TiO(2) layer and an AAO layer whose effective refractive index is 1.32 realizes a 96.8% light absorption efficiency of the GaAs solar cell under AM1.5 solar spectrum (400 nm-860 nm). We also have concluded some design principles of the double-layer AR coating containing an AAO layer for GaAs solar cells.

  6. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  7. Properties of conductive coatings for thermal control mirrors and solar cell covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, D. E.; Kan, H. K. A.

    1975-01-01

    Conductive transparent coatings applied to the dielectric surfaces of a spacecraft offer the possibility of distributing charge uniformly over the entire spacecraft surface. Optical and electrical measurements of such a coating as a function of temperature are described. These results are used in considering the impact of a conductive coating on the absorptance of thermal control mirrors and on the transmittance of solar cell cover glass, which can be improved by the application of an antireflection coating.

  8. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  9. Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Martin F; Mont, Frank W; Chhajed, Sameer; Poxson, David J; Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E Fred

    2008-04-14

    Designs of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials are optimized using a genetic algorithm. Co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials allow the fine-tuning of refractive index, which is required to achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics. The algorithm minimizes reflection over a wide range of wavelengths and incident angles, and includes material dispersion. Designs of antireflection coatings for silicon-based image sensors and solar cells, as well as triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge solar cells are presented, and are shown to have significant performance advantages over conventional coatings. Nano-porous low-refractive-index layers are found to comprise generally half of the layers in an optimized antireflection coating, which underscores the importance of nano-porous layers for high-performance broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings.

  10. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  11. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  12. Antireflection coating on metallic substrates for solar energy and display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Wei-Yuan; Tang, Chien-Jen; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Chang, Hsing-Hua; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2010-08-01

    Normally metallic films are required for solar energy and display related coatings. To increase the absorbing efficiency or contrast, it is necessary to apply an antireflection coating (ARC) on the metal substrate. However, the design of a metal substrate is very different from the design of a dielectric substrate, since the optical constant of metallic thin film is very dependent on its thickness and microstructure. In this study, we design and fabricate ARCs on Al substrates using SiO2 and Nb2O5 as the dielectric materials and Nb for the metal films. The ARC successfully deposited on the Al substrate had the following structure: air/SiO2/Nb2O5/Metal/Nb2O5/Al. The measured average reflectance of the ARC is less than 1% in the visible region. We found that it is better to use a highly refractive material than a low refractive material. The thickness of the metallic film can be thicker with the result that it is easier to control and has a lesser total thickness. The total thickness of the ARC is less than 200 nm. We successfully fabricated a solar absorber and OLED device with the ARC structure were successfully fabricated.

  13. Design and testing of AR coatings for MEGARA optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Pompa, O.; Sanchez-Blanco, E.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the antireflection coatings of the optical elements of MEGARA, the new integral field and multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias. We describe the methodology for optimizing the solutions. We also present the results of the final deposited coatings. The main optics require broadband coatings in the range from 370 nm to 980 nm for different materials with a mean R<1.3% at specific angles of incidence in each surface. For each material a specific arrangement of thicknesses of the same eight layers were produced and tested. For the spectrograph pupil elements four layer coatings were designed and produced R<0.3%. The design of main optics and pupil elements coatings have been shared between INAOE and CIO. The coating depositions have been performed at CIO in the Integrity 39 Denton Vacuum Deposition System. The main optics final coatings fulfill MEGARA requirements.

  14. Solar cell array design handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and its effects, solar cells, solar cell filters and covers, solar cell and other electrical interconnections, blocking and shunt diodes, substrates and deployment mechanisms, material properties, design synthesis and optimization, design analysis, procurement, production and cost aspects, evaluation and test, orbital performance, and illustrative design examples. A comprehensive index permits rapid locating of desired topics. The handbook consists of two volumes: Volume 1 is of an expository nature while Volume 2 contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion. Volume 2 includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  15. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  16. Interplanetary spacecraft design using solar electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.; Paul, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    Emphasis of the electric propulsion technology program is now on the application of solar electric propulsion to scientific missions. Candidate planetary, cometary, and geosynchronous missions are being studied. The object of this paper is to describe a basic spacecraft design proposed as the means to accomplish (1) a comet Encke slow flyby, (2) a comet Encke rendezvous, and (3) an out-of-the-ecliptic mission. The discussion includes design differences foreseen for the various missions and indicates those areas where spacecraft design commonality is possible. Particular emphasis is placed on a solar electric propulsion module design which permits an attractive degree of design inheritance from mission to mission.

  17. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  18. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  19. Design of Aerosol Coating Reactors: Precursor Injection

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Particles are coated with thin shells to facilitate their processing and incorporation into liquid or solid matrixes without altering core particle properties (coloristic, magnetic, etc.). Here, computational fluid and particle dynamics are combined to investigate the geometry of an aerosol reactor for continuous coating of freshly-made titanium dioxide core nanoparticles with nanothin silica shells by injection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor downstream of TiO2 particle formation. The focus is on the influence of HMDSO vapor jet number and direction in terms of azimuth and inclination jet angles on process temperature and coated particle characteristics (shell thickness and fraction of uncoated particles). Rapid and homogeneous mixing of core particle aerosol and coating precursor vapor facilitates synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles with uniform shell thickness and high coating efficiency (minimal uncoated core and free coating particles). PMID:23658471

  20. Solafern solar system design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

  1. Biourbanism: Solar based urban and regional design

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.

    1999-07-01

    New neighborhoods for an additional one billion people will need to be constructed on the planet within the next 10 years. If the historic patterns of growth continue--the sprawl, the congestion, the draining of swamps, the loss of agricultural land--the requirement for all basic resources will outstrip the availability. While this is of great concern, it is the destruction of an acceptable quality of life--the sense of place--that will be the most difficult and expensive to change. An essential step to reverse the direction of this undesirable future is changing the design and planning of these communities to work with resident solar energies, regional biology, local renewable resources, and sustainable urban planning and design principles. Design can make a difference. This paper develops the view that the solar approach must include urban and regional design and presents solar-based renewable resources example of the design of regions.

  2. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Being Designed and Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macosko, Robert P.; Donovan, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    As the need for achieving super high temperatures (2000 K and above) in solar heat receivers has developed so has the need for secondary concentrators. These concentrators refocus the already highly concentrated solar energy provided by a primary solar collector, thereby significantly reducing the light entrance aperture of the heat receiver and the resulting infrared radiation heat loss from the receiver cavity. Although a significant amount of research and development has been done on nonimaging hollow reflective concentrators, there has been no other research or development to date on solid, single crystal, refractive concentrators that can operate at temperatures above 2000 K. The NASA Lewis Research Center recently initiated the development of single-crystal, optically clear, refractive secondary concentrators that, combined with a flux extractor, offer a number of significant advantages over the more conventional, hollow, reflective concentrators at elevated temperatures. Such concentrators could potentially provide higher throughput (efficiency), require no special cooling device, block heat receiver material boiloff from the receiver cavity, provide for flux tailoring in the cavity via the extractor, and potentially reduce infrared heat loss via an infrared block coating.The many technical challenges of designing and fabricating high-temperature refractive secondary concentrators and flux extractors include identifying optical materials that can survive the environment (high-temperature, vacuum and/or hydrogen atmosphere), developing coatings for enhanced optical and thermal performance, and developing crystal joining techniques and hardware that can survive launch loads.

  3. Improvement of black nickel coatings. [product development for use in solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. E.; Lin, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively absorbing black nickel coatings are among the most optically efficient low cost coatings for use on flat plate solar collectors. However, a current Ni-Zn-S-O coating in use is quite susceptible to a humid environment, degrading badly in less than ten days at 38 C (100 F) at 95 percent relative humidity. Therefore, a black nickel formula was developed which can withstand such exposures with no loss of optical efficiency, solar absorption of 0.92 and an infrared emittance (at 100 C) of 1.00 were still present after 14 days of humidity exposure. This compares to a solar absorptance of only 0.72 for the previous formula after a similar time period. The electroplating bath and conditions were changed to obtain the more stable coating configuration. The effect of bath composition, temperature, pH, and plating current density and time on the coating composition, spectral optical properties and durability were investigated systematically.

  4. Structural and optical properties of copper-coated substrates for solar thermal absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratesi, Stefano; De Lucia, Maurizio; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Spectral selectivity, i.e. merging a high absorbance at sunlight wavelengths to a low emittance at the wavelengths of thermal spectrum, is a key characteristics for materials to be used for solar thermal receivers. It is known that spectrally selective absorbers can raise the receiver efficiency for all solar thermal technologies. Tubular sunlight receivers for parabolic trough collector (PTC) systems can be improved by the use of spectrally selective coatings. Their absorbance is increased by deposing black films, while the thermal emittance is minimized by the use of properly-prepared substrates. In this work we describe the intermediate step in the fabrication of black-chrome coated solar absorbers, namely the fabrication and characterization of copper coatings on previously nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. We investigate the copper surface features and optical properties, correlating them to the coating thickness and to the deposition process, in the perspective to assess optimal conditions for solar absorber applications.

  5. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  6. Overview of Passive Solar Design Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    the "market acceptance" of the passive solar designs. In mast cases, a passive system is integrated into the architecture of a building, which...increases discomfort by decreasing the rate of moisture evaporation from the skin. The Bioclimatic Chart developed by V. Olgyay provides a convenient way...outdoors and, therefore, not previously cir- culated through the system. passive solar system: An assembly of natural and architectural components

  7. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  8. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D

    1986-04-01

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  9. Technical applications of solar energy. Project photovoltaic systems and project selective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindele, K.; Honstetter, K.; Karl, H.; Koehl, M.; Lehner, G.; Mast, M.; Spohn, C.; Wagner, A.

    1983-12-01

    Long time stability of photovoltaic generators, hybrid collectors, and measuring devices for solar cells and solar cell generators were investigated. No aging of electrical features is stated after 6 yr working, while thermal and electrical efficiencies of collectors amount to 70% and 8% respectively. Radiative properties of selective coatings were measured, composition and structure of selective surfaces, vapor deposition methods (e.g., cermet-coatings), and chemical methods (e.g., cooper-oxide) were investigated.

  10. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  11. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    In the past decade, research on organic solar cells has gone through an important development stage leading to major enhancements in power conversion efficiency, from 4% to 9% in single-junction devices. During this period, there are many novel processing techniques and device designs that have been proposed and adapted in organic solar-cell devices. One well-known device architecture that helps maximize the solar cell efficiency is the multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design, multiple photoactive absorbers as subcells are stacked in a monolithic fashion and assembled via series connection into one complete device, known as the tandem solar cell. Since multiple absorbers with different optical energy bandgaps are being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, the corresponding solar cell efficiency is maximized through expanded absorption spectrum and reduced carrier thermalization loss. In Chapter 3, the architecture of solution-processible, visibly transparent solar cells is introduced. Unlike conventional organic solar-cell devices with opaque electrodes (such as silver, aluminum, gold and etc.), the semi-transparent solar cells rely on highly transparent electrodes and visibly transparent photoactive absorbers. Given these two criteria, we first demonstrated the visibly transparent single-junction solar cells via the polymer absorber with near-infrared absorption and the top electrode based on solution-processible silver nanowire conductor. The highest visible transparency (400 ˜ 700 nm) of 65% was achieved for the complete device structure. More importantly, power conversion efficiency of 4% was also demonstrated. In Chapter 4, we stacked two semi-transparent photoactive absorbers in the tandem architecture in order to realize the semi-transparent tandem solar cells. A noticeable performance improvement from 4% to 7% was observed. More importantly, we modified the interconnecting layers with the incorporation of a thin conjugated

  12. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  13. Solar Selective Coatings Prepared From Thin-Film Molecular Mixtures and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling molecular mixing during ion-beam sputter deposition, researchers can tailor the solar selective coatings to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. On orbit, these combined properties simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. The solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is used to power heat engines or to heat remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. Such systems may be useful for various missions, particularly those to middle Earth orbit. Sunlight must be concentrated by a factor of 100 or more to achieve the desired heat inlet operating temperature. At lower concentration factors, the temperature of the heat inlet surface of the heat engine is too low for efficient operation, and at high concentration factors, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. The an artist's concept of a heat engine, with the annular heat absorbing surface near the focus of the concentrator coated with a solar selective coating is shown. In this artist's concept, the heat absorbing surface powers a small Stirling convertor. The astronaut's gloved hand is provided for scale. Several thin-film molecular mixtures have been prepared and evaluated to date, including mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide, nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. For example, a 2400- Angstrom thick mixture of titanium and aluminum oxide was found to have a solar absorptance of 0.93 and an infrared emittance of 0.06. On the basis of tests performed under flowing nitrogen at temperatures as high as 680 C, the coating appeared to be durable at elevated temperatures. Additional durability

  14. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  15. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.

    2015-11-01

    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  16. Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak (TM) air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Air-Cooled Solar Collector is presented. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips. The collector utilizes a highly selective wavelength coating in combination with vacuum insulation, which virtually eliminates conduction and convention losses.

  17. Edge coating apparatus with movable roller applicator for solar cell substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pavani, Luca; Abas, Emmanuel

    2012-12-04

    A non-contact edge coating apparatus includes an applicator for applying a coating material on an edge of a solar cell substrate and a control system configured to drive the applicator. The control system may drive the applicator along an axis to maintain a distance with an edge of the substrate as the substrate is rotated to have the edge coated with a coating material. The applicator may include a recessed portion into which the edge of the substrate is received for edge coating. For example, the applicator may be a roller with a groove. Coating material may be introduced into the groove for application onto the edge of the substrate. A variety of coating materials may be employed with the apparatus including hot melt ink and UV curable plating resist.

  18. CuO-PANI nanostructure with tunable spectral selectivity for solar selective coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindrella, L.; Prabhu., S.

    2016-08-01

    CuO-PANI nanostructure has been demonstrated as the solar selective absorber coating for the first time. The effortless chemical methods and easily scalable techniques such as precipitation, in-situ polymerization and spray coating were adopted for the fabrication of CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructures for solar application. The synthesis was carried out without using any template. The morphology and phase structure of fabricated CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructure coatings were studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra and elemental mapping confirm the presence of the chosen elements in the nanostructure. The solar absorptance (αs), thermal emittance (εt) and selectivity (ξ) of the nanostructure coatings on glass substrate were optimized to 0.94, 0.01 and 94 respectively by changing the polyaniline content on the surface of the CuO nanorods. The efficiency of the solar selective coatings were evaluated. The optimized solar absorber coating of CuO-PANI nanostructure is highly promising for its selective optical properties.

  19. Effects of positive ion implantation into antireflection coating of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, A. E.; Harpster, J. W.; Collis, W. J.; Kim, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The state of technological development of Si solar cells for highest obtained efficiency and radiation resistance is summarized. The various theoretical analyses of Si solar cells are reviewed. It is shown that factors controlling blue response are carrier diffusion length, surface recombination, impurity concentration profile in surface region, high level of surface impurity concentration (degeneracy), reflection coefficient of oxide, and absorption coefficient of Si. The theory of ion implantation of charge into the oxide antireflection coating is developed and side effects are discussed. The experimental investigations were directed at determining whether the blue response of Si solar cells could be improved by phosphorus ion charges introduced into the oxide antireflection coating.

  20. Large area flexible solar array design for Space Shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    A large area flexible solar array has been designed for Shuttle power augmentation. The solar array utilizes large area, low cost, weldable solar cells. The paper addresses how the unique requirements of this system are implemented into the design. Economic and reliability issues relating to the optimization of a large area, foldable solar array concomitant to the Shuttle/Orbiter system are reviewed.

  1. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  2. The design of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  3. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Refinement in black chrome for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Black chrome is significant as a solar selective coating because the current extensive use of black chrome in the electroplating industry as a durable decorative finish makes black chrome widely available on a commercial scale and potentially low in cost as a solar selective coating. Black-chrome deposits were modified by underplating with dull nickel or by being plated on rough surfaces. Both of these procedures increased the visible absorptance. There was no change in the infrared reflectance for the dull-nickel - black-chrome combination from that reported for the bright-nickel - black-chrome combination. However, the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on rough surfaces indicated a slight decrease in infrared reflectance. As integrated over the solar spectrum for air mass 2, the reflectance of the dull-nickel - black-chrome coating was 0.077, of the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on a 0.75-micron (30-microinch) surface was 0.070, of the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on a 2.5 micron (100-microinch) surface was 0.064. The corresponding values for the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating on a 0.0125-micron (0.5-microinch) surface, two samples of black nickel, and two samples of Nextrel black paint were 0.132, 0.123, 0.133, and 0.033, respectively.

  5. Design and installation of solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A no-nonsense explanation of information on the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and producing hot water. The work is both scholarly and practical. Background of high school algebra is the only mathematics expected. Worked examples but no exercises. Contents: Solar radiation. Heating loads. Design and analysis of flat-place liquid-heating collectors. Flat-plate air-heating collectors. Evacuated solar collectors. Solar hot water systems. Solar ponds. Active solar heating and cooling systems.

  6. Preliminary study of a solar selective coating system using black cobalt oxide for high temperature solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1980-01-01

    Black cobalt oxide coatings (high solar absorptance layer) were deposited on thin layers of silver or gold (low emittance layer) which had been previously deposited on oxidized (diffusion barrier layer) stainless steel substrates. The reflectance properties of these coatings were measured at various thicknesses of cobalt for integrated values of the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values, before and after exposure in air at 650 C for approximately 1000 hours. Absorptance and emittance were interdependent functions of the weight of cobalt oxide. Also, these cobalt oxide/noble metal/oxide diffusion barrier coatings have absorptances greater than 0.90 and emittances of approximately 0.20 even after about 1000 hours at 650 C.

  7. Ultraviolet degradation to double anti-reflective coated solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Six experiments at COMSAT Labs (since the early '80's) have consistently shown higher UV degradation rates for DAR coated cells when the tests are extended beyond 1000 hours. Results for degradation at 10 years, extrapolated from data at 3000 hours, exceeds 10%. Lesser degradation rates are observed for DAR coated textured cells. Data and models will be presented.

  8. Optical designs for improved solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosten, Emily Dell

    wavelengths. This approach has the potential for very high efficiencies, and excellent annual power production. Using a light-trapping filtered concentrator approach, we design filter elements and find an optimal design. Thus, this thesis explores silicon microwires, angle restriction, and spectral splitting as different optical approaches for improving the cost and efficiency of solar cells.

  9. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE PAGES

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; ...

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  10. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  11. Knowledge-based optical coatings design and manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Karl H.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Yoo, Hoi J.

    1990-12-01

    The theory of thin film optics is well developed for the spectral analysis of a given optical coating. The inverse synthesis - designing an optical coating for a certain spectral performance - is more complicated. Usually a multitude of theoretical designs is feasible because most design problems are over-determined with the number of layers possible with three variables each (n, k, t). The expertise of a good thin film designer comes in at this point with a mostly intuitive selection of certain designs based on previous experience and current manufacturing capabilities. Manufacturing a designed coating poses yet another subset of multiple solutions, as thin if in deposition technology has evolved over the years with a vast variety of different processes. The abundance of published literature may often be more confusing than helpful to the practicing thin film engineer, even if he has time and opportunity to read it. The choice of the right process is also severely limited by the given manufacturing hardware and cost considerations which may not easily allow for the adaption of a new manufacturing approach, even if it promises to be better technically (it ought to be also cheaper). On the user end of the thin film coating business, the typical optical designer or engineer who needs an optical coating may have limited or no knowledge at all about the theoretical and manufacturing criteria for the optimum selection of what he needs. This can be sensed frequently by overly tight tolerances and requirements for optical performance which sometimes stretch the limits of mother nature. We introduce here a know1edge-based system (KBS) intended to assist expert designers and manufacturers in their task of maximizing results and minimizing errors, trial runs, and unproductive time. It will help the experts to manipulate parameters which are largely determined through heuristic reasoning by employing artificial intelligence techniques. In a later state, the KBS will include a

  12. Photocatalytic Coatings for Exploration and Spaceport Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This project developed self-cleaning photocatalytic coatings that remove contamination without human intervention. The coatings chemically remove organic contaminants and leave no residue. The photocatalyst will not negatively affect other coating properties, especially corrosion resistance. Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is an extremely popular photocatalyst because of its chemical stability, nontoxicity, and low cost. TiO2 is commonly used in the photocatalytic oxidation of organic matter or pollutants in the gas and liquid phases. However, TiO2 does have some drawbacks. It has limited light absorption because of its large band-gap and suffers from a photonic efficiency of less than 10 percent for organic degradation. Dopants can lower the band-gap and improve efficiency. Since the photocatalytically active form of TiO2 is a nanocrystalline powder, it can be difficult to make a robust coating with enough catalyst loading to be effective. Photocatalysts become active when certain light energy is absorbed. When photons with an energy greater than the band-gap, Eg, (wavelengths shorter than 400 nm) impinge upon the surface of the TiO2, an electron-hole pair is formed. The electron-hole pair oxidizes adsorbed substances either directly or via reactive intermediates that form on the surface, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH) or superoxide ions (O2-). Several factors can influence the band-gap energy of TiO2, two of which are crystal structure and impurities. TiO2 exists as three crystal structures brookite, anatase, and rutile that can be controlled via heat treatment. Anatase is the most photocatalytically active crystal form of TiO2. Doping TiO2 with impurities can alter its band-gap energy, as well as its effectiveness as a catalyst. Depending on their size, dopant atoms can occupy either the substitutional or interstitial lattice positions. Atoms that are relatively large will assume the interstitial positions and create a much greater energy disturbance in the crystal than

  13. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  14. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  15. Rapid Mapping of AR Coating Thickness on Si Solar Cells Using GT-FabScan 6000

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Amieva, J.; Butterfield, B.; Li, C.

    2005-02-01

    A new technique for rapid mapping of the thickness of an antireflection (AR) coating on a solar cell is described. A filtered, reflectance (intensity) image of the AR-coated wafer is generated by a CCD camera mounted on a GTFabScan. This image is converted into a thickness image using a transformation relating local AR thickness to the local intensity in the image plane. The thickness map is generated in <100 ms.

  16. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  17. Design of a solar tracking interactive kiosk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Nathaniel R.; Brunskill, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    A two-axis solar tracker and its interactive kiosk were designed by an interdisciplinary team of students and faculty. The objective was to develop a publicly accessible kiosk that would facilitate the study of energy usage and production on campus. Tracking is accomplished by an open-loop algorithm, microcontroller, and ham radio rotator. Solar panel output is monitored in real time and displayed to the public with lights and digits that can be read by the casual passersby. While maximum power point tracking is the most accurate means of quantifying the output power of a photovoltaic panel, simplicity and design constraints dictated the use of short-circuit current as a proxy for power. A touchscreen display allows kiosk visitors to compare two solar panels, an automatic tracker that faces the sun, and an identical panel whose elevation and azimuth can be controlled with a virtual joystick. This project was a capstone experience for students in physics/engineering, computer science, and instructional technology. We discuss technical challenges and design choices, as well as the educational goals of the kiosk.

  18. Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Barrier Coatings and Encapsulated Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report silicon oxide coatings deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology (PECVD) on 125 μm polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces for the purpose of the shelf lifetime extension of sealed polymer solar cells. After optimization of the processing parameters, we achieved a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ca. 10-3 g/m2/day with the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) less than 0.05 cc/m2/day, and succeeded in extending the shelf lifetime to about 400 h in encapsulated solar cells. And then the chemical structure of coatings related to the properties of encapsulated cell was investigated in detail.

  19. Progress Toward Developing a Durable High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.; Price, H. W.

    2007-03-01

    Increasing the operating temperature of parabolic trough solar fields from 400 C to >450 C will increase their efficiency and reduce the cost of electricity. Current coatings do not have the stability and performance necessary to move to higher operating temperatures. The objective is to develop new, more efficient selective coatings with both high solar absoprtance ({alpha} > 0.96) and low thermal emittance ({var_epsilon} < 0.07) that are thermally stable above 450 C, ideally in air, with improved durability and manufacturability, and reduced cost.

  20. Sputtered solar absorber coatings with high-spectral selectivity and good durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Wolfgang; Brucker, Franz; Koehl, Michael; Troescher, Thomas; Wittwer, Volker; Blessing, Rolf; Herlitze, Lothar

    1995-08-01

    Sputtering is a well established coating technology for glass panes. This technology is also interesting for the production of selective solar absorber coatings because the environmental impact is much less than for electroplating. There are already several sputtered absorber coatings for evacuated tubular collectors existing on the market. The application in ventilated collectors requires better durability of the absorbers and a technology which can be applied to planar substrates. The coatings presented here are produced by dc-magnetron sputtering. The maximum sample size was 2 m multiplied by 3 m. A thermal emittance (at 373 K) below 5% was achieved together with a solar absorptance (AM 1.5) above 90%. The coating is deposited directly onto copper sheets without the commonly used anti-corrosion nickel coating in between. The durability of the absorbers was found to be sufficient for the application in ventilated flat-plate collectors containing moisture according to the tests and requirements proposed by Task X of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency.

  1. Material Science for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics: From Advanced Optical Coatings to Cell Design for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, Emmett Edward

    Solar cells based on III-V compound semiconductors are ideally suited to convert solar energy into electricity. The highest efficiency single-junction solar cells are made of gallium arsenide, and have attained an efficiency of 28.8%. Multiple III-V materials can be combined to construct multijunction solar cells, which have reached record efficiencies greater than 45% under concentration. III-V solar cells are also well suited to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures, due in large part to their high material quality. These properties make III-V solar cells an excellent choice for use in concentrator systems. Concentrator photovoltaic systems have attained module efficiencies that exceed 40%, and have the potential to reach the lowest levelized cost of electricity in sunny places like the desert southwest. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems can utilize high-temperature III-V solar cells to simultaneously achieve dispatchability and a high sunlight-to-electricity efficiency. This dissertation explores material science to advance the state of III-V multijunction solar cells for use in concentrator photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems. The first half of this dissertation describes work on advanced optical designs to improve the efficiency of multijunction solar cells. As multijunction solar cells move to configurations with four or more subcells, they utilize a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Broadband antireflection coatings are essential to realizing efficiency gains for these state-of-the-art cells. A hybrid design consisting of antireflective nanostructures placed on top of multilayer interference-based optical coatings is developed. Antireflection coatings that utilize this hybrid approach yield unparalleled performance, minimizing reflection losses to just 0.2% on sapphire and 0.6% on gallium nitride for 300-1800nm light. Dichroic mirrors are developed for bonded 5-junction solar cells that utilize InGaN as

  2. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  3. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  4. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  5. Solar Probe thermal shield design and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jerry M.; Miyake, Robert N.; Rainen, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the major thermal shield subsystem development activities in support of the Solar Probe study being conducted at JPL. The Solar Probe spacecraft will travel to within 4 solar radii of the sun's center to perform fundamental experiments in space physics. Exposure to 2900 earth suns at perihelion requires the spacecraft to be protected within the shadow envelope of a protective shield. In addition, the mass loss rate off of the shield at elevated temperature must comply with plasma instrument requirements and has become the driver of the shield design. This paper will focus on the analytical design work to size the shield and control the shield mass loss rate for the various spacecraft options under study, the application of carbon-carbon materials for shield components, development and preparation of carbon-carbon samples for materials testing, and a materials testing program for carbon-carbon and tungsten alloys to investigate thermal/optical properties, mass loss (carbon-carbon only), material integrity, and high velocity impact behavior.

  6. Performance of Hydrogenated a-Si:H Solar Cells with Downshifting Coating: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, B.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.; Sun, T.; Lee, B. G.; Duda, A.; Wang, Q.

    2011-05-01

    We apply a thin luminescent downshifting (LDS) coating to a hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) solar cell and study the mechanism of possible current enhancement. The conversion material used in this study converts wavelengths below 400 nm to a narrow line around 615 nm. This material is coated on the front of the glass of the a-Si:H solar cell with a glass/TCO/p/i/n/Ag superstrate configuration. The initial efficiency of the solar cell without the LDS coating is above 9.0 % with open circuit voltage of 0.84 V. Typically, the spectral response below 400 nm of an a-Si:H solar cell is weaker than that at 615 nm. By converting ultraviolet (UV) light to red light, the solar cell will receive more red photons; therefore, solar cell performance is expected to improve. We observe evidence of downshifting in reflectance spectra. The cell Jsc decreases by 0.13 mA/cm2, and loss mechanisms are identified.

  7. Advanced photovoltaic solar array - Design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Stella, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an ultralightweight flexible blanket, flatpack, foldout solar array design that can provide 3- to 4-fold improvement on specific power performance of current rigid panel arrays and a factor of two improvement over a first-generation flexible blanket array developed as a forerunner to the Space Station Freedom array. To date a prototype wing has been built with a projected specific power performance of about 138 W/kg at beginning-of-life (BOL) and 93 W/kg end-of-life (EOL) at 12 kW (BOL) for a 10-year geosynchronous (GEO) mission. The prototype wing hardware has been subjected to a series of system-level tests to demonstrate design feasibility. The design of the array is summarized. The major trade studies that led to the selection of the baseline design are discussed. Key system-level and component-level testing are described. Array-level performance projections are presented as a function of existing and advanced solar array component technology for various mission applications.

  8. Survey of coatings for solar collectors. [ceramic enamels and chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic enamel is found to be more solar selective, (i.e., has high solar absorptance in combination with low infrared emittance) than organic enamel, but neither is as solar selective as black chrome, black copper, black zinc, or black nickel. Ceramic enamel is matched only by black chrome in durability and wide availability. Ceramic enamel and organic enamel have approximately the same cost, and both are currently slightly lower in cost than black chrome, black copper, or black zinc. Black nickel is relatively unavailable and, because of that, realistic cost comparisons are not possible.

  9. Nanostructured Semiconductor Device Design in Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hongmei

    We demonstrate the use of embedded CdS nanowires in improving spectral transmission loss and the low mechanical and electrical robustness of planar CdS window layer and thus enhancing the quantum efficiency and the reliability of the CdS-CdTe solar cells. CdS nanowire window layer enables light transmission gain at 300nm-550nm. A nearly ideal spectral response of quantum efficiency at a wide spectrum range provides an evidence for improving light transmission in the window layer and enhancing absorption and carrier generation in absorber. Nanowire CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/graphite/silver paste as back contacts, on SnO2/ITO-soda lime glass substrates, yield the highest efficiency of 12% in nanostructured CdS-CdTe solar cells. Reliability is improved by approximately 3 times over the cells with the traditional planar CdS counterpart. Junction transport mechanisms are delineated for advancing the basic understanding of device physics at the interface. Our results prove the efficacy of this nanowire approach for enhancing the quantum efficiency and the reliability in windowabsorber type solar cells (CdS-CdTe, CdS-CIGS and CdS-CZTSSe etc) and other optoelectronic devices. We further introduce MoO3-x as a transparent, low barrier back contact. We design nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells on flexible foils of metals in a superstrate device structure, which makes low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing process feasible and greatly reduces the complexity of fabrication. The MoO3 layer reduces the valence band offset relative to the CdTe, and creates improved cell performance. Annealing as-deposited MoO3 in N 2 reduces series resistance from 9.98 O/cm2 to 7.72 O/cm2, and hence efficiency of the nanowire solar cell is improved from 9.9% to 11%, which efficiency comparable to efficiency of planar counterparts. When the nanowire solar cell is illuminated from MoO 3-x /Au side, it yields an efficiency of 8.7%. This reduction in efficiency is attributed to decrease in Jsc from 25.5m

  10. Prototype designs for passive-solar apartments and townhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, D.

    1981-09-01

    Seven designs of passive solar apartments and townhouses are briefly described. Descriptions of the layouts, thermal insulation, thermal mass, source of passive solar gain, and thermal integrity factor for auxiliary heating are presented.

  11. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

  12. Selective coating for solar panels. [using black chrome and black nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The energy absorbing properties of solar heating panels are improved by depositing a black chrome coating of controlled thickness on a specially prepared surface of a metal substrate. The surface is prepared by depositing a dull nickel on the substrate, and the black chrome is plated on this low emittance surface to a thickness between 0.5 micron and 2.5 microns.

  13. Preparation of silver-coated glass frit and its application in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiang; Biyuan, Li; Yingfen, Li; Jian, Zhou; Weiping, Gan

    2016-07-01

    A simple electroless plating process was employed to prepare silver-coated glass frits for solar cells. The surface of the glass frits was modified with polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) before the electroless plating process. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the PVP modified glass frits and investigate the mechanism of the modification process. It was found that the PVP molecules adsorbed on the glass frit surface and reduced the silver ions to the silver nanoparticles. Through epitaxial growth, these nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of the glass frit. Silicon solar cells with this novel silver coating exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase of 0.33%. Compared with the electroless plating processes, this method provides a simple route to prepare silver-coated glass frits without introducing impurity ions.

  14. Systematic design assessment techniques for solar buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, J. K.; Rodgers, G. G.; Souster, C. G.

    1980-02-01

    The paper describes the various approaches developed for the detailed modelling of the relevant climatic input variables for systematic design assessments for solar housing techniques. A report is made of the techniques developed to generate systematic short wave radiation data for vertical and inclined surfaces for different types of weather. The analysis is based on different types of days, such as sunny, average and overcast. Work on the accurate estimation of the magnitude of the associated weather variables affecting heat transfer in the external environment is also reported, covering air temperature, wind speed and long wave radiation exchanges.

  15. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  16. Application of amorphous carbon based materials as antireflective coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, D. S.; Côrtes, A. D. S.; Oliveira, M. H.; Motta, E. F.; Viana, G. A.; Mei, P. R.; Marques, F. C.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the investigation of the potential application of different forms of amorphous carbon (a-C and a-C:H) as an antireflective coating for crystalline silicon solar cells. Polymeric-like carbon (PLC) and hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) was deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique. Those three different amorphous carbon structures were individually applied as single antireflective coatings on conventional (polished and texturized) p-n junction crystalline silicon solar cells. Due to their optical properties, good results were also obtained for double-layer antireflective coatings based on PLC or ta-C films combined with different materials. The results are compared with a conventional tin dioxide (SnO2) single-layer antireflective coating and zinc sulfide/magnesium fluoride (ZnS/MgF2) double-layer antireflective coatings. An increase of 23.7% in the short-circuit current density, Jsc, was obtained using PLC as an antireflective coating and 31.7% was achieved using a double-layer of PLC with a layer of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). An additional increase of 10.8% was obtained in texturized silicon, representing a total increase (texturization + double-layer) of about 40% in the short-circuit current density. The potential use of these materials are critically addressed considering their refractive index, optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, hardness, chemical inertness, and mechanical stability.

  17. Recovery Act: A Low Cost Spray Deposited Solar PV Anti-Reflection Coating Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Michael D.

    2010-08-30

    PV module glass is typically low iron glass which exhibits extremely low absorption of light at solar wavelengths. However, reflection losses from typical high quality solar glass are about 4.5% of the input solar energy. By applying an antireflection coating to the cover glass of their modules, a PV module maker will gain at least a 3% increase in the light passing through the glass and being converted to electricity. Thus achieving an increase of >3% in electricity output from the modules. This Project focussed on developing a process that deposits a layer of porous silica (SiO2) on glass or plastic components, and testing the necessary subcomponents and subsystems required to demonstrate the commercial technology. This porous layer acts as a broadband single layer AR coating for glass and plastics, with the added benefit of being a hydrophilic surface for low surface soiling.

  18. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial fabrication of

  19. POSS(Registered TradeMark) Coatings for Solar Cells: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry; Isaacs-Smith, Tamara; Wells, Brian; Lichtenhan, Joseph D.; Fu, Bruce X.

    2007-01-01

    Presently, solar cells are covered with Ce-doped microsheet cover glasses that are attached with Dow Corning DC 93-500 silicone adhesive. Various antireflection coatings are often applied to the cover glass to increase cell performance. This general approach has been used from the beginning of space exploration. However, it is expensive and time consuming. Furthermore, as the voltage of solar arrays increases, significant arcing has occurred in solar arrays, leading to loss of satellite power. The cause has been traced to differential voltages between strings and the close spacing between them with no insulation covering the edges of the solar cells. In addition, this problem could be ameliorated if the cover glass extended over the edges of the cell, but this would impact packing density. An alternative idea that might solve all these issues and be less expensive and more protective is to develop a coating that could be applied over the entire array. Such a coating must be resistant to atomic oxygen for low earth orbits below about 700 km, it must be resistant to ultraviolet radiation for all earth and near-sun orbits and, of course, it must withstand the damaging effects of space radiation. Coating flexibility would be an additional advantage. Based on past experience, one material that has many of the desired attributes of a universal protective coating is the Dow Corning DC 93-500. Of all the potential optical plastics, it appears to be the most suitable for use in space. As noted above, DC 93-500 has been extensively used to attach cover glasses to crystalline solar cells and has worked exceptionally well over the years. It is flexible and generally resistant to electrons, protons and ultraviolet (UV and VUV) radiation; although a VUV-rejection coating or VUV-absorbing ceria-doped cover glass may be required for long mission durations. It can also be applied in a thin coating (< 25 m) by conventional liquid coating processes. Unfortunately, when exposed to

  20. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The solar array system considered is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, and an array electrical harness. A technology evaluation is performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define the supporting effort necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) solar array design requirements. Details of mechanical design are discussed along with questions of electrical design, operational reliability advantages, and array assembly advantages.

  1. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Hunter, Scott; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Mengdawn; Chen, Sharon S.; Demarest, Victoria; Fabiny, William; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen

    2016-03-04

    Highly water-resistant and solar-reflective coatings for low-slope roofs are potentially among the most economical retrofit approaches to thermal management of the building envelope. Therefore, they represent a key building technology research program within the Department of Energy. Research efforts in industry and the Department of Energy are currently under way to increase long-term solar reflectance on a number of fronts. These include new polymer coatings technologies to provide longer-lasting solar reflectivity and improved test methodologies to predict long-term soiling and microbial performance. The focus on long-term improvements in soiling and microbial resistance for maximum reflectance does not address the single most important factor impacting the long-term sustainability of low-slope roof coatings: excellent water resistance. The hydrophobic character of asphaltic roof products makes them uniquely suitable for water resistance, but their low albedo and poor exterior durability are disadvantages. A reflective coating that maintains very high water resistance with increased long-term resistance to soiling and microbial activity would provide additional energy savings and extend roof service life.

  2. Variable Emittance Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhar, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    One of the last remaining technical hurdles with variable emittance devices or skins based on conducting polymer electrochromics is the high solar absorptance of their top surfaces. This high solar absorptance causes overheating of the skin when facing the Sun in space. Existing technologies such as mechanical louvers or loop heat pipes are virtually inapplicable to micro (< 20 kg) and nano (< 5 kg) spacecraft. Novel coatings lower the solar absorption to Alpha(s) of between 0.30 and 0.46. Coupled with the emittance properties of the variable emittance skins, this lowers the surface temperature of the skins facing the Sun to between 30 and 60 C, which is much lower than previous results of 100 C, and is well within acceptable satellite operations ranges. The performance of this technology is better than that of current new technologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), electrostatics, and electrophoretics, especially in applications involving micro and nano spacecraft. The coatings are deposited inside a high vacuum, layering multiple coatings onto the top surfaces of variable emittance skins. They are completely transparent in the entire relevant infrared region (about 2 to 45 microns), but highly reflective in the visible-NIR (near infrared) region of relevance to solar absorptance.

  3. A gravity gradient stabilized solar power satellite design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a solar power satellite (SPS) is reviewed, and a design proposed for such a satellite taking advantage of solar radiation pressure and gravity gradient forces to eliminate much of the structure from the baseline configuration. The SPS design consists of a solar cell array lying in the orbital plane and a free floating mirror above to reflect sunlight down onto it. The structural modes of the solar cell array are analyzed and found to be well within control limitations. Preliminary calculations concerning the free floating mirror and its position-keeping propellant requirements are also performed. A numerical example is presented, which shows that, even in terms of mass only, this configuration is a competitive design when compared to the conventional Department of Energy reference design. Other advantages, such as easier assembly in orbit, lower position-keeping propellant requirements, possibilities for decreasing necessary solar cell area, and longer solar cell life, may make this design superior.

  4. A software tool to design thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrus, G.; Ferguson, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes work completed for a NASA Phase 1 SBIR program which demonstrated the feasibility of developing a software tool to aid in the design of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Toward this goal, three tasks were undertaken and completed. Task 1 involved the development of a database containing the pertinent thermal and mechanical property data for the top coat, bond coat and substrate materials that comprise a TBC system. Task 2 involved the development of an automated set-up program for generating two dimensional (2D) finite element models of TBC systems. Most importantly, Task 3 involved the generation of a rule base to aid in the design of a TBC system. These rules were based on a factorial design of experiments involving FEM results, and were generated using a Yates analysis. A previous study has indicated the suitability and benefit of applying finite element analysis to perform computer based experiments to decrease but not eliminate physical experiments on TBC's. This program proved feasibility by expanding on these findings by developing a larger knowledge base and developing a procedure to extract rules to aid in TBC design.

  5. A software tool to design thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrus, Gregory; Ferguson, B. Lynn

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes work completed for a NASA Phase 1 SBIR program which demonstrated the feasibility of developing a software tool to aid in the design of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Toward this goal, three tasks were undertaken and completed. Task 1 involved the development of a database containing the pertinent thermal and mechanical property data for the top coat, bond coat and substrate materials that comprise a TBC system. Task 2 involved the development of an automated set-up program for generating two dimensional (2D) finite element models of TBC systems. Most importantly, task 3 involved the generation of a rule base to aid in the design of a TBC system. These rules were based on a factorial design of experiments involving FEM results and were generated using a Yates analysis. A previous study had indicated the suitability and benefit of applying finite element analysis to perform computer based experiments to decrease but not eliminate physical experiments on TBC's. This program proved feasibility by expanding on these findings by developing a larger knowledgebase and developing a procedure to extract rules to aid in TBC design.

  6. Design Rules and Scaling for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Useful design rules and simple scaling models have been developed for solar sails. Chief among the conclusions are: 1. Sail distortions contribute to the thrust and moments primarily though the mean squared value of their derivatives (slopes), and the sail behaves like a flat sheet if the value is small. The RMS slope is therefore an important figure of merit, and sail distortion effects on the spacecraft can generally be disregarded if the RMS slope is less than about 10% or so. 2. The characteristic slope of the sail distortion varies inversely with the tension in the sail, and it is the tension that produces the principle loading on the support booms. The tension is not arbitrary, but rather is the value needed to maintain the allowable RMS slope. That corresponds to a halyard force about equal to three times the normal force on the supported sail area. 3. Both the AEC/SRS and L Garde concepts appear to be structurally capable of supporting sail sizes up to a kilometer or more with 1AU solar flux, but select transverse dimensions must be changed to do so. Operational issues such as fabrication, handling, storage and deployment will be the limiting factors.

  7. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  8. Solar absorptance and thermal emittance of some common spacecraft thermal-control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Solar absorptance and thermal emittance of spacecraft materials are critical parameters in determining spacecraft temperature control. Because thickness, surface preparation, coatings formulation, manufacturing techniques, etc. affect these parameters, it is usually necessary to measure the absorptance and emittance of materials before they are used. Absorptance and emittance data for many common types of thermal control coatings, are together with some sample spectral data curves of absorptance. In some cases for which ultraviolet and particle radiation data are available, the degraded absorptance and emittance values are also listed.

  9. Thermal and optical analysis of selective absorber coatings based on soot for applications in solar cookers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servín, H.; Peña, M.; Sobral, H.; González, M.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal and optical properties of selective absorber coatings of a solar cooker have been investigated. Coatings have been prepared using soot from pine resin, wood stove and sugarcane, previously separated by size. Results show that the cooking power and the overall efficiency of these pots are higher than others painted with black primer. Besides, by using an integrating sphere, the diffuse reflectance of absorbers has been obtained. Lower values of the reflectance have been measured for the pots covered with soot, showing a high correlation with the results achieved from the thermal tests, considering the measurement errors.

  10. Dip coating process: Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Zook, J. D.; Harrison, W. B.; Scott, M. W.; Hendrickson, G.; Wolner, H. A.; Nelson, L. D.; Schuller, T. L.; Peterson, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing solar cell quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large grain polycrystalline silicon was investigated. The dip-coating methods studied were directed toward a minimum cost process with the ultimate objective of producing solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 10% or greater. The technique shows excellent promise for low cost, labor-saving, scale-up potentialities and would provide an end product of sheet silicon with a rigid and strong supportive backing. An experimental dip-coating facility was designed and constructed, several substrates were successfully dip-coated with areas as large as 25 sq cm and thicknesses of 12 micron to 250 micron. There appears to be no serious limitation on the area of a substrate that could be coated. Of the various substrate materials dip-coated, mullite appears to best satisfy the requirement of the program. An inexpensive process was developed for producing mullite in the desired geometry.

  11. Antireflective coatings for multijunction solar cells under wide-angle ray bundles.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Marta; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2012-03-26

    Two important aspects must be considered when optimizing antireflection coatings (ARCs) for multijunction solar cells to be used in concentrators: the angular light distribution over the cell created by the particular concentration system and the wide spectral bandwidth the solar cell is sensitive to. In this article, a numerical optimization procedure and its results are presented. The potential efficiency enhancement by means of ARC optimization is calculated for several concentrating PV systems. In addition, two methods for ARCs direct characterization are presented. The results of these show that real ARCs slightly underperform theoretical predictions.

  12. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  13. Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Munday, Jeremy N; Atwater, Harry A

    2011-06-08

    We describe an ultrathin solar cell architecture that combines the benefits of both plasmonic photovoltaics and traditional antireflection coatings. Spatially resolved electron generation rates are used to determine the total integrated current improvement under AM1.5G solar illumination, which can reach a factor of 1.8. The frequency-dependent absorption is found to strongly correlate with the occupation of optical modes within the structure, and the improved absorption is mainly attributed to improved coupling to guided modes rather than localized resonant modes.

  14. Process and design considerations for high-efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohati, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper shows that oxide surface passivation coupled with optimum multilayer anti-reflective coating can provide approx. 3% (absolute) improvement in solar cell efficiency. Use of single-layer AR coating, without passivation, gives cell efficiencies in the range of 15 to 15.5% on high-quality, 4 ohm-cm as well as 0.1 to 0.2 ohm-cm float-zone silicon. Oxide surface passivation alone raises the cell efficiency to or = 17%. An optimum double-layer AR coating on oxide-passivated cells provides an additional approx. 5 to 10% improvement over a single-layer AR-coated cell, resulting in cell efficiencies in excess of 18%. Experimentally observed improvements are supported by model calculations and an approach to or = 20% efficient cells is discussed.

  15. Design Rules for Efficient Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Mühlbacher, D.; Morana, M.; Koppe, M.; Scharber, M. C.; Waller, D.; Dennler, G.; Brabec, C. J.

    There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s [1-3]. Among all the alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells are the approach that could lead to the most significant cost reduction [4]. The field of organic photovoltaics (OPV) is composed of organic/inorganic nanostructures, like the dyesensitized solar cell, multilayers of small organic molecules and mixtures of organic materials (bulk-heterojunction solar cell). A review of several so-called organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies was recently presented [5].

  16. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  17. LDEF (Prelaunch), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), S1002 : Investigation of Critical Surface Degradation Effects on Coating and Solar Cells Developed in Germany, Tray E03 The prelaunch photograph provides a view of the two (2) experiments located in a six (6) inch LDEF experiment tray. The A0187-02 is located in the right two thirds (2/3rd) of the tray and the EECC containing the S1002 experiment occupies the remaining section. The tan colored strips on the tray flanges are protective coatings that are removed prior to tray testing. S1002 - The Effects on Coatings and Solar Cells experiment is contained within the Experiment Exposure Control Canister (EECC) that is located in the left one third (1/3rd) of the experiment tray. The EECC hardware consists of the housing, the drawer that contains the experiment samples, the drawer opening and closing mechanism (a screw drive system) and chromic anodized aluminum thermal covers that are seen in the photograph. The hardware is fabricated from aluminum or non-magnetic steels and is assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The canister will be opened in orbit after the LDEF has been deployed, the Orbiter has departed and initial outgassing of materials on the LDEF has occurred. The canister is programmed to close approximately nine (9) months after opening and prior to the scheduled LDEF retrieval. Experiment samples located in the EECC consist of Second Surface Mirrors (SSM), SSM with Interference Filters (SSM/IF), SSM/IF with a Conductive Layer (SSM/IF/LS, Optical Solar Reflectors (OSR), Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), Coatings and Solar Cell Modules of the types flown on the GEOS and OTS satellites.

  18. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  19. Design and installation package for a solar powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and installation procedures of a solar powered pump developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company are presented. Subsystem installation, operation and maintenance requirements, subsystem performance specifications, and detailed design drawings are included.

  20. The effect of leveling coatings on the atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Degroh, K.K.; Dever, T.M.; Quinn, W.F.

    1990-04-01

    Space power systems for Space Station Freedom will be exposed to the harsh environment of low earth orbit (LEO). Neutral atomic oxygen is the major constituent in LEO and has the potential of severely reducing the efficiency of solar dynamic power systems through degradation of the concentrator surfaces. Several transparent dielectric thin films have been found to provide atomic oxygen protection, but atomic oxygen undercutting at inherent defect sites is still a threat to solar dynamic power system survivability. Leveling coatings smooth microscopically rough surfaces, thus eliminating potential defect sites prone to oxidation attack on concentrator surfaces. The ability of leveling coatings to improve the atomic oxygen durability of concentrator surfaces was investigated. The application of a EPO-TEK 377 epoxy leveling coating on a graphite epoxy substrate resulted in an increase in solar specular reflectance, a decrease in the atomic oxygen defect density by an order of magnitude and a corresponding order of magnitude decrease in the percent loss of specular reflectance during atomic oxygen plasma ashing.

  1. The effect of leveling coatings on the atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Dever, Therese M.; Quinn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Space power systems for Space Station Freedom will be exposed to the harsh environment of low earth orbit (LEO). Neutral atomic oxygen is the major constituent in LEO and has the potential of severely reducing the efficiency of solar dynamic power systems through degradation of the concentrator surfaces. Several transparent dielectric thin films have been found to provide atomic oxygen protection, but atomic oxygen undercutting at inherent defect sites is still a threat to solar dynamic power system survivability. Leveling coatings smooth microscopically rough surfaces, thus eliminating potential defect sites prone to oxidation attack on concentrator surfaces. The ability of leveling coatings to improve the atomic oxygen durability of concentrator surfaces was investigated. The application of a EPO-TEK 377 epoxy leveling coating on a graphite epoxy substrate resulted in an increase in solar specular reflectance, a decrease in the atomic oxygen defect density by an order of magnitude and a corresponding order of magnitude decrease in the percent loss of specular reflectance during atomic oxygen plasma ashing.

  2. Combined Effects of Pyramid-Like Structures and Antireflection Coating on Si Solar Cell Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chanseob; Oh, Junghwa; Lee, Byeungleul; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-10-01

    We developed a novel process for synthesizing Si solar cells with improved efficiencies. The process involved the formation of pyramid-like structures on the Si substrate and the deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of an antireflection coating. The process consisted of three main stages. First, pyramid-like structures were textured on the Si substrate by reactive ion etching and subsequently etched using a mixture of HF, HNO3, and deionized water for 300 s. Next, an antireflection coating was deposited on the substrate and was subsequently thermally annealed in a furnace in a N2 atmosphere. After the annealing process, the minority carrier lifetime increased by approximately 40 μs. Further, because of the increase in the minority carrier lifetime and the uniform doping of the substrate, the leakage current decreased. As a result, the efficiency of resulting solar cell increased to 17.24%, in contrast to that of the reference cell, which was only 15.89%. Thus, uniform doping and the thermal annealing of the antireflective coating improved solar cell efficiency.

  3. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  4. Designing energy dissipation properties via thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Brake, Matthew R. W.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Madison, Jonathan D.

    2016-12-14

    The coefficient of restitution is a measure of energy dissipation in a system across impact events. Often, the dissipative qualities of a pair of impacting components are neglected during the design phase. This research looks at the effect of applying a thin layer of metallic coating, using thermal spray technologies, to significantly alter the dissipative properties of a system. We studied the dissipative properties across multiple impacts in order to assess the effects of work hardening, the change in microstructure, and the change in surface topography. The results of the experiments indicate that any work hardening-like effects are likely attributable to the crushing of asperities, and the permanent changes in the dissipative properties of the system, as measured by the coefficient of restitution, are attributable to the microstructure formed by the thermal spray coating. Furthermore, the microstructure appears to be robust across impact events of moderate energy levels, exhibiting negligible changes across multiple impact events.

  5. Solar Orbiter- Solar Array- Thermal Design for an Extreme Temperature Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Jens; Paarmann, Carola; Lindner, Anton; Kreutz, Martin; Oberhuttinger, Carola; Costello, Ian; Icardi, Lidia

    2014-08-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission is an interdisciplinary mission to the sun, carried out by ESA in collaboration with NASA. The spacecraft will approach the sun close to 0.28 AU. At this distance, the solar array has to be operated under high solar array inclination angles to limit the temperatures to a maximum qualification temperature of 200°C for the photo voltaic assembly (PVA). Nevertheless, extreme temperatures appear at specific locations of the solar array which require purpose-built temperature protection measures. A very specific thermal protection is needed to keep the PVA and its supporting structures within the qualified temperature range and simultaneously minimize the thermal flux into the spacecraft.This paper describes the Solar Orbiter solar array design in general and its specific thermal design in particular. It describes the interdisciplinary steps between thermal- and mechanical analysis as well as design engineering necessary to result to the different shielding methods.

  6. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  7. TiO2-Coated Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Solar Cells with Efficiency of 15%

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Enzheng; Zhang, Luhui; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Yi; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Zhang, Sen; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-01-01

    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene or conducting polymers with conventional silicon wafers leads to promising solar cell architectures with rapidly improved power conversion efficiency until recently. Here, we report CNT-Si junction solar cells with efficiencies reaching 15% by coating a TiO2 antireflection layer and doping CNTs with oxidative chemicals, under air mass (AM 1.5) illumination at a calibrated intensity of 100 mW/cm2 and an active device area of 15 mm2. The TiO2 layer significantly inhibits light reflectance from the Si surface, resulting in much enhanced short-circuit current (by 30%) and external quantum efficiency. Our method is simple, well-controlled, and very effective in boosting the performance of CNT-Si solar cells. PMID:23181192

  8. Efficient black silicon solar cell with a density-graded nanoporous surface: Optical properties, performance limitations, and design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Yost, Vernon E.; Page, Matthew R.; Stradins, Paul; Meier, Daniel L.; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-09-01

    We study optical effects and factors limiting performance of our confirmed 16.8% efficiency "black silicon" solar cells. The cells incorporate density-graded nanoporous surface layers made by a one-step nanoparticle-catalyzed etch and reflect less than 3% of the solar spectrum, with no conventional antireflection coating. The cells are limited by recombination in the nanoporous layer which decreases short-wavelength spectral response. The optimum density-graded layer depth is then a compromise between reflectance reduction and recombination loss. Finally, we propose universal design rules for high-efficiency solar cells based on density-graded surfaces.

  9. High Lifetime Solar Cell Processing and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to maximize efficiency a solar cell must: (1) absorb as much light as possible in electron-hole production, (2) transport as large a fraction as possible of the electrons to the n-type terminal and holes to the p-type terminal without their first recombining, and (3) produce as high as possible terminal voltage. Step (1) is largely fixed by the spectrum of sunlight and the fundamental absorption characteristics of silicon, although some improvements are possible through texturizing induced light trapping and back surface reflectors. Steps (2) and (3) are, however, dependent on the recombination mechanisms of the cell. The recombination, on the contrary, is strongly influenced by cell processing and design. Some of the lessons during the development of point-contact-cell are discussed. Cell dependence on recombination, surface recombination, and contact recombination are discussed. Results show the overwhelming influence of contact recombination on the operation of the cell when the other sources of recombination are reduced by careful processing.

  10. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  11. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  12. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  13. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  14. Approach to interior design for passive direct gain solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Kachadorian, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    In response to requests from buyers and builders of direct gain passive solar homes interior design criteria either specific to, or emphasized by, passive solar buildings are investigated. Problems of high sunlight penetration, secondary illumination, material selection, sound control and psychology are approached. Material deterioration, fading, glare, noise, and a sense of spacial confinement can be minimized, contributing to the appeal and saleability of passive solar homes.

  15. Morphology-insensitive Performance Facilitates Transition from Spin-Coating to Roll-to-Roll Coating For High-Performance, Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delongchamp, Dean

    Solution processing via roll-to-roll (R2R) coating promises a low cost, low thermal-budget, sustainable revolution for the production of solar cells. Yet virtually all high efficiency solution processed research cells have been demonstrated by spin-coating, a low-volume deposition process. We present detailed device and morphology studies of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system deposited by a high volume manufacturing technique, blade-coating, that achieves greater than 9.5 % power conversion efficiency (PCE). The average crystal domain orientation and characteristic phase separation length distribution are markedly different when deposited by blade-coating rather than spin-coating,. This result allows us to determine which aspects of morphology are not relevant to the PCE of this system. Whether the crystallites are ``face on'' or ``edge on'' does not appear to impact the PCE of system, nor does the length scale or ``hierarchical'' nature of the phase length scale. Persistent morphological qualities that may be associated with high PCE in this system are relatively pure phases and relatively strong diffraction. We posit that OPV systems in which the PCE is less sensitive to morphology may also be less sensitive to film thickness, enabling some to maintain high PCE in active layers thicker than greater than ~200 nm. We confirm that blade-coating is a suitable prototyping technique for R2R coating by demonstrating nominally identical morphologies for both piece blade-coating and continuous-web, slot-die coating.

  16. Design of a solar sail mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleri, E. J., Jr.; Galliano, P. A.; Harrison, M. E.; Johnson, W. B.; Meyer, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    A new area of interest in space vehicles is the solar sail. Various applications for which it has been considered are attitude control of satellites, focusing light on the jungles of Vietnam, and a Halley's comet rendezvous. Although for various reasons these projects were never completed, new interest in solar sails has arisen. The solar sail is an alternative to the rocket-propelled space vehicle as an interplanetary cargo vehicle, and manufacture of solar sails on the space station is a possibility. Solar sails have several advantages over rockets, including an unlimited power supply and low maintenance. The purpose of this project is to design a solar sail mission to Mars. The spacecraft will efficiently journey to Mars powered only by a solar sail. The vehicle weighs 487.16 kg and will be launchable on an expendable launch vehicle. The project includes an investigation of options to minimize cost, weight, and flight duration. The design of the sail and its deployment system are a major part of the project, as is the actual mission planning. Various topics researched include solar power, material, space environment, thermal control, trajectories, and orbit transfer. Various configurations are considered in order to determine the optimal structure. Another design consideration is the control system of the vehicle. This system includes the attitude control and the communication system of the sail. This project will aid in determining the feasibility of a solar sail and will raise public interest in space research.

  17. Organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: Implications for grain sticking in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George J.; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2013-10-01

    The chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), fragments of asteroids and comets collected by NASA high-altitude research aircraft from the Earth's stratosphere, are recognized as the least altered samples of the original dust of the Solar Nebula available for laboratory examination. We performed high-resolution, ~25 nm/pixel, x-ray imaging and spectroscopy on ultramicrotome sections of CP IDPs, which are aggregates of >104 grains, and identified and characterized ~100 nm thick coatings of organic matter on the surfaces of the individual grains. We estimated the minimum tensile strength of this organic glue to be ~150 to 325 N/m2, comparable to the strength of the weakest cometary meteors, based on the observation that the individual grains of ~5 μm diameter aggregate CP IDPs are not ejected from the particle by electrostatic repulsion due to charging of these IDPs to 10 to 15 volts at 1 A.U. in space. Since organic coatings can increase the sticking coefficient over that of bare mineral grains, these organic grain coatings are likely to have been a significant aid in grain sticking in the Solar Nebula, allowing the first dust particles to aggregate over a much wider range of collision speeds than for bare mineral grains.

  18. Design data brochure for a pyramidal optics solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This Design Data Brochure provides information on a Pyramidal Optics Solar System for solar heating and domestic hot water. The system is made up of the collecting, storage, and distribution subsystems. Contained in the brochure are such items as system description, available accessories, installation arrangements, physical data, piping and wiring diagrams, and guide specifications.

  19. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  20. Design and performance of differential pumping system of coating unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, P.; Maiti, N.; Bapat, A. V.

    2008-05-01

    A box type coating unit has been developed in view of dual purpose of optical and reactive coating. The system is divided in two parts namely, substrate chamber (800mm × 800 mm × 100 mm) and gun chamber (800mm × 800 mm × 100 mm). Coating material is evaporated in the substrate chamber by traverse (270°) electron beams. Reactive gas is injected in the substrate chamber by up-stream pressure controller to reach set pressures in the range of 1×10-3 mbar to 1×10-4 mbar for gas flow rate in the range of 0-30 sccm. Traverse EB guns (10 kV, 15 kW, 2 No) are mounted inside gun chamber. The gun chamber vacuum should be better than 1×10-5 mbar for the operation of EB guns. Both these chambers are connected by the apertures provided on the intermediate bifurcation plate for the passage of electron beams. Through the apertures the reactive gas leaks from the substrate chamber to the gun chamber due to differential pressure. The differential pumping system consists of individual pumping modules for the substrate chamber and the gun chamber. The paper focuses upon the design of differential pumping system in view of determination of steady state differential pressures for different flow rates of reactive gas. It has been noticed that on introduction of reactive gas in the substrate chamber, the pressures in the substrate chamber and the gun chamber oscillates before converging to steady state values. Theoretically calculated values have been compared with the experimental values as design validation.

  1. Feasibility Study & Design of Brightfield Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Susan

    2014-09-28

    This Congressionally Directed Project originally provided funds to the Township of Lower Providence, Pennsylvania for the purpose of investigating the potential for a renewable energy generation facility to make beneficial reuse of a closed landfill located within the Township, known as Moyer Landfill. Early in the course of the project, it was determined through collaboration and discussion with DOE to alter the scope of the project to include a feasibility assessment of a landfill solar project, as well as to construct a demonstration solar project at the municipal facilities to provide an educational and community outreach opportunity for the Township to offer regarding solar photovoltaic (“PV”) electricity generation.

  2. Efficient Colorful Perovskite Solar Cells Using a Top Polymer Electrode Simultaneously as Spectrally Selective Antireflection Coating.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Youyu; Luo, Bangwu; Jiang, Fangyuan; Jiang, Fuben; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Liu, Tiefeng; Mao, Lin; Xiong, Sixing; Li, Zaifang; Wang, Tao; Kippelen, Bernard; Zhou, Yinhua

    2016-12-14

    Organometal halide perovskites have shown excellent optoelectronic properties and have been used to demonstrate a variety of semiconductor devices. Colorful solar cells are desirable for photovoltaic integration in buildings and other aesthetically appealing applications. However, the realization of colorful perovskite solar cells is challenging because of their broad and large absorption coefficient that commonly leads to cells with dark-brown colors. Herein, for the first time, we report a simple and efficient strategy to achieve colorful perovskite solar cells by using the transparent conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS) as a top electrode and simultaneously as an spectrally selective antireflection coating. Vivid colors across the visible spectrum are attained by engineering optical interference effects among the transparent PEDOT:PSS polymer electrode, the hole-transporting layer and the perovskite layer. The colored perovskite solar cells display power conversion efficiency values from 12.8 to 15.1% (from red to blue) when illuminated from the FTO glass side and from 11.6 to 13.8% (from red to blue) when illuminated from the PEDOT:PSS side. The new approach provides an advanced solution for fabricating colorful perovskite solar cells with easy processing and high efficiency.

  3. Blade-coated sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide for inverted polymer solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yan-Huei; Tsai, Pei-Ting; Chang, Chia-Ju; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Liu, Hung-Chuan; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Yeh, Han-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    The inverted organic solar cell was fabricated by using sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) as the electron-transport layer. The IGZO precursor solution was deposited by blade coating with simultaneous substrate heating at 120 °C from the bottom and hot wind from above. Uniform IGZO film of around 30 nm was formed after annealing at 400 °C. Using the blend of low band-gap polymer poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b')dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt- (4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno [3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-C-T) and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) as the active layer for the inverted organic solar cell, an efficiency of 6.2% was achieved with a blade speed of 180 mm/s for the IGZO. The efficiency of the inverted organic solar cells was found to depend on the coating speed of the IGZO films, which was attributed to the change in the concentration of surface OH groups. Compared to organic solar cells of conventional structure using PBDTTT-C-T: [70]PCBM as active layer, the inverted organic solar cells showed significant improvement in thermal stability. In addition, the chemical composition, as well as the work function of the IGZO film at the surface and inside can be tuned by the blade speed, which may find applications in other areas like thin-film transistors.

  4. Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

    2011-08-11

    Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

  5. Preliminary design of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report containing performance specifications and engineering drawings of concentric-tube air solar collector show details of collector and subcomponents that indicate efficiency surpassing predetermined performance baseline for air collectors.

  6. Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

    1996-05-01

    Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

  7. Nanostructured Indium Oxide Coated Silicon Nanowire Arrays: A Hybrid Photothermal/Photochemical Approach to Solar Fuels.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Laura B; O'Brien, Paul G; Jelle, Abdinoor; Sandhel, Amit; Perovic, Douglas D; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-09-27

    The field of solar fuels seeks to harness abundant solar energy by driving useful molecular transformations. Of particular interest is the photodriven conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 into carbon-based fuels and chemical feedstocks, with the ultimate goal of providing a sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Nonstoichiometric, hydroxylated indium oxide nanoparticles, denoted In2O3-x(OH)y, have been shown to function as active photocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction under simulated solar irradiation. However, the relatively wide band gap (2.9 eV) of indium oxide restricts the portion of the solar irradiance that can be utilized to ∼9%, and the elevated reaction temperatures required (150-190 °C) reduce the overall energy efficiency of the process. Herein we report a hybrid catalyst consisting of a vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) support evenly coated by In2O3-x(OH)y nanoparticles that utilizes the vast majority of the solar irradiance to simultaneously produce both the photogenerated charge carriers and heat required to reduce CO2 to CO at a rate of 22.0 μmol·gcat(-1)·h(-1). Further, improved light harvesting efficiency of the In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW films due to minimized reflection losses and enhanced light trapping within the SiNW support results in a ∼6-fold increase in photocatalytic conversion rates over identical In2O3-x(OH)y films prepared on roughened glass substrates. The ability of this In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW hybrid catalyst to perform the dual function of utilizing both light and heat energy provided by the broad-band solar irradiance to drive CO2 reduction reactions represents a general advance that is applicable to a wide range of catalysts in the field of solar fuels.

  8. Increasing Community Access to Solar: Designing and Developing a Shared Solar Photovoltaic System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development. The guide is designed to help those who want to develop community shared solar projects - from community organizers and advocates to utility managers and government officials - navigate the process of developing shared systems, from early planning to implementation.

  9. Performance and stability improvements for dye-sensitized solar cells in the presence of luminescent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bella, Federico; Griffini, Gianmarco; Gerosa, Matteo; Turri, Stefano; Bongiovanni, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    Here we present how the sunlight radiation incident on a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) can be shifted of a few tens of nanometers by means of an economical, easy to prepare and multifunctional photocurable fluoropolymeric light-shifting (LS) coating, to achieve both improved efficiency and device stability. By the introduction of a very small amount of a luminescent agent in the LS coating, the down-shifting of near-UV photons to higher wavelengths easily harvestable by the organic dye of a DSSC is successfully demonstrated. This optical effect not only results in an over 60% improvement of the power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices, but the UV light filtering action promoted by the luminescent agent also provides protection to the photosensitive DSSC components. This aspect, combined with a potential thermal shielding effect and the easy-cleaning behavior imparted to the coating by its fluorinated nature, leads to excellent device stability as evidenced from an aging test performed outdoors under real operating conditions for more than 2000 h. Our study demonstrates that the use of light-cured multifunctional coatings with light management characteristics at the nanometer scale represents a new promising strategy to simultaneously increase the performance and durability of DSSC devices.

  10. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  11. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design review on the development of a prototype solar heating system for single family dwellings is presented. The collector, storage, transport, control, and site data acquisition subsystems are described.

  12. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  13. Commercialization of High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-300

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies is to produce electricity at 15 cents/kilowatt-hour (kWh) with six hours of thermal storage in 2015 (intermediate power) and close to 10 cents/kWh with 12-17 hours of thermal storage in 2020 (baseload power). Cost reductions of up to 50% to the solar concentrator are targeted through technology advances. The overall solar-to-electric efficiency of parabolic-trough solar power plants can be improved and the cost of solar electricity can be reduced by improving the properties of the selective coating on the receiver and increasing the solar-field operating temperature to >450 degrees C. New, more-efficient selective coatings will be needed that have both high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance at elevated temperatures. Conduction and convection losses from the hot absorber surface are usually negligible for parabolic trough receivers. The objective is to develop new, more-efficient selective coatings with both high solar absorptance (..alpha.. > 0.95) and low thermal emittance (..epsilon.. < 0.08 @ 450 degrees C) that are thermally stable above 450 degrees C, ideally in air, with improved durability and manufacturability, and reduced cost.

  14. A flexible polypyrrole-coated fabric counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Meixia; Wu, Lei; Sun, Yongyuan; Zhu, Ligen; Gu, Shaojin; Liu, Li; Bai, Zikui; Fang, Dong; Xu, Weilin

    2014-07-01

    The current dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology is mostly based on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. The main problem with the FTO glass substrate is its rigidity, heavyweight and high cost. DSSCs with a fabric as substrate not only offer the advantages of flexibility, stretchability and light mass, but also provide the opportunities for easy implantation to wearable electronics. Herein, a novel fabric counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs has been reported employing a daily-used cotton fabric as substrate and polypyrrole (PPy) as catalytic material. Nickel (Ni) is deposited on the cotton fabric as metal contact by a simple electroless plating method to replace the expensive FTO. PPy is synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the Ni-coated fabric. The fabric CE shows sufficient catalytic activity towards the reduction of I3-. The DSSC fabricated using the fabric CE exhibits power conversion efficiency of ∼3.30% under AM 1.5.

  15. Fabrication of carbon-coated silicon nanowires and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhee; Lim, Jeongmin; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hae-Seok; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-11-12

    We report the fabrication of silicon/carbon core/shell nanowire arrays using a two-step process, involving electroless metal deposition and chemical vapor deposition. In general, foreign shell materials that sheath core materials change the inherent characteristics of the core materials. The carbon coating functionalized the silicon nanowire arrays, which subsequently showed electrocatalytic activities for the reduction of iodide/triiodide. This was verified by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We employed the carbon-coated silicon nanowire arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells as counter electrodes. We optimized the carbon shells to maximize the photovoltaic performance of the resulting devices, and subsequently, a peak power conversion efficiency of 9.22% was achieved.

  16. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  17. Passivation of Si solar cells by hetero-epitaxial compound semiconductor coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, S. M.; Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Haven, V. E.; Sekula, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    A development status evaluation is made for high efficiency Si solar cells, with emphasis on the suppression of the deleterious effects of surface recombination. ZnS(0.9)Se(0.1) and GaP are identified as candidates for the reduction of surface recombination. Attention is given to methods developed for the deposition of heteroepitaxial compounds designed to block minority carrier transport to the Si solar cell surface without interfering with the majority carrier flow.

  18. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  19. Ultrafast Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Ultrasonic Spray-Coating Technology.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun-Gyu; Weerasinghe, Hashitha C; Min Kim, Kwang; Soo Kim, Jeong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-09-30

    This study investigates novel deposition techniques for the preparation of TiO2 electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These proposed new methods, namely pre-dye-coating and codeposition ultrasonic spraying, eliminate the conventional need for time-consuming processes such as dye soaking and high-temperature sintering. Power conversion efficiencies of over 4.0% were achieved with electrodes prepared on flexible polymer substrates using this new deposition technology and N719 dye as a sensitizer.

  20. An economic model for passive solar designs in commercial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.

    1980-06-01

    The model incorporates a life cycle costing approach that focuses on the costs of purchase, installation, maintenance, repairs, replacement, and energy. It includes a detailed analysis of tax laws affecting the use of solar energy in commercial buildings. Possible methods of treating difficult to measure benefits and costs, such as effects of the passive solar design on resale value of the building and on lighting costs, rental income from the building, and the use of commercial space, are presented. The model is illustrated in two case examples of prototypical solar design for low rise commercial buildings in an urban setting.

  1. Coupling flexible solar cell with parabolic trough solar-concentrator-prototype design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Alexander; Bergquist, Jonathon

    2007-10-01

    Solar cells are still too expensive (5-20/watt) to compete with traditional fossil fuel power generating methods (˜1/watt). Parabolic trough solar concentrator has the advantage of modest concentration ratio (10-100) which is well suited for coupling with solar cell. Thus using small area solar cell placed in the focal line of parabolic trough may be economically viable alternative to flat solar panels. We experiment with flexible solar cell (backed by water cooling pipe) placed in the focus of parabolic trough reflector. Another advantage of parabolic trough concentrator is very relaxed tracking requirement. For example, east-west oriented concentrator (aligned with the ecliptic plane) does not even need any tracking during core 4-6 hours around noon (when maximum illumination is available). The design and the performance of the prototype, as well as possible economical benefits of full scale projects are discussed in the presentation.

  2. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, alpha, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, epsilon, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of alpha and epsilon were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  3. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  4. The extreme ultraviolet imager of solar orbiter: optical design and alignment scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Mazzoli, A.; Meining, S.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Auchère, F.; Schühle, U.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Philippon, A.; Mercier, R.; Hermans, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) is one of the remote sensing instruments on-board the Solar Orbiter mission. It will provide dual-band full-Sun images of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm and 30.4 nm), and high resolution images of the solar disk in both extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm) and vacuum ultraviolet (Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm). The EUI optical design takes heritage of previous similar instruments. The Full Sun Imager (FSI) channel is a single mirror Herschel design telescope. The two High Resolution Imager (HRI) channels are based on a two-mirror optical refractive scheme, one Ritchey-Chretien and one Gregory optical design for the EUV and the Lyman-alpha channels, respectively. The spectral performances of the EUI channels are obtained thanks to dedicated mirror multilayer coatings and specific band-pass filters. The FSI channel uses a dual-band mirror coating combined with aluminum and zirconium band-pass filters. The HRI channels use optimized band-pass selection mirror coatings combined with aluminum band-pass filters and narrow band interference filters for Lyman-alpha. The optical performances result from accurate mirror manufacturing tolerances and from a two-step alignment procedure. The primary mirrors are first co-aligned. The HRI secondary mirrors and focal planes positions are then adjusted to have an optimum interferometric cavity in each of these two channels. For that purpose a dedicated alignment test setup has been prepared, composed of a dummy focal plane assembly representing the detector position. Before the alignment on the flight optical bench, the overall alignment method has been validated on the Structural and Thermal Model, on a dummy bench using flight spare optics, then on the Qualification Model to be used for the system verification test and qualifications.

  5. Designing energy dissipation properties via thermal spray coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Brake, Matthew R. W.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Madison, Jonathan D.

    2016-12-14

    The coefficient of restitution is a measure of energy dissipation in a system across impact events. Often, the dissipative qualities of a pair of impacting components are neglected during the design phase. This research looks at the effect of applying a thin layer of metallic coating, using thermal spray technologies, to significantly alter the dissipative properties of a system. We studied the dissipative properties across multiple impacts in order to assess the effects of work hardening, the change in microstructure, and the change in surface topography. The results of the experiments indicate that any work hardening-like effects are likely attributablemore » to the crushing of asperities, and the permanent changes in the dissipative properties of the system, as measured by the coefficient of restitution, are attributable to the microstructure formed by the thermal spray coating. Furthermore, the microstructure appears to be robust across impact events of moderate energy levels, exhibiting negligible changes across multiple impact events.« less

  6. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  7. Analysis and design of holographic solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn

    2008-08-01

    The diffraction and the dispersion properties of holographic optical elements are examined for use as solar concentrators for photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal energy conversion systems. The diffraction angle and efficiency are computed for folded optical geometries that are potentially useful for low concentration ratio systems that can reduce the cost of residential solar energy systems. An investigation of the collection efficiency of a holographic planar concentrator and a spectrum splitting concentrator are analyzed with different construction parameters. It is found that collection angles of 40o and spectral bandwidth of 70 nm result with folded optical geometries for single volume holograms.

  8. Spectral reflectance properties of black chrome for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center has determined that a widely available commercially electroplated decorative finish known as black chrome has desirable solar selective properties. Black chrome electroplated coating has high absorbtance in the solar spectrum and low emissivity in the 250 F blackbody thermal spectrum. The spectral reflectance properties of a commercially prepared black chrome on steel have been measured. Values are presented for reflectance of the black chrome, and compared with the reflectance of black paint and with two available samples of black nickel which had been prepared for solar selective properties. The reflectance of black chrome, of the two black nickels, and of black paint integrated over the solar spectrum for air mass 2 were 0.132, 0.123, 0.133, and 0.033, respectively. The reflectance of the black chrome, two black nickels, and of the black paint integrated over the blackbody spectrum for 250 F from 3 to 15 microns are 0.912, 0.934, 0.891, and 0.033, respectively. These reflectance measurements indicate absorptivity-to-emissivity values of 9.8, 13.8, 8.0, and 1.00, respectively.

  9. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon `black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in `black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  10. Enhanced broadband and omni-directional performance of polycrystalline Si solar cells by using discrete multilayer antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Jae; Chhajed, Sameer; Poxson, David J; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E Fred; Tark, Sung Ju; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2013-01-14

    The performance enhancement of polycrystalline Si solar cells by using an optimized discrete multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coating with broadband and omni-directional characteristics is presented. Discrete multilayer AR coatings are optimized by a genetic algorithm, and experimentally demonstrated by refractive-index tunable SiO₂ nano-helix arrays and co-sputtered (SiO₂)x(TiO₂)₁₋x thin film layers. The optimized multilayer AR coating shows a reduced total reflection, leading to the high incident-photon-to-electron conversion efficiency over a correspondingly wide range of wavelengths and incident angles, offering a very promising way to harvest more solar energy by virtually any type of solar cells for a longer time of a day.

  11. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  12. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  13. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  14. High-Performance Fully Printable Perovskite Solar Cells via Blade-Coating Technique under the Ambient Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhibin; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Zuo, Fan; Kim, Jong H.; Liang, Po-Wei; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-04-30

    A fully printable perovskite solar cell (PVSC) is demonstrated using a blade-coating technique under ambient conditions with controlled humidity. The influence of humidity on perovskite's crystallization is systematically investigated to realize the ambient processing condition. A high power conversion efficiency of 10.44% is achieved after optimizing the blade-coating process and, more importantly, a high-performance flexible PVSC is demonstrated for the first time. A high efficiency of 7.14% is achieved.

  15. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  16. Solar-Powered Europa Orbiter Design Study (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Langmaier, Jerry; Pappalardo, Robert; Strange, Nathan; Spilker, Tom; Lock, Rob; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing a solar-powered mission around Europa has been evaluated periodically over the last decade. Most recently, an assessment was performed as part of the 2006 Europa Explorer (EE) Study, which evaluated the practicality of implementing that mission design with large solar arrays instead of radioisotope power systems (RPS). This previous study went into some depth in considering the issues related to the use of solar arrays in the Europa orbit illumination and radiation environment. The study concluded that an all-solar option was impractical to meet the science objectives as defined in that study by the science team. This conclusion resulted from the prohibitive mass, packaging and articulation issues associated with the very large (approx.300 sq m) solar arrays required to accommodate frequent eclipse periods associated with the particular Europa orbit used.

  17. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  18. Design considerations for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Leopold, L.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance characteristics of a conceptual solar power satellite (SPS) system with emphasis on the microwave power transmission system. The latest tradeoff studies on photovoltaic and thermal systems for converting solar energy into electricity at the satellite are reviewed. The microwave system, consisting of dc-RF amplifiers, a 1-km phased array, and a ground antenna/rectifier scheme is capable of delivering 5 GW of power to the commercial grid. The transmission efficiencies of smaller system sizes (down to 1 GW) are compared with that of the nominal 5 GW system. At present the frequency region of interest is the IMS (industrial, medical, and scientific) band at 2450 plus or minus 50 MHz. Economic and technical tradeoffs as a function of the microwave operating frequency are considered. Candidate dc-RF power converter tubes, including medium-power amplitrons, high-power klystrons, and low-power solid state amplifiers, are examined.

  19. Design of wide-angle solar-selective absorbers using aperiodic metal-dielectric stacks.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Nicholas P; Pincon, Olivier; Agrawal, Mukul; Peumans, Peter

    2009-12-07

    Spectral control of the emissivity of surfaces is essential in applications such as solar thermal and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion in order to achieve the highest conversion efficiencies possible. We investigated the spectral performance of planar aperiodic metal-dielectric multilayer coatings for these applications. The response of the coatings was optimized for a target operational temperature using needle-optimization based on a transfer matrix approach. Excellent spectral selectivity was achieved over a wide angular range. These aperiodic metal-dielectric stacks have the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of thermophotovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems. Optimal coatings for concentrated solar thermal conversion were modeled to have a thermal emissivity <7% at 720K while absorbing >94% of the incident light. In addition, optimized coatings for solar thermophotovoltaic applications were modeled to have thermal emissivity <16% at 1750K while absorbing >85% of the concentrated solar radiation.

  20. Preliminary design of the INPE's Solar Vector Magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. E. A.; de Gonzalez, A. L. Clúa; Lago, A. Dal; Wrasse, C.; Echer, E.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. Reis; Guerrero, G.; Costa, J. Rezende; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L.; Alves, L. Ribeiro; da Silva, L.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Soares, M. C. Rabello; Barbosa, M.; Domingues, M.; Rigozo, N.; Mendes, O.; Jauer, P.; Dallaqua, R.; Branco, R. H.; Stekel, T.; Gonzalez, W.; Kabata, W.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the preliminary design of a magnetograph and visible-light imager instrument to study the solar dynamo processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field distribution. The instrument will provide measurements of the vector magnetic field and of the line-of-sight velocity in the solar photosphere. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in reaching the scientific goals of The Atmospheric and Space Science Coordination (CEA) at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). In particular, the CEA's space weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is acquiring progressively the know-how to build state-of-the-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms to contribute to the efforts of the solar-terrestrial physics community to address the main unanswered questions on how our nearby Star works.

  1. Design, Fabrication and Test of a High Efficiency Refractive Secondary Concentrator for Solar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Geng, Steven M.; Castle, Charles H.; Macosko, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces, is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (greater than 2000 K). Presented is an overview of the effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of a prototype single crystal sapphire refractive secondary concentrator and to compare the performance with analytical models. The effort involves the design and fabrication of a secondary concentrator, design and fabrication of a calorimeter and its support hardware, calibration of the calorimeter, testing of the secondary concentrator in NASA Glenn's Tank 6 solar thermal vacuum facility, and comparing the test results with predictions. Test results indicate an average throughput efficiency of 87%. It is anticipated that reduction of a known reflection loss with an anti-reflective coating would result in a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of approximately 93%.

  2. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  3. Abrams Primary School passive solar design. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general project documentation and the design process documentation for the project are presented. The following are appended: analysis of thermal transfer and internal heat contributions to the heating and cooling loads for a typical four-classroom teaching module using bin-chart temperature data, trace simulation for the original building design, Teanet simulation of original building design for the month of January 1959, Teanet simulation of Solar 2 for the month of January 1959, incremental solar cost assessment, and diffuse radiation incident on the monitor glass. (MHR)

  4. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  5. Cookin' with Sun: Design and Build Solar Cookers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Lance; Warren, Ande; Fitzgerald, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Having students design and construct solar cookers is a great way to teach them about designing to meet human needs and about many basic global issues related to health and the environment. Because the activity includes solid content from the fields of math, science and technology, it is an excellent vehicle for technology educators who want to…

  6. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  7. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  8. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  9. Update on the Solar Power Satellite transmitter design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A number of remaining problems in the conceptual design of the transmitting antenna for the Solar Power Satellite have been solved as a result of additional technology development. Much of the technology was derived from the conceptual design of a ground-based transmitting antenna for beaming power to a high altitude airship or airplane.

  10. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n(+) emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  11. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-12-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n+ emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  12. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n+ emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion. PMID:25520602

  13. Design, fabrication, and bench testing of a solar chemical receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, W. A.; Pierre, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Solar thermal energy can be effectively collected, transported, stored, and utilized by means of a chemical storage and transport system employing the reversible SO2 oxidation reaction. A solar chemical receiver for SO3 thermal decomposition to SO2 and oxygen was analyzed. Bench tests of a ten foot section of a receiver module were conducted with dissociated sulfuric acid (SO3 and H2O) in an electrical furnace. Measured percent conversion of SO3 was 85% of the equilibrium value. Methods were developed to fabricate and assemble a complete receiver module. These methods included applying an aluminide coating to certain exposed surfaces, assembling concentric tubes with a wire spacer, applying a platinum catalyst to the tubing wall, and coiling the entire assembly into the desired configuration.

  14. Optimization of the antireflection coating of thin epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Selj, Josefine K.; Young, David; Grover, Sachit

    2015-08-28

    In this study we use an effective weighting function to include the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the effective thickness, Te, of the active cell layer in the optical modeling of the antireflection coating (ARC) of very thin crystalline silicon solar cells. The spectrum transmitted through the ARC is hence optimized for efficient use in the given cell structure and the solar cell performance can be improved. For a 2-μm thick crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell the optimal thickness of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) ARC is reduced by ~8 nm when IQE data and effective thickness are taken intomore » account compared to the standard ARC optimization, using the AM1.5 spectrum only. The reduced ARC thickness will shift the reflectance minima towards shorter wavelengths and hence better match the absorption of very thin cells, where the short wavelength range of the spectrum is relatively more important than the long, weakly absorbed wavelengths. For this cell, we find that the optimal thickness of the ITO starts at 63 nm for very thin (1 μm) active Si layer and then increase with increasing Te until it saturates at 71 nm for Te > 30 μm.« less

  15. Optimization of the antireflection coating of thin epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Selj, Josefine K.; Young, David; Grover, Sachit

    2015-08-28

    In this study we use an effective weighting function to include the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the effective thickness, Te, of the active cell layer in the optical modeling of the antireflection coating (ARC) of very thin crystalline silicon solar cells. The spectrum transmitted through the ARC is hence optimized for efficient use in the given cell structure and the solar cell performance can be improved. For a 2-μm thick crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell the optimal thickness of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) ARC is reduced by ~8 nm when IQE data and effective thickness are taken into account compared to the standard ARC optimization, using the AM1.5 spectrum only. The reduced ARC thickness will shift the reflectance minima towards shorter wavelengths and hence better match the absorption of very thin cells, where the short wavelength range of the spectrum is relatively more important than the long, weakly absorbed wavelengths. For this cell, we find that the optimal thickness of the ITO starts at 63 nm for very thin (1 μm) active Si layer and then increase with increasing Te until it saturates at 71 nm for Te > 30 μm.

  16. MOS solar cells with oxides deposited by sol-gel spin-coating techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chia-Hong; Chang, Chung-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2013-06-15

    The metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) solar cells with sol-gel derived silicon dioxides (SiO{sub 2}) deposited by spin coating are proposed in this study. The sol-gel derived SiO{sub 2} layer is prepared at low temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Such processes are simple and low-cost. These techniques are, therefore, useful for largescale and large-amount manufacturing in MOS solar cells. It is observed that the short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) of 2.48 mA, the open-circuit voltage (V{sub os}) of 0.44 V, the fill factor (FF) of 0.46 and the conversion efficiency ({eta}%) of 2.01% were obtained by means of the current-voltage (I-V) measurements under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm{sup 2}) irradiance at 25 Degree-Sign C in the MOS solar cell with sol-gel derived SiO{sub 2}.

  17. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  18. Solar Energy: Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices (Small 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Nanoengineered materials and structures can harvest light efficiently for photovoltaic applications. Device structure design optimization and material property improvement are equally important for high performance. On page 2536, X. Mo, Z. Fan, and co-workers summarize the design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices to assist with a better understanding of device physics.

  19. Microstructural design of functionally graded coatings composed of suspension plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Cattini, Andrea; Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Pawłowski, Lech; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Various bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) functional coatings were designed by the suspension plasma spraying (SPS) technique. Their microstructure, scratch resistance, and apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were compared. The functional coatings design included: (i) composite coating, that is, randomly distributed constituent phases; (ii) duplex coating with glass top layer onto HA layer; and (iii) graded coating with a gradual changing composition starting from pure HA at the interface with the metal substrate up to pure glass on the surface. The SPS was a suitable coating technique to produce all the coating designs. The SBF tests revealed that the presence of a pure glass layer on the working surface significantly improved the reactivity of the duplex and graded coatings, but the duplex coating suffered a relatively low scratch resistance because of residual stresses. The graded coating therefore provided the best compromise between mechanical reliability and apatite-forming ability in SBF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 551-560, 2014.

  20. Materials characterization and design for solar-thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarosa, M. J.; Tuffias, R. H.

    1993-11-01

    Solar-thermal propulsion relies on the convection of concentrated solar energy into kinetic energy (in the exhaust gases) in order to provide thrust. Solar radiation is focused into a blackbody cavity in which the heat is absorbed and transferred to the hydrogen fuel through a thermal absorber/heat exchanger. Performance increases are obtained by increasing the efficiency of the absorber, thereby increasing the heat transfer to the hydrogen fuel. The absorber/exchanger itself provides structural properties, which involves the severe structural constraint of needing to withstand the high internal hydrogen pressure. Thus, the absorber/exchanger becomes the critical component in the thruster, and the enabling technology for the development of a successful solar-heated hydrogen propulsion system is a combination of materials and processing. The maximum operating temperature of a solar-thermal propulsion devices is governed primarily by the strength and resistance of hydrogen degradation of the constituent materials at the operating temperature of 3000 K and above. Six candidate refractory materials were selected for investigation with regard to their potential for use in solar-thermal propulsion, with the aim of developing a properties and processing database in advance of designing, fabricating, and testing a solar-powered rocket engine (SPRE).

  1. Dorsal skin necrosis secondary to a solar-induced thermal burn in a brown-coated dachshund.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Julia P; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Fowlkes, Natalie; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat.

  2. Single-material zinc sulfide bi-layer antireflection coatings for GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jung Woo; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Heo, Jonggon; Park, Won-Kyu; Park, Jin-Hong; Cho, Woo Jin; Kim, Do Eok; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-09-09

    We demonstrated the efficiency improvement of GaAs single-junction (SJ) solar cells with the single-material zinc sulfide (ZnS) bi-layer based on the porous/dense film structure, which was fabricated by the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method, as an antireflection (AR) coating layer. The porous ZnS film with a low refractive index was formed at a high incident vapor flux angle of 80° in the GLAD. Each optimum thickness of ZnS bi-layer was determined by achieving the lowest solar weighted reflectance (SWR) using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in the wavelength region of 350-900 nm, extracting the thicknesses of 20 and 50 nm for dense and porous films, respectively. The ZnS bi-layer with a low SWR of ~5.8% considerably increased the short circuit current density (J(sc)) of the GaAs SJ solar cell to 25.57 mA/cm(2), which leads to a larger conversion efficiency (η) of 20.61% compared to the conventional one without AR layer (i.e., SWR~31%, J(sc) = 18.81 mA/cm(2), and η = 14.82%). Furthermore, after the encapsulation, its J(sc) and η values were slightly increased to 25.67 mA/cm(2) and 20.71%, respectively. For the fabricated solar cells, angle-dependent reflectance properties and external quantum efficiency were also studied.

  3. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  4. Design and realization of an autonomous solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaga, A.; Diouri, O.; Es-sbai, N.; Errahimi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is the design and realization of an autonomous solar system, with MPPT control, a regulator charge/discharge of batteries, an H-bridge multi-level inverter with acquisition system and supervising based on a microcontroller. The proposed approach is based on developing a software platform in the LabVIEW environment which gives the system a flexible structure for controlling, monitoring and supervising the whole system in real time while providing power maximization and best quality of energy conversion from DC to AC power. The reliability of the proposed solar system is validated by the simulation results on PowerSim and experimental results achieved with a solar panel, a Lead acid battery, solar regulator and an H-bridge cascaded topology of single-phase inverter.

  5. Phosphor coated NiO-based planar inverted organometallic halide perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jin; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Zhifan; Cao, Kun; Li, Dan; Han, Junbo; Shen, Yan; Peng, Mingying; Fu, Yong Qing; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-10-01

    This work investigates non-rare-earth phosphor (Sr4Al14O25:Mn4+, 0.5%Mg) with intensively red luminescence as a luminescent down-shifting layer for perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the fabricated device with a structure of NiO/CH3NH3PbI3/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester/Au coated with phosphor layer shows a 10% increase as compared with that of the control devices. Importantly, the phosphor layer coating can realize UV-protection as well as waterproof capability, achieving a reduced moisture-degradation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon applying an UV irradiation. Therefore, perovskite devices using this luminescent coating show a combined enhancement in both UV down-shifting conversion and long term stability. This can be expanded as a promising encapsulation technique in the perovskite solar cell community.

  6. Detailed Characterization of AR Coatings on Si Solar Cells: A New Application of GT-FabScan 6000; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Butterfield, B.; Amieva, J.

    2004-08-01

    We have developed a new application of GT-FabScan for rapid mapping of AR coatings on Si solar cells. The system generates an image of the AR thickness and presents it in a color format using false colors. This measurement is made in less than 100 ms. The development of this application enables the system to generate thickness maps of the AR coating to determine the repeatability of the deposition system, as well as to ensure that downstream processing can be controlled. These data can also be used to determine the average thickness of the coating. Downstream processing is an important issue in current solar cell technology. This paper describes its importance to the PV industry and discusses the principles and method of this measurement.

  7. Modeling the absorption behavior of solar thermal collector coatings utilizing graded alpha-C:H/TiC layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D P; Engel, G; Sormann, H; Schüler, A; Papousek, W

    2009-03-10

    Wavelength selective coatings are of common use in order to enhance the efficiency of devices heated by radiation such as solar thermal collectors. The use of suitable materials and the optimization of coating layer thicknesses are advisable ways to maximize the absorption. Further improvement is achievable by embedding particles in certain layers in order to modify material properties. We focus on optimizing the absorption behavior of a solar collector setup using copper as substrate, a layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon with embedded titanium carbide particles (a-C:H/TiC), and an antireflection coating of amorphous silicon dioxide (aSiO(2)). For the setup utilizing homogeneous particle distribution, a relative absorption of 90.98% was found, while inhomogeneous particle embedding yielded 98.29%. These results are particularly interesting since until now, absorption of more than 95% was found only by using embedded Cr but not by using the more biocompatible Ti.

  8. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  9. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  10. Thermal and cost goal analysis for passive solar heating designs

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, S.A.; Kirschner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Economic methodologies developed over the past several years for the design of residential solar systems have been based on life cycle cost (LCC) minimization. Because of uncertainties involving future economic conditions and the varied decision making processes of home designers, builders, and owners, LCC design approaches are not always appropriate. To deal with some of the constraints that enter the design process, and to narrow the number of variables to those that do not depend on future economic conditions, a simplified thermal and cost goal approach for passive designs is presented. Arithmetic and graphical approaches are presented with examples given for each. Goals discussed include simple payback, solar savings fraction, collection area, maximum allowable construction budget, variable cost goals, and Btu savings.

  11. Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoungchoo; Han, Mi-Young

    2009-08-03

    We present the results of a study of flat and uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layers that were produced by a simple pre-metered horizontal-dipping process for the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It is shown that this process can produce high quality and thin films by utilizing the downstream meniscus of the solution, which can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters of the gap height and the carrying speed. It is also shown that the produced PV film exhibits high power conversion efficiency of ca. 4.2% with a large active area. It was demonstrated that this pre-metered process for solution coating may be promising for achieving highly efficient, reliable, and large-area PSCs.

  12. Single-material multilayer ZnS as anti-reflective coating for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Ammar T.; Najim, Aus A.; Muhi, Malek A. H.; Gbashi, Kadhim R.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayer Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) is a promising low cost antireflective coating for solar cell applications, in this work; thin films with novel structure containing cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully deposited by thermal evaporation technique with three different layers. XRD analysis confirms the existence of both phases and high specific surface area. AFM analysis reveals that films with three layers have lower roughness and average grain size than other films. The optical measurements obtained by UV-vis, the calculated values of refractive index and reflectivity using some well known refractive index-band gap relations indicate that thin films with triple layer TL-ZnS have lower refractive index and reflectivity than other films, empirical equations were suggested and show the quantum confinement effects on band gap and reflectivity.

  13. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongre, J. K.; Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K.

    2015-07-01

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer's formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η).

  14. Cocktails of paste coatings for performance enhancement of CuInGaS(2) thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hee Sang; Cho, Yunae; Park, Se Jin; Jeon, Hyo Sang; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Kim, Dong-Wook; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-01-22

    To fabricate low-cost and printable wide-bandgap CuInxGa1-xS2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, a method based on a precursor solution was developed. In particular, under this method, multiple coatings with two pastes with different properties (e.g., viscosity) because of the different binder materials added were applied. Paste A could form a thin, dense layer enabling a high-efficiency solar cell but required several coating and drying cycles for the desired film thickness. On the other hand, paste B could easily form one-micrometer-thick films by means of a one-time spin-coating process but the porous microstructure limited the solar cell performance. Three different configurations of the CIGS films (A + B, B + A, and A + B + A) were realized by multiple coatings with the two pastes to find the optimal stacking configuration for a combination of the advantages of each paste. Solar cell devices using these films showed a notable difference in their photovoltaic characteristics. The bottom dense layer increased the minority carrier diffusion length and enhanced the short-circuit current. The top dense layer could suppress interface recombination but exhibited a low optical absorption, thereby decreasing the photocurrent. As a result, the A + B configuration could be suggested as a desirable simple stacking structure. The solar cell with A + B coating showed a highly improved efficiency (4.66%) compared to the cell with a film prepared by paste B only (2.90%), achieved by simple insertion of a single thin (200 nm), dense layer between the Mo back contact and a thick porous CIGS layer.

  15. Precise Morphology Control and Continuous Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Droplet-Controllable Electrospray Coating System.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Chan; Lee, Gunhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Yoon, Jungjin; Ahn, Namyoung; Cho, Woohyung; Park, Mincheol; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-03-08

    Herein, we developed a novel electrospray coating system for continuous fabrication of perovskite solar cells with high performance. Our system can systemically control the size of CH3NH3PbI3 precursor droplets by modulating the applied electrical potential, shown to be a crucial factor for the formation of perovskite films. As a result, we have obtained pinhole-free and large grain-sized perovskite solar cells, yielding the best PCE of 13.27% with little photocurrent hysteresis. Furthermore, the average PCE through the continuous coating process was 11.56 ± 0.52%. Our system demonstrates not only the high reproducibility but also a new way to commercialize high-quality perovskite solar cells.

  16. Advanced solar concentrator: Preliminary and detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Maraschin, R. A.; Matsushita, M. T.; Erskine, D.; Carlton, R.; Jakovcevic, A.; Yasuda, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A single reflection point focusing two-axis tracking paraboloidal dish with a reflector aperture diameter of approximately 11 m has a reflective surface made up of 64 independent, optical quality gores. Each gore is a composite of a thin backsilvered mirror glass face sheet continuously bonded to a contoured substrate of lightweight, rigid cellular glass. The use of largely self-supporting gores allows a significant reduction in the weight of the steel support structure as compared to alternate design concepts. Primary emphasis in the preliminary design package for the low-cost, low-weight, mass producible concentrator was placed on the design of the higher cost subsystems. The outer gore element was sufficiently designed to allow fabrication of prototype gores.

  17. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  18. Ultraviolet antireflection coatings for use in silicon detector design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Greer, Frank; Hoenk, Michael E.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Martin, D. Christopher; Schiminovich, David

    2011-07-01

    We report on the development of coatings for a charged-coupled device (CCD) detector optimized for use in a fixed dispersion UV spectrograph. Because of the rapidly changing index of refraction of Si, single layer broadband antireflection (AR) coatings are not suitable to increase quantum efficiency at all wavelengths of interest. Instead, we describe a creative solution that provides excellent performance over UV wavelengths. We describe progress in the development of a coated CCD detector with theoretical quantum efficiencies (QEs) of greater than 60% at wavelengths from 120 to 300nm. This high efficiency may be reached by coating a backside-illuminated, thinned, delta-doped CCD with a series of thin film AR coatings. The materials tested include MgF2 (optimized for highest performance from 120--150nm), SiO2 (150--180nm), Al2O3 (180--240nm), MgO (200--250nm), and HfO2 (240--300nm). A variety of deposition techniques were tested and a selection of coatings that minimized reflectance on a Si test wafer were applied to functional devices. We also discuss future uses and improvements, including graded and multilayer coatings.

  19. Ultraviolet antireflection coatings for use in silicon detector design.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Erika T; Greer, Frank; Hoenk, Michael E; Blacksberg, Jordana; Dickie, Matthew R; Nikzad, Shouleh; Martin, D Christopher; Schiminovich, David

    2011-07-20

    We report on the development of coatings for a charged-coupled device (CCD) detector optimized for use in a fixed dispersion UV spectrograph. Because of the rapidly changing index of refraction of Si, single layer broadband antireflection (AR) coatings are not suitable to increase quantum efficiency at all wavelengths of interest. Instead, we describe a creative solution that provides excellent performance over UV wavelengths. We describe progress in the development of a coated CCD detector with theoretical quantum efficiencies (QEs) of greater than 60% at wavelengths from 120 to 300 nm. This high efficiency may be reached by coating a backside-illuminated, thinned, delta-doped CCD with a series of thin film AR coatings. The materials tested include MgF(2) (optimized for highest performance from 120-150 nm), SiO(2) (150-180 nm), Al(2)O(3) (180-240 nm), MgO (200-250 nm), and HfO(2) (240-300 nm). A variety of deposition techniques were tested and a selection of coatings that minimized reflectance on a Si test wafer were applied to functional devices. We also discuss future uses and improvements, including graded and multilayer coatings.

  20. The use of trivalent chromium bath to obtain a solar selective black chromium coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Juškėnas, R.; Selskienė, A.; Bučinskienė, D.; Kalinauskas, P.; Juškevičius, K.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2014-06-01

    Black chromium coatings were electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath using a ZnO additive as a second main component. Black chromium was electrodeposited on steel and copper plates and substrates plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium electrodeposition. The black chromium coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. The XRD data suggest that the phase structure of black chromium may be defined as a zinc solid solution in chromium or a chromium solid solution in zinc depending on the chromium/zinc ratio in the deposit. The role of substrate finish was evaluated through the corrosion resistance and reflectance of black chromium. According to corrosion tests the samples plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium deposition have shown the highest corrosion resistance. The electrodeposited black chromium possesses good optical properties for the absorption of solar energy. The absorption coefficient of black chromium was found to be over 0.99 for the samples obtained without the Ni undercoat and below 0.99 for those obtained with the use of Ni undercoat. However, the use of nickel undercoat before black chromium plating is recommended because it remarkably improves the corrosion resistance of samples.

  1. Atomic oxygen interaction with solar array blankets at protective coating defect sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Auer, Bruce M.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hill, Carol M.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic oxygen in the low-Earth-orbital environment oxidizes SiOx protected polyimide Kapton solar array blankets at sites which are not protected such as pin windows or scratches in the protective coatings. The magnitude and shape of the atomic oxygen undercutting which occurs at these sites is dependent upon the exposure environment details such as arrival direction and reaction probability. The geometry of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites exposed to atomic oxygen in plasma asher was used to develop a Monte Carlo model to simulate atomic oxygen erosion processes at defect sites in protected Kapton. Comparisons of Monte Carlo predictions and experimental results are presented for plasma asher atomic oxygen exposures for large and small defects as well as for protective coatings on one or both sides of Kapton. The model is used to predict in-space exposure results at defect sites for both directed and sweeping atomic oxygen exposure. A comparison of surface textures predicted by the Monte Carlo model and those experimentally observed from both directed space ram and laboratory plasma asher atomic oxygen exposure indicate substantial agreement.

  2. Metal-dielectric frequency-selective surface for high performance solar window coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, Fatima; Guneratne, Ananda C.; Temchenko, Marina

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a solar control window film consisting of metallic nanoantennas designed to reflect infrared (IR) light while allowing visible light to pass through. The film consists of a capacitive frequency-selective surface (CFSS) which acts as a band-stop filter, reflecting only light at target wavelengths. The designed CFSS when installed on windows will lower air conditioning costs by reflecting undesired wavelengths of light and thus reduce the amount of heat that enters a building. State-of-the-art commercial solar control films consist of a multilayer stack which is costly ( 13/m2 to 40/m2) to manufacture and absorbs IR radiation, causing delamination or glass breakage when attached to windows. Our solar control film consists of a nanostructured metallic layer on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate that reflects IR radiation instead of absorbing it, solving the delamination problem. The CFSS is also easy to manufacture with roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography at a cost of <$12/m2. We design the CFSS using the COMSOL Wave Optics module to solve for electromagnetic wave propagation in optical media via the finite element method. The simulation domain is reduced to a single unit cell with periodic boundary conditions to account for the symmetries of the planar, periodic CFSS. The design is optimized using parametric sweeps around the various geometric components of the metallic nanoantenna. Our design achieves peak reflection of 80% at 1000 nm and has a broadband IR response that will allow for optimum solar control without significantly affecting the transmission of visible light.

  3. Numerical methods for the design of gradient-index optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Anzengruber, Stephan W; Klann, Esther; Ramlau, Ronny; Tonova, Diana

    2012-12-01

    We formulate the problem of designing gradient-index optical coatings as the task of solving a system of operator equations. We use iterative numerical procedures known from the theory of inverse problems to solve it with respect to the coating refractive index profile and thickness. The mathematical derivations necessary for the application of the procedures are presented, and different numerical methods (Landweber, Newton, and Gauss-Newton methods, Tikhonov minimization with surrogate functionals) are implemented. Procedures for the transformation of the gradient coating designs into quasi-gradient ones (i.e., multilayer stacks of homogeneous layers with different refractive indices) are also developed. The design algorithms work with physically available coating materials that could be produced with the modern coating technologies.

  4. Mechanical design of the solar telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; Eisenträger, P.; Emde, P.; Fischer, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Soltau, D.; Schmidt, W.; Weis, U.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanical structure of the GREGOR telescope was installed at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, in 2004. New concepts for mounting and cooling of the 1.5-meter primary mirror were introduced. GREGOR is an open telescope, therefore the dome is completely open during observations to allow for air flushing through the open, but stiff telescope structure. Backside cooling system of the primary mirror keeps the mirror surface close to ambient temperature to prevent mirror seeing. The large collecting area of the primary mirror results in high energy density at the field stop at the prime focus of the primary which needs to be removed. The optical elements are supported by precision alignment systems and should provide a stable solar image at the optical lab. The coudé train can be evacuated and serves as a natural barrier between the outer environmental conditions and the air-conditioned optical laboratory with its sensitive scientific instrumentation. The telescope was successfully commissioned and will start its nominal operation during 2013.

  5. Design of plasmonic enhanced silicon-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, F.; Ding, S. Y.; Sun, Y.; Bottomley, A.; Ianoul, A.; Ye, W. N.

    2012-10-01

    We report a novel plasmonic solar cell design implemented on an amorphous silicon platform. The enhancement of the scattering and trapping of the light is achieved by embedding nano-metallic cubic particles within the cell's junction. Amorphous silicon cell with a thickness of 1200nm is used. The spectral absorption of the silicon cell is limited to wavelengths larger than 1.1 u. Our proposed solar cell has a p-i-n configuration, with the amorphous silicon as the photo-active layer. Silver cubic nanoparticles are embedded at different locations within the photoactive layers of the solar cell. With the use of an FDTD simulator, we are able to characterize the optical performance of the solar cell. Our results show that the plasmonic properties of the cubic nanoparticles are more attractive for sensing applications compared to the traditional spherical configuration. The geometry of the cubic nanoparticles enables control over plasmon resonances both in the resonant wavelength and the degree of field enhancement. This is done by improving the refractive-index sensitivity on a thin silicon film, as well as increasing the scattering and trapping of light. Our simulations predict that the silver metallic nanoparticles will enhance the solar cell efficiency, by optimizing the plasmonic properties of the silver nanocube monolayer. We have achieved a 67% increase (from 7.5% to 12.5%) in the cell's efficiency by adding plasmonics to traditional amorphous p-i-n solar cell.

  6. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  7. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future.

  8. Some design considerations for solar-powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Performance and operating characteristics are presented for a solar powered aircraft intended to remain aloft for long periods. The critical technologies which limit the performance are identified. By using the techniques presented, the effects of variation in the system parameters are studied. Practical design consideration are discussed.

  9. Solar cell submodule design facilitates assembly of lightweight arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.

    1966-01-01

    Solar cell submodules with bus bars that leave tabs along one end of the submodule and wires with raised portions along the other end are assembled by interlocking the tabs and wires of adjacent submodules. This structural design is lightweight and reliable and requires no metallic substructure.

  10. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  11. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. Design and development of a solar array drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T.; Standing, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a dry lubricated direct solar array pointing mechanism is discussed from its inception in 1970 to its present development into a flight mechanism for use on the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS), MAROTS, European Communication satellite and others. Results of life testing the original prototype and the OTS mechanism are presented together with an appraisal of expected future development.

  13. Antireflection TiO x Coating with Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles for Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Z; Lipiński, M; Berent, K; Socha, R; Szczepanowicz, K; Kruk, T

    2013-03-01

    It is known that the light scattering from the metal particles deposited on the surfaces of cells can be used for increasing light trapping in the solar cells. In this work, plasmonic structures are composite materials that consisted of silver nanoparticles embedded in dielectric films of TiO x -used as cell antireflection coating. The films are deposited by sol-gel method using spin-on technique. Microstructure of prepared samples is analyzed by SEM observation. Good homogenity and particles density was obtained by this simple, cheap, and short time-demanding method. We demonstrate that due to light scattering by metal particles, the plasmonic-ARC layer is more effective than TiO x layer without Ag nanoparticles. Implementation of nanoparticles on bare cell surface was carried out too. The influence of the plasmonic structures on the silicon solar cells parameters is presented as well. We announce about 5 % additional growth in short circuit current for cells with nanoparticles.

  14. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  15. Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings as Encapsulants for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Panosyan, Zh.; Gippius, A. A.; Kontsevoy, J. A.; Touryan, K.; Voskanyan, S.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2005-02-01

    High-quality single-layer and bilayer diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are fabricated by two technologies, namely, ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition (IAPED) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) deposition. Deposition on various substrates, such as sapphires and solar cells, has been performed at low substrate temperatures (50 {approx} 80 C). The two deposition technologies allow good control over the growth conditions to produce DLC films with desired optical properties, thickness, and energy bandgap. The bilayer-structured DLC can be fabricated by using IAPED for the bottom layer followed by ECR for the top layer, or just by IAPED for both layers with different compositions. The DLC films have shown good spatial uniformity, density, microhardness, and adhesion strength. They exhibit excellent stability against attack by strong acids, prolonged damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, mechanical scratch, ultrasonication, and irradiation by ultraviolet (UV), protons, and electrons. When deposited on crystalline Si and GaAs solar cells in single-layer and/or bilayer structure, the DLC films not only serve as antireflection coating and protective encapsulant, but also improve the cell efficiencies.

  16. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  17. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  18. High altitude solar power platform. [aircraft design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. D.; Bower, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Solar power is a preeminent alternative to conventional aircraft propulsion. With the continued advances in solar cells, fuel cells, and composite materials technology, the solar powered airplane is no longer a simple curiosity constrained to flights of several feet in altitude or minutes of duration. A high altitude solar powered platform (HASPP) has several potential missions, including communications and agriculture. In remote areas, a HASPP could be used as a communication link. In large farming areas, a HASPP could perform remote sensing of crops. The impact of HASPP in continuous flight for one year on agricultural monitoring mission is presented. This mission provides farmers with near real-time data twice daily from an altitude which allows excellant resolution on water conditions, crop diseases, and insect infestation. Accurate, timely data will enable farmers to increase their yield and efficiency. A design for HASPP for the foregoing mission is presented. In the design power derived from solar cells covering the wings is used for propulsion, avionics, and sensors. Excess power produced midday will be stored in fuel cells for use at night to maintain altitude and course.

  19. Development of design and economic parameters for passive solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, R. A.; Harrison, M. P.

    1984-09-01

    In order to reach the energy consumption goals established by executive Order 12003 and Public Law 95-356, the Air Force must integrate conservation measures with present technology. This analysis generates target design and economic parameters for one such technology - passive solar systems. This thesis provides the Air Force design manager with a three phase method of determining the economic feasibility of passive solar heating for a given Military Construction Project. In the first phase, guidelines are presented for preliminary sizing insulation levels and solar collection (glazing) area based on the building location and size. Next, the second phase presented a quantitative energy analysis to achieve an accurate estimate of the energy savings of a passive solar building using the guidelines from the first phase. Finally, the third phase presented a method for economic analysis of passive solar systems using life-cycle costing. This method determines whether the energy savings justifies the incremental increase in construction cost based on a 25 year payback period.

  20. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ~ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100-300 nm.

  1. Mussel-designed Protective Coatings for Compliant Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, N.; Waite, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The byssus of marine mussels has attracted attention as a paradigm of strong and versatile underwater adhesion. As the first of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa)-containing byssal precursors to be purified, Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (mefp-1) has been much investigated with respect to its molecular structure, physical properties, and adsorption to surfaces. Although mefp-1 undoubtedly contributes to the durability of byssus, it is not directly involved in adhesion. Rather, it provides a robust coating that is 4-5 times stiffer and harder than the byssal collagens that it covers. Protective coatings for compliant tissues and materials are highly appealing to technology, notwithstanding the conventional wisdom that coating extensibility can be increased only at the expense of hardness and stiffness. The byssal cuticle is the only known coating in which high compliance and hardness co-exist without mutual detriment; thus, the role of mefp-1 in accommodating both parameters deserves further study. PMID:18650539

  2. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-14

    Resources Energy Technology Basics Electricity Grid Basics Costs Renewable Technologies Biomass Geothermal Solar Concentrators Solar Photovoltaics Wind...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 14 July 2014...SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. Non-Isocyanate Polymer Design and Coating Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    Allen - Manager of Coating Operations 3 Problem Statement ● 1.2 million gallons of Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) purchased in 2011  Up...Approach ● Project Management Principles  Frequent sample exchanges to ensure reproducibility and maintain program focus  Monthly team meetings...Maintenance Center (MDMC) Albany and a representative from that organization is included in the projet team. • Final field use will require introducing a

  4. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition.

  5. Tower-shaped solar power plants: general design solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepliakov, D. I.; Aparisi, R. R.; Goncharenko, V. M.

    General design characteristics of tower-shaped solar power stations are summarized, and the principal types of design solutions are identified. In particular, attention is given to the requirements for the topography of the construction site, configurations of the heliostat field, the position of the tower relative to the heliostat field and linear dimensions of the heliostat field. The discussion also covers the geometry of the collector and consideration of the geographic latitude of the plant location.

  6. Design and fabrication of brayton cycle solar heat receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendelson, I.

    1971-01-01

    A detail design and fabrication of a solar heat receiver using lithium fluoride as the heat storage material was completed. A gas flow analysis was performed to achieve uniform flow distribution within overall pressure drop limitations. Structural analyses and allowable design criteria were developed for anticipated environments such as launch, pressure containment, and thermal cycling. A complete heat receiver assembly was fabricated almost entirely from the refractory alloy, niobium-1% zirconium.

  7. Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).

  8. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  9. Investigation of ZnSe-coated silicon substrates for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Daniel A.; Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. William

    1993-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the feasibility of using ZnSe as a buffer layer for GaAs solar cells grown on silicon. This study was motivated by reports in the literature indicating ZnSe films had been grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto silicon with EPD values of 2 x 10(exp 5) cm(sup -2), even though the lattice mismatch between silicon and ZnSe is 4.16 percent. These results combined with the fact that ZnSe and GaAs are lattice matched to within 0.24 percent suggest that the prospects for growing high efficiency GaAs solar cells onto ZnSe-coated silicon are very good. Work to date has emphasized development of procedures for MOCVD growth of (100) ZnSe onto (100) silicon wafers, and subsequent growth of GaAs films on ZnSe/Si substrates. In order to grow high quality single crystal GaAs with a (100) orientation, which is desirable for solar cells, one must grow single crystal (100) ZnSe onto silicon substrates. A process for growth of (100) ZnSe was developed involving a two-step growth procedure at 450 C. Single crystal, (100) GaAs films were grown onto the (100) ZnSe/Si substrates at 610 C that are adherent and specular. Minority carrier diffusion lengths for the GaAs films grown on ZnSe/Si substrates were determined from photoresponse properties of Al/GaAs Schottky barriers. Diffusion lengths for n-type GaAs films are currently on the order of 0.3 microns compared to 2.0 microns for films grown simultaneously by homoepitaxy.

  10. A thick multilayer thermal barrier coating: Design, deposition, and internal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Hamed

    Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Y-PSZ) plasma-sprayed coatings are widely used in turbine engines as thermal barrier coatings. However, in diesel engines Y-PSZ TBCs have not met with wide success. To reach the desirable temperature of 850-900°C in the combustion chamber from the current temperature of 400-600°C, a coating with a thickness of approximately 1mm is required. This introduces different considerations than in the case of turbine blade coatings, which are on the order of 100mum thick. Of the many factors affecting the durability and failure mechanism of TBCs, in service and residual stresses play an especially important role as the thickness of the coating increases. For decreasing the residual stress in the system, a multi-layer coating is helpful. The design of a multilayer coating employing relatively low cost materials with complementary thermal properties is described. Numerical models were used to describe the residual stress after deposition and under operating conditions for a multilayer coating that exhibited the desired temperature gradient. Results showed that the multilayer coating had a lower maximum stress under service conditions than a conventional Y-PSZ coating. Model validation with experiments showed a good match between the two.

  11. Design and development of a solar array drive. [a direct drive solar array pointing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T.; Standing, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a dry lubricated direct drive solar array pointing mechanism is discussed for use on the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS), MAROTS, European Communication Satellite (ECS), and others. Results of life testing the original prototype and the OTS mechanism are presented together with an appraisal of expected future development.

  12. Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.

  13. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  14. Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell

    2016-01-01

    The 6U (approx.10 cm x 20 cm x 30 cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System, will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approx.3-year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.

  15. Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell

    2016-01-01

    The 6U (approximately 10cm x 20cm x 30cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System (SLS), will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approximately 3 year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.

  16. Approaches to solar cell design for pulsed laser power receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a laser to beam power from Earth to a photovoltaic receiver in space could be a technology with applications to many space missions. Extremely high average-power lasers would be required in a wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. However, high-power lasers inherently operate in a pulsed format. Existing solar cells are not well designed to respond to pulsed incident power. To better understand cell response to pulsed illumination at high intensity, the PC-1D finite-element computer model was used to analyze the response of solar cells to continuous and pulsed laser illumination. Over 50 percent efficiency was calculated for both InP and GaAs cells under steady-state illumination near the optimum wavelength. The time-dependent response of a high-efficiency GaAs concentrator cell to a laser pulse was modeled, and the effect of laser intensity, wavelength, and bias point was studied. Three main effects decrease the efficiency of a solar cell under pulsed laser illumination: series resistance, L-C 'ringing' with the output circuit, and current limiting due to the output inductance. The problems can be solved either by changing the pulse shape or designing a solar cell to accept the pulsed input. Cell design possibilities discussed are a high-efficiency, light-trapping silicon cell, and a monolithic, low-inductance GaAs cell.

  17. A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.J.; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Riggs, W.L. II; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

  18. An optimized top contact design for solar cell concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1985-01-01

    A new grid optimization scheme is developed for point focus solar cell concentrators which employs a separated grid and busbar concept. Ideally, grid lines act as the primary current collectors and receive all of the current from the semiconductor region. Busbars are the secondary collectors which pick up current from the grids and carry it out of the active region of the solar cell. This separation of functions leads to a multithickness metallization design, where the busbars are made larger in cross section than the grids. This enables the busbars to carry more current per unit area of shading, which is advantageous under high solar concentration where large current densities are generated. Optimized grid patterns using this multilayer concept can provide a 1.6 to 20 percent increase in output power efficiency over optimized single thickness grids.

  19. Design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, L.; Simon, A.; Barrera, H.; Acharya, V.; Repke, W.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory (SPML) system. The SPML provides a mobile platform that schools, universities, and communities can use to give students and staff access to laboratory environments where dedicated laboratories are not available. The lab includes equipment like 3D printers, computers, and soldering stations. The primary power source of the system is solar PV which allows the laboratory to be operated in places where the grid power is not readily available or not sufficient to power all the equipment. The main system components include PV panels, junction box, battery, charge controller, and inverter. Not only is it used to teach students and staff how to use the lab equipment, but it is also a great tool to educate the public about solar PV technologies.

  20. Design of nitride semiconductors for solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are a promising class of materials for solar energy conversion applications, such as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells. Nitrides can have better solar absorption and electrical transport properties than the more widely studied oxides, as well as the potential for better scalability than other pnictides or chalcogenides. In addition, nitrides are also relatively unexplored compared to other chemistries, so they provide a great opportunity for new materials discovery. This paper reviews the recent advances in the design of novel semiconducting nitrides for solar energy conversion technologies. Both binary and multinary nitrides are discussed, with a range of metal chemistries (Cu3N, ZnSnN2, Sn3N4, etc.) and crystal structures (delafossite, perovskite, spinel, etc.), including a brief overview of wurtzite III-N materials and devices. The current scientific challenges and promising future directions in the field are also highlighted.

  1. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  2. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  3. Optofluidic solar concentrators using electrowetting tracking: Concept, design, and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, JT; Park, S; Chen, CL

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a novel optofluidic solar concentration system based on electrowetting tracking. With two immiscible fluids in a transparent cell, we can actively control the orientation of fluid fluid interface via electrowetting. The naturally-formed meniscus between the two liquids can function as a dynamic optical prism for solar tracking and sunlight steering. An integrated optofluidic solar concentrator can be constructed from the liquid prism tracker in combination with a fixed and static optical condenser (Fresnel lens). Therefore, the liquid prisms can adaptively focus sunlight on a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell sitting on the focus of the Fresnel lens as the sun moves. Because of the unique design, electrowetting tracking allows the concentrator to adaptively track both the daily and seasonal changes of the sun's orbit (dual-axis tracking) without bulky, expensive and inefficient mechanical moving parts. This approach can potentially reduce capital costs for CPV and increases operational efficiency by eliminating the power consumption of mechanical tracking. Importantly, the elimination of bulky tracking hardware and quiet operation will allow extensive residential deployment of concentrated solar power. In comparison with traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, the electrowetting-based self-tracking technology will generate,similar to 70% more green energy with a 50% cost reduction. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and Performance of 20 Watts Portable Solar Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Z. A. Abdul; Hazali, N.; Hanafiah, M. A. K. M.; Abdullah, A. A.; Ismail, A. F.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.; Mohd Azmi, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    A new portable solar generator has been developed to generate electricity. It has the potential to replace petrol generator, widely used by peddlers at night markets (pasar malam). Conventional generators are heavy, oily, have high maintenance and use fossil fuel to generate electricity. The solar generator can generate 20 Watts of electricity. This amount of power can supply up to 96 hours of electricity for the purpose of lighting and running small electrical appliances. The power output is (alternating current) AC current using 150 Watts inverter with 200 Watts surge, suitable for all commercial single phase electric appliances. Solar charge controller is used to maximize the charging rate and to protect the battery. The system has low maintenance whereby the batteries need to be changed every three to four years, depending on the usage. The main concepts of portable solar generator are to reduce installation cost and to introduce a compact design of an optimal energy sizing system. The materials used to develop the solar generator can be easily obtained from local markets, thus reducing the cost of developing the system and making it suitable for commercialization.

  5. Plasmonic Solar Cells: From Rational Design to Mechanism Overview.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Seokhyoung; Quan, Li Na; Chung, Kyungwha; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-28

    Plasmonic effects have been proposed as a solution to overcome the limited light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic devices, and various types of plasmonic solar cells have been developed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art progress on the design and fabrication of plasmonic solar cells and their enhancement mechanism. The working principle is first addressed in terms of the combined effects of plasmon decay, scattering, near-field enhancement, and plasmonic energy transfer, including direct hot electron transfer and resonant energy transfer. Then, we summarize recent developments for various types of plasmonic solar cells based on silicon, dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaic, and other types of solar cells, including quantum dot and perovskite variants. We also address several issues regarding the limitations of plasmonic nanostructures, including their electrical, chemical, and physical stability, charge recombination, narrowband absorption, and high cost. Next, we propose a few potentially useful approaches that can improve the performance of plasmonic cells, such as the inclusion of graphene plasmonics, plasmon-upconversion coupling, and coupling between fluorescence resonance energy transfer and plasmon resonance energy transfer. This review is concluded with remarks on future prospects for plasmonic solar cell use.

  6. Development of Anti-Reflection Coating Layer for Efficiency Enhancement of ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chanta, E; Bhoomanee, C; Gardchareon, A; Wongratanaphisan, D; Phadungdhitidhada, S; Choopun, S

    2015-09-01

    In this research, we investigated the effects of ZnO anti-reflection coating layers on power conversion efficiency enhancement of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO thin films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering by varying sputtering time of 10, 30, 60, 80, 100 min. Surface morphology, thickness and optical reflective index were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. Then, transmittance and reflectance were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, we found that ZnO anti-reflection coating layers with sputtering time of 30 and 60 min showed lower reflection and higher transmission than that of reference film. In addition, ZnO anti-reflection coating layers have rough surface with sputtering rate has 2.14 nm/min. Thus, the ZnO anti-reflection coating layers with sputtering time in the range of 10-60 min have a potential as anti-reflection coating applications. The ZnO anti-reflection coating layers were used in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells and exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.16 mA/cm2 and the maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.54% from a sample with sputtering time at 60 min while the reference cell exhibited 3.88 mA/cm2 and 1.19%, respectively. Thus, we suggested an alternative improvement of ZnO DSSCs by adding the ZnO anti-reflection coating layers.

  7. Constructing 3D branched nanowire coated macroporous metal oxide electrodes with homogeneous or heterogeneous compositions for efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-05-05

    Light-harvesting and charge collection have attracted increasing attention in the domain of photovoltaic cells, and can be facilitated dramatically by appropriate design of a photonic nanostructure. However, the applicability of current light-harvesting photoanode materials with single component and/or morphology (such as, particles, spheres, wires, sheets) is still limited by drawbacks such as insufficient electron-hole separation and/or light-trapping. Herein, we introduce a universal method to prepare hierarchical assembly of macroporous material-nanowire coated homogenous or heterogeneous metal oxide composite electrodes (TiO2 -TiO2 , SnO2 -TiO2 , and Zn2 SnO4 -TiO2 ; homogenous refers to a material in which the nanowire and the macroporous material have the same composition, i.e. both are TiO2 . Heterogeneous refers to a material in which the nanowires and the macroporous material have different compositions). The dye-sensitized solar cell based on a TiO2 -macroporous material-TiO2 -nanowire homogenous composition electrode shows an impressive conversion efficiency of 9.51 %, which is much higher than that of pure macroporous material-based photoelectrodes to date.

  8. Improved performance design of gallium arsenide solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parekh, R. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    An improved design, shallow junction heteroface, n-p, gallium arsenide solar cell for space applications is reported, with a predicted AM0 efficiency in the 21.9 to 23.0 percent range. The optimized n-p structure, while slightly more efficient, has the added advantage of being less susceptible to radiation-induced degradation by virtue of this thin top junction layer. Detailed spectral response curves and an analysis of the loss mechanisms are reported. The details of the design are readily measurable. The optimized designs were reached by quantifying the dominant loss mechanisms and then minimizing them by using computer simulations.

  9. Optimization of Cardiovascular Stent against Restenosis: Factorial Design-Based Statistical Analysis of Polymer Coating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO) has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL), using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis. PMID:22937015

  10. Micro-optical designs for angular confinement in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Feuermann, Daniel; Mashaal, Heylal

    2015-01-01

    We identify and evaluate a variety of efficient and feasible micro-optics for confining the radiative emission of solar cells. The key criteria used for assessing viable designs are (1) high optical efficiency for both the transmission of impinging solar beam radiation and the external recycling of isotropic cell luminescent emission; (2) liberal optical tolerance; (3) compactness and (4) being amenable to fabrication from existing materials and manufacturing processes. Both imaging and nonimaging candidate designs are presented, and their superiority to previous proposals is quantified. The strategy of angular confinement for boosting cell open-circuit voltage-thereby enhancing conversion efficiency-is limited to cells where radiative recombination is the dominant carrier recombination pathway. Optical systems that restrict the angular range for emission of cell luminescence must, by reciprocity, commensurately restrict the angular range for the collection of solar radiation. This, in turn, mandates the introduction of concentrators, but not for the objective of delivering concentrated flux onto the cell. Rather, the optical system must project an acceptably uniform spatial distribution of solar flux onto the cell surface at a nominal averaged irradiance of 1 sun.

  11. Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell

    2016-01-01

    The 6U (approximately10cm x 20cm x 30cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System (SLS), will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approximately 3 year mission to a near earth asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems and advance solutions. Though finite element analysis was performed during this process in an attempt to quantify forces present within the mechanism during deployment, both the boom and the sail materials do not lend themselves to achieving high-confidence results. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented here will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.

  12. TiO{sub 2}-coated foams as a medium for solar catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Plantard, G.; Goetz, V.; Sacco, D.

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photographs taken at the Scanning Electron Microscope of (a) a surface coating of TiO{sub 2}, (b) a mesh of a foam (mesh diameter of 2 mm) and (c) a foam. Research highlights: {yields} Assess the efficiency of the foams as a photocatalytic media. {yields} Foam to improve the apparent quantum yield. {yields} Foam makes good use of the UV rays to break down molecules. -- Abstract: Sunlight irradiating the surface of the Earth represents a maximum input available for a solar catalytic process of 50 W{sub UV} m{sup -2}. We propose using high-porosity, metallic, reticulated foams as the support medium for the photocatalyst in order to improve the apparent quantum yield. The layer of TiO{sub 2} was applied by dip-coating. The measurement of the degradation kinetics was carried out on a model target molecule, 2,4 dichlorophenol, at an initial concentration of 10 mg l{sup -1}. The aim was to assess the efficiency of the foams as a photocatalytic media compared to that of a suspension of catalytic powder (Degussa P25) and the flat 2D support (Ahlstrom cellulose media). The apparent quantum yield of the foam scaffold carrying the TiO{sub 2} was high, showing that, as with the powder suspension, foam makes good use of the UV rays to break down molecules. It is noteworthy that the apparent quantum yield of the foam tended towards that observed for suspensions which form the ideal support thanks to their optimal ability to harness the light.

  13. Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

  14. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2016-07-11

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the principles of nonimaging optics, while the thickness of the device is minimized due to the use of total internal reflection.

  15. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  16. Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

  17. Using mixed solvent and changing spin-coating parameters to increase the efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Tang, Rong-Ming; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Mark O; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2008-10-01

    The derivative of C60, i.e., PCBM, and P3HT (3-hexylthiophene) were dissolved in chloroform:dichlorobenzene mixed solvent, then spin-coated as the active layer for organic solar cells (OSC). The experimental parameters were studied carefully to obtain the optimum power conversion efficiency (PCE), including the solvent mixing ratio, spin-coating speed, annealing conditions for the active layer, etc. The OSC devices were packaged with glass and a newly developed UV-glue to improve the lifetime and PCE. Dichlorobenzene solvent has great effect upon the PCE. Changing the spin-coating speed and increasing the number of steps increased the PCE apparently to 1.4%.

  18. Design and calculation of low infrared transmittance and low emissivity coatings for heat radiative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng

    2012-02-01

    The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.

  19. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight. PMID:27405419

  20. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight.

  1. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-07-13

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight.

  2. Controlled Deposition and Performance Optimization of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Ultrasonic Spray-Coating of Photoactive Layers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Lan, Ding-Hung; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Liang

    2016-12-27

    This study investigated a new film-deposition technique, ultrasonic spray-coating, for use in the production of a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Stable atomization and facile fabrication of perovskite thin films by ultrasonic spray-coating were achieved in a one-step method through manipulating the ink formulation (e.g., solution concentration, precursor composition, and mixing solvent ratio) and the drying kinetics (e.g., post-annealing temperature). The performance of the perovskite solar cells was mainly influenced by the intrinsic film morphology and crystalline orientation of the deposited perovskite layer. By suitable optimization of the spreading and drying conditions of the ink, ultrasonic spray-coated perovskite photovoltaic devices were obtained with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 11.30 %, a fill factor of 73.6 %, a short-circuit current of 19.7 mA cm(-1) , and an open-circuit voltage of 0.78 V, respectively. Notably, the average power efficiency reached above 10 %, attributed to the large flower-like perovskite crystal with orientation along the (1 1 2)/(2 0 0) and (2 2 4)/(4 0 0) directions. Thus, the ultrasonic spray-coating method for perovskite photoactive layers, combining advantages of good photovoltaic performance results and benefits from cost and processing, has the potential for large-scale commercial production.

  3. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  4. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  5. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Dongre, J. K. Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K.

    2015-07-31

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer’s formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η)

  6. Performance measurements of new silicon carbide coated reflectors for concentrated solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belasri, Djawed; Nakamura, Kazuki; Armstrong, Peter; Calvet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The new silicon carbide coated mirrors (SiC-mirrors) developed by Ibiden Co., Ltd. and tested at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology offer several advantages in concentrated solar power (CSP) structure and operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the reflectance and durability of the SiC-mirrors compared to high quality CSP glass mirrors in conjunction with two different applied cleaning methods. SiC-mirrors are 40 % lighter than high quality CSP glass mirrors, which leads to reduce costs of heliostat, parabolic trough or linear Fresnel structures, including assembly and installation time, lower drive power requirements, and stress during tracking operation. Lab and field tests show the SiC mirrors' reflectance is as high as the high quality CSP glass mirrors. Indeed, after 32 weeks of exposure, the high quality CSP glass mirrors' reflectance has decreased by 19 %, while the SiC mirrors' reflectance has decreased by 20 % when the brushing with water cleaning was applied. Using the brushing without water cleaning, the reflectance has decreased by 13 % and 2 % for the high quality CSP glass mirrors and the SiC-mirrors, respectively.

  7. Efficient spin-coating-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells fabricated with successive brush-painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate fully brush-painted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs), poly (3,4-ethylendioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer (HTL), CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite photoactive layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) electron acceptor layer are successively brush-painted. In particular, correlation between morphology of perovskites and overall performance of PeSCs are investigated depending on the perovskites precursor. Devices with brush-painted perovskite using generally used N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent show poor performance and large deviation in cell-performance. However, PeSCs with brush-painted perovskite employing protic 2-Methoxyethanol (2-M) as DMF-alternative solvent exhibit comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.08% to conventional spin-coated device and excellent reproducibility in device performance is observed as well. Furthermore, a fully brush-painted PeSC based on flexible substrates, showing PCE of 7.75%, is successfully demonstrated.

  8. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  9. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    PubMed

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  10. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  11. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the program during the sixth program quarter is reported. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. The William O'Brien single-family heating system was installed and is operational. The New Castle single-family heating residence is under construction. The Kansas University (KU) system is in the final design stages. The 25 ton cooling subsystem for KU is the debugging stage. Pressure drops that were greater than anticipated were encountered. The 3 ton simulation work is being finalized and the design parameters for the Rankine system were determined from simulation output.

  12. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  13. Nacre biomimetic design--a possible approach to prepare low infrared emissivity composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weigang; Xu, Guoyue; Ding, Ruya; Duan, Kaige; Qiao, Jialiang

    2013-01-01

    Mimicking the highly organized brick-and-mortar structure of nacre, a kind of nacre-like organic-inorganic composite material of polyurethane (PU)/flaky bronze composite coatings with low infrared emissivity was successfully designed and prepared by using PU and flaky bronze powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity and microstructure of the coatings were systematically investigated by infrared emissometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, and the cause of low infrared emissivity of the coatings was discussed by using the theories of one-dimensional photonic structure. The results show that the infrared emissivity of the nacre-like PU/flaky bronze composite coatings can be as low as 0.206 at the bronze content of 60 wt. %, and it is significantly lower than the value of PU/sphere bronze composite coatings. Microstructure observation illustrated that the nacre-like PU/flaky bronze composite coatings have similar one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. The low infrared emissivity of PU/flaky bronze composite coatings is derived from the similar one-dimensional photonic structure in the coatings.

  14. Design and calibration of the solar irradiance monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-jun; Fang, Wei; Ye, Xin; Wang, Yu-peng; Gong, Cheng-hu; Zhang, Guang-wei

    2011-08-01

    The solar irradiance monitor (SIM), with the design accuracy of 5%, used to monitor the secular changes of the total solar irradiance on FY-3 satellite, takes the sun-scanning measurement method on-orbit. Compared to the sun-tracking measurement method, this method simplifies the structure and cuts the cost, but the measuring accuracy is affected by the sun-synchronous orbit, sunlight incidence angle and the installing angle of the SIM in the satellite. Through the ground calibration experiment, studies on the affection of different sunlight incidence angles to the measurement accuracy. First, by the satellite tool kit (STK) simulation software, simulates the orbital parameters of the sun-synchronous satellite, and calculates the Sun ascension and declination at any time. By the orbit coordinate transformation matrix gets the components of the Sun vectors to the axes of the satellite, and base on the components designs the field of view and the installing angles of the SIM. Then, designs and completes the calibration experiment to calibrate the affection of the incidence angles. Selecting 11 different angles between the sunlight and the satellite X-axis, measures the total solar irradiance by the SIM at each angle, and compares to the irradiances of the SIAR reference radiometers, and gets the coefficient curves of the three channels of the SIM. Finally, by the quadratic fitting, gets the correction equations on the incidence angles: 5 2 3 R1 5.71x10-5α2 - 2.453 10-5 α2 1.0302, R2 = 2.84×10-5α2-1.965x10-3α+1.0314 and R3 =1.72x10-5α2-4.184x10-4α+0.9946. The equations will improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of the solar irradiance, and are very important to the on-orbit data processing after the satellite launched.

  15. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  16. Photoresponsive polymer design for solar concentrator self-steering heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Jessica; Basnet, Amod; Bhaduri, Moinak; Burch, Caroline; Chow, Amenda; Li, Xue; Oates, William S.; Massad, Jordan E.; Smith, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Concentrating solar energy and transforming it into electricity is clean, economical and renewable. One design of solar power plants consists of an array of heliostats which redirects sunlight to a fixed receiver tower and the generated heat is converted into electricity. Currently, the angles of elevation of heliostats are controlled by motors and drives that are costly and require diverting power that can otherwise be used for producing electricity. We consider replacing the motor and drive system of the heliostat with a photosensitive polymer design that can tilt the mirror using the ability of the polymer to deform when subjected to light. The light causes the underlying molecular structure to change and subsequently, the polymer deforms. The deformation of the polymer is quantified in terms of photostrictive constitutive relations. A mathematical model is derived governing the behaviour of the angle of elevation as the photostrain varies. Photostrain depends on the composition of the polymer, intensity and temperature of light and angle of light polarization. Preliminary findings show a photomechanical rod structural design can provide 60° elevation for temperatures of about 40°C. A photomechanical beam structural design can generate more tilt at lower temperatures. The mathematical analysis illustrates that photostrains on the order of 1% to 10% are desired for both rod and beam designs to produce sufficient tilt under most heliostat field conditions.

  17. Global sensitivity analysis of bandpass and antireflection coating manufacturing by numerical space filling designs.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Olivier; Cathelinaud, Michel; Claeys-Bruno, Magalie; Sergent, Michelle

    2011-03-20

    We present the effectiveness of global sensitivity analyses of optical coatings manufacturing to assess the robustness of filters by computer experiments. The most critical interactions of layers are determined for a 29 quarter-wave layer bandpass filter and for an antireflection coating with eight non-quarter-wave layers. Two monitoring techniques with the associated production performances are considered, and their influence on the interactions classification is discussed. Global sensitivity analyses by numerical space filling designs give clues to improve filter manufacturing against error effects and to assess the potential robustness of the coatings.

  18. Rational materials design of sorbent coatings for explosives: applications with chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Houser, E J; Mlsna, T E; Nguyen, V K; Chung, R; Mowery, R L; Andrew McGill, R

    2001-05-10

    A series of chemoselective polymers had been designed and synthesized to enhance the sorption properties of polymer coated chemical sensors for polynitroaromatic analytes. To evaluate the effectiveness of the chemoselective coatings, a polynitroaromatic vapor test bed was utilized to challenge polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with different explosive vapors. Dinitrotoluene detection limits were determined to be in the <100 parts per trillion ranges. ATR-FTIR studies were used to determine the nature of the polymer-polynitroaromatic analyte interactions, and confirm the presence of hydrogen-bonding between polymer pendant groups and the nitro functional groups of polynitroaromatic explosive materials.

  19. Determination of design allowable strength properties of elevated-temperature alloys. Part 1: Coated columbium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favor, R. J.; Maykuth, D. J.; Bartlett, E. S.; Mindlin, H.

    1972-01-01

    A program to determine the characteristics of two coated columbium alloy systems for spacecraft structures is discussed. The alloy was evaluated as coated base material, coated butt-welded material, and material thermal/pressure cycled prior to testing up to 30 cycles. Evaluation was by means of tensile tests covering the temperature range to 2400 F. Design allowables were computed and are presented as tables of data. The summary includes a room temperature property table, effect of temperature curves, and typical stress-strain curves.

  20. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27113558

  1. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  2. Efficient solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated nano-porous silicon by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sridhar; Maydannik, Philipp; Ivanova, Tatiana; Shestakova, Marina; Homola, Tomáš; Bryukvin, Anton; Sillanpää, Mika; Nagumothu, Rameshbabu; Alagan, Viswanathan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, TiO2 coated nano-porous silicon (TiO2/PS) was prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) whereas porous silicon was prepared by stain etching method for efficient solar photocatalytic activity. TiO2/PS was characterized by FESEM, AFM, XRD, XPS and DRS UV-vis spectrophotometer. Absorbance spectrum revealed that TiO2/PS absorbs complete solar light with wave length range of 300 nm-800 nm and most importantly, it absorbs stronger visible light than UV light. The reason for efficient solar light absorption of TiO2/PS is that nanostructured TiO2 layer absorbs UV light and nano-porous silicon layer absorbs visible light which is transparent to TiO2 layer. The amount of visible light absorption of TiO2/PS directly increases with increase of silicon etching time. The effect of silicon etching time of TiO2/PS on solar photocatalytic activity was investigated towards methylene blue dye degradation. Layer by layer solar absorption mechanism was used to explain the enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/PS solar absorber. According to this, the photo-generated electrons of porous silicon will be effectively injected into TiO2 via hetero junction interface which leads to efficient charge separation even though porous silicon is not participating in any redox reactions in direct.

  3. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-26

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  4. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  5. Modelling and design of high performance indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Sandra L.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    A first principles pn junction device model has predicted new designs for high voltage, high efficiency InP solar cells. Measured InP material properties were applied and device parameters (thicknesses and doping) were adjusted to obtain optimal performance designs. Results indicate that p/n InP designs will provide higher voltages and higher energy conversion efficiencies than n/p structures. Improvements to n/p structures for increased efficiency are predicted. These new designs exploit the high absorption capabilities, relatively long diffusion lengths, and modest surface recombination velocities characteristic of InP. Predictions of performance indicate achievable open-circuit voltage values as high as 943 mV for InP and a practical maximum AM0 efficiency of 22.5 percent at 1 sun and 27 C. The details of the model, the optimal InP structure and the effect of individual parameter variations on device performance are presented.

  6. Design optimization studies for nonimaging concentrating solar collector tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator or ISEC solar collector panel which achieved the best high temperature performance ever measured with a stationary collector was examined. A development effort review and optimize the initial proof of concept design was completed. Changes in the optical design to improve the angular response function and increase the optical efficiency were determined. A recommended profile design with a concentration ratio of 1.55x and an acceptance angle of + - 35(0) was identified. Two alternative panel/module configurations are recommended based on the preferred double ended flow through design. Parasitic thermal and pumping losses show to be reducible to acceptable levels, and two passive approaches to the problem of ensuring stagnation survival are identified.

  7. Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing Control of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer Solar Cells toward High Performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying

    2016-01-28

    The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing control and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing control and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer solar cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm(2). The formation and control of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes.

  8. Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing Control of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer Solar Cells toward High Performance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing control and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing control and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer solar cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm2. The formation and control of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes. PMID:26817585

  9. Wind effects in solar fields with various collector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, Joachim; Cochard, Steve; Fletcher, David F.; Vassallo, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic trough power plants are often located in areas that are subjected to high wind speeds, as an open terrain without any obstructions is beneficial for the plant performance. The wind impacts both the structural requirements and the performance of the plant. The aerodynamic loads from the wind impose strong requirements on the support structure of the reflectors, and they also impact the tracking accuracy. On a thermal level the airflow around the glass envelope of the receiver tube cools its outer surface through forced convection, thereby contributing to the heat loss. Based on previous studies at the level of an individual row of collectors, this study analyses the wind effects in a full-scale solar field of different continuous and staggered trough designs. The airflow around several rows of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is simulated at full scale in steady state simulations in an atmospheric boundary layer flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYSO® CFX 15.0. The effect of the wake of a collector row on the following collectors is analysed, and the aerodynamic loads are compared between the different geometries. The outermost collectors of a solar field experience the highest wind forces, as the rows in the interior of the solar field are protected from high wind speeds. While the aerodynamic forces in the interior of the solar field are almost independent of the collector shape, the deeper troughs (with large rim angles) tested in this study show a lower heat loss due to forced convection on the outer surface of the receiver tube than the shallower ones (with small rim angles) in most of the solar field.

  10. Orbits design for LEO space based solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addanki, Neelima Krishna Murthy

    2011-12-01

    Space Based Solar Power satellites use solar arrays to generate clean, green, and renewable electricity in space and transmit it to earth via microwave, radiowave or laser beams to corresponding receivers (ground stations). These traditionally are large structures orbiting around earth at the geo-synchronous altitude. This thesis introduces a new architecture for a Space Based Solar Power satellite constellation. The proposed concept reduces the high cost involved in the construction of the space satellite and in the multiple launches to the geo-synchronous altitude. The proposed concept is a constellation of Low Earth Orbit satellites that are smaller in size than the conventional system. 7For this application a Repeated Sun-Synchronous Track Circular Orbit is considered (RSSTO). In these orbits, the spacecraft re-visits the same locations on earth periodically every given desired number of days with the line of nodes of the spacecraft's orbit fixed relative to the Sun. A wide range of solutions are studied, and, in this thesis, a two-orbit constellation design is chosen and simulated. The number of satellites is chosen based on the electric power demands in a given set of global cities. The orbits of the satellites are designed such that their ground tracks visit a maximum number of ground stations during the revisit period. In the simulation, the locations of the ground stations are chosen close to big cities, in USA and worldwide, so that the space power constellation beams down power directly to locations of high electric power demands. The j2 perturbations are included in the mathematical model used in orbit design. The Coverage time of each spacecraft over a ground site and the gap time between two consecutive spacecrafts visiting a ground site are simulated in order to evaluate the coverage continuity of the proposed solar power constellation. It has been observed from simulations that there always periods in which s spacecraft does not communicate with any

  11. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  12. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to become a part of all future designs. The second half of the dissertation introduces inverse design as a new computational paradigm in photonics. An assortment of techniques (FDTD, FEM, etc.) have enabled quick and accurate simulation of the "forward problem" of finding fields for a given geometry. However, scientists and engineers are typically more interested in the inverse problem: for a desired functionality, what geometry is needed? Answering this question breaks from the emphasis on the forward problem and forges a new path in computational photonics. The framework of shape calculus enables one to quickly find superior, non-intuitive designs. Novel designs for optical cloaking and sub-wavelength solar cell applications are presented.

  13. Impact of Solar Array Designs on High Voltage Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Piszczor, Mike; ONeill, Mark

    2006-01-01

    As power levels of advanced spacecraft climb above 25 kW, higher solar array operating voltages become attractive. Even in today s satellites, operating spacecraft buses at 100 V and above has led to arcing in GEO communications satellites, so the issue of spacecraft charging and solar array arcing remains a design problem. In addition, micrometeoroid impacts on all of these arrays can also lead to arcing if the spacecraft is at an elevated potential. For example, tests on space station hardware disclosed arcing at 75V on anodized A1 structures that were struck with hypervelocity particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) plasmas. Thus an understanding of these effects is necessary to design reliable high voltage solar arrays of the future, especially in light of the Vision for Space Exploration of NASA. In the future, large GEO communication satellites, lunar bases, solar electric propulsion missions, high power communication systems around Mars can lead to power levels well above 100 kW. As noted above, it will be essential to increase operating voltages of the solar arrays well above 80 V to keep the mass of cabling needed to carry the high currents to an acceptable level. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss various solar array approaches, to discuss the results of testing them at high voltages, in the presence of simulated space plasma and under hypervelocity impact. Three different types of arrays will be considered. One will be a planar array using thin film cells, the second will use planar single or multijunction cells and the last will use the Stretched Lens Array (SLA - 8-fold concentration). Each of these has different approaches for protection from the space environment. The thin film cell based arrays have minimal covering due to their inherent radiation tolerance, conventional GaAs and multijunction cells have the traditional cerium-doped microsheet glasses (of appropriate thickness) that are usually attached with Dow Corning DC 93-500 silicone

  14. Analysis of laser damage tests on coatings designed for broad bandwidth high reflection of femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellum, John; Winstone, Trevor; Lamaignere, Laurent; Sozet, Martin; Kimmel, Mark; Rambo, Patrick; Field, Ella; Kletecka, Damon

    2017-01-01

    We designed an optical coating based on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45-deg angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses of 900-nm center wavelength, and produced the coatings in Sandia's large optics coater by reactive, ion-assisted e-beam evaporation. This paper reports on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) tests of these coatings. The broad HR bands of BBHR coatings pose challenges to LIDT tests. An ideal test would be in a vacuum environment appropriate to a high energy, fs-pulse, petawatt-class laser, with pulses identical to its fs pulses. Short of this would be tests over portions of the HR band using nanosecond or sub-picosecond pulses produced by tunable lasers. Such tests could, e.g., sample 10-nm-wide wavelength intervals with center wavelengths tunable over the broad HR band. Alternatively, the coating's HR band could be adjusted by means of wavelength shifts due to changing the AOI of the LIDT tests or due to the coating absorbing moisture under ambient conditions. We had LIDT tests performed on the BBHR coatings at selected AOIs to gain insight into their laser damage properties and analyze how the results of the different LIDT tests compare.

  15. High-coverage organic-inorganic perovskite film fabricated by double spin coating for improved solar power conversion and amplified spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Terakawa, Shinobu; Qin, Chuanjiang; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that double spin coating, where a perovskite film is covered with another perovskite film, can increase substrate coverage from 81% to 97% along with an increase of film thickness from 151 ± 17 to 246 ± 18 nm. The increased substrate coverage by double coating improves the solar power conversion efficiency from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 10.3 ± 1.0%, an approximate 1.5-fold increase. Additionally, a double-coated film of higher substrate coverage exhibits amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) while a single-coated film of lower substrate coverage does not exhibit ASE. Double coating is an attractive method for increasing substrate coverage and improving solar power conversion and ASE.

  16. Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

  17. Trends in dish-Stirling solar receiver designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diver, R. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moreno, J. B.; Adkins, D. R.; Moss, T. A.

    The dish-Stirling solar energy system, because of its high efficiency, is a leading candidate for producing low cost electric power from the sun. Dish-Stirling receiver design involves dealing with non-uniform and highly concentrated solar flux at high temperatures (700 to 800 C) and, therefore, presents a variety of technical challenges. The technology is in the process of evolving from directly illuminated heater head tube receivers to receivers that use refluxing (i.e., gravity assisted) liquid metals as an intermediate heat transfer fluid. Modern dish-Stirling development was initiated in the late 1970s by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Department of Energy. The JPL technology development with United Stirling, Inc. involved the USAB 4.95 Stirling engine and directly illuminated heater-head tube receivers. This work eventually led to the successful demonstrations and world record efficiencies by Advanco Corp., and to the attempted commercialization of the technology by McDonnell Douglas Corp. The severe nature of concentrated solar flux and the potential advantages of heat pipe technology have caused an evolution toward reflux receivers. These receivers are just beginning to be tested in the laboratory and integrated with dish-Stirling systems. In this paper, the history and current status of dish-Stirling receiver development are presented and discussed. The technical challenges to be addressed by the dish-Stirling community and the future plans at Sandia are outlined.

  18. Design of a solar concentrator with hexagonal facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Vázquez, Joel; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2007-09-01

    In this work we present the optical design of a solar concentrator for an High-Flux solar furnace of a solar laboratory, these concentrator is compound for an aspheric mirror surface sectioned in 121 hexagonal facets to simplify the construction process, its total diameter is 6.6 m and a focal length is 3.68 m, also was developed the corresponding algorithm to determine the correct position and orientation of each hexagonal section that compound the arrangement. We present the results of the focused energy of this configuration and we propose a modification on the original position of the mirrors for optimizing the focusing of energy by the sun furnace. These modifications produces an increment on the energy focused on a small area in a remarkable way similar to used a parabolic mirror. The algorithm before mentioned was programmed in MathCAD and it calculates the modification of the original position of each hexagonal mirror giving us a file that ZEMAX can read. This file contains the information of each 121 mirrors from the arrangement and also the correct form, position and direction, simplifying the traditional input process one by one.

  19. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Sheng-Pin; Gao, Yun-Feng; Li, Jun-Feng

    2011-08-01

    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable. A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel. Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design. This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius. The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization. An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables, which are normalized within a unit sphere. The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit. A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories. For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist, first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions. The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration. For a solar sail with a small lightness number, the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory. The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results. The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  20. Scale Up of Pan Coating Process Using Quality by Design Principles.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anjali M; Pandey, Preetanshu

    2015-11-01

    Scale up of pan coating process is of high importance to the pharmaceutical and food industry. The number of process variables and their interdependence in a pan coating process can make it a rather complex scale-up problem. This review discusses breaking down the coating process variables into three main categories: pan-related, spray-related, and thermodynamic-related factors. A review on how to scale up each of these factors is presented via two distinct strategies--"macroscopic" and "microscopic" scale-up. In a Quality by Design paradigm, where an increased process understanding is required, there is increased emphasis on "microscopic" scale-up, which by definition ensures a more reproducible process and thereby robust scale-up. This article also reviews the various existing and new modeling and process analytical technology tools that can provide additional information to facilitate a more fundamental understanding of the coating process.

  1. Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz frequency shielding and attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Liu, Lei; Wang, Tao; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-04-01

    We report design and synthesis of polymer-based large-area superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite coatings for tunable electromagnetic interference shielding and attenuation in the terahertz (THz) frequency regime. Such coatings with different CNF/polymer weight ratios are characterized by a frequency domain THz spectroscopy system. A maximum THz shielding effectiveness of ˜32 dB was measured in the examined frequency range of 570-630 GHz. Coating attenuation level varied with CNF loading. Two-dimensional distributions of power attenuation at 600 GHz showed good spatial uniformity. The present composite coatings, in addition to their self-cleaning property, have high potential for advanced technology high-frequency applications.

  2. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  3. Design of a Solar Sail Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastridge, Richard; Funston, Kerry; Okia, Aminat; Waldrop, Joan; Zimmerman, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the design of the solar sail includes key areas such as structures, sail deployment, space environmental effects, materials, power systems, telemetry, communications, attitude control, thermal control, and trajectory analysis. Deployment and material constraints determine the basic structure of the sail, while the trajectory of the sail influences the choice of telemetry, communications, and attitude control systems. The thermal control system of the sail for the structures and electronics takes into account the effects of the space environment. Included also are a cost and weight estimate for the sail.

  4. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  5. Bringing an Effective Solar Sail Design Toward TRL 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichodziejewski, David; West, John; Reinert, Rich; Belvin, Keith; Pappa, Richard; Derbes, Billy

    2003-01-01

    Solar sails reflect photons streaming from the sun and convert some of the energy into thrust. This thrust, though small, is continuous and acts for the life of the mission without the need for propellant ( I ) . Recent advances in sail materials and ultra-low mass structures have enabled a host of useful missions utilizing solar sail propulsion. The team of L Garde, Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Ball Aerospace, and Langley Research Center, under the direction of NASA, has been developing a solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Utilizing inflatably deployed and Sub Tg rigidized boom components, this 10,000 sq m sailcraft achieves an areal density of 14.1 g/sq m and a characteristic acceleration of 0.58 mm/s . The entire configuration released by the upper stage has a mass of 232.9 kg and requires just 1.7 d of volume in the booster. After deployment, 92.2 kg of non-flight required equipment is jettisoned resulting in a sailcraft mass, including payload and control system, of 140.7 kg. This document outlines the accomplishments of a Phase 1 effort to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the concept from 3 toward a TRL of 6. The Phase 1 effort, the first of three proposed phases, addressed the design of the solar sail, its application to several missions currently under review at NASA, and developed a ground tes plan to bring the technology toward a TRL of 6.

  6. Design of dual-diameter nanoholes for efficient solar-light harvesting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A dual-diameter nanohole (DNH) photovoltaic system is proposed, where a top (bottom) layer with large (small) nanoholes is used to improve the absorption for the short-wavelength (long-wavelength) solar incidence, leading to a broadband light absorption enhancement. Through three-dimensional finite-element simulation, the core device parameters, including the lattice constant, nanohole diameters, and nanohole depths, are engineered in order to realize the best light-matter coupling between nanostructured silicon and solar spectrum. The designed bare DNH system exhibits an outstanding absorption capability with a photocurrent density (under perfect internal quantum process) predicted to be 27.93 mA/cm2, which is 17.39%, 26.17%, and over 100% higher than the best single-nanohole (SNH) system, SNH system with an identical Si volume, and equivalent planar configuration, respectively. Considering the fabrication feasibility, a modified DNH system with an anti-reflection coating and back silver reflector is examined by simulating both optical absorption and carrier transport in a coupled way in frequency and three-dimensional spatial domains, achieving a light-conversion efficiency of 13.72%. PACS 85.60.-q; Optoelectronic device; 84.60.Jt; Photovoltaic conversion PMID:25258605

  7. Optimal reliability design method for remote solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwapaet, Nuchida

    A unique optimal reliability design algorithm is developed for remote communication systems. The algorithm deals with either minimizing an unavailability of the system within a fixed cost or minimizing the cost of the system with an unavailability constraint. The unavailability of the system is a function of three possible failure occurrences: individual component breakdown, solar energy deficiency (loss of load probability), and satellite/radio transmission loss. The three mathematical models of component failure, solar power failure, transmission failure are combined and formulated as a nonlinear programming optimization problem with binary decision variables, such as number and type (or size) of photovoltaic modules, batteries, radios, antennas, and controllers. Three possible failures are identified and integrated in computer algorithm to generate the parameters for the optimization algorithm. The optimization algorithm is implemented with a branch-and-bound technique solution in MS Excel Solver. The algorithm is applied to a case study design for an actual system that will be set up in remote mountainous areas of Peru. The automated algorithm is verified with independent calculations. The optimal results from minimizing the unavailability of the system with the cost constraint case and minimizing the total cost of the system with the unavailability constraint case are consistent with each other. The tradeoff feature in the algorithm allows designers to observe results of 'what-if' scenarios of relaxing constraint bounds, thus obtaining the most benefit from the optimization process. An example of this approach applied to an existing communication system in the Andes shows dramatic improvement in reliability for little increase in cost. The algorithm is a real design tool, unlike other existing simulation design tools. The algorithm should be useful for other stochastic systems where component reliability, random supply and demand, and communication are

  8. Sail film materials and supporting structure for a solar sail, a preliminary design, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Solar sailing technology was examined in relation to a mission to rendezvous with Halley's Comet. Development of an ultra-light, highly reflecting material system capable of operating at high solar intensity for long periods of time was emphasized. Data resulting from the sail materials study are reported. Topics covered include: basic film; coatings and thermal control; joining and handling; system performance; and supporting structures assessment for the heliogyro.

  9. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) by Repeated Dye Coating.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is being extensively investigated as the next generation energy source. Despite of the attractive features like simple fabrication process and its economic efficiency, there are some problems such as low efficiency, long fabrication time and low long-term stability. Conventionally, the dye adsorption on TiO2 photo-electrode film needs long time in the solvent with low concentration of dye to get the high efficiency. In this work, the dye coating process was considerably shortened, albeit plenty of dye was used comparing with the conventional way. Our needs were met for the best result in our working environment and the relevant conditions to our work were obtained, which were the coating temperature of 70 °C, the dye concentration of 10 mM and the coating time of 3 min. And this coating process was successively repeated several times to maximize the dye adsorption and to improve the cell efficiency. Therefore, the efficiency increased by 13% in the proper condition.

  10. Efficiency enhancement of non-selenized Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells employing scalable low-cost antireflective coating

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a non-selenized CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar device with textured zinc oxide (ZnO) antireflection coatings was studied. The ZnO nanostructure was fabricated by a low-temperature aqueous solution deposition method. With controlling the morphology of the solution-grown tapered ZnO nanorod coatings, the average reflectance of the CIGS solar device decreased from 8.6% to 2.1%, and the energy conversion efficiency increased from 9.1% to 11.1%. The performance improvement in the CuInGaSe2 thin-film solar cell was well explained due to the gradual increase of the refractive index between air and the top electrode of solar cell device by the insertion of the ZnO nanostructure. The results demonstrate a potential application of the ZnO nanostructure array for efficient solar device technology. PMID:25114632

  11. Efficiency enhancement of non-selenized Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells employing scalable low-cost antireflective coating.

    PubMed

    Jheng, Bao-Tang; Liu, Po-Tsun; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a non-selenized CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar device with textured zinc oxide (ZnO) antireflection coatings was studied. The ZnO nanostructure was fabricated by a low-temperature aqueous solution deposition method. With controlling the morphology of the solution-grown tapered ZnO nanorod coatings, the average reflectance of the CIGS solar device decreased from 8.6% to 2.1%, and the energy conversion efficiency increased from 9.1% to 11.1%. The performance improvement in the CuInGaSe2 thin-film solar cell was well explained due to the gradual increase of the refractive index between air and the top electrode of solar cell device by the insertion of the ZnO nanostructure. The results demonstrate a potential application of the ZnO nanostructure array for efficient solar device technology.

  12. Enhancement of the Performance of GaAs based Solar Cells by using Plasmonic, Anti-Reflection Coating and Hydrophobic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makableh, Yahia F.

    Investigation of renewable energy resources is gaining huge momentum in recent years due to the limited fossil fuels, and their detriment impact on the environment. Solar energy is promising to meet the increased energy demand. In order to achieve this goal, solar energy has to be harvested efficiently at low cost. Therefore, higher efficiency solar cells are the primary focus of research worldwide. Photovoltaics based on InAs/GaAs intermediate band solar cells and their device performance enhancements are investigated in this dissertation. The device enhancement is carried out by surface modification methods. The dissertation work is inspired by the need of improved efficiency solar cells to meet the new energy demands. In this project, InAs/GaAs intermediate band solar cell and their device performance enhancement are investigated. The device enhancement is carried out though implementing surface modification by using plasmonic effect, anti-reflection coatings and self-cleaning surfaces. Single junction and quantum dots solar cells performance has been unsatisfying due to several optical losses especially high surface reflection. Hence, in this project, potential application of plasmonic effect and significant device performance enhancement implementing anti-reflection coating are studied experimentally. Significantly, GaAs based photovoltaics solar cells efficiencies were improved by 40 - 50 %. In addition, self-cleaning surfaces with contact angle above 156° has been achieved. This self-cleaning surface can ensure proper functionality of the anti-reflection coatings.

  13. Solar-blind ultraviolet optical system design for missile warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2015-03-01

    Solar-blind region of Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum has very important application in military field. The spectrum range is from 240nm to 280nm, which can be applied to detect the tail flame from approaching missile. A solar-blind UV optical system is designed to detect the UV radiation, which is an energy system. iKon-L 936 from ANDOR company is selected as the UV detector, which has pixel size 13.5μm x 13.5 μm and active image area 27.6mm x 27.6 mm. CaF2 and F_silica are the chosen materials. The original structure is composed of 6 elements. To reduce the system structure and improve image quality, two aspheric surfaces and one diffractive optical element are adopted in this paper. After optimization and normalization, the designed system is composed of five elements with the maximum spot size 11.988μ m, which is less than the pixel size of the selected CCD detector. Application of aspheric surface and diffractive optical element makes each FOV have similar spot size, which shows the system almost meets the requirements of isoplanatic condition. If the focal length can be decreased, the FOV of the system can be enlarged further.

  14. Design solutions for the solar cell interconnect fatigue fracture problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical fatigue of solar cell interconnects is a major failure mechanism in photovoltaic arrays. A comprehensive approach to the reliability design of interconnects, together with extensive design data for the fatigue properties of copper interconnects, has been published. This paper extends the previous work, developing failure prediction (fatigue) data for additional interconnect material choices, including aluminum and a variety of copper-Invar and copper-steel claddings. An improved global fatigue function is used to model the probability-of-failure statistics of each material as a function of level and number of cycles of applied strain. Life-cycle economic analyses are used to evaluate the relative merits of each material choce. The copper-Invar clad composites demonstrate superior performance over pure copper. Aluminum results are disappointing.

  15. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  16. Athermalization design of collimating lens system for space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuaiyang; Yang, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (MFT) , which imaged directly towards the sun , received about 1000W heat load irradiating into the telescope system, resulting in changes of ambient temperature. According to the principles of athermal design, a collimating lens system was designed, allowing MFT to work properly between a wider temperature range . The collimating lens system with F number of 3.55, worked in the visible spectrum, had the effective focal length of 156.4mm and the full field of view of 2.8 arc min ×2.8 arc min. Through the passive optical athermal method , the optimized lens works at ambient temperature ranging from -40° to 60°.The radii of RMS are all smaller than the pixel pitch. The image quality approaches to diffraction limit and the MTF value is over 0.75, which satisfies the system specifications.

  17. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. G.

    1980-04-01

    The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. Considerations in the choice of a cost effective solar collector are also reviewed. A 70 C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90 C is required if hexane is used. The pumps have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  18. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  19. The ARA Mark 3 solar array design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanHassel, Rob H. A.

    1996-01-01

    The ARA (Advanced Rigid Array) Mark3 solar array of Fokker Space BV is currently in its final stages of qualification (wing tests to be completed in March, 1996; unit/part tests in April, 1996). With regard to its predecessor, the ARA Mark2, the design has not only been improved in terms of mechanical and electrical performance, but also with regard to production cost and throughput time. This 'state of the art' array is designed to fit the needs of a wide variety of geostationary telecommunications satellites and is qualified for launch on the complete range of medium/large size commercial launchers (Ariane IV & V, Atlas, Delta, Proton, Long March, H2). The first mission to fly the new ARA Mk3 array is Hot Bird 2 (customer: Eutelsat, prime contractor: Matra Marconi Space; launch: mid-1996). In this configuration, its end of life (EOL) power-to-mass ratio is 42 W/kg, with an operational life of more than 12 years. The main mechanisms on a solar array are typically found in the deployment system and in the hold down and release system. During the design and development phase of these mechanisms, extensive engineering and qualification tests have been performed. This paper presents the key design features of these mechanisms and the improvements that were made with regard to their predecessors. It also describes the qualification philosophy on unit/part and wing level. Finally, some of the development items that turned out to be critical, as well as the lessons learned from them, are discussed.

  20. The ARA Mark 3 solar array design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhassel, R.H.A.

    1996-05-01

    The ARA (Advanced Rigid Array) Mark 3 solar array of Fokker Space BV is currently in its final stages of qualification (wing tests to be completed in March, 1996; unit/part tests in April, 1996). With regard to its predecessor, the ARA Mark 2, the design has not only been improved in terms of mechanical and electrical performance, but also with regard to production cost and throughput time. This `state of the art` array is designed to fit the needs of a wide variety of geostationary telecommunications satellites and is qualified for launch on the complete range of medium/large size commercial launchers (Ariane IV & V, Atlas, Delta, Proton, Long March, H2). The first mission to fly the new ARA Mk3 array is Hot Bird 2 (customer: Eutelsat, prime contractor: Matra Marconi Space; launch: mid-1996). In this configuration, its end of life (EOL) power-to-mass ratio is 42 W/kg, with an operational life of more than 12 years. The main mechanisms on a solar array are typically found in the deployment system and in the hold down and release system. During the design and development phase of these mechanisms, extensive engineering and qualification tests have been performed. This paper presents the key design features of these mechanisms and the improvements that were made with regard to their predecessors. It also describes the qualification philosophy on unit/part and wing level. Finally, some of the development items that turned out to be critical, as well as the lessons learned from them, are discussed.

  1. Corrosion Protection Properties of PPy-ND Composite Coating: Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis and Design of Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Bagheri, R.; Rezaei-Moghadam, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the nanocomposite coatings comprising the polypyrrole-nanodiamond, PPy-ND, on St-12 steel electrodes were electro-synthesized using in situ polymerization process under ultrasonic irradiation. The corrosion protection performance and morphology characterization of prepared coatings were investigated by electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscopy, SEM, respectively. Also, the experimental design was employed to determine the best values considering the effective parameters such as the concentration of nanoparticles, the applied current density and synthesis time to achieve the most protective films. A response surface methodology, RSM, involving a central composite design, CCD, was applied to the modeling and optimization of the PPy-ND nanocomposite deposition. Pareto graphic analysis of the parameters indicated that the applied current density and some of the interactions were effective on the response. The electrochemical results proved that the embedment of diamond nanoparticle, DNP, improves the corrosion resistance of PPy coatings significantly. Therefore, desirable correlation exists between predicted data and experimental results.

  2. Application of Genetic Algorithm to the Design Optimization of Complex Energy Saving Glass Coating Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, F. M.; Azmin, F. A.; Shibghatullah, A. S.; Suaidi, M. K.; Ahmad, B. H.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Salleh, S. N.; Shukor, M. Md

    2014-04-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  3. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  4. Analysis of laser damage tests on coatings designed for broad bandwidth high reflection of femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bellum, John Curtis; Winstone, Trevor; Lamaignere, Laurent; Sozet, Martin; Kimmel, Mark W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Field, Ella Suzanne; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-08-25

    We designed an optical coating based on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45-deg angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses of 900-nm center wavelength, and produced the coatings in Sandia’s large optics coater by reactive, ion-assisted e-beam evaporation. This paper reports on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) tests of these coatings. The broad HR bands of BBHR coatings pose challenges to LIDT tests. An ideal test would be in a vacuum environment appropriate to a high energy, fs-pulse, petawatt-class laser, with pulses identical to its fs pulses. Short of this would be tests over portions of the HR band using nanosecond or sub-picosecond pulses produced by tunable lasers. Such tests could, e.g., sample 10-nm-wide wavelength intervals with center wavelengths tunable over the broad HR band. Alternatively, the coating’s HR band could be adjusted by means of wavelength shifts due to changing the AOI of the LIDT tests or due to the coating absorbing moisture under ambient conditions. In conclusion, we had LIDT tests performed on the BBHR coatings at selected AOIs to gain insight into their laser damage properties and analyze how the results of the different LIDT tests compare.

  5. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Basak Acan; Bushman, Jared; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ezra, Mindy; Pastore, Christopher M; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1) electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2) coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery. PMID:26977288

  6. Analysis of laser damage tests on coatings designed for broad bandwidth high reflection of femtosecond pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Bellum, John Curtis; Winstone, Trevor; Lamaignere, Laurent; ...

    2016-08-25

    We designed an optical coating based on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45-deg angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses of 900-nm center wavelength, and produced the coatings in Sandia’s large optics coater by reactive, ion-assisted e-beam evaporation. This paper reports on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) tests of these coatings. The broad HR bands of BBHR coatings pose challenges to LIDT tests. An ideal test would be in a vacuum environment appropriate to a high energy, fs-pulse, petawatt-class laser, with pulses identical to its fs pulses. Short of this would bemore » tests over portions of the HR band using nanosecond or sub-picosecond pulses produced by tunable lasers. Such tests could, e.g., sample 10-nm-wide wavelength intervals with center wavelengths tunable over the broad HR band. Alternatively, the coating’s HR band could be adjusted by means of wavelength shifts due to changing the AOI of the LIDT tests or due to the coating absorbing moisture under ambient conditions. In conclusion, we had LIDT tests performed on the BBHR coatings at selected AOIs to gain insight into their laser damage properties and analyze how the results of the different LIDT tests compare.« less

  7. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Durability of Recently Developed Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment provided a means to expose materials and devices to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station. By returning the specimens to Earth after flight, the specimens could be evaluated by comparison with pre-flight measurements. One area of continuing interest is thermal control paints and coatings that are applied to exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Though traditional radiator coatings have been available for decades, recent work has focused on new coatings that offer custom deposition or custom optical properties. The custom deposition of interest is plasma spraying and one type of coating recently developed as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort was designed to be plasma sprayed onto radiator surfaces. The custom optical properties of interest are opposite to those of a typical radiator coating, having a combination of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance for solar absorber applications, and achieved in practice via a cermet coating. Selected specimens of the plasma sprayed coatings and the solar absorber coating were flown on Materials International Space Station Experiment 7, and were recently returned to Earth for post-flight analyses. For the plasma sprayed coatings in the ram direction, one specimen increased in solar absorptance and one specimen decreased in solar absorptance, while the plasma sprayed coatings in the wake direction changed very little in solar absorptance. For the cermet coating deployed in both the ram and wake directions, the solar absorptance increased. Interestingly, all coatings showed little change in infrared emittance.

  8. Nearly zero reflectance of nano-pyramids and dual-antireflection coating structure for monocrystalline silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyo Sik; Jung, Hyun-Chul

    2011-04-01

    The effect of two-step surface treatment on monocrystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. We changed the nanostructure on pyramidal surfaces by wet nano-texturing so that less light is reflected. The two-step nano-texturing process reduces the average reflectance to about 4% in the 300-1100 nm wavelength region. The use of an antireflection coating resulted in an effective reflectance of 1%. We found that the reflectance obtained by wet nano-texturing was lower than that obtained by conventional alkaline texturing. Thus, we can expect a further increase in the efficiency of silicon solar cells with two-step nano-texturing by a wet chemical process.

  9. Application of quality by design (QbD) approach to ultrasonic atomization spray coating of drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Martin; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hu, Xiaoli; Ash-Shakoor, Ariel; Avery, Reginald; Belyaeva, Anastasiya; Cruz, Celia; Hughes, Minerva; Leadbetter, Joanne; Merkle, Conrad; Moot, Taylor; Parvinian, Sepideh; Patwardhan, Dinesh; Saylor, David; Tang, Nancy; Zhang, Tina

    2015-08-01

    The drug coating process for coated drug-eluting stents (DES) has been identified as a key source of inter- and intra-batch variability in drug elution rates. Quality-by-design (QbD) principles were applied to gain an understanding of the ultrasonic spray coating process of DES. Statistically based design of experiments (DOE) were used to understand the relationship between ultrasonic atomization spray coating parameters and dependent variables such as coating mass ratio, roughness, drug solid state composite microstructure, and elution kinetics. Defect-free DES coatings composed of 70% 85:15 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and 30% everolimus were fabricated with a constant coating mass. The drug elution profile was characterized by a mathematical model describing biphasic release kinetics. Model coefficients were analyzed as a DOE response. Changes in ultrasonic coating processing conditions resulted in substantial changes in roughness and elution kinetics. Based on the outcome from the DOE study, a design space was defined in terms of the critical coating process parameters resulting in optimum coating roughness and drug elution. This QbD methodology can be useful to enhance the quality of coated DES.

  10. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  11. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  12. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-07-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon 'black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in 'black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  14. Charting the collision between a seed coat fragment and newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was run to determine how a seed coat fragment (SCF) reacts after colliding with newly-designed grid bars mounted on a saw-type lint cleaner simulator. A high-speed video camera recorded the action that took place. Ten experimental grid bars were tested. The included angle of the sha...

  15. Optimization of contaminated oxide inversion layer solar cell. [considering silicon oxide coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminated oxide cells have been fabricated with efficiencies of 8.6% with values of I sub sc = 120 ma, V sub oc = .54 volts, and curve factor of .73. Attempts to optimize the fabrication step to yield a higher output have not been successful. The fundamental limitation is the inadequate antireflection coating afforded by the silicon dioxide coating used to hold the contaminating ions. Coatings of SiO, therefore, were used to obtain a good antireflection coating, but the thinness of the coatings prevented a large concentration of the contaminating ions, and the cells was weak. Data of the best cell were .52 volts V sub oc, 110 ma I sub sc, .66 CFF and 6.7% efficiency.

  16. Progress in Large Period Multilayer Coatings for High Harmonic and Solar Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Aquila, Andrew; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric

    2008-01-07

    Multilayer coatings for normal incidence optics designed for the long wavelength region (25 nm < {lambda} < 50 nm) are particularly challenging due to the few number of layers that can be utilized in the reflection. Recently, Mg/SiC multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% for wavelengths near the He-II line at 30.4 nm. Motivated by this success we have investigated the use of a tri-band multilayer to increase the bandwidth while maintaining the reflectivity. The multilayers were deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering. Using Mg/SiC bilayers a reflectivity of 45% was achieved at 27 to 32 nm at an angle of 5 deg from normal. The Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer systems have also been investigated. It obtained a near normal incidence reflectivity of 35% while increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 2. These results are very encouraging for the possibility of more widespread applications of normal incidence optics in high harmonic applications.

  17. Improvement of tablet coating uniformity using a quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Atul; Boukouvala, Fani; Keyvan, Golshid; Hsia, Richard; Saranteas, Kostas; Brone, Dean; Misra, Tushar; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2012-03-01

    A combination of analytical and statistical methods is used to improve a tablet coating process guided by quality by design (QbD) principles. A solid dosage form product was found to intermittently exhibit bad taste. A suspected cause was the variability in coating thickness which could lead to the subject tasting the active ingredient in some tablets. A number of samples were analyzed using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based analytical method, and it was found that the main variability component was the tablet-to-tablet variability within a lot. Hence, it was inferred that the coating process (performed in a perforated rotating pan) required optimization. A set of designed experiments along with response surface modeling and kriging method were used to arrive at an optimal set of operating conditions. Effects of the amount of coating imparted, spray rate, pan rotation speed, and spray temperature were characterized. The results were quantified in terms of the relative standard deviation of tablet-averaged LIBS score and a coating variability index which was the ratio of the standard deviation of the tablet-averaged LIBS score and the weight gain of the tablets. The data-driven models developed based on the designed experiments predicted that the minimum value of this index would be obtained for a 6% weight gain for a pan operating at the highest speed at the maximum fill level while using the lowest spraying rate and temperature from the chosen parametric space. This systematic application of the QbD-based method resulted in an enhanced process understanding and reducing the coating variability by more than half.

  18. Design concepts of solar thermoelectric generators in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raag, V.; Hankins, L.; Swerdling, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several thermoelectric technologies have been examined as to their suitability for use in a solar thermoelectric generator (STG) as a nonpropulsive power source for space applications. The results show that of all the presently available thermoelectric technologies, i.e., lead telluride, bismuth telluride, selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys, the latter type provides the optimum STG. Detailed results are presented on the performance and configurational characteristics of various silicon-germanium alloy STGs, including the performance of such STGs as a function of time in a Mercury orbit and the orbit of Mercury around the sun. It is shown that an STG design based on the use of silicon germanium alloy thermoelectric material, using multiple high voltage thermopiles with individual solar concentrators, presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass. Additional concepts studied and discussed are the flat plate individual thermopile type and single concentrator compact thermopile type. The STG possesses an attractive potential for this application and represents a useful addition to the family of power sources for consideration in various space applications.

  19. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-11-18

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  20. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~103; while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors. PMID:25403698

  1. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  2. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  3. Design considerations for solar furnace focal zone apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.H. Jr.; Knasel, T.M.; McDonnell, M.; Gordon, B.; Woods, S.; Malinowski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc. has used the principal solar furnaces in conjunction with its study of the effect of high thermal fluxes and fluences on soil surfaces for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Apparatus to perform these tests has evolved from tests on the furnaces at the White Sands Missile Range, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta; Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Font Romeu, France; and Kirtland AFB, NM over the past 6 years. The apparatus is still evolving as it is adapted to additional furnaces and to obtain a greater variety of data. The evolution of the apparatus is traced to illustrate the interaction of experiment objectives; furnace capabilities, configuration, and support; apparatus design; data collection; and response to lessons learned.

  4. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the ’standard’ UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  5. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  6. Improved power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells using a subwavelength-structured antireflective coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chun-Chi; Tsao, Kuan-Yi; Wu, Chih-Chung; Yang, Hongta; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale, subwavelength-structured nanodome arrays were successfully fabricated using simple, scalable bottom-up colloidal (nanosphere) lithography on a glass substrate as an efficient antireflective photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A self-assembled monolayer of close-packed colloidal crystals (silica) was used as a structural template to pattern the two-dimensional subwavelength-structured nanodome arrays, which function as an efficient antireflective coating due to the graded refractive index across the interface between the air and specific nanodome array structure. The light harvesting for a DSSC with a subwavelength-structured antireflective coating was enhanced due to the improved broadband antireflectivity. Adjusting the nanodome size yielded a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 15.88 mA/cm2 with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.82%, which were both better than the reference cell without a subwavelength-structured antireflective coating (JSC = 15.26 mA/cm2 and PCE = 8.45%).

  7. Attitude Control System Design for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Kuo-Chia, Liu; Mason, Paul A. C.; Vess, Melissa F.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, part of the Living With a Star program, will place a geosynchronous satellite in orbit to observe the Sun and relay data to a dedicated ground station at all times. SDO remains Sun- pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes 16 coarse Sun sensors, a digital Sun sensor, 3 two-axis inertial reference units, 2 star trackers, and 4 guide telescopes. Attitude actuation is performed using 4 reaction wheels and 8 thrusters, and a single main engine nominally provides velocity-change thrust. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes-3 wheel-based modes and 2 thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. The paper details the mode designs and their uses.

  8. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    In recent years, nanocoatings with exceptionally improved and new performance properties have found numerous applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, chemical, electronics, steel, construction, and many other industries. Especially the formulations providing multiple functionalities to cured paint films are believed to dominate the coatings market in the near future. It has shifted the focus of research towards building sustainable coating recipes which can deliver multiple functionalities through applied films. The challenge to this exciting area of research arrives from the insufficient knowledge about structure-property correlations of nanocoating materials and their design complexity. Experimental efforts have been successful in developing certain types of nanopaints exhibiting improved properties. However, multifunctional nanopaint design optimality is extremely difficult to address if not impossible solely through experiments. In addition to this, the environmental implications and societal risks associated with this growing field of nanotechnology raise several questions related to its sustainable development. This research focuses on the study of a multiscale sustainable nanocoating design which can have the application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement point of view, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications. The nanocoating design is studied using computational simulations of nano- to macro- scale models and sustainability assessment study over the life-cycle. Computational simulations aim at integrating top-down, goals/means, inductive systems engineering and bottom-up, cause and effect, deductive systems engineering approaches for material development. The in-silico paint resin system is a water-dispersible acrylic polymer with hydrophilic nanoparticles incorporated into it. The nano-scale atomistic and micro-scale coarse-grained (CG) level

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotube coated polyester fabric as textile based flexible counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-05-21

    Textile wearable electronics offers the combined advantages of both electronics and textile characteristics. The essential properties of these flexible electronics such as lightweight, stretchable, and wearable power sources are in strong demand. Here, we have developed a facile route to fabricate multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coated polyester fabric as a flexible counter electrode (CE) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A variety of MWCNT and enzymes with different structures were used to generate individual enzyme-dispersed MWCNT (E-MWCNT) suspensions by non-covalent functionalization. A highly concentrated colloidal suspension of E-MWCNT was deposited on polyester fabric via a simple tape casting method using an air drying technique. In view of the E-MWCNT coating, the surface structure is represented by topologically randomly assembled tubular graphene units. This surface morphology has a high density of colloidal edge states and oxygen-containing surface groups which execute multiple catalytic sites for iodide reduction. A highly conductive E-MWCNT coated fabric electrode with a surface resistance of 15 Ω sq(-1) demonstrated 5.69% power conversion efficiency (PCE) when used as a flexible CE for DSSCs. High photo voltaic performance of our suggested system of E-MWCNT fabric-based DSSCs is associated with high sheet conductivity, low charge transfer resistance (RCT), and excellent electro catalytic activity (ECA). Such a conductive fabric demonstrated stable conductivity against bending cycles and strong mechanical adhesion of E-MWCNT on polyester fabric. Moreover, the polyester fabric is hydrophobic and, therefore, has good sealing capacity and retains the polymer gel electrolyte without seepage. This facile E-MWCNT fabric CE configuration provides a concrete fundamental background towards the development of textile-integrated solar cells.

  10. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  11. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-11-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  12. Design and test of two-step solar oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Taylor, R. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Ruiz, R.

    1981-09-01

    A design of a two step solar retort, the logic for the design, and the results from a preliminary test of the design at the White Sands Solar Furnace, New Mexico are presented. Solar retorting of oil shale is a technically feasible process where focused solar energy can displace fossil energy in the production of liquid fuels. The predicted result is a 10 to 40% improvement in the exportable fuel (oil + gas) production per ton of raw shale. Greater improvements are achieved with the lower grade shales where with nonsolar processes a larger fraction of the fuel content has to be used in the processing.

  13. Design of a 7kW power transfer solar array drive mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    With the availability of the Shuttle and the European launcher, Ariane, there will be a continuing trend towards large payload satellite missions requiring high-power, high-inertia, flexible solar arrays. The need arises for a solar array drive with a large power transfer capability which can rotate these solar arrays without disturbing the satellite body pointing. The modular design of such a Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) which is capable of transferring 7kW of power or more is described. Total design flexibility has been achieved, enabling different spacecraft power requirements to be accommodated within the SADM design.

  14. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  15. Excellent Passivation and Low Reflectivity Al2O3/TiO2 Bilayer Coatings for n-Wafer Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B. G.; Skarp, J.; Malinen, V.; Li, S.; Choi, S.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    A bilayer coating of Al2O3 and TiO2 is used to simultaneously achieve excellent passivation and low reflectivity on p-type silicon. This coating is targeted for achieving high efficiency n-wafer Si solar cells, where both passivation and anti-reflection (AR) are needed at the front-side p-type emitter. It could also be valuable for front-side passivation and AR of rear-emitter and interdigitated back contact p-wafer cells. We achieve high minority carrier lifetimes {approx}1 ms, as well as a nearly 2% decrease in absolute reflectivity, as compared to a standard silicon nitride AR coating.

  16. Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating.

    PubMed

    Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing; Zheng, Huai; Qin, Zong; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bulong; Liu, Sheng

    2012-06-18

    A conformal phosphor coating can realize a phosphor layer with uniform thickness, which could enhance the angular color uniformity (ACU) of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging. In this study, a novel freeform lens was designed for simultaneous realization of LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating. The detailed algorithm of the design method, which involves an extended light source and double refractions, was presented. The packaging configuration of the LED modules and the modeling of the light-conversion process were also presented. Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations were conducted to validate the design method by comparisons with a conventional freeform lens. It is demonstrated that for the LED module with the present freeform lens, the illumination uniformity and ACU was 0.89 and 0.9283, respectively. The present freeform lens can realize equivalent illumination uniformity, but the angular color uniformity can be enhanced by 282.3% when compared with the conventional freeform lens.

  17. Design, construction, and implementation of a ground-based solar spectrograph for the National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, E.; Moen, D.; Peck, C.; Zimny, C.; Repasky, K.

    2012-10-01

    A solar spectrograph is an instrument that takes incoming sunlight over a specified portion of the sun's emitted electromagnetic spectrum and separates the light into its constituent frequency components, or spectrum. The components are then sent to a detector that measures intensity, which reveals the location of spectral properties of the light such as absorption and emission lines. The National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition (NSSSC) is a Montana Space Grant Consortium sponsored competition where undergraduate student teams from across the country design, build, and implement a ground-based solar spectrograph to perform any solar related task and demonstrate their spectrographs for the competition in May 2012 in Bozeman, MT. Each team is given a 2,000-dollar budget to build their spectrograph, which cannot be exceeded, and all spectrographs must follow regulations in the NSSSC guidelines. This team designed a spectrograph to be capable of imaging the sun across the visible spectrum using spatial filters and a standard photo detector rather than a traditional charge-coupled device due to budget limitations. The spectrograph analyzes the spectrum of small sections of the sun to determine how the spectrum varies across solar features such as the corona, active regions, and quiet regions. In addition to solar imaging, the spectrograph will also analyze atmospheric absorption of the solar spectrum by comparing the measured spectrum to the theoretical spectrum calculated from the blackbody equation.

  18. Investigation of simple daily solar radiation models suitable for use in the design of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, S.

    1980-08-01

    Solar heating system simulations typically require hourly weather data and the use of a main-line computer. A simpler alternative is to use daily steps with a model for daily solar collection. This report investigates the accuracy of sinusoidal radiation models for use in solar heating simulation. Accuracy of daily radiation models is assessed in two ways: by a theoretical comparison with hourly weather data, and by analysis of results of daily simulation. Results indicate that a daily radiation model can be designed with errors of less than 2%.

  19. Design and testing of a uniformly solar energy TIR-R concentration lenses for HCPV systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Chang, S J; Yeh, C Y; Teng, P C

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lens module were designed for uniformity using the energy configuration method to eliminate hot spots on the surface of solar cell and increase conversion efficiency. The design of most current solar concentrators emphasizes the high-power concentration of solar energy, however neglects the conversion inefficiency resulting from hot spots generated by uneven distributions of solar energy concentrated on solar cells. The energy configuration method proposed in this study employs the concept of ray tracing to uniformly distribute solar energy to solar cells through a U-TIR-R-C lens module. The U-TIR-R-C lens module adopted in this study possessed a 76-mm diameter, a 41-mm thickness, concentration ratio of 1134 Suns, 82.6% optical efficiency, and 94.7% uniformity. The experiments demonstrated that the U-TIR-R-C lens module reduced the core temperature of the solar cell from 108 °C to 69 °C and the overall temperature difference from 45 °C to 10 °C, and effectively relative increased the conversion efficiency by approximately 3.8%. Therefore, the U-TIR-R-C lens module designed can effectively concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small solar cell, and the concentrated solar energy can be evenly distributed in the solar cell to achieve uniform irradiance and effectively eliminate hot spots.

  20. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  1. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  2. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  3. The Light-Induced Field-Effect Solar Cell Concept - Perovskite Nanoparticle Coating Introduces Polarization Enhancing Silicon Cell Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yusheng; Xia, Zhouhui; Liu, Lijia; Xu, Weidong; Yuan, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yupeng; Sirringhaus, Henning; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Lee, Shui-Tong; Bao, Qiaoliang; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-03-03

    Solar cell generates electrical energy from light one via pulling excited carrier away under built-in asymmetry. Doped semiconductor with antireflection layer is general strategy to achieve this including crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell. However, loss of extra energy beyond band gap and light reflection in particular wavelength range is known to hinder the efficiency of c-Si cell. Here, it is found that part of short wavelength sunlight can be converted into polarization electrical field, which strengthens asymmetry in organic-c-Si heterojunction solar cell through molecule alignment process. The light harvested by organometal trihalide perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) induces molecular alignment on a conducting polymer, which generates positive electrical surface field. Furthermore, a "field-effect solar cell" is successfully developed and implemented by combining perovskite NPs with organic/c-Si heterojunction associating with light-induced molecule alignment, which achieves an efficiency of 14.3%. In comparison, the device with the analogous structure without perovskite NPs only exhibits an efficiency of 12.7%. This finding provides a novel concept to design solar cell by sacrificing part of sunlight to provide "extra" asymmetrical field continuously as to drive photogenerated carrier toward respective contacts under direct sunlight. Moreover, it also points out a method to combine promising perovskite material with c-Si solar cell.

  4. Design and self-assembly of simple coat proteins for artificial viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Armando; Kraft, Daniela J.; Janssen, Anne F. J.; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Favretto, Marco E.; Brock, Roland; de Wolf, Frits A.; Werten, Marc W. T.; van der Schoot, Paul; Stuart, Martien Cohen; de Vries, Renko

    2014-09-01

    Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles for the delivery of genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as targeted delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. In a natural setting, survival of viruses requires that a significant fraction of the replicated genomes be completely protected by coat proteins. Complete protection of the genome is ensured by a highly cooperative supramolecular process between the coat proteins and the nucleic acids, which is based on reversible, weak and allosteric interactions only. However, incorporating this type of supramolecular cooperativity into artificial viruses remains challenging. Here, we report a rational design for a self-assembling minimal viral coat protein based on simple polypeptide domains. Our coat protein features precise control over the cooperativity of its self-assembly with single DNA molecules to finally form rod-shaped virus-like particles. We confirm the validity of our design principles by showing that the kinetics of self-assembly of our virus-like particles follows a previous model developed for tobacco mosaic virus. We show that our virus-like particles protect DNA against enzymatic degradation and transfect cells with considerable efficiency, making them promising delivery vehicles.

  5. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.

    2016-12-01

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests.

  6. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ilker S; Krishnan, K Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H; Farrell, Thomas E; Crouch, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-07

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests.

  7. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests. PMID:27924913

  8. Design and self-assembly of simple coat proteins for artificial viruses.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Garcia, Armando; Kraft, Daniela J; Janssen, Anne F J; Bomans, Paul H H; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M E; Favretto, Marco E; Brock, Roland; de Wolf, Frits A; Werten, Marc W T; van der Schoot, Paul; Stuart, Martien Cohen; de Vries, Renko

    2014-09-01

    Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles for the delivery of genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as targeted delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. In a natural setting, survival of viruses requires that a significant fraction of the replicated genomes be completely protected by coat proteins. Complete protection of the genome is ensured by a highly cooperative supramolecular process between the coat proteins and the nucleic acids, which is based on reversible, weak and allosteric interactions only. However, incorporating this type of supramolecular cooperativity into artificial viruses remains challenging. Here, we report a rational design for a self-assembling minimal viral coat protein based on simple polypeptide domains. Our coat protein features precise control over the cooperativity of its self-assembly with single DNA molecules to finally form rod-shaped virus-like particles. We confirm the validity of our design principles by showing that the kinetics of self-assembly of our virus-like particles follows a previous model developed for tobacco mosaic virus. We show that our virus-like particles protect DNA against enzymatic degradation and transfect cells with considerable efficiency, making them promising delivery vehicles.

  9. Optimal structure of light trapping in thin-film solar cells: dielectric nanoparticles or multilayer antireflection coatings?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2014-08-10

    Recent research has found an alternative way to enhance light trapping of thin-film solar cells by using dielectric nanoparticles deposited on the cell surface. To improve the performance of light trapping, a systematic study on the influence of dielectric nanoparticles on enhancement efficiency is performed in this paper. We prove that the optimal dielectric nanoparticles are substantially equivalent to the multilayer antireflection coatings (ARCs) with a "low-high-low" dielectric constant profile. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the use of a simple two-layer SiO2/SiC ARC can reach 34.15% enhancement, which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC, and TiO2 nanoparticles. That means the optimal multilayer ARCs structure is obviously superior to the optimal dielectric nanoparticles structure, and the deposition of a simple two-layer SiO2/SiC structure on top of a thin-film silicon solar cell can significantly enhance photoelectron generation and hence, result in superior performance of thin-film solar cells.

  10. Transmittance of selected nanostructurized solar glasses designated via relative change in electrical parameters of silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pociask-Bialy, Malgorzata; Kalwas, Kornelia

    2016-12-01

    Photovoltaics is one of the most promising technologies for electricity production. In the future, photovoltaics could be an effective and safe source of energy. In this work were present the results of the analysis of a special solar glasses transmissivity coefficient used as protective cover of photovoltaic cell. Antireflective glass due to its unique physical properties eliminate reflections and significantly increasing light transmission. The study of the relative change in the electrical parameters of photovoltaic cells ,with and without coats, as open-circuit current ISC and the maximum power point MPP are presented in this paper. Research were undertaken with using the solar simulator QuickSun130CA, Class AAA+, under Standard Test Conditions.

  11. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  12. Design and evaluation of a computer controlled solar collector simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, J. F.; Wood, B. D.

    1980-11-01

    A computer-controlled system has been developed to simulate the thermal processes of a flat-plate solar collector. The simulator is based on four water heaters of capacities of 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 5.0 kW providing a maximum design output of 14.0 kW which are controlled by a Nova 3 minicomputer, which also monitors temperatures in the fluid stream. Measurements have been obtained of the steady-state operating values and time constants of the individual heaters at different flow rates in order to utilize effectively their thermal outputs. Software was designed to control the heater system so the total thermal output closely approximates that of an actual heater array, utilizing steady-state or dynamic control modes. Simulation of the heat output of a previously tested collector has resulted in simulated values differing from actual output by a maximum of 3% under identical operating conditions, thus indicating that the simulator represents a viable alternative to the testing of a large field of collectors.

  13. Design data package and operating procedures for MSFC solar simulator test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Design and operational data for the solar simulator test facility are reviewed. The primary goal of the facility is to evaluate the performance capacibility and worst case failure modes of collectors, which utilize either air or liquid transport media. The facility simulates environmental parameters such as solar radiation intensity, solar spectrum, collimation, uniformity, and solar attitude. The facility also simulates wind conditions of velocity and direction, solar system conditions imposed on the collector, collector fluid inlet temperature, and geometric factors of collector tilt and azimuth angles. Testing the simulator provides collector efficiency data, collector time constant, incident angle modifier data, and stagnation temperature values.

  14. San Marco D/L solar array system design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diruscio, M.; Agneni, A.; Day, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The design and performance of the solar array system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft is described in detail. The solar array system design is shown to be suitable for spacecraft which have elastically sensitized outer surfaces to measure aerodynamic forces. However, the performance of this solar array system is shown to be at least 30 percent less efficient than conventional spacecraft solar array designs. An on-board experiment to compare the in-flight performances of Si and GaAs solar cell panels is also described. Preflight performance data show that at beginning-of-life, air mass zero solar illumination, 28 C and peak power output the Si panels are at last 20 percent less efficient than the GaAs panels.

  15. EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Windt, D L; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L; Spiller, E; Dollar, F J; Aquila, A L; Gullikson, E M; Kjonrattanawanich, B; Seely, J F; Golub, L

    2006-02-09

    Multilayer coatings for the 7 EUV channels of the AIA have been developed and completed successfully on all AIA flight mirrors. Mo/Si coatings (131, 171, 193.5, 211 {angstrom}) were deposited at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Mg/SiC (304, 335 {angstrom}) and Mo/Y (94 {angstrom}) coatings were deposited at Columbia University. EUV reflectance of the 131/335 {angstrom}, 171 {angstrom}, 193.5/211 {angstrom} primary and secondary flight mirrors and the 94/304 {angstrom} secondary flight mirror was measured at beamline 6.3.2. of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL. EUV reflectance of the 94/304 {angstrom} primary and secondary flight mirrors was measured at beamline X24C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab. Preliminary EUV reflectance measurements of the 94, 304 and 335 {angstrom} coatings were performed with a laser plasma source reflectometer located at Columbia University. Prior to multilayer coating, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterization and cleaning of all flight substrates was performed at LLNL.

  16. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D.; Shreiber, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over-designed

  17. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2016-03-04

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the "safety factor", as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over-designed

  18. Experimental design applied to spin coating of 2D colloidal crystal masks: a relevant method?

    PubMed

    Colson, Pierre; Cloots, Rudi; Henrist, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Monolayers of colloidal spheres are used as masks in nanosphere lithography (NSL) for the selective deposition of nanostructured layers. Several methods exist for the formation of self-organized particle monolayers, among which spin coating appears to be very promising. However, a spin coating process is defined by several parameters like several ramps, rotation speeds, and durations. All parameters influence the spreading and drying of the droplet containing the particles. Moreover, scientists are confronted with the formation of numerous defects in spin coated layers, limiting well-ordered areas to a few micrometers squared. So far, empiricism has mainly ruled the world of nanoparticle self-organization by spin coating, and much of the literature is experimentally based. Therefore, the development of experimental protocols to control the ordering of particles is a major goal for further progress in NSL. We applied experimental design to spin coating, to evaluate the efficiency of this method to extract and model the relationships between the experimental parameters and the degree of ordering in the particles monolayers. A set of experiments was generated by the MODDE software and applied to the spin coating of latex suspension (diameter 490 nm). We calculated the ordering by a homemade image analysis tool. The results of partial least squares (PLS) modeling show that the proposed mathematical model only fits data from strictly monolayers but is not predictive for new sets of parameters. We submitted the data to principal component analysis (PCA) that was able to explain 91% of the results when based on strictly monolayered samples. PCA shows that the ordering was positively correlated to the ramp time and negatively correlated to the first rotation speed. We obtain large defect-free domains with the best set of parameters tested in this study. This protocol leads to areas of 200 μm(2), which has never been reported so far.

  19. Design, fabrication, test qualification and price analysis of a third generation solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, test, and qualification of a third generation intermediate load solar cell module are presented. A technical discussion of the detailed module design, preliminary design review, design modifications, and environmental testing are included. A standardized pricing system is utilized to establish the cost competitiveness of this module design.

  20. Electrostatic bonding of thin (approximately 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (approximately 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egelkrout, D. W.; Horne, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding (ESB) of thin (3 mil) Corning 7070 cover glasses to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells is investigated. An experimental program was conducted to establish the effects of variations in pressure, voltage, temperature, time, Ta2O5 thickness, and various prebond glass treatments. Flat wafers without contact grids were used to study the basic effects for bonding to semiconductor surfaces typical of solar cells. Solar cells with three different grid patterns were used to determine additional requirements caused by the raised metallic contacts.

  1. Uniformity Masks Design Method Based on the Shadow Matrix for Coating Materials with Different Condensation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An intuitionistic method is proposed to design shadow masks to achieve thickness profile control for evaporation coating processes. The proposed method is based on the concept of the shadow matrix, which is a matrix that contains coefficients that build quantitive relations between shape parameters of masks and shadow quantities of substrate directly. By using the shadow matrix, shape parameters of shadow masks could be derived simply by solving a matrix equation. Verification experiments were performed on a special case where coating materials have different condensation characteristics. By using the designed mask pair with complementary shapes, thickness uniformities of better than 98% are demonstrated for MgF2 (m = 1) and LaF3 (m = 0.5) simultaneously on a 280 mm diameter spherical substrate with the radius curvature of 200 mm. PMID:24227996

  2. Electromagnetic radiation energy arrangement. [coatings for solar energy absorption and infrared reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipkis, R. R.; Vehrencamp, J. E. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A solar energy collector and infrared energy reflector is described which comprises a vacuum deposited layer of aluminum of approximately 200 to 400 Angstroms thick on one side of a substrate. An adherent layer of titanium with a thickness of between 800 and 1000 Angstroms is vacuum deposited on the aluminum substrate and is substantially opaque to solar energy and substantially transparent to infrared energy.

  3. The SAMEX Vector Magnetograph: A Design Study for a Space-Based Solar Vector Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gary, G. A.; West, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-phase A study performed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) to develop a design concept for a space-based solar vector magnetograph and hydrogen-alpha telescope. These are two of the core instruments for a proposed Air Force mission, the Solar Activities Measurement Experiments (SAMEX). This mission is designed to study the processes which give rise to activity in the solar atmosphere and to develop techniques for predicting solar activity and its effects on the terrestrial environment.

  4. Design of self-cleaning TiO2 coating on clay roofing tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnadjev, Milica; Ranogajec, Jonjaua; Petrovic, Snezana; Markov, Sinisa; Ducman, Vilma; Marinkovic-Neducin, Radmila

    2010-07-01

    The phenomenon of heterogeneous photocatalysis takes place in the degradation process of many organic contaminants on solid surfaces. Photocatalysis is based on the excitation of the semiconductor by irradiation with supraband gap photons and the migration of electron-hole pairs to the surface of the photocatalysts, leading to the reaction of the holes with adsorbed H2O and OH- to form hydroxyl radicals. Due to the stability and photosensitivity of TiO2 semiconductors, this system is well studied and is of great interest from an ecological and industrial point of view for use in the field of building materials. Clay roofing tiles, due to their long-term exploitation, are subject to physical, chemical and biological degradation that leads to deterioration. Ceramic systems have a high percentage of total porosity and considering their non-tolerance of organic coating, the use of surface active materials (SAM) that induce porosity in TiO2 coatings is of vital significance. Photocatalytic coatings applied on clay roofing tiles under industrial conditions were designed by varying the quantity of TiO2 (mass/cm2) on the tile surface (thin and thick TiO2 layer). The positive changes in specific surface area and mesopore structure of the designed coatings were made by the addition of PEG 600 as a surface active material. It was shown that a thin photocatalytic layer (0.399 mg suspension/cm2 tile surface), applied onto ceramic tiles under industrial conditions, had better photocatalytic activity in methylene blue decomposition, hydrophilicity and antimicrobial activity than a thick photocatalytic coating (0.885 mg suspension/cm2).

  5. Coatings for large-area low-cost solar concentrators and reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter M.; Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1994-09-01

    Large-optics coating facilities and processes at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were used to develop large-area high-performance laser mirrors for SDIO are now being used to fabricate a variety of optical components for commercial clients, and for novel applications for other DoD clients. Emphasis of this work is on technology transfer of low-cost coating processes and equipment to private clients. Much of the technology transfer is being accomplished through the CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) process funded by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Detailed design procedure for solar industrial-process-heat systems: overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C F

    1982-12-01

    A large number of handbooks have been written on the subject of designing solar heating and cooling systems for buildings. One of these is summarized here. Design Approaches for Solar Industrial Process Heat Systems, published in September 1982, addresses the complete spectrum of problems associated with the design of a solar IPH system. A highly general method, derived from computer simulations, is presented for determining actual energy delivered to the process load. Also covered are siting and selection of subsystem components, cost estimation, safety and environmental considerations, and installation concerns. An overview of the design methodology developed is given and some specific examples of technical issues addressed are provided.

  7. Design and Fabrication of Interdigital Nanocapacitors Coated with HfO2

    PubMed Central

    González, Gabriel; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; López-Luna, Edgar; Hernández-Arriaga, Heber; González, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this article nickel interdigital capacitors were fabricated on top of silicon substrates. The capacitance of the interdigital capacitor was optimized by coating the electrodes with a 60 nm layer of HfO2. An analytical solution of the capacitance was compared to electromagnetic simulations using COMSOL and with experimental measurements. Results show that modeling interdigital capacitors using Finite Element Method software such as COMSOL is effective in the design and electrical characterization of these transducers. PMID:25602271

  8. Design and Fabrication of Interdigital Nanocapacitors Coated with HfO2.

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; López-Luna, Edgar; Hernández-Arriaga, Heber; González, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-16

    In this article nickel interdigital capacitors were fabricated on top of silicon substrates. The capacitance of the interdigital capacitor was optimized by coating the electrodes with a 60 nm layer of HfO2. An analytical solution of the capacitance was compared to electromagnetic simulations using COMSOL and with experimental measurements. Results show that modeling interdigital capacitors using Finite Element Method software such as COMSOL is effective in the design and electrical characterization of these transducers.

  9. Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

  10. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the manufacture, test, evaluation, installation, problem resolution, performance evaluation, and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is described.

  11. One step spray-coated TiO2 electron-transport layers for decent perovskite solar cells on large and flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aibin; Zhu, Jingting; Zhou, Yijie; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Ji, Shidong; Lei, Lei; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-06

    Spray-coating as a facile and quantitative method was introduced to prepare thin and continuous TiO2 compact layers on different substrates for perovskite solar cells. The as-prepared film is highly transparent and smooth, which is of significance in perovskite solar cells to decrease incident light loss and facilitate the film cast and electric contact. The compact TiO2 layer shows excellent performance when coated with perovskite and assembled into a device. Since it provides unlimited substrate size, patterning function and the TiO2 used for spray-coating is well crystallized, this method has huge potential for mass production and great adaptability for a variety of applications.

  12. One step spray-coated TiO2 electron-transport layers for decent perovskite solar cells on large and flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Aibin; Zhu, Jingting; Zhou, Yijie; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Ji, Shidong; Lei, Lei; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Spray-coating as a facile and quantitative method was introduced to prepare thin and continuous TiO2 compact layers on different substrates for perovskite solar cells. The as-prepared film is highly transparent and smooth, which is of significance in perovskite solar cells to decrease incident light loss and facilitate the film cast and electric contact. The compact TiO2 layer shows excellent performance when coated with perovskite and assembled into a device. Since it provides unlimited substrate size, patterning function and the TiO2 used for spray-coating is well crystallized, this method has huge potential for mass production and great adaptability for a variety of applications.

  13. Spraylon fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A development program was performed for evaluating, modifying, and optimizing the Lockheed formulated liquid transparent filmforming Spraylon fluorocarbon protective coating for silicon solar cells and modules. The program objectives were designed to meet the requirements of the low-cost automated solar cell array fabrication process. As part of the study, a computer program was used to establish the limits of the safe working stress in the coated silicon solar cell array system under severe thermal shock.

  14. Advanced formulation design of venlafaxine hydrochloride coated and triple-layer tablets containing hypromellose.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Mukesh; Bariya, Shital H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research work was to develop venlafaxine hydrochloride-coated and layered matrix tablets using hypromellose adopting wet granulation technique. The granules and the tablets were characterized. The monolithic tablets were coated with different ratios of ethyl cellulose and hypromellose. The in vitro dissolution study was performed in distilled water. In the layered tablets, the middle layer containing drug was covered with barrier layers containing high viscosity grade hypromellose. Simplex lattice design was used for formulating the layered tablets. The dissolution study of the optimized batches and a reference product was carried out in 0.1 N HCl, phosphate buffer and hydroalcoholic solution. Burst drug release was exhibited by the uncoated tablets, probably due to high aqueous solubility of venlafaxine HCl. The coated tablets showed sustained drug release without burst effect. The drug release was best explained by Weibull model. A unified Weibull equation was evolved to express drug release from the coated tablets. The layered tablets also exhibited sustained release without burst effect due to effective area reduction. The optimized batches showed identical drug release in 0.1 N HCl, phosphate buffer and 10% v/v aqueous alcohol. Layered tablets may well be adopted by the industry due to the possibility of achieving a high production rate.

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of Nb₂O₅-coated TiO₂ 3D ordered porous electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Na; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the use of Nb₂O₅-coated TiO₂ 3D ordered porous electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. We employed bilayer inverse opal structures as a backbone of 3D porous structures, and the number of Nb₂O₅ coatings was controlled, determining the concentration of Nb₂O₅ coating. XPS measurements confirmed the formation of Nb₂O₅. The uniformity of the Nb₂O₅ coating was characterized by elemental mapping using SEM and TEM measurements. Photovoltaic measurement on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that incorporated Nb₂O₅/TiO₂ inverse opal electrodes yielded a maximum efficiency of 7.23% for a 3.3 wt % Nb₂O₅ coating on a TiO₂ IO structure. The Nb₂O₅ significantly increased the short-circuit current density (J(SC)). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the J(SC), revealing an enhanced electron injection upon deposition of the Nb₂O₅ coating.

  16. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells. FPS Project: Product development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Printed nickel overplated with copper and applied on top of a predeposited silicon nitride antireflective coating system for metallizing solar cells was analyzed. The ESL D and E paste formulations, and the new formulations F, G, H, and D-1 were evaluated. The nickel thick films were tested after firing for stability in the cleaning and plating solutions used in the Vanguard-Pacific brush plating process. It was found that the films are very sensitive to the leaning and alkaline copper solutions. Less sensitivity was displayed to the neutral copper solution. Microscopic and SEM observations show segregation of frit at the silicon nitride thick film interface with loose frit residues after lifting off plated grid lines.

  17. Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-05-07

    In this paper, a graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin-film solar cell. The structural parameters are optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimal design result demonstrates that the nonlinear profile of dielectric constant is superior to the linear profile, and discrete multilayer graded antireflection coatings can outperform near continuously graded antireflection coatings. What's more, the electric field intensity distributions clearly demonstrate the proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure can remarkably increase the magnitude of electric field of a-Si:H layer and hence, enhance the light trapping of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells in the whole visible and near-infrared spectrum. Finally, we have compared the optical absorption enhancements of proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure with nanoparticles structure, and demonstrated that it can result in higher enhancements compared to the dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that the optimal graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure optimized by differential evolution can reach 33.31% enhancement which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles.

  18. Space Plasma Testing of High-Voltage Thin-Film Solar Arrays with Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlomak, Pawel; Hausgen, Paul E.; Merrill, John; Senft, Donna; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the space plasma test program for thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) technologies developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The main objective of this program is to simulate the effects of space plasma characteristic of LEO and MEO environments on TFPV. Two types of TFPV, amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), coated with two types of thin-film, multifunctional coatings were used for these studies. This paper reports the results of the first phase of this program, namely the results of preliminary electrostatic charging, arcing, dielectric breakdown, and collection current measurements carried out with a series of TFPV exposed to simulated space plasma at the NASA Glenn Plasma Interaction Facility. The experimental data demonstrate that multifunctional coatings developed for this program provide effective protection against the plasma environment while minimizing impact on power generation performance. This effort is part of an ongoing program led by the Space Vehicles Directorate at the AFRL devoted to the development and space qualification of TFPV and their protective coatings.

  19. Design of two dimensional silicon nanowire arrays for antireflection and light trapping in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wuchang; Jia, Rui; Li, Haofeng; Chen, Chen; Sun, Yun; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride coated nanowire arrays have been investigated as an efficient antireflection structure for silicon solar cells. The minimum average reflectance could reach 1.62% under AM1.5 spectrum. Scattering effects of silicon nanowire arrays also result in enhanced absorption in the substrate, and analytical results show that the scattered light can be well trapped in silicon substrate when the back surface is passivated by silicon dioxide. This ultra-low surface reflection property combined with light trapping effect may have potential applications in silicon solar cells with thin substrate.

  20. Design and optimization of ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells using an efficient back reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, S.; Dubey, R. S.; Kalainathan, S.; More, M. A.; Gautam, D. K.

    2015-05-01

    Thin film solar cells are cheaper but having low absorption in longer wavelength and hence, an effective light trapping mechanism is essential. In this work, we proposed an ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cell which showed extraordinary performance due to enhanced light absorption in visible and infrared part of solar spectrum. Various designing parameters such as number of distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) pairs, anti-reflection layer thickness, grating thickness, active layer thickness, grating duty cycle and period were optimized for the optimal performance of solar cell. An ultrathin silicon solar cell with 40 nm active layer could produce an enhancement in cell efficiency ˜15 % and current density ˜23 mA/cm2. This design approach would be useful for the realization of new generation of solar cells with reduced active layer thickness.

  1. Design and Testing of a Flexible Solar Generator for On-Orbit Verification Misison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langendorf, Sven; Brunner, Sebastian; Zajac, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Novel flexible, lightweight and highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells on polyimide (PI) foil substrate were the starting point for the development of a flexible solar generator.The presented solar generator consists of an aluminium support structure and a drum on which the CIGSe thin film solar cells are rolled up. When releasing the mechanism a flexible solar array of 128 mm x 344 mm will be self-deployed, without requiring any electric power. When deployed the solar array is self-locked. This paper presents a short overview of the baseline design requirements for a potential On-Orbit verification mission, the developed design, results of the first verification tests and an outlook on a possible scalability.

  2. Optical design of organic solar cell with hybrid plasmonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Chen, Yongpin P.; Chew, Weng Cho

    2011-08-01

    We propose a novel optical design of organic solar cell with a hybrid plasmonic system, which comprises a plasmonic cavity coupled with a dielectric core-metal shell nanosphere. From a rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations, called volume integral equation method, optical absorption of the active polymer material has a four-fold increase. The significant enhancement mainly attributes to the coupling of symmetric surface wave modes supported by the cavity resonator. The dispersion relation of the plasmonic cavity is characterized by solving an 1D eigenvalue problem of the air/metal/polymer/metal/air structure with finite thicknesses of metal layers. We demonstrate that the optical enhancement strongly depends on the decay length of surface plasmon waves penetrated into the active material. Furthermore, the coherent interplay between the cavity and the dielectric core-metal shell nanosphere is undoubtedly confirmed by our theoretical model. The work offers detailed physical explanations to the hybrid plasmonic cavity device structure for enhancing the optical absorption of organic photovoltaics.

  3. Optical design of organic solar cell with hybrid plasmonic system.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chen, Yongpin P; Chew, Weng Cho

    2011-08-15

    We propose a novel optical design of organic solar cell with a hybrid plasmonic system, which comprises a plasmonic cavity coupled with a dielectric core-metal shell nanosphere. From a rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations, called volume integral equation method, optical absorption of the active polymer material has a four-fold increase. The significant enhancement mainly attributes to the coupling of symmetric surface wave modes supported by the cavity resonator. The dispersion relation of the plasmonic cavity is characterized by solving an 1D eigenvalue problem of the air/metal/polymer/metal/air structure with finite thicknesses of metal layers. We demonstrate that the optical enhancement strongly depends on the decay length of surface plasmon waves penetrated into the active material. Furthermore, the coherent interplay between the cavity and the dielectric core-metal shell nanosphere is undoubtedly confirmed by our theoretical model. The work offers detailed physical explanations to the hybrid plasmonic cavity device structure for enhancing the optical absorption of organic photovoltaics.

  4. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  5. NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  6. Real-time solar magnetograph operation system software design and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Real Time Solar Magnetograph (RTSM) Operation system software design on PDP11/23+ is presented along with the User's Guide. The RTSM operation software is for real time instrumentation control, data collection and data management. The data is used for vector analysis, plotting or graphics display. The processed data is then easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM).

  7. Novel Flexible Plastic-Based Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-19

    Fabrication of newly designed hybrid solar cells that are composed of a electron transport layer ( TiO2 ), a light sensitizing layer (NCs), and a hole...coating and spraying techniques, to produce broad-band light harvesting hybrid solar cells with bulk and layered heterojunction of inorganic...fabrication of hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell using a blend film of polymer-inorganic NCs, 2) Fabrication of newly designed hybrid solar

  8. Sustainable design and manufacturing of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite coatings: A multiscale systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie

    Polymer nanocomposites have a great potential to be a dominant coating material in a wide range of applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, construction, and pharmaceutical industries. However, how to realize design sustainability of this type of nanostructured materials and how to ensure the true optimality of the product quality and process performance in coating manufacturing remain as a mountaintop area. The major challenges arise from the intrinsic multiscale nature of the material-process-product system and the need to manipulate the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in design and manufacturing processes. This research centers on the development of a comprehensive multiscale computational methodology and a computer-aided tool set that can facilitate multifunctional nanocoating design and application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications and life cycle analysis. The principal idea is to achieve exceptional system performance through concurrent characterization and optimization of materials, product and associated manufacturing processes covering a wide range of length and time scales. Multiscale modeling and simulation techniques ranging from microscopic molecular modeling to classical continuum modeling are seamlessly coupled. The tight integration of different methods and theories at individual scales allows the prediction of macroscopic coating performance from the fundamental molecular behavior. Goal-oriented design is also pursued by integrating additional methods for bio-inspired dynamic optimization and computational task management that can be implemented in a hierarchical computing architecture. Furthermore, multiscale systems methodologies are developed to achieve the best possible material application towards sustainable manufacturing. Automotive coating manufacturing, that involves paint spay and

  9. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  10. Improved charge transport and injection in a meso-superstructured solar cell by a tractable pre-spin-coating process.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Haoyuan; Li, Yu; Wang, Shufeng; Wang, Liduo

    2015-10-07

    In meso-superstructured solar cells (MSSCs), the state-of-the-art perovskite acts as both the light harvester and electron transporter due to its ambipolar properties. The inefficient pore filling and infiltration of perovskite directly affect the continuous distribution of perovskite in mesoporous Al2O3, resulting in discontinuous carrier transport in the mesoporous structure and insufficient electron injection to the compact TiO2 layer. Herein, we introduce a simple pre-spin-coating process to improve the infiltration and pore filling of perovskite, which results in higher light absorption and enhanced electron injection, as seen in UV-vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. We first apply time of flight (TOF) experiments to characterize charge transport in MSSCs, and the results reveal that more continuous charge transport pathways are formed with the pre-spin-coating process. This effective method, with ease of processing, demonstrates obviously improved photocurrents, reaching an efficiency as high as 14%, and promotes the application of lead halide perovskite materials in the photovoltaics field.

  11. Model-based optimal design of polymer-coated chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cynthia; Jakusch, Michael; Steiner, Hannes; Mizaikoff, Boris; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2003-03-01

    A model-based methodology for optimal design of polymer-coated chemical sensors is developed and is illustrated for the example of infrared evanescent field chemical sensors. The methodology is based on rigorous and computationally efficient modeling of combined fluid mechanics and mass transfer, including transport of multiple analytes. A simple algebraic equation for the optimal size of the sensor flow cell is developed to guide sensor design and validated by extensive CFD simulations. Based upon these calculations, optimized geometries of the sensor flow cell are proposed to further improve the response time of chemical sensors.

  12. High-throughput computational design of cathode coatings for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Aykol, Muratahan; Kim, Soo; Hegde, Vinay I; Snydacker, David; Lu, Zhi; Hao, Shiqiang; Kirklin, Scott; Morgan, Dane; Wolverton, C

    2016-12-14

    Cathode degradation is a key factor that limits the lifetime of Li-ion batteries. To identify functional coatings that can suppress this degradation, we present a high-throughput density functional theory based framework which consists of reaction models that describe thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities, and acid-scavenging capabilities of materials. Screening more than 130,000 oxygen-bearing materials, we suggest physical and hydrofluoric-acid barrier coatings such as WO3, LiAl5O8 and ZrP2O7 and hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Sc2O3, Li2CaGeO4, LiBO2, Li3NbO4, Mg3(BO3)2 and Li2MgSiO4. Using a design strategy to find the thermodynamically optimal coatings for a cathode, we further present optimal hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Li2SrSiO4, Li2CaSiO4 and CaIn2O4 for the layered LiCoO2, and Li2GeO3, Li4NiTeO6 and Li2MnO3 for the spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes. These coating materials have the potential to prolong the cycle-life of Li-ion batteries and surpass the performance of common coatings based on conventional materials such as Al2O3, ZnO, MgO or ZrO2.

  13. High-throughput computational design of cathode coatings for Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Aykol, Muratahan; Kim, Soo; Hegde, Vinay I.; Snydacker, David; Lu, Zhi; Hao, Shiqiang; Kirklin, Scott; Morgan, Dane; Wolverton, C.

    2016-01-01

    Cathode degradation is a key factor that limits the lifetime of Li-ion batteries. To identify functional coatings that can suppress this degradation, we present a high-throughput density functional theory based framework which consists of reaction models that describe thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities, and acid-scavenging capabilities of materials. Screening more than 130,000 oxygen-bearing materials, we suggest physical and hydrofluoric-acid barrier coatings such as WO3, LiAl5O8 and ZrP2O7 and hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Sc2O3, Li2CaGeO4, LiBO2, Li3NbO4, Mg3(BO3)2 and Li2MgSiO4. Using a design strategy to find the thermodynamically optimal coatings for a cathode, we further present optimal hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Li2SrSiO4, Li2CaSiO4 and CaIn2O4 for the layered LiCoO2, and Li2GeO3, Li4NiTeO6 and Li2MnO3 for the spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes. These coating materials have the potential to prolong the cycle-life of Li-ion batteries and surpass the performance of common coatings based on conventional materials such as Al2O3, ZnO, MgO or ZrO2. PMID:27966537

  14. High-throughput computational design of cathode coatings for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykol, Muratahan; Kim, Soo; Hegde, Vinay I.; Snydacker, David; Lu, Zhi; Hao, Shiqiang; Kirklin, Scott; Morgan, Dane; Wolverton, C.

    2016-12-01

    Cathode degradation is a key factor that limits the lifetime of Li-ion batteries. To identify functional coatings that can suppress this degradation, we present a high-throughput density functional theory based framework which consists of reaction models that describe thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities, and acid-scavenging capabilities of materials. Screening more than 130,000 oxygen-bearing materials, we suggest physical and hydrofluoric-acid barrier coatings such as WO3, LiAl5O8 and ZrP2O7 and hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Sc2O3, Li2CaGeO4, LiBO2, Li3NbO4, Mg3(BO3)2 and Li2MgSiO4. Using a design strategy to find the thermodynamically optimal coatings for a cathode, we further present optimal hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Li2SrSiO4, Li2CaSiO4 and CaIn2O4 for the layered LiCoO2, and Li2GeO3, Li4NiTeO6 and Li2MnO3 for the spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes. These coating materials have the potential to prolong the cycle-life of Li-ion batteries and surpass the performance of common coatings based on conventional materials such as Al2O3, ZnO, MgO or ZrO2.

  15. Black chrome on commercially electroplated tin as a solar selecting coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The reflectance properties of black chrome electroplated on commercially electroplated tin were measured for various black chrome plating times for both the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar region and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the black chrome plated on commercially electroplated tin is obtained for a black chrome plating time of between one and two minutes.

  16. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  17. Design, Construction and Testing of a 60 kW Solar Array and Power Conversion System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    7 AD-A0O 877 DELTA ELECTRONIC CONTROL CORP IRVINE CALIF F/B 10/1 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A 60 KW SOLAR ARRAY AND POW- ETCU) AUG 79 J S...Report DECC-61211-003 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF’ A 6o Kcw SOLAR ARRAY AND POWlER CONVERSION SYSTEM L~.Final Report L EVEI~o 0 J.S. ule...Report DECC-61211-003 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A 60 KW SOLAR ARRAY AND POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM Final Report J.S. Suelzle Delta Electronic

  18. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  19. Stable Solar-Driven Water Oxidation to O2(g) by Ni-Oxide-Coated Silicon Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; McDowell, Matthew T; Nielander, Adam C; Hu, Shu; Shaner, Matthew R; Yang, Fan; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-02-19

    Semiconductors with small band gaps (<2 eV) must be stabilized against corrosion or passivation in aqueous electrolytes before such materials can be used as photoelectrodes to directly produce fuels from sunlight. In addition, incorporation of electrocatalysts on the surface of photoelectrodes is required for efficient oxidation of H2O to O2(g) and reduction of H2O or H2O and CO2 to fuels. We report herein the stabilization of np(+)-Si(100) and n-Si(111) photoanodes for over 1200 h of continuous light-driven evolution of O2(g) in 1.0 M KOH(aq) by an earth-abundant, optically transparent, electrocatalytic, stable, conducting nickel oxide layer. Under simulated solar illumination and with optimized index-matching for proper antireflection, NiOx-coated np(+)-Si(100) photoanodes produced photocurrent-onset potentials of -180 ± 20 mV referenced to the equilibrium potential for evolution of O2(g), photocurrent densities of 29 ± 1.8 mA cm(-2) at the equilibrium potential for evolution of O2(g), and a solar-to-O2(g) conversion figure-of-merit of 2.1%.

  20. Solar-C Conceptual Spacecraft Design Study: Final Review. Release 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall; Baysinger, Mike; Thomas, Dan; Heaton, Andy; Stough, Rob; Hill, Spencer; Owens, Jerry; Young, Roy; Fabisinski, Leo; Thomas, Scott; Kim, Tony; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This briefing package contains the conceptual spacecraft design completed by the Advanced Concepts Office (ED04) in support of the Solar-C Study. The mission is to succeed Hinode (Solar B), and is designed to study the polar regions of the sun. Included in the slide presentation are sections that review the payload data, and overall ground rules and assumptions, mission analysis and trajectory design, the conceptual spacecraft design section includes: (1) Integrated Systems Design, (2) Mass Properties (3) Cost, (4) Solar Sail Systems, (6) Propulsion, (7) Structures, (8) Thermal (9) Power (10) Avionics / GN&C. There are also conclusions and follow-up work that must be done. In the Back-up section there is information about the JAXA H-11A Launch Vehicle, scalability and spiral development, Mass Projections, a comparison of the TRL assessment for two potential vendors of solar sails, and a chart with the mass properties,